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David Ellingson Eddington
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p1

Abstract:
A recent investigation of 6452 languages (Blasi et al., 2016) uncovered a number of cross-linguistic correspondences between speech sounds and meaning. For example, the phone [z] was associated with the meaning ‘star.’ In the present study, 16 of these sound symbolisms were tested by presenting English and Spanish speakers with pairs of nonce words along with a definition of the words. Their task was to choose the word that sounded best with the meaning given. One member of the pair of words contained phones found to be associated with the meaning of the word while the other did not. For instance, participants were asked to choose between [zolz] and [folf] as the word they felt was most likely to mean ‘star. ‘ Seven of the sound and meaning correspondences observed in the study by Blasi et al. (2016) were corroborated by both Spanish and English speakers. Three additional sound correspondences were only significant in one of the experimental languages.
Yang Jing, Chen Xuebin
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p9

Abstract:
Aerial ChinaⅠ- Jiangxi has been widely accepted by foreign audiences. In this documentary, there are many culture-loaded words with Jiangxi cultural characteristics. We all know that the translation of Chinese culturally-loaded words has long been a tricky problem. Take the translation of culture loaded words in Aerial ChinaⅠ- Jiangxi as an example, this paper discusses how Newmark's communicative translation and semantic translation theory are applied to the translation of Chinese culture loaded words. It is considered that semantic translation and communicative translation are not completely opposite but complement each other. Good translation works are usually the perfect combination of the two. In order to help translators better translate culture loaded words and achieve the real purpose of cross-cultural communication.
Hayat Rasheed Alamri, Rania Daifullah Adawi
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p16

Abstract:
This mixed-method study explored the perspectives of Saudi EFL teachers concerning the use of Writing Scoring Rubrics (WSRs) to correct students' written work and instruct EFL writing classes. The study sample included 106 Saudi EFL teachers, who answered the twenty-one close-ended questions and the first open-ended question, with twenty-five answering the second open-ended question. The findings reveal that the teachers frequently employed in-class correction and feedback to correct their students' written work, with nearly one-third used assessment techniques that included WSRs, self-assessment, peer editing, journals, and portfolios. The results of the second question indicate that Saudi EFL teachers generally engage students in creating customized WSRs. The findings also revealed that Saudi EFL teachers consider WSRs beneficial to both students and teachers and might be viewed by some experienced EFL teachers as a practical correction or assessment method that improves students' writing. Therefore, this study contributes to a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of WSRs in teaching and assessing writing skills.
Marc Gandarillas
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p30

Abstract:
This study constitutes an exploratory analysis of the grammaticalization cline of anar (‘to go’) + infinitive in Catalan to express perfective past (e.g., va arribar ‘s/he arrived’). Our research interest primarily lies in diachronically tracing the evolution of this grammatical change, which appears to be unprecedented in other Romance languages (e.g., Spanish, French), in which the construction has instead led to the expression of a near and/or intentional future. A gap in research is found in the fact that there have been few corpus-based, pragmatic approaches to the matter. We base our theoretical framework on the definition of grammaticalization by Hopper and Traugott (2003) and a number of related publications (Alturo 2017, Pérez-Saldanya & Hualde 2003). Critical items (N=346) were retrieved from the diachronic corpus CICA (11th-18th c.) and subsequently analyzed in the light of pragmatic factors, establishing a three-stage cline based on Segura (2012). Results show how informative bridging contexts are in shaping grammaticalization processes, as they highlight the challenges of tracing a grammaticalization process based on corpora of literary texts. A discussion follows on the identification of potential next steps that might be useful in complementing our own research.
Zainab Kadim Igaab
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n3p72

Abstract:
Verbal offences are language crimes that are committed by mere utterances of certain words or expressions whether they are accompanied by physical acts or not. One of those crimes is blackmail. This crime has been studied and compared legally but its linguistic aspect has not been given much attention. This study tries to emphasize this crime pragmatically and contrastively in English and Arabic. No study has shed light on such aspects concerning the study under investigation. The researcher has not found any previous related study to get a benefit from about this topic. There is an attempt to achieve the following aim which is shedding light on the similarities and differences in strategies of blackmail between English and Arabic in terms of speech act, implicature and impoliteness theories. The present study hypothesizes the following: English and Arabic are different from each other in expressing blackmail in terms of speech act theory, implicature and impoliteness. To support or refute the hypothesis of the study, data consisting of 20 complaints in English and Arabic were collected from Courts of Appeal in Iraq, Britain and the United States. They are analyzed in terms of an eclectic model. The results arrived at are: English and Arabic are different in blackmail in terms of the locutionary acts and illocutionary acts. Concerning impoliteness, the same strategies are applied to the verbal offence in both languages. As far as implicature is concerned, the two languages are different in blackmail.
Mohammed Jasim Betti, Noor Sattar Khalaf
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n3p12

Abstract:
Implicature is commonly defined as the dissimilarity between what is said and what is meant. The variance lies between the conspicuous meaning of written and spoken words and the meaning that lies beneath what is said. This study aims at analyzing and discussing Shakespeare's Hamlet and Twelfth Night in terms of generalized and particularized conversational and conventional implicature. The model used in the analysis is coined from a variety of pragmatic theories, implicature, Grice's maxims, irony, indirect speech acts, context, and hedges. It is hypothesized that the number of implicature cases in Twelfth Night is bigger than that in Hamlet, generation of implicatures by the characters in the two plays is highly determined by social factors, Hamlet and Cesario use implicature more than other characters, the most used implicature is the particularized one, the purpose of using implicatures differs in the plays, implicature is generated from flouting Grice's maxims and most implicatures are made by violating the relation maxim. The study concludes that the implications in Hamlet are more than those in Twelfth Night, that Shakespeare uses two implicatures generalized and particularized, and that Implicature in Hamlet and Twelfth Night is generated mostly by violating the maxims of quality. As for the least flouted maxim in the two plays is the maxim of quantity.
Mohammed Jasim Betti, Zainab Kadhim Hashim
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n3p32

