Results in Journal In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi: 2,428
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In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2284
This article is conducted within the framework of the inter-contextual dialogue between the Western and African notions of practical theology. It sets out to probe the usefulness of the notion of decolonisation in the design of practical theology. The application of this notion in Emmanuel Lartey’s Postcolonializing God – An African practical theology (2013) is investigated. An overview of Lartey’s work is provided with the following question as subtext: Does the resultant African practical theology remain within ‘hearing distance’ from Western notions of practical theology that is traditionally reliant on a Christian epistemology? The finding is that decolonisation is of restricted use in the design of such a practical theology. While it provides insight into an authentic African practical theology, a critical discussion raises concerns regarding inclusivity, the perceived African context, the interrelatedness between culture and faith as well as the theological nature of the proposed African practical theology. The concluding section of the article suggests that inter-contextual dialogue can move forward on the basis of seeking the theological middle ground. In this regard the notion of Esther Acolatse’s pastoral hermeneutic of primal speech is introduced that provides valuable parameters for inter-contextual dialogue. In creating room for intercultural dialogue, it operates from the stance of a perichoretic relationship between theology and culture. The resulting theologies thus retain their trinitarian character. Such an approach promises to keep dialogue partners from different contexts within hearing distance from one another, opening the possibility for symbiotic co-existence.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2319
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2255
This empirical study explored and described the views about the Christian father as mentor within the family. An explorative, descriptive and interpretive qualitative design was followed in this research using purposive sampling. Respondents were selected by knowledge of the problem of father absence, mentoring, community involvement, leadership and prominence in society. Data was collected by means of in-depth interviews, and field notes were taken after each in-depth interview. Data analysis was conducted using open coding as well as an independent co-coder. The results of the empirical research in which respondents were involved, indicated that the Christian father as mentor is crucial and relevant in the current situation of families. Mentoring by the father is fundamental in the lives of children, and should be implemented and emphasised in the family context. As mentor, the father should nurture their souls and shape their character in order to become complete, whole and, by the grace of God, holy before him.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2294
Over the last 30 years, there has been an attempted return to a particular way of framing and interpreting the primary Jesus narratives. This approach contextualises Jesus against the backdrop of the wider religious world. Proponents claim that the primary Jesus data was culled from a wide pagan template or common stock of ubiquitous religio-mythic concepts. I refer to this position as ‘the strong homogeneity thesis’. Though this way of assigning literary causation and activity to the Gospel tradents has been largely rejected by scholarly community, it has been offered recently by some academics. In what follows, I offer a new way of evaluating this thesis that tends to avoid the shortcomings associated with past and present efforts to establish this way of explicating the Jesus tradition.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2282
The classis and the visitation of congregations in three church orders. It is said by reformed church politicians that the classis as a major assembly in reformed church polity is the cornerstone of the church as a denomination. In the tradition in which the church order of the wellknown Synod of Dordrecht of 1618–1619 plays an important role, the classis is used as an assembly of local congregations caring for one another and helping to become better churches. This means that the visit of a commission of the classis to a congregation to care for it should be of a pastoral nature. The pastoral caring and advice of the classis should enable a congregation to become a better church. The members of this commission are, however, not rated as superior or more important ministers. The acceptance of their competent advice by equals helps the latter only to fulfil their ecclesiastical calling.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2264
This article is an attempt to analyse and assess the use of personal responsibility in the National Development Plan (NDP). Some signposts that Christian anthropology can make to the enhancement of the plan will then be suggested. An overview of the development debate will include the development debate after the two world wars, the church and state attempts for social transformation and the contributions of Korten and Sen who represent the peoplecentred and capability approaches. It will be followed by a Christian anthropology that is characterised by personhood and personal responsibility. The fact that constructive and sustainable development is embedded in personal integrity and responsibility will be argued. The NDP acknowledged the shortcomings of the previous attempts by both state and church, and the global development debate. Instead of exclusive economic development, human capital and human capabilities are integral to development. Christian anthropology embeds responsibility within personhood and the two form part of an integral whole.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2273
How can we make Christological sense of the Zimbabwean Pentecostal prophets’ mediatory role? This article analyses the domineering and mediatory role of the Pentecostal prophets from a Christological perspective. The mediatory role of the Pentecostal prophets is riddled with competition against the mediatory role of Christ between God and humanity (1 Tm 2:5) as it tends to usurp Christ’s role over the church. Instead of being channels that lead people to depend only on Christ for their spiritual security, prosperity Pentecostal prophets present themselves as super spiritual authorities who must be relied upon by the believers in addition to Christ. Prosperity Pentecostalism, also known as the gospel of wealth and health, emphasises that prosperity in material wealth and good health is an integral component of the Christian faith. As super spiritual authorities, Pentecostal prophets project themselves as uniquely anointed by God. This places them closer to God than other people and, in turn, they receive spiritual power and authority over other believers. The prophets mediate their presence in the lives of their followers through anointed objects such as their personal pictures, anointed oil and armbands. This article analyses the distorted views about Christ created by the reliance on the prophets. The article concludes by proposing steps that should be taken to empower Christians to dissuade themselves from reliance on such prophets.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v46i2.105
