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The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 128-138; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar13

Abstract:
This research article deals with an important issue faced by women around the world, and it is sexual abuse or rape of women and its solution in the light of teachings of Islam. Islam forbids both fornication and sexual abuse or rape. The statistics shared in this article puts light on the worst condition faced by women as far as sexual abuse or rape is considered in different parts of the world and how Islam solves this very important issue.
Abdul Ghafoor Ansari, Muhammad Saleh Ansari, Basheer Ahmed Dars
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 31-50; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar14

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of Islamic microfinance product “Qarz-e-Hasna”provide byan Islamic philanthropic organization Akhuwat on the poverty alleviation of its beneficiaries. The study uses primary data collected through personally structured questionnaire on the randomly selected sample of 120out of the population of 1196beneficiaries of Akhuwat Hyderabad branch. The study found that majority of the beneficiaries were Muslim women within the age groups of 21 to 40 years have obtained the loan of Rs.20,000 each and utilized it for the purpose to expanding their small businesses. The results indicates that Qarz-e-Hasna has improved the living standard of the beneficiaries on accounts of income, expenditure, saving, educational level, households and business assets. Majority of the beneficiaries are satisfied with the terms of loan and the services of Akhuwat.
Ali Hassan, Muhammad Shahzad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 28-39; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar8

Abstract:
Today, a great emphasis has been established in the understanding the voting behavior of the people and religion is a strong segment of person's voting behavior. It is the most important aspect for a voter in the way of thinking about specific issues such as ideology, construction of personality, economics and society. Therefore, religion has a significant impact on the behavior of an individual when voting in elections is concerned. In democratic countries like Pakistan media has gained more importance in this regard. The present study focuses on effects of the contents presented in media on the voting behavior of religious people voting for religious parties in general elections 2013,local bodies’ elections 2015 and general elections 2018.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-27; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar7

Abstract:
This brief research paper covers Izzad-Din Abu al-Hassan Ibn al- Athir al-Jazari’s research methodology in hadith traditions in his work entitled ‘Usd al-ghabah fi marifat al-sahabah’. Some of these types of traditions mentioned by Ibn al- Athir have been covered in this paper like the Shadhdh (anomalous) traditions of the Prophet’s ﷺ letters to various Kings and rulers, the traditions narrating the historical proofs for the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and the traditions about the delegations that came to the Holy Prophet for the acceptance of Islam etc. Ibn al- Athir’s research methodology while noting these traditions can be summarized in the following points: He explains the time and place where and when the Quranic verses were revealed. Total number of the traditions narrated by a companion has also been mentioned. He explains the genre of Gharīb al-Ḥadīth. The writer notes the chains of the narrators of a hadith and then points out the weakness or trustworthiness of the reporters. This paper is expected to provide a concise perception of Ibn al- Athir’s methodology and his way of research in examining and quoting the hadith traditions in his work ‘Usd al-ghabah fi marifat al-sahabah’.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 21-37; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar2

Abstract:
There are two types of Ijtihād: individual and collective. When an individual Muslim Jurist perform Ijtihād it is called individual Ijtihād and when a Council of Islamic Jurists or qualified scholars undertake utmost effort to discover the Sharia ruling then it is called collective Ijtihād. A governmental and non-governmental organization of qualified scholars is an appropriate platform for collective Ijtihād. Such jurists’ groups must be established in every Islamic country and society. In addition, there should be an international jurist’s counseling organization, which represents the entire Muslim Ummah. The Islamic Research Academy Cairo, comprising well known Muslim scholars throughout the world, is the supreme body of Islamic research and issuing Fatwa in Egypt. It undertakes research and issue Fatwa on all subjects related to Islamic doctrines, practices, and culture, expanding its knowledge to each level and in every environment. This research articles explores the history, governing body, internal structure, rules and regulations and methodology of issuing Fatwa of The Islamic Research Academy Cairo and the criticism on its approach to issue a Fatwa.
Nasir Hussain, Muhammad Shafqatullah
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 33-58; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar6