Abstract:
This study examines the effect of gender on students' bilingual and bicultural identity in their recognition and production of request is studied. This means that it investigates to what extent the learners’ mother tongue and culture influence their recognition and production of request in the EFL and the effect of gender on such an identity. The study aims at exploring and identifying the linguistic patterns of request in English used by Iraqi EFL learners, those patterns of request transferred from Iraqi EFL learners’ mother tongue, and the Iraqi EFL learners’ cultural patterns and cultural realization of request transferred from Arabic culture into the EFL. Some hypotheses of the study state that there is a bilingual and cultural identity in using request by Iraqi EFL learners, females are better than males in request perception and production and they are worse in Arabic monolingualism and monoculturalism, students are better in English monolingualism and monoculturalism than in the other request features, students’ English monolingual and monocultural identity is more apparent in request perception than in production. To validate or refute its hypotheses, a test comprising recognition and production has been constructed and applied to fifty Iraqi EFL learners at fourth year, Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Thi-Qar at the academic year (2020-2021). After data analysis, some conclusions are arrived at. The study concludes that Iraqi EFL learners are pragmatically incompetent and they have a bilingual and bicultural identity because of their mother tongue and culture interference.
Cheng Huang, Ping Liu
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n3p89

Abstract:
Positioned within rapport management theory proposed by Spencer-Oatey, this article investigates the customer service agent’s pragmatic identity construction in complaint response calls. Drawing on data of 42 complaint handling recordings from the customer care center of a Chinese airline company, this study tries to address these three research questions: 1) What types of pragmatic identities do the customer service agents construct in complaint response calls? 2) How are these pragmatic identities constructed through rapport management strategies? 3) What interpersonal functions do these pragmatic identities perform? By adopting a qualitative research method, this study has found that the agents mainly construct three default identities and one deviational identity in complaint response calls by employing nine rapport management strategies from four rapport management domains. These different pragmatic identities mainly perform three kinds of interpersonal functions: support face needs, support sociality rights and obligations, and support interactional goals. The findings further validates the feasibility of rapport management theory in the study of identity construction, and provides new ideas for future study on pragmatic identity construction in institutional communications.
Carmen Manuela Pereira Carneiro Lucas
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n3p1

Abstract:
The present linguistic reality involves finding ways of communication in the globalized environment, where people move all around the world in order to find work, learn, or share experiences. One issue arising from English language teaching is that it has mainly overlooked teaching culture across the curriculum, thus allowing the increase of negative attitudes and stereotypes. This paper is set out to determine to what extent English language teaching (ELT) materials demonstrate the traits of the English-speaking Other, it what ways children are accessing the target ‘Kingdom’, and which are the best teaching strategies to provide them with the keys to the target world. Anchoring our perspective in CLIL and the 4 Cs, this study looks at ways of developing cutting-edge syllabi to develop intercultural awareness and preventing stereotypes. Findings from the application of the syllabi and resulting from an analysis of the cultural content of two internationally distributed ELT textbooks are reported. The present research put in evidence that cultural aspects are practically absent from the analyzed textbooks, thus lacking a key dimension in English Language Teaching and Education. Therefore, some recommendations for future textbook writers and EFL classroom practice are suggested.
Momtajul Islam
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p19

Abstract:
The colonial invaders and their repressive means of governance in Africa were not the only reasons that could be solely held accountable for the fall of indigenous African society during the colonial invasion. Native weaknesses, socio-cultural conflicts and hegemony were equally responsible for the falling apart of native social setups when confronted with colonial alternatives. Native people had had their own covert religious and cultural limitations long before the colonizers entered their soil. The colonial powers cleverly used such inherent societal flaws of African people as excuses to impose European religion and traditions on them. Chinua Achebe does not blindly idealize native African traditions in his writings. He frequently narrates his doubts on flawed socio-cultural practices and moral dualities in the native society, too. This paper is an attempt to explore how innate weaknesses of native Igbo people, socio-cultural conflicts and domination in the native society have also made it easier for the colonial administration to prolong their supremacy in the Igbo land, as depicted in Arrow of God by Chinua Achebe. It also elaborates how Ezeulu, the chief priest of god Ulu, falls from dominance in his society because of his intent to execute personal desires which jeopardize his societal role in the Igbo land.
Nisreen Kadhim Khudhair
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p25

Abstract:
Changes in mobile technologies, developments in information technologies and telecommunication, computers programs and expansion of mobile market, likewise have inspired people to make use of these “anytime” and “anywhere” technologies in second language teaching. Use of mobile devices in language teaching has been the focus of language learning studies since language learning necessitates interaction and autonomy which are the key concepts in mobile assisted language learning for learners. The research aims at investigating Iraqi EFL secondary school students' perceptions towards using mobile language learning technique. To achieve the aim of the present research, a sample of 40 secondary school students were chosen randomly from many schools . To fulfill the aim of the study, the questionnaire of students consists of (17) items. After the analysis of the data, the findings indicated that the vast majority of students had had used their mobile phones to study English. Also, they expressed their welcome towards using this technology to study English in the future. It is recommended to promote the use of mobile learning devices, and encourage students to use mobile as a means of learning and teaching English language in various stages of education.
Yanmeng Liu
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p10

Abstract:
The success of health education resources largely depends on their readability, as the health information can only be understood and accepted by the target readers when the information is uttered with proper reading difficulty. Unlike other populations, children feature limited knowledge and underdeveloped reading comprehension, which poses more challenges for the readability research on health education resources. This research aims to explore the readability prediction of health education resources for children by using semantic features to develop machine learning algorithms. A data-driven method was applied in this research:1000 health education articles were collected from international health organization websites, and they were grouped into resources for kids and resources for non-kids according to their sources. Moreover, 73 semantic features were used to train five machine learning algorithms (decision tree, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors algorithm, ensemble classifier, and logistic regression). The results showed that the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and ensemble classifier outperformed in terms of area under the operating characteristic curve sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy and achieved good performance in predicting whether the readability of health education resources is suitable for children or not.
Basim Yahya Jasim Algburi, Zainab Kadim Igaab
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p31