Hierdie eerste artikel in ’n reeks waar die sentrale en skerpsinnig-wyse sleutelposisie van eskatologiese hoop en getuienis daarvan in die lewe van die gelowiges met MIV/VIGS beklemtoon word, fokus op die mediese en sosiale omstandighede van die persoon met Vigs in ’n terminale fase. Empiriese navorsing is onderneem aan die hand van ’n kwalitatiewe studie by die gesondheidsentrum van ’n voorstedelike motorvervaardigingsaanleg. Die navorsingsontwerp en -metodologie word bespreek en geverifieer. Twee groepsonderhoude met multi-veranderlikes per deelnemer (gelowiges met MIV/VIGS en ’n kontrolegroep van mediese personeel/gesondheidwerkers) wat onderneem is, het vasgestel dat die persone met MIV/VIGS in ’n uiters negatiewe situasie leef, wat onder meer bestuurbaar gemaak word deur die sogenaamde signature strengths van die Positiewe Psigologie. Pastorale behoeftes sluit gebed, vertroosting en koinonia/samesyn (fellowship) in. Opvolartikels sal fokus op die bydrae van die metateorieë van die mediese en kommunikasiewetenskap en die Positiewe Psigologie as komplementerende ervaringsveld. Op ’n veel hoër vlak is spirituele gesondheid en heling as vrug van die Heilige Gees van kardinale belang vir die ewige lewe: versterkende geestelike krag vanuit hulle eskatologiese hoop vir die ewige lewe saam met God, waar geen swaarkry is nie. Praktiese riglyne tot kerugmatiese, liturgiese, koinoniale en diakoniale getuienis oor hoop sal in hierdie opvolgartikels voorgestel word.An empirical investigation into the social and medical conditions of religious people living with HIV or AIDS in order to determine guidelines for hope. This first article in a series where the central and perspicacious position of eschatological hope and witnessing thereof in the life of a believer with HIV or AIDS is emphasised, focuses on the medical and social circumstances of people with HIV or AIDS. Empirical research via a qualitative study at the health centre of an urban vehicle manufacturing plant was conducted in this study. The research methodology and design are discussed and verified. Two group interviews with multi-variables per participant (believers with HIV or AIDS and a control group of health workers) established that people living with HIV or AIDS are spiritually enormously strengthened by their eschatological hope of eternal life with God without this earthly suffering. Pastoral needs include prayer, comfort and koinonia and/or fellowship. They revealed an extremely grave situation, which can, however, be made manageable with inter alia positive signature strengths. Follow-up articles will focus on the contribution of meta-theories of complementary and entwined sciences. Practical guidelines in terms of witnessing hope by means of kerygmatical, liturgical, koinonial and diaconial communication and acts will be suggested in these articles.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v46i2.66
Voordat ’n pastorale terapeut ’n persoon met seksueel afwykende gedrag in die vorm van pedofilie, pastoraal bedien, is daar merkers wat in gedagte gehou moet word ten opsigte van die posisionering van die pastorale terapeut. Daar word aangeneem dat pedofilie nie genees kan word nie, maar slegs beheer en bestuur kan word. Pedofilie is nie net ’n saak vir ander wetenskappe nie, maar beslis ook ’n geestelike saak. Die persoon wat kinders molesteer, beleef dikwels ’n geestelike vakuum. As gevolg hiervan is sy geestelike dimensie remmend en destruktief. ’n Pastorale hermeneutiek is hier uiters belangrik. Dit beteken dat die pastorale terapeut die taak het om God se teenwoordigheid en verhaal vir die persoon met afwykende seksualiteit te vertolk, sodat sy behoeftes, lewenservaringe en nood in die lig van God se liefde en genade in sy lewe sal sin maak. Die pastorale terapeut kan die deelnemer help om te ko-konstrueer sonder om deskundige kennis op hom af te dwing. ’n Pastoraal-terapeutiese vertrouensverhouding en onvoorwaardelike aanvaarding moet sigbaar wees om die belangrikste medium van verandering en genesing te bewerkstellig. Wanneer die pastorale terapeut in verbondenheid met Christus self tot nederige diensbaarheid en medemenslikheid gesuiwer word, kom ’n ware pastoraal-terapeutiese verhouding van vertroue en onvoorwaardelike aanvaarding tot stand. Die pastorale terapeut behoort eers sy of haar eie vertrekpunte rakende pedofilie uit te klaar. Hy of sy sal met sy of haar eie seksualiteit, asook die van ander, gemaklik moet wees. Hierdie navorsing kan pastorale terapeute aanmoedig om ’n bydrae te lewer in die bemagtiging van die pedoseksuele persoon op geestelike gebied en sodoende ’n bydrae tot ’n veiliger gemeenskap lewer.The pastoral therapist as companion of a person displaying sexually deviant behaviour: A hermeneutic angle. Before a pastoral therapist can counsel a person who displays sexually deviant behaviour in the form of paedophilia, there are certain markers pertaining to the therapist’s own positioning that must be observed. It is generally accepted that paedophilia cannot be cured, only controlled and managed. However, paedophilia is not only an issue to be studied by other sciences, it is also a spiritual matter. The person who molests children often harbours a spiritual vacuum within him- or herself. The spiritual vacuum, of which the paedophile may be cognisant or unaware, is the determining factor to which a spiritual dimension that is both restraining and destructive can be attributed. A pastoral hermeneutics is imperative in counselling the paedophile. The pastoral therapist must explain God’s presence and story to the person displaying deviant sexuality to enable him or her to make sense of his or her needs, life experiences and destitution in the light of God’s love and grace. Without imposing specialist knowledge upon the participant, the pastoral therapist can assist him or her to co-construct. A therapeutic relationship based on trust and unconditional acceptance is crucial. The process of change and healing can only be brought about within the parameters and liberty of such a relationship. The pastoral therapist should firstly consider his or her own views regarding paedophilia. He or she must be comfortable with his or her own sexuality, as well as the sexuality of others. The following article aims to encourage pastoral therapists to contribute to the empowerment of the pedosexual person on a spiritual level, and in doing so, contribute to a safer community.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v46i2.59
