#### Results in Journal International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research: 179

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A. Gülgün Öktem & Omer Faruk Birden Abdullah Öktem, Harran University, Omer Faruk Birden
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 172-182; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.2

Abstract:
This study was aimed to determine forage value of quinoa at the different sowing dates under semi-arid conditions. Research was conducted according to randomized complete blocks design with three replicates in Harran plain conditions in 2016, Sanliurfa, Turkey. Q-52 Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) variety was used as plant material. In the study 9 different sowing dates were used such as 15 February, 1 March, 15 March, 1 April, 15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June. In the research plant height, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, biomass yield, dry forage yield and harvest index were investigated. As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). As a result of the research, statistically significant differences were seen between sowing dates at tested characteristics (P≤0.01). Plant height ranged from 81.8 cm to 109.4 cm, stem diameter from 9.0 mm to 12.6 mm, number of branches per plant from 10.3 to 12.7 number. The highest biomass yield was obtained from 1 April sowing date with 1751.40 kg da-1 whereas the lowest biomass yield was seen at June 15 sowing date with 1295.28 kg da-1. Dry matter yield values were between 415.8 (15 February) and 546.88 kg da-1 (1 April). Harvest index values were between 39.3% and 42.0%. Quinoa yield characteristics in generally increased from 15 February to 1 April sowing dates, but after 1 April sowing dates decreased. Higher values were obtained from April and May sowing dates. The most suitable planting date for quinoa plant in semi-arid climatic conditions was determined as 1 April and can be recommended in similar ecologies.
Gordana Drazic, Nikola Rakašćan
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 230-240; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.8

Abstract:
The most significant challenges posed to agriculture are connecting multiple segments in a sustainable way that includes resource and energy efficiency as well as environmental protection through the rational use of limited resources. One way is to use field crop biomass as a feedstock for biogas production in the process of anaerobic digestion. Codigestion of manure and energy crops biomass reduces the impact on the environment primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions during the entire life cycle of the plant. Energy crops should meet the basic conditions: efficient conversion of solar energy in the process of photosynthesis that allows high yields, low requirements for nutrients and water due to a well-developed root system, low requirements for agronomic measures, low cost of establishing and maintaining plantations. The main factors that determine the biogas yields are the type and variety of crops, harvest time, method of storage and pretreatment before AD conversion and nutrient content. The most used field crops are maize (silage, grain), sorghum (fodder and sveet) due to their high potential for methane production and mature technologies. Lignocellulosic biomass of field residues of field crops or originating from purpose-grown perennial crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus, reed canary grass, Napier grass has significant environmental advantages but also technological limitations (pre-treatment is necessary). The success and future potential for the role of biogas technologies in integrated infrastructures providing bioenergy, biomethane for static and mobile applications, bio-CO2, and even play a key role in the circular economy by recycling nutrients back into the land through the use of digestate which is by-product as soil amendment in energy crops production chan.
Nikolay Dyulgerov & Boryana Dyulgerova, Institute of Agriculture - Karnobat, Boryana Dyulgerova
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 203-212; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.5

Abstract:
A study was conducted during the period of three concessive years from 2016/2017 to 2018/2019 in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture - Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria with the aim to investigate the variability, heritability, and correlation between grain yield and yield-related traits of breeding lines of facultative barley under rainfed conditions and to select lines with desirable agronomic traits for including in further breeding work for the development of facultative barley varieties for Bulgarian environments. The traits: number of days to heading, plant height, spike length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, and grain yield were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences between 6-rowed facultative barley genotypes in the studied traits. Most of the traits under the study showed the relatively low phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation. The estimates for heritability in broad-sense were high for the number of days to heading, grain weight per spike, and 1000-grain weight and very high for plant height and spike length suggesting a possibility for improvement of those traits through selection based on phenotype. Whereas low heritability of grain yield was found indicating that the phenotypic selection could be ineffective under these specific conditions. Grain yield of facultative barley accessions showed a significant positive correlation with spike length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike and grain weight per spike. The traits with the highest positive direct effect on grain yield were grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight while days to heading had a highly negative direct effect on grain yield. A combination of high heritability and high direct on grain yield in 1000-grain weight and days to heading shows that those traits may be used in early-generation selection in breeding of high-yielding facultative lines. The accession TX01D236 had a significantly higher grain yield compared to check varieties and could be included in future breeding work.
Viliana Vasileva, Institute of Forage Crops, Viliana Vasileva & Lidiya Antipova, Mykolayiv National Agrarian University
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 183-193; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.3