Abstract:
Al-Madih Al-Nabavi is a popular Islamic poetry composition among the Muslim poets because the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is beloved personality of all Muslims and the respectable to be followed in every movement of life. The poets in every era of Islamic History said their poetry verses in the praise of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the subjective means including the various topics of Al-Madih Al-Nabavi. The poets of other nations like Persian and Urdu nations started expressing their emotions and sentiments of love to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ameer Meenai was a great poet of Urdu literature in sub-continent. He was born in Lucknow, India in 1826. He started poetry in his early age. His chapter on Eulogistic Poetry has great fame and published in 1916 with the title of “Mahamid Khatam-ul-Nabiyyeen (PBUH)”. He was impressed by teachings of the Holy Quran. In this article, we will discuss the impact of the Holy Quran in his poetry. This is very important topic of research in literature, especially in Muslim Literature in the world. With the hope that this work will be beneficial for the further researches and for the new scholars as well. This article, basically, focuses upon poetical works of Ameer Meenai, especially on “Mahamid Khatam-ul-Nabiyyeen (PBUH)” and highlights the topics of Holy Quran, its causes and effects of teachings of Holy Quran on his poetry. To find out the results in this field, this research comparatively analyzed the poetical works of Ameer Meenai. After conducting the study of his poetical works, the researcher came to know that there is a remarkable impact of Holy Quran on the poetry of Ameer Meenai. For example, he was interested in miracles and Seerat-ul-Nabi (PBUH) among the other topics of Holy Quran. Similarly, in his Eulogistic poetry there is explanation and justifications of Quranic topics. However, finest of his works are those in which he used, word by word, Quranic verses in his poetry composition that shows distinctions of both languages and highlights the limitations of poetry and prose.
Asif Iqbal, , Hadi Bux
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 40-54; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar9

Abstract:
The association between mental health and religious orientation is most researched field of clinical psychology. Over the years, the researchers and practitioners try their bet to cope the remedies in human life. The current study is an intention to trace factors responsible for performance among university students and to find the correlation between mental health and religious orientation. It was a descriptive study with survey method. Three hundred scholars from different departments of University of Education Faisalabad campus were selected randomly. The questionnaire named, Religious Orientation and Mental Health Survey [ROMHS] was used. The Cronbach Alpha values of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations were .861 and .845 respectively as well as mental health .863. The findings revealed significant and strong relationship among intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations and mental health. Male students had higher extrinsic religious orientations and mental health than females. It was found that about 81% of academic achievement score of university students was influenced by religious orientation and mental health. It was suggested to provide better mental health and positive religious orientation to enhance academic achievement of scholars in higher educational institutions.
, Pakistan Associate Professor /additional Director (H.R) Colleges Larkana, , Zain Ul-Abdin
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 55-80; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar10

Abstract:
The objective of Islam is to establish economic equality, social justice, and fairness in all spheres of the life of individuals and societies. Islam put a very clear prohibition on slavery and discriminated social grades and caste-systems, and asserts on the human dignity through the golden principles of universal brotherhood among all human and gave a special honor to the women. These principles are considered integral parts the UN charters and constitutions of civilized world for establishing exploitation free society. In the view of Islam, in the divine religions as well, all races of human, white and black or brown are born from Adam and Eve. Allah, the almighty creator, has made them vary in colour, language and has placed them in different lands, but before Him they are all one and cherished by Him alike, and he is most honoured who is most righteous. Islam described the rights and duties of all kinds of people as all are equal in gender as human being. This paper examines the rights of individual in the lights of Holy Quran specially Surah al-Nisa verse 36 and the Sunah specially the last sermon of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-20; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar1