Hierdie artikel is die vierde publikasie wat uit die navorsingsprojek Metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die praktiese teologie voortvloei. In die voorafgaande artikels is ’n saak uitgemaak vir die noodsaak daarvan om rekening te hou met die eie metateoretiese vertrekpunte rakende werklikheidsbeskouing en met kriteria waarvolgens die hermeneutiese proses wat in handelinge in die navorsingsveld van die praktiese teologie ter sprake kom, geïnterpreteer word. In hierdie artikel verskuif die fokus na die metateoretiese vertrekpunte wat in die navorser se wetenskapsbeskouing en -beoefening ter sprake kom. Die rol wat metateoretiese faktore speel in die manier waarop die wese en taak van die wetenskap gedefinieer word, kry aandag. ’n Poging word aangewend om ’n model te ontwerp waarin die teenwoordigheid en uitwerking van die navorser se metateoretiese vertrekpunte integraal verreken word in die proses van prakties-teologiese wetenskapsbeoefening. ’n Huidige navorsingsprojek, waarmee een van die medeskrywers van hierdie artikel besig is, word bespreek as voorbeeld van die impak wat metateoretiese vertrekpunte op die ontwerp van ’n studie kan hê.The necessity of taking account of meta-theoretical assumptions in the scientific approach and task envisaged for practical theology. This article is the fourth in the research project Meta-theoretical assumptions in practical theology. In the preceding articles, a case was made for the necessity of expressing the own meta-theoretical assumptions regarding the view on reality and the hermeneutical process involved in understanding the actions of faith in the research field of practical theology. In this article, the focus is on the meta-theoretical assumptions at play in the researchers’ vision for engaging the research field on a scientific level. The role that meta-theoretical factors play in defining the nature and task of scientific activity, is discussed. An attempt is made to develop a model that integrates the presence and effects of meta-theoretical assumptions in the researchers’ specific vision regarding the scientific task of practical theology. An example of an actual research project is given to illustrate the impact that meta-theoretical assumptions can have on the design of a scientific study.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v46i2.103
The church is not like any other institution or organisation in society. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual, it is a visible organisation in the world, and it spans across borders of nations, languages and countries. John Calvin strongly rejected the notion that the church is only a spiritual organisation of which the visible administrative side is downplayed. The fellowship of the church must not only be seen as a mystical relation with Jesus Christ. During 2010, an empirical study was done on the extent to which congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa (RCSA) adhere to the request to have a well-designed congregational strategy. The knowledge gained from a literature study on the science of Strategic Management and the results of the empirical study was combined into a framework for crafting and executing a congregational strategy. This framework can be used by congregational leaders to guide them through their own process of crafting and executing their unique congregational strategy. The research was concluded with a recommendation that the Theological School of the RCSA should consider including a course on Strategic Management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Considering that Strategic Management is a specialised management science, and external Strategic Management consultants tend to be expensive, the research also recommended that the Administrative Bureau of the RCSA consider employing their own Strategic Management consultant for the RCSA with the specific assignment of assisting and guiding all congregations with their congregational strategy.’n Raamwerk vir die ontwerp en implementering van ’n gemeentestrategie in die plaaslike gemeentes van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika. ’n Kerk is ’n unieke organisasie. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van aard. Tog funksioneer dit as ’n instituut in die wêreld en moet dit doelmatig en doeltreffend bestuur word, ten einde alles ordelik te laat verloop en doelgerig te laat funksioneer. Johannes Calvyn het die idee dat ’n gemeente slegs ’n geestelike instelling is, waarvan die sigbare administratiewe deel as onbelangrik afgemaak word, verwerp. ’n Empiriese studie is gedurende 2010 onderneem om vas te stel tot watter mate gemeentestrategieë wel in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA) opgestel en uitgevoer word. Die kennis wat ingewin is met die empiriese studie is gekombineer met ’n literatuurstudie oor die vakgebied van Strategiese Bestuur, en ’n raamwerk vir die ontwerp en implementering van ’n gemeentestrategie is daargestel. Hierdie raamwerk kan deur gemeenteleiers gebruik word in die ontwerp en implementering van hulle gemeente se strategie. Die navorsing sluit af met die aanbeveling dat daar oorweging geskenk moet word om ‘n kursus in strategiese bestuur in die opleidingsillabus van teologiese studente in te sluit. ’n Verdere aanbeveling is gemaak dat, weens die gespesialiseerde aard en koste aan eksterne Strategiese Bestuurskonsultante verbonde, die Administratiewe Buro van die GKSA oorweging behoort te skenk om hulle eie konsultant in diens te neem. Die opdrag moet wees om gemeentes van die GKSA by te staan in die ontwerp en implementering van die gemeentestrategie.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2308
Ecumenical reflections on the undeniable influence of the Reformation on the South African society
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v46i2.70
