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Results in Journal Economics, Management and Sustainability: 78

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Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.3

Abstract:
In this study, Japan's LNG import contracts are discussed. Given the importance that these contracts are oil-indexation, the impact of crude oil price volatility (emphasizing OPEC oil basket) on LNG prices was studied using a structural VAR model from January 1997 to October 2017. Also, the Hodrick-Prescott filter was used to separate positive and negative shocks to investigate the effect of oil price shocks on LNG prices. The results showed that the relationship between LNG and crude oil prices has increased over time and that the effect of price shocks was asymmetric so that the impact of positive shocks was more lasting and more significant than negative shocks. This imbalance indicates that the basic oil contracting mechanism generally works to secure sellers' rights. So Japan needs to reform its contracts. Looking at gas sales contracts elsewhere in the world, it seems that the best alternative to current contracts would be the formation of an LNG hub in the North and East Asian region with the focus on Japan or Singapore.
Titi Darmi, Sri Ekowati
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 68-74; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.6

Abstract:
This article describes the Village Companion (PD) contribution for the management of the Village Fund in order to achieve village development goals. The study was conducted in Air Periukan Village, Seluma District, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. This study is very interesting to study because Desa Air Periukan has a very good development of rural development compared to other villages. The position of the village 4 years ago in the village category was very lagging behind. However, in 2018 Air Periukan village is in the category of Developing Villages and is able to manage village potential to the full. The data sources in this study are secondary data and primary data. The research informants were 5 village apparatus, 2 village facilitators and 5 community members who accidentally met at the time of the study. The results showed that the existence of village facilitators contributed to the management of village funds. Village Facilitators are able to empower the community so that the Village Apparatus is able to carry out development planning in accordance with community needs sourced from the Village Fund.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.4

Abstract:
Kindergarten school at an early age is a form of education that focuses on laying the foundation towards physical growth and development (fine and gross motor coordination), intelligence (thinking power, emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence), socio-emotional (attitude and behavior as well as religion), language and communication, by the uniqueness and stages of development carried out by young children born up to eight years, serves to develop children's potential and shape the child's personality correctly. The purpose of this education has two functions, namely giving direction to all educational activities and is something that is intended to be achieved by all educational activities. Based the results are customer relationship marketing has a positive and significant influence on the satisfaction of Elite Sang Tunas Kid Courses Denpasar, CRM has a positive and significant influence on Consumer Trust in Elite Sang Tunas Kid Courses Denpasar, satisfaction has a positive and significant influence on Consumer Trust at Elite Sang Tunas Kid Courses Denpasar, the role of satisfaction plays an important role for the development and progress of the institution, this means that the better customer relationship marketing, consumers will feel high satisfaction so that consumers are loyal to the services provided by Elite Sang Tunas Kid Courses Denpasar.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 48-67; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.5

Abstract:
For economic growth in any country must accompanied with skilled migration, persona remittances received, bilateral aid and improve food security through adaptation method of agriculture. In this regards, this study used the important of employment in agriculture, migration, economic growth, bilateral/foreign aids and remittances. We use data from WDI from 1960 to 2017 using linear regression models. Depending on the which variable we choose as dependent variable, the results confirmed that migration and remittances have significant positive impact on employment in agriculture in the Gambia. The results found out that employment in agriculture seriously has negative and significant impacts on bilateral aids. This may be due to the fact that the foreign aids received for agriculture is diverted to other used that could have less important to the economy growth. The results further explained that migration and economic growth are insignificant optimistic impacts on total aids in the Gambia, while remittance and employmlent in agriculture are statistically significant positive impacts on the total aids in the Gambia.10% increase in migration, increases foreign aid by 50.3%. This results is confirmed by Berthélemy, Beuran, and Maurel (2009) using World Bank bilateral data on the Effect of total aid on migration-push affect,10% increase in aid in general increases migration by 1.5%. When we used breakpoint date of 1981 and 1994 the results are structural stable due to the coups in the Gambia in 1981 and 1994. In addition, remittance, migration and foreign aid have positive significant impacts on economic growth. Increases 10% of remittance, increase economic growth by 0.14%.Only employment in agriculture has negative impacts on economic growth.10% increases in employment in agriculture, decrease economic growth by 0.04%.The economy of the Gambia should use the foreign aid to improve agriculture production and productivity thereby increase economic growth through export and eat what we grow.
, Lucy Anning
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 6-16; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.1