Abstract:
The article presents the state of production of perennial herbs in Ukraine, including in the south of the country. A significant reduction in the areas under these crops, and, consequently, in the gross harvest of hay, green mass for silage, haylage, grass flour, was established. The deterioration of the fodder base has been proven, which negatively affects the development of the livestock industry. A decrease in the number of farm animals was established, which affected the level of production of meat and dairy products of both cattle and sheep, goats, and also entailed a discrepancy between the consumption of meat and milk by the population and the rational norms of human nutrition.
Volkan Korkmaz, Munzur University, Gokhan Onder Erguven, Numan Yildirim, Nuran Cıkcıkoğlu Yıldırım
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 213-220; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.6

Abstract:
Rare earth elements (REEs) have been recently identified as emergent contaminants because of their numerous and increasing applications in technology. The impact of REEs on downstream ecosystems, notably aquatic organisms, is of particular concern, but has to date been largely overlooked. The purpose of this study were to generate toxicological information regarding these poorly studied Gadolinium and Lanthanum elements to determine the current risk associated with these elements. The results of this work indicate a notable D. magna mortality in high concentration of La and Gad. The findings from our study also indicate that Gad is more toxic than La. Due to this mortality effect of La and Gad to D. magna, it will be important for the ensuring continuity of the ecosystem to monitor especially aquatic environments and to treat them with appropriate treatment methods from contaminated environments.
Hillary M. O. Otieno, University of Nairobi
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 241-256; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.9

Abstract:
Inappropriate soil fertility management has caused fertility to decline considerably over the years leading to low maize yields despite the growing human population with high food demand in Kenya. Despite high nutrient mining, fertilizer use and adoption of soil fertility improvement practices have remained low among maize farmers in the country. At the current yield levels, maize crops extract over 40, 8, 40.6, and 5.4 kg of N, P, K, and S per growing season, respectively. These extracted nutrients must be replaced to avoid nutrient depletion. Maize crop response to secondary macronutrients (S, Ca, and Mg) and micronutrients (Zn and B) is evidenced, signifying that these nutrients have also reached critical levels in Kenya soils. The rate of replenishing these lost nutrients is still low, farmers apply an average of 43.25 kg of fertilizer per hectare per season. The situation is worsened further by increasing soil acidity- currently below pH 5.5 in most maize-growing regions. Poor agronomic practices applied by farmers directly reduce yields and facilitate other factors leading to nutrient losses. For example, farmers across the country recycle seeds, apply low fertility rates, and rarely keep their fields weed-free. These practices lower the capacity of the crops to tolerate the impact of other production constraints including infertility. To realize yield improvement and return on investments, farmers must adapt and adopt crucial practices under integrated soil fertility management. Managing soil acidity should be the first approach to unlocking fixed nutrients. Fertilizer application should follow the right rate, right source, right time, and right placement approach. Also, improved cropping systems such as maize-legume rotation and intercropping should be considered for sustainable soil fertility management and crop production.
Buket Askin, Kırklareli University, Buket Askin & Sercan Ozbek Yazici, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 158-171; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.1

Abstract:
This experiment was carried out in order to study the effects of drying on physical quality, color development, bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Dry matter, surface color values (L*, a*, b*, h*, ∆E*, C*), extractable color (ASTA), non-enzymatic browning, total-carotenoids, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant potentials were measured for fresh and dried samples. Besides, rehydration rate was determined for dried samples. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (h), chroma (C*) and color differences (∆E*). Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant potentials were extracted by different solvents that were water, methanol and ethanol. TPC had differences for each solvent (p0.05). Antioxidant potentials were evaluated with DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. DPPH free radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong negative correlations with TPC (r=-0.958) and TFC (r=-0.821). A decreasing of color values is an expected value for dried samples and the results showed loss for all color measurements. L*, a* and b* values decreased because red pepper color became darker may be related to the carotenoids and the formation of browning compounds. As ASTA values decreased, hue angles increased, indicating color change slightly from red to orange hues. Physical examination of the rehydrated pepper samples resulted with displaying improved rehydration rate (5.95).
Preslava Petrova-Tsenin, National Diagnostic Science-And-Research Veterinary Medical Institute ''prof.g.pavlov''- Sofia
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 221-229; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.7