This article argued that in a pluralistic and complex society such as Nigeria the invocation of Shari’ah (Islamic law) does not augur well for the survival of democracy. The traditional belief of every Muslim is that fundamentalism has been and must continue to be rooted in the concept of theocracy upon which the medieval institution of the Caliphate actually rested. Muslim political leaders challenge the agitation for a secular state in Nigeria as an inspiration by Christian theology based on Western European thought. This article argued that political and social progress in Nigeria is unrealistic without the separation of religion and politics. It was identified in this article that the separation of religion and politics does not go down well with Islamic eschatology and cosmology, because Islam’s main theological drive is toward an Islamic world empire. The solution offered in this article was that emphasis should be on ensuring that any legal framework or constitutional arrangement should be one that safeguards the interests of all citizens.’n Blik op Shari’ah, demokrasie en menseregte in Nigerië. Hierdie artikel argumenteer dat, in ’n pluralistiese en komplekse samelewing soos Nigerië, die aanroeping van Shari’ah (Islamitiese wet) niks goeds voorspel vir die oorlewing van die demokrasie is nie. Die radisionele geloof van elke Moslem is dat fundamentalisme in die konsep van teokrasie, wat sy oorsprong in die Middeleeuse instelling van die Kalifaat het, gewortel is en so moet bly. Politieke Moslemleiers beskuldig die Christelike teologie (wat op die Wes-Europese gedagte gebaseer is) as die oorsaak van die onrus as gevolg van die poging om ‘n sekulere staat in Nigerie tot stand te bring. In hierdie artikel is is ook geargumenteer dat politieke en sosiale vooruitgang in Nigerië nie moontlik is sonder die skeiding van godsdiens en politiek nie. Daar is ook bevind dat die skeiding tussen godsdiens en politiek nie by die Islamitiese eskatologie en kosmologie inpas nie, omdat die Islam se belangrikse teologiese oogmerk ‘n Islamitiese wêreldryk is. Die slotsom van die artikel is die beklemtoning van die feit dat enige wetlike raamwerk of grondwetlike samestellings daarop gerig moet wees om die belange van alle burgers te beskerm.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2249
Transconfessionalism, constructivism and Karel Schoeman (1939–2017) on Cape pietism. The South African historiographer Karel Schoeman’s (1939–2017) research on 17th and 18thcentury ecclesiastical life and Protestant spirituality at the Cape is embedded in the context of transconfessional and transnational pietism research. As such, Schoeman’s transconfessional approach produces important correctives to traditional constructivist pietism approaches. Schoeman’s approach enables him to study Cape Protestant spirituality of the 17th and 18th centuries within the context of pietism being the most significant devotional movement (Frommigkeitsbewegung) of Protestantism after the Reformation, manifesting pietism primarily as a religious phenomenon with astonishing spatial, temporal, social, spiritual, churchconfessional and theological complexities that arose around the turn of the 16th to the 17th century from criticism of the existing ecclesiastical and spiritual relations at nearly the same time in England, the Netherlands and Germany. From there it spread to Switzerland, Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and the United States. It contributed to a great extent to the worldwide Protestant mission and has remained an active movement into the present.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2251
This article is dedicated to Professor Sarel van der Merwe as missiologist and what he had done for the cause of the missio Dei in South Africa. The role of the laity in the missio Dei was one of the most significant developments followed by most church denominations. The priesthood of believers was the reformational perspective rediscovered by Martin Luther. The reformed tradition rediscovered the role of the laity in missions, which the Baptist church tradition has now developed most extensively in terms of missions. The Catholic Church has recognised the apostolicity of the laity in a decree called ‘Apostolicam Actuositatem’ at the Second Vatican Council in response to the crises of the church. The charismatics gave recognition to the role of the laity through the spiritual gifts of each believer. The role of the laity and of the priesthood of believers has its biblical precedent and foundation in 1 Peter 2:5, 9 and Ephesians 4:1–16. The contribution of Ephesians is that it provides the church with a missional mandate for the ordinary believer to participate in the missio Dei –, a mandate that has to be rediscovered in every age. The priesthood of believers provides an orientation for a biblical missional ecumenism.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2250
Community transformation has cultural, political and religious dimensions. In the case of Burundi, it is ranked 188/188 on the scale of the world’s poorest countries. The poor in Burundi have a fatalistic attitude towards poverty as a result of the unstable political climate, corruption and a climate of suspicion. The poor are cynical and have no hopeful future expectations. The resourcefulness of the poor having been muted. The Christian church of Burundi has developed a culture of dependency. The role of the church in the West has been limited to lifting the poor out of abject poverty. A creative use of available resources and the participation of the poor through the recognition of their own resourcefulness and stewardship is a sustainable approach to the alleviation of poverty. Newfrontiers churches have developed the approach of equipping the poor as a mission’s strategy to participate in the missio Dei. The majority of churches and non-governmental organisations who endeavour to alleviate poverty in Burundi have, what can be termed, a ‘dependency virus’ or ‘dependency crisis’ and are victims caught in the ‘dependency trap’, that is, they create a culture of dependency through their provision. The loss of dignity that follows, transform the community into a slave of the beneficiary system in which poverty is conceived as a lack of things rather than a mind-set born from help given by the beneficiary without the consent of the poor.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2235
Bosch (1991:497) advocated for a ‘third-way’ (Bekele 2011:155; Du Plessis 1990:83) in which a deductive and an inductive approach were unified in a creative tension. A fruitful interdependence is achieved by means of the methodological approach of missional exegesis in which text and context are interrelated in a fruitful biblical way reaping the benefits of both the biblical and missional disciplines for a missional hermeneutic. In this approach the formula, t (text) + c (context) = ms (missional strategy), is suggested by the authors as the starting point for two-directional exegesis from text to context, or context to text, in which neither text nor context is emphasised at the exclusion of expense of the other. It is vital that for a practical interpretation in which the missional context informs the biblical interpretation and vice versa, that a missional hermeneutic and missiology be biblically grounded by the instrument of missional exegesis.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2298