Abstract:
Defamation is one of the verbal offences in which the plaintiff is accused of a certain wrongful act by one of the ways of publicity. If that wrongful act is proved, then the accused will be punished by law or lowered by his/her home people. Defamation is surely accusing another person of a wrongful act . Accusing can be done by any spoken or written ways whether truthful or doubtful. The purpose beyond those ways is to make those accusations about the victim true in the people's mind even if they are temporarily made. The aim of this study is to elucidate if there is a similarity or a difference between English and Arabic in terms of defamation. It has been hypothesized that both languages are different from each other in terms of the topic under investigation. This study arrives at: In terms of defamation, English and Arabic are similar to each other in having speech acts, grammatical referencing, conveyed meaning, malicious meaning, and discourse structure and framing with intentionality. English defamation cases include speech acts more than Arabic defamation ones.
Esther Moraleda Sepulveda, Patricia López Resa, Noelia Pulido García
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p46

Abstract:
The CELF assessment test is one of the tools most used today for the differential diagnosis of Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) because it allows obtaining a lingüistic level with different areas. The recent update of the test offers new scales especially in Spanish speakers. The objective of this study was to analyze the language level of people with DLD with the CELF 4 and CELF 5 tests to verify the possible differences that exist between both tests. The sample consisted of 26 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of TDL between 6 and 15 years old who were evaluated with both tests. The results obtained indicate that, in general, the scores are lower when they are evaluated with the CELF 5 test, with significant differences in Core Language, Receptive Language and Expressive Language. These data lead us to consider the CELF test as an essential tool in the diagnosis of DLD but also to take into account a complementary evaluation that allows obtaining a complete linguistic profile as a starting point for the intervention.
Mohamed Jabraddar Mahil Abdallah
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p55

Abstract:
The current study has sought to examine human suffering as depicted in 'Morning at the Window', by W.B. Yeats and 'Musee des Beaux Art', by W. H. Auden. It has also attempted to investigate how humans are incurious and unenthusiastic to man's serious problems and disasters. In order to achieve the aims of this study, the two poems under investigation were, quantitatively, analyzed. The expressions, in the two poems, which indicate that human are indifferent and lukewarm to human serious problems and disasters; were focused and investigated. The findings of the study showed that the poems, investigated in this study, shed light on human suffering. They also displayed that humans are incurious and unenthusiastic to man serious problems and disasters. Moreover, they show an insensitive and cruel disregard for others. The study recommends that future researches and studies should be conducted on other forms of literary genres other than poetry. Besides, examining other social issues that of great importance to humanity, for literature is regarded as the mirror which reflects human life in all its aspects.
Ramunė Vitalija Ilgūnaitienė
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n2p1

Abstract:
Lecturers of Vytautas Magnus University Institute of Foreign Languages have noticed that students’ English grammar comprehension as well as their interest and motivation for learning it have dropped significantly. It was decided to carry out the research and find the answers to the topical questions. Do students thoroughly understand the importance of grammar in language acquisition context? What are the factors predisposing the diminishing value of grammar? What is the students’ insight into the grammar teaching/ learning process in level C1? The questionnaire was compiled and on the basis of a comparative – quantitative method the conclusions were drawn that students do not think that grammar plays an important role in learning the English language, they suppose that their grammar competence is sufficient to be fluent in English, thus, there is no need to continue learning grammar in level C1. If we do not make an attempt to solve this problem, it might lead to a dangerous outcome- the level of the English language proficiency may fall down drastically.
Liqin Wu, Yong Wu, Xiangyang Zhang
Published: 6 January 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n1p1

Abstract:
By conducting an on-line questionnaire survey, the article compared 97 international students’ views with 23 Chinese teachers’ practices on 8 issues in corrective feedback (CF) in teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL). Results revealed that students’ views and teachers’ practices conformed to each other in cognition of committing verbal errors, and in whether to correct; that they were mostly incongruent with each other in what to correct; that they were congruent with each other in peer correction, but not in teachers’ correction or self-correction; that they coincided with each other in indirect correction, but not in direct one, nor in immediate correction or the maximum correction frequency in one class; and that CF mainly generated positive psychological effects and better learning on students, but its pedagogical efficacy was not evidently approved by the teachers. This research aimed at gaining a deeper insight into the effectiveness of CF in TCSOL to improve the quality of TCSOL.
Valentine Njende Ubanako
Published: 6 January 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n1p36

Abstract:
The language-contact situation in Cameroon, where hundreds of ethnic languages coexist with two official languages and a number of lingua francas, continues to evolve and to produce new usage trends and patterns. One of the outcomes of the dynamism of the linguistic situation in Cameroon is the emergence over the last three decades or so of a new linguistic phenomenon that some researchers have styled “Camfranglais” for the simple reason that it comprises a combination of elements drawn from Cameroon indigenous languages (“cam”), from French (“fran”), and from Pidgin English (“anglai”). What precisely this French acronym refers to in linguistic terms remains fairly controversial as some researchers see in this phenomenon the emergence of a new language while other evidence suggests that ‘Camfranglais’ is certainly a new speech form but not a new language in the strict sense of the term. This paper sets out to review some of the current opinions about Camfranglais with a view to determining if Camfranglais can be considered a language in its own right or simply as a new speech form which can be said to form a continuum with mainstream Cameroon English. It equally highlights the complexities that render this linguistic phenomenon so elusive to definition.
Budi Rahayu
Published: 6 January 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n1p14

Abstract:
One of the problems in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) is the teachers’ lack of knowledge on the process of the students’ text production, which seems to have not been adequately explored and described. This research aims to describe the process of encoding of Field in EFL learners' academic writing in English, especially argumentative texts, focusing on how students produce the texts and why they produce the texts as they do. A Mixed method is applied in this research; Qualitative data is collected from interviews and quantitative data is compiled from the texts produced by a group of 25 Indonesian university students, who become the subject of this research. The findings show that Indonesian students, when writing English argumentative texts, use mostly Material process, Relational process, and Mental process. Furthermore, the students mostly use Circumstance of Reason, Time and Circumstance of Degree. These types of Processes and Circumstances are encoded in the text for the reasons of elaborating, explaining, and expressing opinions, based on the question asked. In other words, the encoding of Field seems to be influenced by the question or prompt given. This has given an idea of how foreign language teaching should be conducted.
Sukarsono Sukarsono, Mohamad Jazeri, Nursamsu Nursamsu
Published: 6 January 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n1p27