Abstract:
Education has always played a pivotal role in the development of the nations, Islam has specifically called its followers for the procurement of knowledge. At presently Muslims are out classed by other nations in the fields of knowledge and science, it is their own fault, but it does not imply that Muslims have ever ignored the importance of education or they have not performed feats in the realm of education. The history testifies with the examples of great inventions and deeds performed by the great Muslims scientists in the different fields of knowledge I-e. Religion science, medicine, engineering and geography etc. Acquiring education in the fundamental right of the common people and it can never be fulfilled until the support of the ruler of the state. The age of the caliphate Umar (R.A) is regarded as the golden period of history, when Islamic state fast expended and vast areas included in the Islamic domain, spreading education in the state is the prime responsibility of the ruler of the state. It is the prominent feature of the caliphate Umar (R.A) that he ruled the Islamic state with the best possible system of administration with innovation. He established the network of schools with teacher in all the nooks and corners of the state for the betterment of the masses.
, Shabbir Ahmad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 16-32; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar5

Abstract:
Islamic law has granted countless rights to the women by ending up their exploitation. One for the most significance rights is her right of dissolution of marriage in case her husband is failed to pay her maintenance. In this scenario, the researcher has comparatively analyzed Islamic law and Pakistani law by answering the question: Dose the women has the right of dissolution of her marriage when her husband could not fulfil her maintenance? After the arguments and discussions, the study leads to the conclusion that the woman has the right to ask the court to dissolve her marriage when she unable to have her maintenance from her husband’s side so that she may not has to bear the burden of insolvency without any logical reason. The study also reveals that before the promulgation of Islam when the women’s rights were being condemned and violated everywhere, Islam was the only religion which raised the voice for protection of women’s rights and bestowed them respectable position in community by providing them their legal rights. Moreover, the study is the rejection of invalid objection for the enemies of Islam that Islam has demonstrated invidious reservation in the case of women’s rights by showing biasness.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-15; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar4

Abstract:
There have been many scholars in every age of Islamic history who devoted their lives for the propagation of Islam. They accepted the challenges of their time and defended Islam very well by presenting the true teachings of Islam. We know many of these scholars and their works but there are still some whose works are kept within private libraries. Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thatwi is one of these scholars who left a vast treasure of writings about various subjects of Islamic sciences. However, he is not known to the academic world to the extent he deserves. He was born in Thatta in 1104/1692 and was contemporaneous with Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi (1703-1762 A.D). In this article, we introduce Sheikh al-Thatwi and explore his academic stature by discussing services rendered by him, especially towards the Quran and Hadith which are the two basic pillars of Islamic Ideology. Only his services towards Quran & Hadith have been focused on within this article because his work was diverse and cannot be completely discussed in one article. The purpose of the study was to highlight his legacy and draw the attention of scholars to the hidden treasure left by him in the form of books. It was concluded that Sheikh al-Thatwi was a great scholar who defended Islam against the threats of his time, removed misconceptions about Islam and presented true teachings of Islam. This paper shows that his strenuous work for both the Quran & Hadith is simply unique and unprecedented.
Nasir-Ud- Din Nasir,
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 38-64; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar3

Abstract:
The scholars who pursued different scholarly pursuits in Islamic history are given different names and titles. The scholars who enlightened themselves with Quran were called Qari, and those who acquired expertise in Hadith were called Muhaditheen, the ones who acquired the knowledge of speaking were called Mutakalimeen, and the ones who learnt philosophy were called philosophers. Similarly, the scholars who achieved excellence in Islamic jurisprudence were called Jurists and within these jurists the scholars who strived to find solutions to the newly emerging problems were called Al-Rai. Meanwhile, one other group also emerged who used to put their own arguments and ignore Quran and Hadith. This group was also called Al Rai. Therefore, two group existed in the Al Rai, one which was righteous and the other which was not righteous. Subsequently, both the groups were criticized without any discrimination and the same misunderstanding exists even today as well. Therefore, it is the need of the time to discriminate between these two groups and let the Al Rai be given its proper status. This research article strives to prove the fact that Al Rai were basically eminent Islamic scholars who use to struggle to find solutions to the problems of the Muslim Ummah in the light of Quran and Sunnah..
Faiz Bakhsh, ,
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 81-99; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar11