Biografie van professor Sarel Jacobus van der Merwe
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2299
Biography of Professor Sarel Jacobus van der Merwe
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2291
Theology and the (post)Apartheid condition: A response
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2257
This research revisits the idea of a Christian perspective on human rights. Departing from a hermeneutics of trust, this article considers the concept of human rights from the perspective of revelation history. Revelation history departs from the consent of the parts of Scripture, irrespective of differences in dating, original languages, canonical differentiation, cultural, social and historical contexts. Scripture offers a theological unity consisting of various topics which are developed continuing and purposeful throughout the biblical revelation. Two of the major topics in Scripture as they are revealed by a revelation historical survey are the concepts kingdom of God and the covenant of God with God’s people. In this article these two concepts will be used as a foundation for a Christian theory of human rights both as legal human rights and moral human rights. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that both the concepts kingdom and covenant are essentially about justice and relationships – the justice of the kingdom and the relation between God and humankind, the relation between people and the relation between humans and creation. These relations are the essence of the rights people have, vis-à-vis the authority of the day and other people. These rights, which deal with the orderly maintenance of relationships, can be formalised in legal human rights and should be nurtured and protected by the civil authorities. Christians and churches as moral agents in society have the calling to promote the idea of human rights in constitutional democracies.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2283
Is the good creation only provisional?
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2220
At stake in South Africa is the very eminent demands within #MustFall campaigns. Due to sharp schisms, harming and intimidating speech, the polarisation of white – black have become anew a threat to unity and cooperative collaboration in order to manage cultural diversity in a meaningful and peaceful way. In a practical and theological approach to life issues, fides quaerens viviendi (faith seeking lifestyles), an attempt is being made to address the civil societal schism of racial polarisation and the public degeneration of civilised reasoning, viz. hate speech. Within the framework of pastoral hermeneutics, a diagnostic chart for the assessment and analysis of intercultural dynamics within the paradoxical tension of differentiation (particularity) and integration (cohesiveness) is developed. The notion of coexistence is critically researched and supported by the pastoral notion of compassionate being-with. It is argued that a diagnostic approach should be directed by theological ethos of xenophilia.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2236
Due to the political changes during the last three decades in South Africa, many voices raised for the post-colonializing of sciences. This is also applicable to the pastoral caregiving ministry. Although the science of pastoral caregiving in South Africa has developed into an authentic recognised science, it seems as if the development followed in the fashion of the Western context and the call for the contextualising of pastoral caregiving for all the people of South Africa was mostly ignored. It was only at the end of the 20th century that the concept of interculturality emerged to indicate that such an approach could be more appropriate that an incultural approach. Since then many scholars wrestles with the aspect of culture in the contextualising of pastoral care and the challenge of staying true to the Word of God. In this regard, the research question concentrates on the interwovenness between the Christian faith and the different cultures of the people of South Africa: How can pastoral caregiving be contextualised in the different cultures of South Africa while staying true to God’s gospel. The central theoretical argument is that the contextualising of pastoral care rest on hermeneutical principles that form a bridge between the Bible text and its application in the circumstances and needs of the people of South Africa. The article unfolds by looking at the compatibility and/or incompatibility of Western and African cultures, the effect of monocultural ethnocentric bias, and concludes with the principles of a Christian culture and its implications for the pastoral caregiving process of addressing certain challenges in people’s experiences of life.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2178
Literary criticism evolved slowly in southern Africa. One of the first commentators to write about this topic was the Unitarian minister, Ramsden Balmforth (1861-1941), a native of Yorkshire and Unitarian minister who emigrated to Cape Town in 1897. Eschewing conventional homiletics in its various forms, in dozens of instances he illustrated ethical and spiritual points in his Sunday sermons or ‘discourses’ by discussing their manifestation in literary works. Crucially, these texts did not merely yield illustrations of Biblical themes, but themselves served as the primary written vehicles of moral and ethical principles, and the Bible was rarely mentioned in them. Balmforth’s orations about novels were published in 1912. The following year he preached about selected operas by Richard Wagner, and in the 1920s Balmforth issued two additional series of discourses focusing on dramas. In all of these commentaries he consistently emphasised thematic content rather than narrative and other literary techniques. He extracted lessons which he related to his ethically orientated version of post-orthodox religious faith.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2239