Abstract:
As foreign direct investment provides a new way for many countries to improve their economies with Ghana not being an exemption. The source of FDI countries looks on to give Ghana a new way of advancement. This study provides a general overview on the inflow of foreign direct investment to Ghana. By considering FDI component values, local currency values, the overall number of projects registered and employment creation to investigate their significance in Ghana’s economy. This study makes use of the descriptive statistical method that promote data analysis in a quantitative way. The results revealed that, FDI component contributes heavily to the total foreign direct investment values in Ghana. The outcome also shows that, of the whole number of registered projects, about 72.10% were wholly-foreign owned but in the aspect of the aggregate cost of these projects, the value of joint ventures (between Ghanaians and their foreign counterparts) weigh higher than that of wholly-foreign owned businesses. The result further indicates that, on the account of employment creation, Ghanaians enjoyed about 85% of the total jobs to be created. It is suggested that the government of Ghana should encourage its citizen to contribute more to investment.
, Mohammad Mehdi Faezipour, Ali Bayatkashkoli
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 5, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2020.5-1.2

Abstract:
Poplars, a fast-growing species, enjoy a high significance in Iran’s industry. So far, information on poplar plantation, such as area, volume, and harvest, has been obtained by non-scientific and poor methods. A few studies have been conducted to recognize capability of poplar plantation about area, volume, harvest, distribution, and species in three high efficient provinces, i.e., Eastern/ Azerbaijan, Zanjan, Kermanshah, and Ardabil. A Cluster sampling a standard sampling method for conducting similar researches was selected, consisting of two phases. In the first phase we collected library information and half-open interview from villagers. In the second phase field measurement in the villages of these four provinces was considered. Obtained information from field measurement was erected poplar volume, cultivated poplar area, prevalent species and estimating volume via volume and weight tables. Results obtained from the present study indicate that average annual utilization volume of four provinces was 172628.84 m3, with an average error of 14.19 percent.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 4, pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2019.4-1.4

Abstract:
Training and Development has always been a driving force for enhancing the teachers’ productivity and performance. A training and development program provided by the employer is a sincere effort to provide opportunities to the employees to be acquainted with the variety of skills, information, attitude and conduct. With the ever-growing needs of modern education system, the education industry has to become more techno savvy, dynamic and updated. There is always requirement of skillful and talented manpower to take up this education industry to the heights of international standards. The primary objective of this research paper is to investigate the impact of staff training and development on their productivity and performance in classroom teaching and in their administrative work as well. It can also be viewed as on their overall productivity. The data collected was through structured questionnaire. 58 teachers were interviewed through the questionnaire. Statistical Software (SPSS Version 16) was used for analyzing the data. The study concludes that there exist positive and strong relations between training and development and productivity of the teachers of Kurdistan. The study further concluded stating positive correlation between productivity and other independent factors like Skills, Expertise, Morale, Enhancement, Potential, Job Knowledge and Proficiency. Technical/Technology training is the most suitable training program for the teachers of this region.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-2.8

Abstract:
In this article, the state of Russian industry for 2014-2017 is analyzed. The system of basic indicators for assessing the level of industrial security based on the structure of national institutions is proposed. The role of the institutional environment in ensuring the industrial security of the country is presented and the principles for building an effective institutional platform are defined. The structure of the institutional mechanism for the development of the industry is proposed on the basis of a system of form-building components: regulatory, financial, social, foreign economic. As the basic methods are used the method of comparative analysis, the method of factor analysis, econometric modeling, matrix modeling. For each component, a number of quantitative indicators have been identified for the evaluation and analysis of the level of industrial development. Quantitative assessment allows us to present the qualitative side of the process of institutionalization in the relevant branch – industry. The basic algorithm of calculation is a process of three stages: the calculation of specific (share) indicators, intensive (tempo) and integral. The integrated indicator serves as a general indicator of the level of effectiveness of the institutional system of industrial security of the country. Based on the analysis of the development of the industry, a mechanism is proposed for the institutional functioning of the country's industry.
Haslindar Ibrahim, Ng Yi Xiang, Nik Hadiyan Nik Azman, Abdul Hadi Zulkafli
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 42-59; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-2.4