Abstract:
The nonspecific immune response plays an important role in organism's defense against a variety of pathogens. Two major factors in this process are blood serum lysozyme and alternative pathway of complement activation (APCA). Over the past few decades, the application of various substances, targeting improved levels of natural immunity have become part of the mainstream trends in livestock rearing programs. The current study examined the influence of the polybacterial immunomodulator AVIGEN on the performance of the aforementioned immune factors among broiler chicken hybrids. The experimental group demonstrated better overall performance for both parameters of interest. APCA activity for the treated group (549.10±19.69 CH50) was significantly higher compared to the result obtained for the controls (377.40±9.58 CH50), (P<0.001). Results for the other parameter were even more indicative. The measured concentration of the serum lysozyme for the treated group was twice as high compared to the control birds - 6.17±0.49 mg/L vs. 2.99±0.27 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the introduction of the AVIGEN immunomodulator to animals' diet has strong potential to improve natural humoral immunity in poultry farming.
Mıchael Wabukala Barasa, Kenyatta Unıversıty, Ruth Kahuthıa-Gathu, Maına Mwangı, Waceke Wanjohi
Published: 29 June 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 194-202; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.358.4

Abstract:
Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important crop in Kenya. Arthropod pests are major constraints to its production and farmers rely heavily on synthetic chemicals for control, which increases costs and leads to pollution of the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native Kenyan fungi in managing thrips as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of native fungi against Frankliniella occidentalis collected from the tomato fields and maintained in the laboratory. The fungi were isolated from soil samples from tomato fields and identified based on their vegetative and reproductive structures. Treatments included fungal isolates and a control; replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The effect of the fungal isolates on F. occidentalis was evaluated by treating thrips with concentrations of 1.0 x107conidia ml-1. Data on mortality of F. occidentalis was recorded daily for 10 days after treatment. Data on mortality of thrips was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using SAS software version 9.4 to test the effect of different treatments. Means were separated using Student Newman-Keuls test at P≤0.05. Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma afroharzianum were more virulent causing mortalities above 50%. Gliocladium virens was the most potent, causing 62.2% mortality in adults and 43.8% in nymphs at 1.0 x107 conidia ml-1. The findings showed that G. virens is a potential candidate for development as a fungal-based bio-pesticide against F. occidentalis on tomato.
Asmae Bakkalı Aıssaouı, Abdel Malek Essaadi University, Amal El Amranı, Said Zantar, Houssam Annaz, National Institute of Agronomic Research
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.1

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and its acaricidal effect on the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henroit (Acari: Phytoseiidae). The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil extracted was carried out on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three major compounds found in the essential of R. officinalis were α-pinene (32.64%), β-Humulene (8.71%), and Camphene (5.95%). The toxicity of R. officinalis oil was performed using inhalation bioassay on both T. urticae and its predator P. persimilis. The results obtained showed high toxicity on the mite than to its predator with a mortality rate of 80% and 16.11% respectively at the dose of 4%. The fertility of females, the hatching of eggs, and the emergence of adults in T. urticae were also studied using contact bioassay where a total reduction of all three biological parameters was recorded at the dose of 4%. Besides, the application of this oil will also allow the conservation of P. persimilis. Altogether, the combination of toxicity on T. urticae and preservation of its predator gives R. officinalis essential oil a propitious potential for the control of the pest mite T. urticae and maintenance of environmental balance.
Hanen Ben Ismaıl, National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia, Marouane Rezgui, Sarra Jrıbı, Derine Dogui, Hajer Debbabi, National Institute of Consumption (Inc)
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 52-69; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.4