The term practical theology is complex and, due to many different religious and cultural settings, a many layered concept. During the past 40 years the paradigm in theory formation for an academic and disciplinary approach to practical theology shifted from the clerical and ecclesial paradigm of ministerial actions to experiences of faith with the emphasis on an empirical based epistemology. Rather than a deductive approach, the shift is towards a more inductive approach within the methodological framework of phenomenology. Currently, in the international discourse on theory formation, there is a tendency towards a hermeneutical approach with the focus on the networking, relational dynamics of civil society Thus, the attempt to describe practical theology as a kind of ‘life science’ (the concern for the mundane and existential reality of everyday life – Alltagsreligion). Within the context of African spiritualties, with its emphasis on the communal dynamics of vital, human relationships, the focus on lifestyles becomes vital. In light of an ontology of life (l’energie spirituelle – Henri Bergson), the notion of fides quaerens vivendi [faith seeking lifestyles] is researched. With reference to the theory of complexification and chaosmos as well as the impact thereof on different theories in life sciences, the connection between sapientia and the vivid praxis of God is critically explored. The focus of this article is on the question: What is the impact of an ontology of life on both praxis thinking and theological reflection? Instead of the Cartesian framework of causative definitions, the notion of the ‘infinition of God’ is proposed within the praxis of Hebrew, wisdom thinking.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i3.2301
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2205
The guideline for Christian ethics: Galatians 6:2 under scrutiny. In this article, the following question is addressed: What is the guideline for Christian ethics under the New Testament dispensation? The article reasons that the Torah can no longer be the guideline for Christian ethics. Galatians 6:2 is scrutinised as the focal point for this reflection. This is done with reference to the Jesus tradition in Paul, the rabbinic tradition and Matthew 5, as well as the use of Galatians 6:11–18 as hermeneutical key to the understanding of Galatians. It is clearly shown that Galatians 6:2 teaches that Christ the crucified now replaces the entire Torah. Therefore it is not surprising that Paul applies the term ‘Israel of God’ (τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ θεοῦ; Gal 6:16) to the community of those who are in Christ and wherein the Torah finds its fulfilment. This insight from Galatians 6 is then used as the point of departure for remarks about ethics and ethical preaching which should characterise ‘being church’ for reformed Christians in general and specifically in South Africa. In this article ethics under the Old Testament dispensation is explored as well as the difference that came into force under the New Testament dispensation. For the church in South Africa who finds herself in a society plagued by racial hatred, xenophobia and suspicion, living the law of Christ is non-negotiable if one wants to see healing in this country. Accordingly, an adjustment in the liturgy of some mainstream churches in South Africa is a given when the law of Christ becomes the guideline for the Christian’s ethical behaviour.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i3.2272
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2281
Speech act theory as an approach to interpret Gospel narratives
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2211
In this article, a chiastic structure in Matthew 17:14–20:34 is identified, evaluated and discussed. This structure highlights the movements of Jesus between the Mount of Transfiguration and Jerusalem as he is on his way to the cross to provide forgiveness of sins. However, this chiastic structure may also be considered in its wider, prophetic context. The structure of Matthew 17:14–20:34 fits into the larger thought or movement of Matthew 16:28–25:46. This shows Jesus’ movements from the Mount of Transfiguration to Jerusalem and beyond — not only during his first advent, but also at his second coming.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2231
Israelology: A Biblical-theological perspective of the past, present and future of Israel. Israelology, the study of Israel, is necessary for any theological system. In the past, God made unconditional covenants and other promises to Abraham and his descendants through Jacob. Not all Jews appropriate these blessings from God in faith. There has always been, however, a faithful remnant in Israel who believed the revelation and promises of God. Despite idolatry and repeated failure, even the unpardonable sin, God is faithful and has not cast away – not even temporarily – his people whom He foreknew. During the Church Age, the Jewish remnant is not only part of the Church but also of the nation of Israel. New Testament revelation does not cancel, change, transcend, spiritualise, or idealise unconditional and still-unfulfilled promises of God to Israel. The term ‘the seed of Abraham’ has multiple senses, and the fact that it can refer to the spiritual descendants of Abraham of non-Jewish descent does not change or cancel the promises that God made to the believing Jewish descendants of Abraham. Because God is faithful, Israel has a future. The present worldwide regathering of Jews to their homeland is happening in preparation for the judgement of the Tribulation Period. Christ will not return to the earth, however, until a future Jewish generation repent and call on the Lord. Then, a second worldwide regathering of faithful Jews to Israel will take place, this time for the blessings of the messianic kingdom. During the Millennium, God will fulfil all outstanding covenant promises and prophecies, and in the same realm where both the first Adam and seventy nations once failed, the Last Adam will successfully rule over Israel and the nations to the glory of God. Israelology, the doctrine of Israel’s past, present and future, is the missing link in Biblical and Systematic Theology.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.2065
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.1978
Die GKSA het in 2012 besluit om heelhartig en volkome na God se bevele terug te keer. Herbesinning oor wat God in sy Woord beveel, is deel van die denkveranderingsproses wat in die GKSA plaasvind. Daar is baie oorsake vir die komplekse tendens van krimpende gereformeerde lidmaatgetalle waaraan die mens nie werklik iets kan doen nie. Die enigste optrede van gelowiges onder die leiding van die Heilige Gees wat moontlik ’n verskil kan maak, is om deur diepgaande bekering hulle eie denke volledig en gehoorsaam volgens die Skrif aan te pas. Omdat ingrypende veranderinge met verloop van tyd plaasvind, is dit nodig om die proses diachronies en aan die hand van verskillende metodologieë te volg. Hierdie artikel poog om ’n bydrae tot die proses te lewer.Emerging thinking in the RCSA churchgrowth ministry. In 2012 the RCSA decided towards a wholehearted and total turnaround regarding God’s commands. Reassessing of what God commands in his Word is part of the process of thought change taking place in the RCSA. There are many causes for the complex trend of declining numbers in reformed churches towards which man cannot do anything. The only action believers can undertake under the guidance of the Holy Spirit is to obediently adapt their own thinking completely according to the Word by profound repentance. Because of far-reaching change occurring over time, it is necessary to follow the process diachronically as well as by means of different methodologies. This article seeks to contribute toward this process