Abstract:
The applicability of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) to the non-international armed conflicts is questioned due to various reasons, mainly the complex nature of such conflicts fulfilling the criteria set under IHL. Firstly, states hesitate to acknowledge the existence of non-international armed conflicts by considering them as internal disturbances. Secondly, the complex nature and varying circumstances of such conflicts make their assessment very hard due to the multiplicity of the factors involved in the fighting. The armed conflict in Pakistan provides even more complex situations of such type of armed conflict where Sharia plays a vital role in the domestic legal structure of the state as well as other group fighting against claims being a true follower of Sharia, the application of IHL becomes even more critical in such a situation. The conflict in the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and surrounding areas of Pakistan between the state forces and Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) led armed groups have been acknowledged as a non-international armed conflict after a long period by the government of Pakistan. This paper investigates the applicability of IHL to this conflict mainly on the doctrinal aspects of the study by interpreting and applying the relevant rules of IHL relating non-international armed conflicts through analysing the conflict in Pakistan under the said criteria and also looks at the social context of the study by looking at the obligation of the rules of IHL by both the parties belonging to a Sharia dominated social context. The doctrinal analyses of rules of IHL and the assessment of the conflict in Pakistan against the criteria set by IHL leads to a point where conflict in Pakistan is considered a non-international armed conflict, whereas the obligation of the rules of IHL has been observed on the lower side not due to the presence of Sharia dominated social context but due to various other reasons that occur during such type of conflicts all over the world.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 100-126; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar12

Abstract:
The purpose of this research study is to deduce some key issues of Muslims regarding their negligence from the trial and tribulation of this world and suggests some way outs for their pleasant existence in this mundane world. Allah (S.W.T) has blessed human beings with free will in choosing good and evil, having imparted the knowledge of both spheres. It is necessary for the seeker of goodness to gain objective information about both good and evil. Some of the companions of Holy prophet collected information from him about virtue, while some about vice. They conveyed what they learned in the context of the traditions of trial and tribulation to their followers, who passed it through the stages of editing to the Muslim Community in the form of collections. This information is as important as the protection of beliefs or creeds. Since the traditions of tribulation are related to purely practical world, and have to do with human life, human dignity and human wealth. It is very important to acquire their knowledge in purview of the correct context and authentication. However, the study points out the lack of acquaintance of the authentic knowledge of the Aḥādīth by layman and sticking to whims has led to the chaos and confusion and has put Muslim community in the depth of degradation, study also recommends some remedies to avert from the situation and stick to path of guidance.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 160-180; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue9ar15

Abstract:
After the event of 9/11 in New York, Muslim countries have been affected badly with the ongoing war on terror. Muslim population which was affected due to this war, they started to move to other nation states. Most of the populations from war affected areas migrated to the Western countries. More than one million immigrants and refugees had arrived in Germany in the year 2015, and the registered refugees from top three countries of the origins were from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq respectively. On the other hand, Islamophobia started to reflect in Germany with the rise of anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim movements. This research has observed the different events in Germany that could be taken as Islamophobic instances. Patriotic Europeans against the Islamisation of the West (PEGIDA) has been examined as a case study for this research work. The data has been collected through secondary sources. The study revealed that due to this movement, the violent attacks have been progressively increased on refugee accommodations and their worships. It has been concluded that the movement of PEGIDA is responsible not only for the discursive violence but it is also responsible for the interpersonal violence against the Muslim refugees in Germany.
Muhammad Saeed Sheikh, Hussain Muhammad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-17; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar1

Nadeem Iqbal, Zain- Ul-Abdin Arijo,
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 129-145; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar14

Arshad Ali, Muhammad Naeem Anwar
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 50-68; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8a4