Abstract:
This study examines the performance of domestic and foreign banks with regards to the relationship between the board structure and their financial performance in Malaysia. The sample consists of 8 domestic banks and 16 foreign banks in Malaysia from 2012 to 2016.The board structures are board size (BS) and proportion of independent director (ID) as an independent variables and firm size as the control variable. Meanwhile, the performance is measured by four ratios, liquidity (current ratio), profitability (return on assets), risk and solvency (loan to deposit ratio) and efficiency performance (asset utilization ratio). The findings reveal that the board size is proved to be significant relationship with return on assets (ROA) as well as loan to deposit ratio (LDR) for both domestic and foreign banks but insignificant with the other ratios of both the domestic and foreign banks. Apart from that, independent director proportion showed an insignificant influence on financial performance with four financial ratios for both domestic and foreign banks. This study suggests that both domestic and foreign banks do have difference in terms of financial performance, domestic banks perform better than foreign banks in terms of generating good return on assets and loan to deposits ratio however foreign banks perform far better in terms of level of liquidity of the banks as compared to domestic banks.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 6-19; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-2.1

Abstract:
In response to the global challenge of climate change, companies increasingly disclose sustainability-related information in form of sustainability reports. These reports, however, vary significantly due to multiple institutional and stakeholder pressures. From an academic perspective, institutional theory links these different outcomes to the influences of competing institutional logics on the field-level, representing institutional complexity on the field-level which is characterised by multiple demands from different stakeholders. Although current literature acknowledges that stakeholder may affect institutional logics, it is limited to categorise stakeholder influences on the firm-level, lacking conceptual clarity. Based on institutional and stakeholder constructs, this paper demonstrates that institutional and stakeholder theory provide, on different levels, a theoretical foundation to examine the influences on sustainability reporting. Various constructs of stakeholder theory and institutional fields as well as their limitations and further classification concepts are identified and discussed. This paper thereby advances the understanding between field-level pressures and firm-level agency and demonstrate that both theories can complement each other when examining the influences on sustainability reporting.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 70-78; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-1.7

Abstract:
The paper discusses an empirical examination of the impact of regional integration on the processes of international labour migration. For this purpose, the data from 16 regional integration organisations, accounting for more than 90% of the world’s immigration, were used. Despite different levels of integration, all regional organisations entered into separate agreements liberalising the movement of certain categories of workers. Our research has shown that the key factor determining the increase in the number of migrants is the economic growth in a host migrant region. On the other hand, the growth of the level of integration positively influences an inflow of immigrants, although this connection is not strong.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 6-20; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-1.1

Abstract:
Considering the impact of Brexit on the foreign direct investment (FDI) in the United Kingdom, contrary to previous studies from economic literature, this research focused on two proxies for FDI: FDI projects with the associated new and safeguarded jobs and FDI inflows as percent of GDP. Moreover, other methods were used to measure the Brexit impact on the FDI: a gravity model approach based on mixed-effects Poisson models and a counterfactual analysis based on differences-to-differences estimators. The main results indicated that the number of FDI projects might decrease after Brexit by 65% till 90% in 2019. A higher increase by 97% is expected to the number of new and safeguarded jobs. Even if FDI inflows in the UK significantly increased compared to the rest of OECD countries because of the EU membership, Great Britain should follow the model of Norway and Iceland after Brexit in order to avoid significant losses in the FDI inflows.
Sergey Voit, Vladimir Andreevich Tkachenko, Irina Oleshkevich
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 3, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2018.3-1.3

Abstract:
The conceptual view on the unity of productive forces and industrial relations in modern social structures of production expressing the active relation of people to the accumulation of material goods as an indicator of the spiritual development of the social structure has been presented in the work. It is proved that the technological basis of society is a state priority of structural changes in the economy, which determines the rates of economic growth regardless of the level of development. The new paradigm, which was called "technological method of production" as a dynamic system of not only production forces, but also of technological production relations, due to the optimization of internal production processes transformed into a system of technological relations, the nature of which is determined by the nature of the operation or transition in the technological process, has been conceptually substantiated.
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