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.1962
Desiderius Erasmus was a humanist reformer concerned with reforming the civil and ecclesiastical structures of his society. In reformed circles, much attention is paid to his role in the Lutheran controversy. Despite this, his powerful influence continues to this day. Erasmus’ particular fool’s literature, Moriae Encomium (1509), revealed his humanist concerns for civil and ecclesial society as a whole. He employed folly as a rhetorical instrument in satirical manner, evoking readers’ amusement from numerous charges against the perceived multilayered social reality of the day. Five hundred years later the person of Folly may still perform this same task in Christian society. That was Erasmus’ point – the church is not to be seen as an island, it shares in the structures of society and is therefore still subject to its share of critical comments.‘Lof der Zotheid’: ‘n oorsig en evaluering vyf eeue later. Desiderius Erasmus was ’n humanis wat gepoog het om hom te beywer vir die hervorming van die burgerlike en kerklike strukture van sy tyd. In gereformeerde kringe word sy rol in die Lutherse twisgeskil beklemtoon. Sy verreikende invloed word steeds vandag gevoel. Erasmus se gekke-literatuur, Moriae Encomium (1509), het sy besorgdheid rakende die burgerlike en ekklesiastiese samelewing vanuit ’n humanistiese standpunt openbaar. Hy gebruik dwaasheid as retoriek en met behulp van satire vermaak hy die leser terwyl hy die veelvuldige lae van die sosiale realiteit van die dag ontbloot. Die personifikasie van die ‘gek’ of ‘dwaas’ is 500 jaar later steeds relevant vir hierdie rol in die Christelike samelewing. Erasmus was van mening dat die kerk nie as ’neiland beskou moet word nie. Dit maak deel uit van die samelewingstrukture en is daarom steeds aan kritiek onderworpe.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.1936
This article investigates key biblical principles in handling disputable music matters from Romans 14:1–15:13 and their implications for a missional church. It becomes clear that the principles uncovered in this biblical passage are synecdochically and analogically applicable to many varied disputable matters, which could confront the church anywhere at any given time. These matters include disputes on worship music and songs. The multicultural context in which the church find herself in cities, continues to pose a challenge to individual Christians and the church as a body. Hence, it exposes both Christians and the church to more and more inevitable need for clear biblical principles in handling disputable matters including liturgical music wars. The goal of this article is not only to reduce time and energy used in arguing over disputable matters, but also to turn the disagreements into redeeming encounters, which will strengthen the missional witness of the church by enriching diversity in unity.Die ontsluiting van bybelse sleutelbeginsels vir die hantering van strydvrae oor liturgiesemusiek vanuit ’n missio Dei perspektief – ’n basiese teoriese studie. Hierdie artikel ondersoekbybelse sleutelbeginsels vir die hantering van strydvrae oor liturgiese sang en musiek vanuit Romeine 14:1–15:13 en die implikasies daarvan vir ’n missionale kerk. Die beginsels wat vanuit hierdie Skrifgedeelte ontsluit word, kan sinvol toegepas word op ’n verskeidenheid van sake wat nie-essensieel van aard is, maar waaroor daar oral en altyd skerp standpuntverskille in kerke voorkom. Dit sluit debatte oor musiek en sang in die erediens in. Die multikulturele konteks waarin kerke hulle bevind vra na duidelike beginsels wat as uitgangspunte in debatte oor liturgiese musiek kan dien. Die doel van hierdie artikel is nie net om baie tyd en energie wat dikwels aan sulke debatte bestee word, te verminder nie, maar ook om strydvrae om te keer in positiewe opbouende en verrykende ontmoetings, en die kerk se missionale getuienis oor eenheid en verskeidenheid te versterk.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 50; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v50i3.2278
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i2.2288
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v49i1.2287
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2193
This article was inspired by the study of translation techniques and verbal systems in Book 3 of The Book of Psalms in the Peshitta. In addition, the article focuses on Psalm 84 due to the broad scope of such a study. Psalm 84 opens the second group of Korah Psalms (Ps 84–85, 87–88) and shows a number of similarities to the first group of Korah Psalms (Ps 42–49). The differences between Psalm 84 and Psalms 42–43 are as striking as their similarities because of the fact that they are identified as Korah Psalms (cf. Goldingay 2007:587; Wallace 2009:140). This article argues that the translation technique, employed by the Peshitta, resulted in important differences at some points. As expected, the Peshitta uses the conjunctive verb at times in places where it is absent from the Masoretic Text. In addition, the Peshitta does not have the waw consecutive construction found in the Masoretic Text and uses the conjunctive waw in most instances. This article further argues that different verbal forms are used in a sensible way in both the Masoretic Text and the Peshitta, and that the content of verses also differs. In some places, certain parts of the verses, as they appear in the Masoretic Text, are omitted by the Peshitta. Some of these omissions may be ascribed to different Hebrew Vorlagen while others may be ascribed to the translation technique followed.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2199
Both Albert Einstein and Antony Flew had various religious influences during their adolescent years. But both turned away from Christianity due to rational inconsistencies that, in their views, made faith incompatible to science, on the one hand, and to reason, on the other. Einstein retained a deistic sense of appreciation of the universe while Flew retreated into atheism. The former expressed his deism in Spinozian terms and never actually seriously questioned the god of Spinoza. Flew, on the other hand, embarked on atheism based on rationality on the Socratic premise that he would follow where the evidence led. While Einstein remained a deist to the end, Flew followed the evidence converted to deism and then to theism. Insights into these two great rational thinkers will serve to remind the church and zealous evangelicals that a more deliberate account needs to be taken of a person’s background, their personal philosophy and reasons for commitment to alternate beliefs. Knowing what draws thinking persons to their commitments allow for a more insightful approach to be adopted by Christians wanting to state the case for Christian theism as fulfilled in Jesus Christ.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2233