Abstract:
In case of solving the issues based upon the human necessities and expedients with reference to clear analogy or common rules, when such type of results appear which do not correspond with the universally accepted purposes of Sharia‘h due to the variety of occasions, consecutive new necessities and change of language and place so in this condition, leaving the common rules, the way which is adopted in the light of the Sharia‘h arguments to act upon these purposes, is called Istiḥsān (juristic preference).That in this way, under the purpose of Sharia‘h new order is declared Ḥasan or Mustaḥsan. So that the welfare may increase and Injuriousness may be thrown away. So that this command may become harmonious to divine wisdom. In this way, to search the purposes of Sharia‘h on the basis of the Sharia‘h arguments (The Holy Qur’ ān, Sunnah, Ijmā‘, Qiyās, Necessity, Expedient and Ūrf) is called Istiḥsān instead of following apparent words and shapes of the sources of Sharia‘h(The Holy Qur’ān, Sunnah, Ijmā‘, Qiyās). Istiḥsān searches the way to stabilize the justice in news circumstances and it encourages the flexibility and justice in law and judicial process. It finishes the gap between the law and social realities. Moreover it carries the mention worthy capability regarding the reformation and renewal of the law. There are seven types and some principles of Istiḥsān, which guide us towards the extraction of commands through Istiḥsān. Istiḥsān can only work when it is according to the principles stated by the scholars. The study is an effort to throw light on Istiḥsān, and its usage in different schools of Islamic Jurisprudence.
Muhammad Jawwad Majid, Sher Ali
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 32-37; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar3

Abstract:
Dialogue is the best tool to solve the issues and conflicts of opinions. Dialogue among different schools of thought in Muslims, is need to develop tolerance and peace in society. Society is a group of individuals who live in harmony with one other. Islam keeps a strong social system of its own which has solid rules and regulations. The social system of Islam is comprehensive and universal. All the stages of individual and collective life of a person fall in its sphere of action. The worship to Allah and the freedom of expression are core values of Islam, because pray to Allah and difference of opinion are natural phenomina of human life. All Islamic beliefs, modes of worship and affairs of life are based on moderation. Islam gave the right of free expression to every muslim, and gave basic principles for the 'MEDIA' to define one's views. Today the communication is a powerful medium to convey message to the people. Creating tolerance in society is the best way of life. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) used different manners and institutions to perform this action. The role of social institutions of Islam for the success of inter-sectarian dialogue is of pivotal impotance. It has been explained in this article that by taking suitable steps at social, political and religious level, for inter-sectarian dialouge, best results can be achieved.
H. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 75-94; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar12

Muhammad Nabeel Musharraf, Jabeen Bhutto, Hadi Bux
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 31-74; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar11

Abdul Haseeb Ansari, Bashir Ahmed Rind
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 19-31; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar2

Muhammad Ibrahim, Razia Musarrat
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 31-47; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar10

Zee Shan, Muhannad Fakhar Ud Din
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 20-30; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar9

Muhammad Ayaz, Hafiz Iftikhar Ahmad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-19; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue8ar8

Hafiz Mohsin Zia Qazi, Syed Abdul Ghaffar Bukhari, Chairman Associate Professor
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 45-61; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar3

Abstract:
The Quran addresses the lesson of peace to the Muslims and People of the Book. Theory of Quran is based on love, sacrifice, ethics and peace. The People of the Book who spend their lives in the light of Quranic theory, they are softer heartened, worthy of trust and fair. They also shear respect, friendship, love and happiness in their surroundings. They could never extremist, killer and mischief. Today the world converts in singularity. The science & technology linked the entire world in a universal community. Widening the circle of international relationships is a reason to increasing the need of every religion to taking care of each other specially the People of the Book, because the international relationships and politics are the key reason to enclose all countries to each other. Although the concepts and theories of human rights, collective justice and patience about international relationships offered by the Holy Prophet ﷺ 1400 years ago needs to sort out those on universal level in this era. Prophet ﷺ has neighborhood with People of the Book and Prophet ﷺ always stays good in luck with them. Prophet ﷺ exchanges gifts with them and accept their invitations also۔Today the reason of this presentation is based on these problems in which the introduction of People of the Book, their history, their discussion in Quran, Islamic instructions about them and protection of their social and financial rights according to Islam also discussed about their religious freedom in this article. Especially in this era here are many suggestions are discussed about to make relations better with People of the Book.
Shagufta Naveed, Muhammad Irfan Ahmad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 25-43; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar2