Abstract:
Reasoning ability is fundamental for college students as well as professionals since it reflects their intellectual quality. This paper is aimed at revealing the reasoning nature in the editorial essays in Indonesian prominent newspapers. The study is qualitatively approached, by employing Content Analysis, in which (i) the types of reason and (ii) the soundness of reasons the editorial essays are objectively, systematically, and generally inferred. The data collection was conducted by documentation technique, by which the researchers selected the online editorial essays in Indonesian prominent newspapers. The study revealed that types of reason found in the essay written by IW (Indonesian Writer) are (a) statement of a means to an end, (b) a statement of cause, (c) statement of judgment based upon knowledge, and (d) statement of condition while the most reasonings practiced by IW in their essays are logically sound.
Dimple Choudhury, Suranjana Barua
Published: 6 January 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n1p43

Abstract:
The study explores the phenomenon of politeness vis-à-vis collective identity in two indigenous languages of Arunachal Pradesh, India: Miju and Digaru. Through the differential use of discourse markers in various language settings, this paper examines politeness strategies used by the speakers of both languages to form inferences on the speakers’ worldview and social knowledge of their respective communities in different contexts. The intrinsic structure of the language of a community and its lucid usage construes politeness together with a society's socio-cultural principles. The socio-cultural characteristics fabricate the speakers' cognitive structure that formulates the phenomenon of politeness falling in with the language principles and boundaries. The current paper examines the production, projection and perception of politeness through discursive approach including inclusiveness/ exclusiveness strategies to understand natives’ perspective on collective identity as speakers of endangered languages themselves. Further, the study takes linguistic politeness as a meta-pragmatic entity and tries to explore this phenomenon in the Miju and Digaru languages from the native’s socio-cognitive understanding. In doing so, the paper appropriates Koller (2012), which, in introducing critical analytical parameters for analysing collective identity in discourse, talks about three levels of discourse – Macro-level, Meso-level, and Micro-level.
I Nyoman Kardana, I Made Astu Mahayana, I Gusti Ngurah Adi Rajistha
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p142

Abstract:
Ecolinguistics has been the research interest for many linguists in recent years. However, ecolinguitic researches in Indonesia are still concerned on examining the lexicon in one particular field. For this reason, this study aims to examine the lexicon treasures found in tourism area of Sanur. This is chosen as the object of this research as the tourism area is most at risk of being exposed to globalization due to tourism developments. The flow of globalization due to the development of information technology and tourism can change behavior, social attitudes or social life of the society, and the biological environment of the area as well. Based on the research results, it was found that the lexicons used by the Sanur community are not only lexicons that have a physical form or an activity, but there are also some lexicons that only refer to the concept (abstract) without finding the objects or physical activities referred to by these lexicons. The people of Sanur also feel that in the early development of tourism in the area there was still a balance between the environment and the needs of tourism.
Siyun Huang
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p131

Abstract:
At present, women are still the main force among cosmetics consumers. In order to stimulate female consumers’ desire to buy cosmetics, cosmetics advertisers strive to build identities for female consumers that they are deeply yearning for, so as to guide and entice female consumers to buy their products. From the perspective of critical pragmatics, this study focuses on the types, distribution, means, and purposes of identity construction in Chinese and American advertisements, and conducts qualitative and quantitative analysis on cosmetic advertisements. Through contrastive analysis, it reveals the types and frequency of identity, and pragmatic strategies, motivation of advertisers in China and America. These identities are used to attract consumers to purchase behavior. When constructing these identities, cosmetics advertisers adopt explicit and implicit means to make psychological hints to female consumers. This study criticizes and analyzes the marketing motives of advertisers from the perspective of pragmatic identity theory, thereby revealing consumption traps for female consumers, and providing new thinking for identity construction and marketing strategies.
Yanqin Wu, Qiu Zhang
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p112

Abstract:
In view of the dramatic changes induced by emerging social media, the present research focuses on Chinese multinational enterprises to understand how they conduct impression management work on Twitter through different face orientations, with a particular attention to the online presence of CSR activities. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, it is found that CSR activities have not received enough attention in such genre of company discourse. The present research also points that the frequent occurrence at Twitter is supposed to be of great value to impression management work of these multinational companies. However, some disparities also emerge in their face orientation across different industry.
Mohammed Jasim Betti, Mohammed Abbas Mahdi
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p69

Abstract:
Oral interaction is sometimes not articulated by its participants as perfect as they project. The unsuccessful instances of talk in exchange may cause serious communicative breakdowns between the involved partners of the interactive activity. Conversation analysis (CA) is privileged to have a powerful mechanism, which is called repair organization that is exploited in interaction to prevent and fix any variety of troubles in talk. This strategic organization of repair is then operated to capacitate talkers of unavoidable interactive breakdowns of talk. Accordingly, this study aims at observing, describing, analyzing and identifying the trouble sources of repair strategies which exist in the Iraqi university viva discussions in English, and investigating their repair positions and inadequacies. Likewise, it is hypothesized that misunderstanding errors is the most frequent trouble source of repairs in the Iraqi university viva discussions in English, non-repair is the most frequent repair inadequacy, and that the fourth position of repair is the most frequent position type. The procedure adopted to fulfil the aims and to verify the hypotheses include collecting data which consists of four hours and ten minutes of audiotaped oral interactions in the MA and Ph.D. viva discussions, developing a model for repair strategies from various theories in CA, observing and collecting the data by recording audiotaped samples of those interactions in viva discussions as sample of the study, putting the datasets into orthography, calculating and describing by the use of the model, and analyzing the dataset of the study qualitatively and quantitatively. The study concludes that the eclectic model suggested and applied in the study gives a multi- faceted description of the different repair study. It is found that repair sources of trouble include grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, discourse, factual information, channel, processing, misunderstanding errors, repair of no errors. It also exposes that there are zero occurrence of miss-repair, self-repair and other-repair failures, that pronunciation trouble source of repair results in the highest occurrences and that factual information and repair of no errors are the least frequent trouble sources. The study reveals that non-repair is the most frequent repair inadequacy and same turn repair position is the most frequent one.
Wenli Xu, Yi Tang
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p94