The term missional is meant to refer fundamentally to the missio Dei, just as the term missionary does. Missiology is the systematic study of all aspects of mission. It encompasses the historical origin of the churches, their growth, successes and failures. It pays attention to the methodology and context for mission. Ghanaian church history gives us a clear picture of the massive developmental contribution the Western missionaries have made in the social, educational and economic life of Ghana. Although the Western missionaries did very well in meeting the social and economic needs of Ghanaians, they were, however, unable to make a significant and lasting impact on the religious level – mainly because they did not address the traditional worldview of Ghanaians – a worldview embedded in the belief in spirits. This therefore caused some African Christians to seek for an African identity as far as Christianity is concerned. In the light of the search for African Christian identity and mission theology, this article discusses how Pentecostalism has been used as a tool for decolonising Western missionaries’ mission theology and practice in the Ghanaian context. The article discusses Pentecostalism in Ghana, Western missional theology and practices in their missionary activities in Ghana, as well as Ghanaian Pentecostals’ approach to decolonisation of Western mission theology.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2269
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2245
This investigation discusses the question how an older generation should transfer to or share their own worldview with a younger generation. For various reasons this has become a problem today. One is the inability of some of the old guard to share their perspective on and way of life with the youth. Another factor is that the Christian youth of today is strongly influenced by contemporary cultural tendencies, often incompatible with a biblically based worldview. The question how a worldview should be transferred as well as how it should be received is of equal and crucial importance to ensure that an age-old, valuable tradition does not become the living worldview of the dead and the dead worldview of the living. Therefore, answers to the following questions should be found: (1) What is the essence of such a worldview to be shared? (2) Why should it be shared? (3) How should it not be done? (4) What are the prerequisites for effective sharing? (5) What are the typical characteristics of the young receivers, the group today called Generation Y, Me, or the Millennials (those born between about 1980–2000)? (6) How should this group of emerging adults receive such a heritage? The abstract above mentions the six questions to be answered by both the older and younger generation when they seriously try to share a Christian worldview. What follows is an attempt to provide answers to these problems.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2183
Currently, the media is creating an illusion of youthful wellbeing: ‘healthism’. But is life merely about physical health? What is meant by spiritual healing in pastoral caregiving? By means of the ontology of life and an existential analysis of the structure of being, a grid is developed in order to make a pastoral diagnosis regarding the interplay between different aspects and dimensions of the category life. It is argued that, seeing the bigger picture in a pastoral hermeneutics of life, contributes to spiritual healing (cura vitae). The basic assumption is that cura animarum should be designed in theory formation in pastoral caregiving as follows: faith care as life care. It is, in this respect, that the Christian spiritual categories of anastrephō, peripateō and hodos can be used in practical theological reflection to describe praxis in practical theology as fides quaerens vivendi [faith seeking lifestyles]. A spirituality of lifestyles points to habitus [human soulfulness] as new modes of ‘walking with God’ and ‘living with God’ (pneumatological praxis of God). Fides quaerens viviendi should be exemplified by a taxonomy of virtues.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2214
This article investigates the teaching and practice of moral formation at three theological education institutions in South Africa. Morality is described in terms of relationship with God, with the self, with others in the church and society and with the environment. Many theological institutions, while acknowledging moral formation in their aims and teaching ethical theory, have difficulty developing and implementing a moral formation programme. The findings of the research suggest that the teaching and practice at the institutions that involve relationships are most effective for moral formation. Hence it is recommended that the institutions foster the students’ relationship with God, with themselves, with others and with the environment. Relational teaching methods and activities are most effective and ways of implementing them are explored, including developing partnerships with local churches.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2212
The missional church in communities in informal settlements. Mission in informal settlements faces huge challenges, which include poor living conditions and structures, lack of infrastructure and medical facilities, extreme poverty, illnesses, criminality, youth subcultures, et cetera. Massive urbanisation plays an important role in this regard. From the missio Dei perspective the missional church should view the communities with a holistic approach. Missio Dei means that the living God sends his Son to the world in need so that the church, through the Holy Spirit, can become a mission church. The glory of Jesus Christ is central in the proclamation of this message and transcendence should be acknowledged in mission. The living church will emphasise and live out kerugma, diakonia, marturia, koinonia and leiturgia. Much attention will be given to Christian hope to empower communities who live under dire circumstances. Love and justice will also be emphasised. Only when the missional church becomes a true living church can the full community be served.
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 50; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v50i4.2279
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 50; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v50i3.2280