Aayesha Rafiq, Naseem Akhatar
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 145-172; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar12

Abdul Samad Shaikh, Basheer Ahmed Dars, DrArshad Munir
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 127-144; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar11

Abstract:
It is difficult to declare a human mental effort to be the final and completely errorless which has no possibility of any flaw and mistake. There are lot of factors which are supposed to be considered to issue a judicial ruling or verdict. Some time it does happen that a judge misses one of these decisive factors which play a pivotal role to give an acute judgment in a case. That is why we see in the modern legal system that a litigant has an option of appeal or review to reach to the actual fact and the right decision. This is the one aspect of judicial review, the second one is that which is against of the administrative action of a state which makes individuals suffer and deprive from their inalienable fundamental rights. So by the notion of judicial review, they can challenge state's decision in higher courts. Relying on this basic need of general public and like a modern state, the constitution of Pakistan has provisions like articles 184(3), 188, 199 and 203E(9) which give the power to the higher courts to review a petition filed against an action of a person or legal authority or legislation of a competent authority or a lower court's decision, if the action, legislation or decision is not in conformity with the basic structure or fundamental character of the constitution the high court can nullify it. The Islamic Legal System has the basic concept of decision's reversal which is the end-result of judicial review if the decision was ruled out by a non-qualified judge or the judge was biased while the issuing of verdict or the decision was in contradiction with the general theme of Quran and Sunnah. These are three basic grounds of judicial review in Islamic legal system. In this article, I will discuss the notion of judicial review and its scope to protect the rights of individuals in perspective of constitution of Pakistan and the Islamic Legal System.
Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Imran, Hafiz Abdul Rashid, Assistant Professor Islamic Studies The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. Pakistan.
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 17-45; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar15

Amber Ghani
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-23; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar1

Ra’Ana Malik, Jabeen Bhutto
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-23; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar5

Abstract:
The paper aimed to explore the perceptions of the Pakistani Islamic scholars and feminist activists regarding the concept of feminism, gender roles, sexual orientations and reproductive rights. A qualitative research method was employed to investigate this phenomena and the study adopted a social constructionist epistemology. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to determine the sample. A total number of 16 research participants (8 feminists, 8 Islamic scholars) in the age bracket of 40-55 years were selected and in-depth interviews were undertaken with them. The study concludes that feminists and Islamic scholars agreed that feminism was a movement for women emancipation but differed on the points where Islamic scholars thought that the movement had some Western and men-excluding ideologies. Gender roles were thought to be a social construct by the feminists while Islamic scholars stressed on the complementarities of gender roles. However, both groups agreed that compulsion in roles assignment was uncalled for. Many of the differences that had been enmeshed in the minds of both sides were merely a misinterpretation of Islamic scripture or faulty cultural norms, which had been disguised and portrayed as religious injunctions. Both groups felt that a collective discourse of academia and development sector is needed to reach a mutual platform where both groups can work together for the betterment of women and dispel the misconceptions attached to each side.
Nazir Ahmad Bhutta, Zia Ur Rehman
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 81-97; doi:10.29370/siarjissue7ar8

Abstract:
Allah Almighty gives righteousness and aberration by His knowledge, power and wisdom. Allah Almighty does not appoint righteousness, but He wants voluntary devotion. In spite of having the power and supreme control He does not force righteousness. We have the choice of opting or rejecting righteousness.Allah Almighty has made righteousness clear to its full extent in the Holy Qur'an but, does not force to accept it and having the power of stopping mankind forcefully from, He does not do so He wants intentional righteousness. Allah Almighty has given all the means to accept or reject it. The power of logic is irrefutable fact, but if the quest for righteousness is not available then one cannot get righteousness. If the man is headstrong, egotist and reluctant then these attitudes leads to aberration. The man who is on the right path should not think that he got this by his hard work. It is only grace of Allah Almighty. Righteousness may be given to someone who is not eager of it by the grace of Allah Almighty, but aberration is only given to those who deserve it.
Musferah Mehfooz, Islamic Studies Assistant Professor, Qazi Furqan Ahmed
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 57-80; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar7