Abstract:
The present study investigated the variations in linguistic features of English academic writing by American and Chinese scientists by building a corpus of 600 English agricultural journal abstracts and using the natural language processing tool Coh-Metrix. Through a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a discriminant function analysis (DFA), we statistically analyzed the corpus texts based on their lexical, syntactic and cohesive features and generated 8 distinguishing linguistic indices. The results indicated that Chinese scientists tended to write abstracts with more frequent words, more similar sentence structures, more modifiers per noun phrase and more agentless passive voice forms, while the American counterparts tended to write abstracts with a wider range of vocabulary, more specific terms, more words with multiple senses and more adversative connectives. These findings offer good guidance for Chinese scientists to write in a style closer to the agricultural research field and the native speakers so as to get their manuscripts better reviewed and more easily published. These findings also have practical implications for the development of agricultural English teaching materials as well as the curriculum design.
Honglin Yang, Ping Liu
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p15

Abstract:
Customer complaints can have a significant influence on the rapport and relationships between the customer and the company. This article aims to study the company’s response strategies for customer complaints from the perspective of rapport management, collecting the data from the airline outbound calls. Results show that there are three types of customer complaints and three kinds of response strategies related, but the effect of strategies on rapport management is not satisfying.
Lin Qiuming, Li Danyang
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p1

Abstract:
The paper explores two love allusions, ‘the pledge between plant and stone’ and ‘Jin’s marriage’ in the Chinese literary classics A Dream of Red Mansions written by Cao Xueqin and provides new explanations to the theme of the novel. Nearly 20 metaphorical expressions in the novel are selected through Critical Metaphor Analysis with 6 specifically representational examples analyzed in the paper by building integration networks based on Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT). The findings are as follow: 1) the counterculture of ‘plant and stone’ is embodied in the mythological stories at the beginning of the novel. 2) a ‘nested integrational network’, originally proposed by the researchers, links the mythological narrative space and the fictional human world space. 3) the comparison between integration networks of the two love allusions shows anti-feudalism of the author Cao Xueqin. This paper offers an interpretation of the novel from the aspect of cognitive linguistics, which, in turn, could promote the development of CIT within this field.
Zubairu Malah, Dinyo Shadrach Taiwo
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p27

Abstract:
Conceptual metaphors continue to receive scholarly attention from discourse analysts taking political discourse seriously. Studies are often interested in the versatile discourse functions of metaphors; how political leaders deploy them as powerful weapons in their armory of political oratory. Therefore, this study extends the current knowledge by exploring conceptual metaphors in President Muhammadu Buhari’s political rhetoric. It was guided by two major questions: (1) What types of conceptual metaphors does President Muhammadu Buhari deploy in his political rhetoric? and (2) What rhetorical functions do the Conceptual Metaphors deployed in President Muhammadu Buhari’s political rhetoric perform? The study’s theoretical impetus was Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), and Charteris-Black’s (2009) Contemporary Model of Metaphor and Political Communication was also applied in the analysis. The speeches analyzed include: (1) Muhammadu Buhari’s Presidential Primaries Speech, (2) Muhammadu Buhari’s Acceptance Speech, (3) Muhammadu Buhari’s Victory Speech and (4) Muhammadu Buhari’s (First) Presidential Inaugural Speech. The results show that President Buhari, in his political rhetoric, mostly uses HUMAN metaphors (32%), WAR metaphors (21%) and JOURNEY metaphors (16%). Moreover, further analysis revealed that Buhari mostly uses conceptual metaphors to establish his ethical integrity, heighten emotional impact and communicate his anti-corruption and political ideologies. The study concluded that conceptual metaphors are vital resources for construction of persuasion in President Muhammadu Buhari’s political rhetoric.
Noor Alaa Abdul- Razzk, Huda H Khalil
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p46

Abstract:
This research paper aims at figuring out the way in which the world perceives the Islamophobic incidents. Such a global perception can be obtained from employing a kind of pervasive discourse that is emitted from global institutions and directed to the world in general. Thus, the conducted linguistic evaluation has targeted the news reports as a kind of global media discourse. The linguistic theory employed for language evaluation is Martin and White’s (2005) theory of appraisal. Three categories are classified in the appraisal theory: attitude, engagement, and graduation. Attitude is subdivided into effect, judgment, and appreciation; engagement into monogloss and hetergloss, and graduation into force and focus. The methodology works on three variables in the Islamophobic incident: the aggressor, the victim and motive. The orientation of investigation works to identify the attitude of affect directed from the report towards the victim, judgement towards the behavior of the aggressor, and appreciation towards the motive of the incident. The research also identifies the features of these attitudes as being negative or positive, the types (sub- classifications), engagement (monogloss or heterogloss), and graduation (force and focus) of the spotted attitudes. The data consists of twelve news reports selected, according to their topic, from three News agencies: BBC, Independent, and Fox News. The analysis has revealed that, contrary to many claims, news reports tend to adopt a neutral stance towards Muslims and Non- Muslims. They tend to portray the Islamophobic incidents as close to reality as possible.
Jialiang Chen
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p120

Abstract:
With the deepening of cultural exchanges between China and western countries, interaction and dissemination of film works have become a common trend. A film title is the "eye" of a film; therefore, concerning the differences between English and Chinese languages, film title translation should not only convey necessary information about the films to the corresponding audience in the target language, but also arouse the interest of the audience to achieve a satisfactory box office. Based on the theories of functional equivalence and communicative translation, and especially the evaluation standard of film title translation—the realization of "four values", the thesis makes a comparative analysis of English and Chinese in film title translation and evaluates it with evidence from the successful experience of C-E (Chinese to English) and E-C (English to Chinese) film title translation from 2016 to 2019 in order to provide references for C-E film title translation under three translating techniques, thus promoting the value of title translation and the entrance of Chinese films to international markets.
Francisco García Marcos
Published: 10 October 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n4p57

Abstract:
The present article analyses a classic in the methodology on the analysis of the social variation of languages: the application of the ratio of 0'0025 % to obtain a representative sample of the population of a speaking community. This ratio, established empirically by Labov in 1966 for New York City, nevertheless presents important limitations when moving to communities with smaller populations. Replicating the empirical experimentation in four Spanish populations of different demographic size, it is shown that the empirically representative samples correspond to the confidence intervals already provided by the general statistics. Likewise, it is shown that these were the parameters between which 0,0025 % in the city of New York was developed. Consequently, the problem was not in the formulation of the ratio by Labov (1966), but in the subsequent indiscriminate application that has been made of it.
Wang Feng, Huang Hongxia
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n3p22

Abstract:
Ezra Pound's Cathay set the stage for a translation of free verse and influenced many translators such as Arthur Waley and Kenneth Rexroth. However, before Pound, rhymed Chinese poems were mainly translated into rhymed English poems by Herbert Giles, W. J. B. Fletcher, etc. Is it necessary to challenge the dominant translation poetics of free verse and insist that rhymed Chinese poems are best translated into rhymed English poems? Six English versions of a Song ci poem "Immortals at the Magpie Bridge" on the Chinese Valentine's Day were analyzed in details based on the newly proposed "Harmony-Guided Criteria" for poetry translation, which takes "Harmony" as the translation standard at the macro level, "resemblance in style, sense and poetic realm" at the middle level, and the "eight beauties of poetry translation" at the micro level. It shows that the criteria can be applied to the translation of rhymed Chinese ci poems into rhymed English poems, though with limitations.
Sarah Lane
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n3p47

Abstract:
International Linguistics Research wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated. International Linguistics Research is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please find the application form and details at http://home.ideasspread.org/for-reviewers/ and e-mail the completed application form to [email protected] Reviewers for Volume 3, Number 3 Bassil Mashaqba, The Hashemite University, Jordan Edvan Brito, University of Arkansas, United States Fanyu Mao, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, China Hamad H. Alsowat, College of Education, Taif University, Saudi Arabia Hanfu Mi, University of Illinois at Springfield, United States Ma Daoshan, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China Mariana Oleniak, Vasyl` Stus Donetsk National University, Ukraine Mohammed Jasim Betti, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq Stevanus Ngenget, Universitas Katolik De La Salle Manado, Indonesia Yasir Bdaiwi, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Iraq
Daniel T. Yokossi
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n3p32

Abstract:
This article seeks to explore the discourse-semantics of two selected excerpts from Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah with a focus on reference chains study. The choice to focus on studying reference chains in the selected excerpts aims at first appraising the way Adichie has used them to realize texture within her studied texts. It second aims at finding the extent to which references have contributed to the encoding of underlying meanings therein. To arrive at this, the research has appealed to the mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology. Through the quantitative methodology, the data obtained after analyses have been summarized organized and presented statistically in an informative way. The qualitative methodology ensued has allowed to give sense to the most interpretable data collected. Indeed, the research has interestingly arrived at impressive results. Among several others, the research has revealed that the studied texts are highly cohesive with endophoric references largely predominating over the other reference types. Using such cohesive ties as Adichie has done, has allowed her texts not only to stick together but also to be highly readable and flow logically. Moreover, the extensive use of endophoric references, as witnessed in the studied texts, is revelatory of their mode which is archetypal of a monologic written text. In other respects, the considerable number of exophoric references in the first excerpt reveals its tenor dimension. Such a linguistic feature indicates that it was produced in a context of immediate face-to-face feedbacks with language accompanying action. On the other hand, the fewer number of the same reference type in the second excerpt reveals its field and unveils that it is a written reflective text reconstructing an experience. Drawing upon the theoretically founded analysis of the selected excerpts and the interpretation of the collected data arrived at, the research opens up to such further investigation areas of the systemic functional linguistics as the interpersonal meaning, the experiential meaning, and the textual meaning.
Guihang Guo, Beiying He
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n3p11

Abstract:
Since business English (BE) was ratified as an undergraduate major in China by the Ministry of Education in 2007, domestic research on it has been mushrooming. BE writing course is one of the core courses in the module of English knowledge and skills for BE undergraduate program. Although there are more than 354 BE writing course-books have been published, few researches have been done to evaluate these textbooks. This paper aims to evaluate one of the BE writing course-books used by Guizhou University, namely, A Basic Course for Business English Writing. Targeting on the students majoring in Business English, the paper adopted the needs analysis model proposed by Hutchinson and Waters as well as the present situation analysis model raised by Richterich and Chancerel to design the questionnaire, which was used to identify students’ needs for business English writing. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey and the course-book evaluation criteria created by McDonough and Shaw, we identified the problems with the course-book and proposed some suggestions for modifications and further improvement.
I Wayan Ana
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n3p1

Abstract:
This study is aimed at finding out the characteristics of Indonesian Legal Language in notarial documents. This study is theoretically based on Cao's theory (2007) in her book entitled “Translating Law”, and supported by Djatmika in his book entitled “Prilaku Bahasa Indonesia, dalam Teks Kontrak”. The data of this study were collected from 6 ( six) legal documents in the form of lease agreement, sale agreement, prenuptial agreement, deed of company establishment, employment agreement and conciliation agreement. From the results and analysis, two (2) characteristics were found in the ILL of notarial documents: (1) general characteristics (boilerplate) and (2) specific characteristics. There are fifteen (15) specific characteristics of ILL found in the notarial documents in this research. The fifteen characteristics consist of eight (8) lexical characteristics and seven (7) syntactical characteristics. The lexical characteristics found in the notarials documents are (a) the use of legal terminologies, (b) the use of repetitive words (tautology), (c) the use of words dan/atau “and/or”, (d) the use of synonymous words, (e) the use of foreign terms, (f) the use of sebagaimana word, (g) the use of the word mana as demontrastrative adjective, and (h)the use of formal address; while the syntactical characteristics consist of (a) the use of long and complex sentences, (b) the use bahwa clause, (c) the use of passive sentences, (d) object fronting, (e) declarative sentence beginning with verb, (f) the use of reference system and (g) pre-supposation.
Mohamad Jazeri, Susanto Susanto
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n2p22