Abstract:
Judaism and Christianity are the revealed religions like Islam. The major common factor of this resemblance is the belief in Oneness of Allah. This belief establishes the foundations for tolerance in social and communal life through which fair justice and equality can be achieved in the society. There are important points to be noted here, that if international community can be made united and an international political body can be established and could tackle the issue of law and order. Then why the followers of Sharīʿah (revealed law)i.e. Jews, Christian and Muslims cannot be unite. Unfortunately, if this doctrine could not establish, the world cannot be achieved tolerance and harmony. These revealed religions had given the concept of religious tolerance which is substantiate by the teachings of Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S), Hazrat Musa (A.S), Hazrat Esa (A.S) and Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) . The teachings of all these prophets were based on unity, justice, tolerance, peace and standard morals. The article Sheds lights the importance of peace in the world and need to understand the real teachings of revealed laws in Bible and Qur’ān, and highlights the importance of interfaith- dialogue among Book-keepers, also analyses the life of Holy Prophet (SAW) and Caliphate Era with reference to tolerance and harmony. It is also tried to give suggestions’ and recommendations for the solutions of contemporary problems of mankind.
Nadeem Iqbal
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 173-189; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar13

Mahboob J Ali Dehra, Jawaid Ahmed Siddqiui
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 45-65; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar4

Asif Iqbal, Zahida Javaid
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 99-109; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar9

Abstract:
The role of religion is undeniable in the life of mankind since their existence. It is an acknowledged fact that religious minded people performed better in every walks of life with negligible worries. The study is an attempt to examine the effects of religious orientation on performance students at university level. The students of university of education Faisalabad campus were the population of the study. For this purpose, 309 students were randomly selected form six departments. They were further subdivided from social sciences 123 students and basic sciences 186 students. There were one hundred and eighty-one students belonged to males and one hundred and twenty-eight students belonged to female category. The adapted instrument Religious Orientation Scale [ROS] was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24. Pearson r, t-test and ANOVA were applied for the results. The findings of the study showed that university students have strong values of religious orientation. Female students have greater achievement score and religious orientation than that of males. Basic sciences students were found to have greater achievement score than that of social sciences students. There is a strong positive correlation exists among intrinsic, extrinsic and overall religious orientation. It is suggested that in order to promote spiritual well-being through religious orientation, seminars and workshops in higher educational institutions may be conducted.
Syed Aftab Alam, Naheed Arain
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 111-121; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar10

Abstract:
Islam conveys the latest and the most practicable rules for leading a perfect life on earth and also depicts the true incidents of life of hereafter. Incidents of life hereafter are told by the Holy Prophet Muhammad SAAW after his travel from earth to Heavens. Millions people were not admitting this travel so ultimately they deny the information about the life of hereafter described by the Holy Prophet. It is evident that the people of oldest era had some spiritual powers or knowledge of the book that they can travel around the globe or towards bright stars without consuming time. The learned scientists of this era has invented such medias of travelling that has defeated unbelievable hurdles of time and space and now they are again reaching at the level of such scientific knowledge that they are saying that a human being can be travelled from earth to the space without spending time. The theories of relativity and Quantum bond, experiments of teleportation and transportation of photons in space are fore saying of human transportation. It is concluded that present knowledge of scientific experiments are near to admit that the travel of Holy Prophet Muhammad SAAW is admit able and logical.
Abdullah Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Ismail
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-15; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue7ar14

Syed Bacha Agha, Muhammad Nawaz
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 119-129; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar8

Abstract:
Abortion is when a pregnancy is ended so that it doesn't result in the birth of a child. Sometimes it is called termination of pregnancy. In Islam, it is forbidden (haram) to abort the fetus and if this is done, it would result in the Diyah having to be paid. The Diyah is the responsibility of the person who was in charge of carrying out the abortion. If the pregnancy is a danger to the life of the mother or would result in her become handicapped, then it is permissible for her to abort the child before the time when the soul has been infused into the body. However it is not permissible to abort the child once the soul has come into the body and the fetus starts to move (inside the womb) and the mother must carefully watch over and give special attention to the child inside her and must make sure that it is brought into the world at the appropriate time. This article explains deeply about the Abortion according to Islamic thoughts.
Samina Naz, Khan Hafiz Munir Ahmed
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 27-42; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar2

Abstract:
Allah commanded us through the Holy prophet (PBUH) for the routines of life. We need Ijtihad for those issues of modern era for which we do not have the solution in Quran and Sunnah. We have guided the method of Ijtihad by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The first step for the Ijtihad is the freedom of thoughts and opinions. The life of our Holy Prophet (PBUH) helps us to know that how and when and for what goals he (PBUH) taught about Ijtihad and importance freedom of thought and opinion, to his companions (Allah bless them all). During the tenure of companions of Holy Prophet (PBUH) also give freedom of thoughts and opinion, which we known as the era of Khulfae Rashdeen. These teachings, we are aware the importance about how and why freedom of thoughts and opinions is necessary in Ijtihad. We found the many examples in history of Islam which caring the lot of events of teaching on Ijtihad and freedom of opinion. If we glance over the history of Islam, we find the best symbol of freedom of thoughts from the period of Holy prophet and Khulfae Rashdeen and particularly during the caliphate of Hadrat Umer Farooq Radi ALLAHu Ta'ala Anho. He set the example of freedom of thoughts for the public benefit. Allama Iqbal also mentioned about the freedom of thoughts in his poetry and lectures on Ijtihad. The freedom of opinions is the first condition of Ijtihad, where there is no freedom of opinion how Ijtihad would be possible. The restrictions free environment is required for Ijtihad so that people give their opinion clearly and talk freely and there should be element of tolerance in listeners. We found the best examples of freedom of opinions from life of the holy prophet, his companions and after that era of aima karams. Islam is not bound the person from their opinions in Ijtihad but it should not be against the Islamic values.
Hadi Bux Chhijan, Abdul Hameed Khan Abbasi
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar3

Sanaullah Bhutto, Saifullah Bhutto
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-26; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue5ar1

Hafizah Shumaila Khan Khakhwani, Farzana Iqbal, Naseem Akhatar
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 105-117; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar7

H. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari, Muhammad Naeem Anwar, Hafiz Abdul Rashid
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 48-58; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar14

Zahid Latif, Zain Ul Abdin Sodhar
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 57-69; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar4

Arshad Munir, Abdul Hameed Arain, Karim Dad
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar5

Abstract:
With the down of Quresh of Makkah and other non-believers stood against Islam and started propagations against Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In the result of propagation Non-believers attacked on Muslims and Prophet himself also.To save Muslims and Islam from their propagation Prophet fought wars against them in self-defence. During life span of Prophet (peace be upon him) 86 deputations were sent, these are called ‘sirya سِریہ’ and in which expeditions Prophet himself took part these are called ‘Ghazwat غزوات’, total ghazwat are 28. Westerns still are propagating that Islam spread with these wars. Prophet (peace be upon him) attacked non-Muslims and compelled them to accept Islam, this is the only cause of spreading of Islam. There is nothing in bottom of this propagation. If we consider the history and autobiography of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and review this propagation critically. We find that these wars were fought only in self-defense, to protect innocent and poor people and keep peace in the territory.
Muhammad Ikramullah, Junaid Akbar
The Scholar Islamic Academic Research Journal, Volume 4, pp 85-104; doi:10.29370/siarj/issue6ar6

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