Abstract:
This study is aimed to explain the interpretation of symbols systems in Javanese wedding ceremony. The symbol patterns can be categorized into leaves symbols, vegetable symbols, flowers symbols, food and drinks symbols, Javanese traditional instrumental music (gending-gending), and thread of marriage processions. The data of this study were collected by in-depth interview techniques, participant observation, and documentation. The data were analyzed with the Miles and Huberman interactive models. Data analysis reveals that substantial meanings of the symbols in Javanese wedding ceremony are of advice, prayers, descriptions, parables, and responsibilities. The first, an advice for a bridge/a bridegroom is to have a well foundation, always to love each other, to become a reassuring spouse, to be considerate and think clearly, to have tender heart, and to respect their parents. The second, prayers are delivered in order that the bride and bridegroom have abundant lawful or halal fortune or wealth, have good offsprings, keep away from life barriers. The third, description means that the bridge looks like a beautiful queen and a bridegroom is associated to a handsome and dashing king. The fourth, a parable of marriage is alike to wade the ocean with big waves and storms. The fifth, a responsibility is due to a husband to make a hay or earn money and a wife to manage it then they work together to obtain the goal of marriage. The connotative meaning is flourished to become a myth that marriage ceremony is equipped with standard of symbols that will build the happy and everlasting marriage.
Arafiq Arafiq
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n2p13

Abstract:
This article aims at describing the syntactic properties and distributions of Personal Pronouns in the Bima Language, a language spoken by approximately 9000 people who inhabit the eastern part of Sumbawa Island. This number of speakers does not include those who live in Reo Pota Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara. The Bima Language is grouped into Sumba-Bima Subgroup of Central Malayo-Polynesian (CMP) branch of Austronesian Language. Data in this study are the linguistic units from morphems level to clausal level. The data were taken from conversations and monologues recorded in the real situations in which the Bima Language is used. The focus of this paper is to describe the personal pronoun system of the Bima Language, describing types of personal pronouns and their syntactic properties and distributions. Based on the analysis, the Bima Language has a set of morphologically independent personal pronouns (full pronouns) and a set of clitics. Both sets of personal pronouns show the same syntactic properties and distributions. These two sets of personal pronouns are able to occur as independent clausal arguments of both intransitive and transitive constructions. In addition to their distributions, these two sets of personal pronouns can occur with numerals, relatives, and NPs. However, only full personal pronouns can combine with demonstratives.
L. B. Badmaeva
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n2p1

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the narrative written by Bodongut Abida about the history of the emigration of the Aga Buryats to China at the beginning of the XX century, which was of an economic and ethno-protective nature. The aim of this research is to introduce into scientific circulation a new document on the history of Buryat emigration. In the Soviet historiography until now days, it was customary to keep silent about the emigration of the Buryats to China. The main attention is focused on the content of the written monument in the Old Mongolian script. The structure of the work is considered. For the first time is given the biographical information about Bodongut Abida. The data used for this research were taken from this document and the Buryat chronicles written in Old Mongolian script in XIX century. Based on the results of the analysis, it was found that the process of loss of the native language and the ethnic identity among the Buryats of China received significantly less development than the Buryat ethnos in Russia. The empirical material shows that the one of the most important factors in the consolidation of the ethnic group and the ethnic identity of the Shenekhen Buryats is the language, the possession of the Mongolian script, which is the traditional letter of the Mongolian peoples. Besides the sense of national pride and national self-awareness, as well as the factor of the compact settlement of the ethnos in the dominant Mongolian-speaking environment are the factors of their consolidation. In addition, the present state of the language and culture of the Shenekhen Buryats is presented, based on the expedition materials of the author of this paper.
Sarah Lane
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n2p32

Abstract:
International Linguistics Research wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated. International Linguistics Research is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please find the application form and details at http://home.ideasspread.org/for-reviewers/ and e-mail the completed application form to [email protected] Reviewers for Volume 3, Number 2 Andriy Bilas, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ukraine Cândido Samuel Fonseca de Oliveira, Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Brazil Elena Ogneva, Belgorod National Research University, Russia Gareth Morgan, Oxford University, England Ismail Petrus, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia Kian Pishkar, Islamic Azad University Jieroft Branch, Iran Ma Daoshan, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China Mariana Oleniak, Vasyl` Stus Donetsk National University, Ukraine Mohammed Abdullah Alzahrani, University of Exeter and Bisha University, United Kingdom
I Nyoman Suparwa, Anak Agung Putu Putra, Ni Luh Gede Liswahyuningsih
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n2p7

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the discourse of Balinese Malay-language rituals activities which includes (a) the structure of discourse, (b) cohesion, (c) metalinguistic analysis, and (d) cultural context; and the dynamics of traditional discourse and Balinese Malay-language culture in the community. This study applied the theory of discourse analysis that viewed the language used in context, which means that people can communicate because they understand discourse (text), context, and patterns or structure. The choice of the informants was by applying the purposive sampling method with certain criteria. The data was obtained through semi-structured interviews. The research location was in East Loloan, as the center of Balinese Malay language speakers. The research findings showed that the discourse of traditional activities and Balinese Malay-language culture used language (microstructure) which was classified as the barrel of an oral language, so that the speech style was clearly visible, both in the structure of discourse, the use of cohesion, and its metalinguistic elements. Meanwhile, in the language (macro structure) it was seen that the use of language for the disclosure of Malay culture that was closely related to Islam/Moslem religion. This could be seen in the co-text of the use of the terms silaturahmi, ngangini, and the context of the use of cultural symbols such as penyingset as a symbol of the men paying attention to and respecting women in traditional customs. Furthermore, in the dynamics of cultural discourse, there appeared to be an attraction between the retention of identity and accommodation in situations and conditions that lead to be changed by the time.
Zulfiqar Ahmad
Published: 21 January 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n1p1

Abstract:
Most research on peer observation as a professional development intervention in EFL contexts focuses either on teachers' perceptions about its usefulness or the methodical frameworks. There are a few studies which report real-time incidence of a peer observed lesson. To fill this gap, the present study arranged a peer observation for a reading lesson on top-down processing skills to reflect upon the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson as well as develop the reading literacy of the students. The peer observation method included a pre-observation stage with the teacher and the observer deciding on the modalities of observation. The second stage was the lesson which was peer observed followed by the post-lesson reflection stage. The results obtained through teachers' reflection on different aspects of the lesson and the peer observer's report revealed that most stages and activities of the lesson went as planned except for the final where issues of activity management, teacher feedback, and coherent lesson progression came up to the fore. The study has significance for EFL practitioners interested in initiating self-directed professional development through peer observation in particular and for researchers of professional development studies in general.
I Wayan Ana, Ida Bagus Putra Yadnya, I Made Budiarsa, Ida Ayu Made Puspani
Published: 21 January 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n1p16

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to find out speech acts used in legal documents. To discuss the problems of this research, two theories are applied, namely, the translation theory of Newmark completed by the concept of pragmatic (for what purpose, to whom, when and where the legal documents are used), while for speech acts typology, Searle's theory is applied. The data used for this research were taken from 6 (six) legal documents in the form of employment contract, conciliation agreement, lease agreement, sales agreement, lease of resident and business place and lease of villa agreement. Based on the results of the analysis, it was found that from the five specific types of speech acts put forward by Searle and Cruse, only 4 (four) speech acts were found, namely, (1) representative, (2) directive, (3) comisive, and (4) declarative speech acts. While expressive speech act was not found in this research.
Fanyu Mao
Published: 21 January 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n1p23

Abstract:
With the globalization of the economy, the fuzzy language in business English negotiations is widely used. The motivation for negotiators to use fuzzy language is not to hide information, but to convey information more clearly. This article attempts to divide business negotiations into three stages: the beginning, the process, and the end. With fuzzy language in business negotiation as a corpus, this paper studies how people adapt to different contextual factors to regulate fuzzy language in the process of business English negotiations under the guidance of relevance theory so as to achieve the optimal contextual effect with the minimum effort.
Mojgan Rashtchi, Reza Porkar
Published: 21 January 2020
International Linguistics Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v3n1p29

Abstract:
Identity formation is one of the main concerns of today’s education and can have a vital role in ESP learners’ future professional success. This study investigated whether the employment of interactive practices in ESP courses had any impact on the identity formation of introvert students. Initially, 200 undergraduate students majoring in Computer Sciences, Accounting, and Physical Education answered the introversion/extraversion section of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Cheek and Briggs’ Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ-IV). Based on their performance on MBTI, 90 learners with the extravert, introvert, and non-discriminating personality traits were selected from six classes and formed the three Extravert, Introvert, and Control (n1=n2=n3=30) groups. The students had taken a Specialized English course in the second semester of their BA program. The classes lasted 14 sessions. During the treatment, the researchers employed different activities for teaching ESP. After the instruction, the participants took the AIQ-IV. The results of ANCOVA indicated that the Introvert group gained significantly higher scores on the identity questionnaire than the Extravert and Control groups. The results of paired samples t-tests showed that while introverts had improved considerably in all components of the identity questionnaire, the Extravert and Control groups did not show any changes. The findings indicated that in interactive classroom environments, introvert learners had more inclination than the extravert and mixed introvert and extravert learners toward a shift in identity. The study has implications for ESP teachers, practitioners, and educators.
Elena Nikitina
Published: 4 December 2019
International Linguistics Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v2n4p25

Abstract:
The effectiveness of speech tactics is a direct derivative of the degree of creative activity of the listener. Creative thinking has an analogous nature - the convergence of objects and concepts, not amenable to convergence outside of the rhetorical situation. Digital technologies, providing external memory, rebuild the human consciousness, in which indirect speech strategies are preferred.
Nyoman Sujaya, I Nyoman Kardana, Ketut Artawa, Made Sri Satyawati
Published: 4 December 2019
International Linguistics Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v2n4p14

Abstract:
This paper discusses the syntactic and semantic analysis of Balinese suffix -in. It is to determine its distribution in sentence construction. This study uses the RRG theory by Van Valin and Randy (1999) supported by the data taken from Balinese articles issued in the Bali Orti of Bali Post newspapers. The result of the analysis shows that as a transitivizing suffix, Balinese suffix -in can be added to nominal, adjectival, adverbial, intransitive and transitive bases. Syntactically, -in can be used in stative, transitive, imperative, passive constructions. The word orders assigned by the suffix -in require different morphology of the verbs. Semantically, the derived verbs with -in refer to the activities treating object as static target of action. As an applicative suffix, -in expresses causative, benefactive, source or locative meaning.
I Gusti Ayu Agung Dian Susanthi, Anak Agung Istri Manik Warmadewi, Dewa Ayu Kadek Claria, I Gusti Ngurah Adi Rajistha, Ni Putu Intan Mayang Sari
Published: 3 December 2019
International Linguistics Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v2n4p1

Abstract:
There are some ways in teaching second language for children, one of them is by introducing folklore in English. The teacher must view that the shifts may occur in teaching second language. There are some famous Indonesian folklore that have been translated into English that can be introduced for the children. In introducing the English language for children, the Indonesian folklore which is translated English is very important to be learnt, in Indonesian, for instance, English as the second language, so that there are various books which are translated into English, Folklore is one important way to learn second language. There are hundreds folklore of Indonesian and some of them are translated into English. An Indonesian language folklore may be translated into various languages like English, Japanese, etc. In teaching English for children, the teacher must understand that every language will have different structure, so that the shift may occur. In the translation, shifts can happen because one language may have different structure, rules or formation. Shifts are the phenomenon which can be found in translation, it is interesting to analyze the shifts occur in Indonesian folklore, because folklore is one media to learn English for Indonesian children. A popular Indonesian folklore entitled Bawang Merah and Bawang Putih Story were chosen to be analyzed in this study.
Jeshua D. Noel
Published: 3 December 2019
International Linguistics Research, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v2n4p7

Abstract:
China Coast Pidgin (CCP) has long been recognized by linguists as the first historical example of pidginization. However, comprehensive research regarding its impact on British and American English, has yet to be conducted. This paper serves as an introduction to the study of these concepts, exploring the etymology of words and phrases originating in CCP, as well as analyzing its history, structure, and relationship to culture.
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