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to far-reaching health, social, and economic consequences. In order to secure the safety of students and staff, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research has established general guidelines for University campuses including canteens, based on prevention and protective measures. Food wastage is a major global issue impairing food security. The objective of the present study was to evaluate these COVID-19 measures on food wastage in a Tunisian University canteen. Because of the COVID-19 crisis, the university canteen has changed their practices by setting up a meal bag service for lunch and dinner. Face to face interviews based on a structured questionnaire, were conducted during one month on 154 on 143 student respondents (mean age 23 years old, 76% women) in June 2020, after COVID-19 lockdown lifting. Interestingly the COVID-19 crisis has positively impacted the students’ awareness about food wastage since 28% of respondents declared not throwing away food and 55% claimed to have reduced their food waste levels. Most of respondents (72.4%) have highly appreciated the new concept based on take-away. About 63.1% declared eating at least every other day at the canteen, and 67.8% going more often. Interestingly 93.1% claimed to have noticed improvements in the quality of food items. These changes were related to better food presentation (72% of respondents), better food safety (64%), better overall sensory quality (36%), whereas only 1% claimed not having observed any changes. Food quality service has been evaluated as very good by 45% of respondents, and quality of prepared foods as good by 43%. However, although the COVID-19 measures allowed a reduction by 21% of self reported food wastage in the canteen, most of respondents (71.3%) affirmed not finishing their plates. The most discarded dishes were soups (62% of respondents), stews (52%), vegetables (48%) and salad (45%) whereas dairy products (65.4% of respondents), fruits (64.4%), rice (51.9%), Tunisian dish tajin (51.9%) and chicken (50%) were not wasted. In conclusion, our study has shown that providing good take-out meals has potential for reducing food wastage among students, strengthening the importance of food safety and convenience as effective tools for food waste prevention.
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 103-110; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.8

Abstract:
The water deficit is considered as one of the main abiotic stresses affecting cereal productivity, especially durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) due to the scarcity of water resources, which is a staple food in our daily diet. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of two systems, root and aerial, under three water situations (100, 60 and 30 % RC) in five genotypes (Waha, Acsad 1361, Mexicali 75, Oued Zenati, Langlois), in order to establish a growth model for both parts under deficient conditions. Collected data showed variations for each measured characteristics. These variations depended on the water regime and genotype considered. Structural modifications were measured for both adventitious and seminal root types. These changes relate to root elongation, which has been accompanied by a reduction in the rate of adventitious rhizogenesis. Anatomical transformations have also been recorded, such as the reduction in root diameter, which is explained by a decrease in the thickness of the cortical parenchyma. This transformation would favor a better circulation of the sap during its horizontal transport.
Hristo Stoyanov, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute - General Toshevo
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 141-157; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.11

Abstract:
Obtaining high yields from crops such as triticale is directly related to the interaction of the used genotypes with the conditions of the environment. Therefore, the breeding of the crop is targeted toward reducing the effects, which various stress factors have on productivity. One of the shortcomings of the interaction of the genotype with the environment is that under contrasting growing conditions the different cultivars are ranked in a different way according to their yield value. This considerably hinders their evaluation and the possibility to choose the most suitable cultivars for the respective geographic area and micro region. In order to adequately assess the different triticale genotypes under contrasting conditions of the environment, a model for yield ranking was developed. It is based on the ratio between the reaction of the genotype under specific conditions of the environment with the mean productivity of the same genotype under the rest of the conditions of testing. This allowed increasing the contrast between differing genotypes and their more adequate ranking under certain conditions, or as a whole during the tested contrasting periods. On the other hand, the model allowed grouping of the genotypes with identical reaction to the conditions of the environment. The model was applied to eleven Bulgarian winter triticale cultivars (Kolorit, Atila, Akord, Respekt, Bumerang, Irnik, Dobrudzhanets, Lovchanets, Doni 52, Blagovest and Borislav) and to six contrasting periods of growing (2015 – 2020). The results from the model values showed that the cultivars were grouped in different ways during the individual periods in comparison to their grouping according to yield values. Cultivars with similar productivity having identical ranks contrasted better with each other when applying the model. The genotypes, which possessed high stability, were characterized with lower ranks according to the results from the used model, especially in periods with clearly expressed drought. The ranks of the model values remained significantly high regardless of the conditions of the environments in cultivars Bumerang and Doni 52. The developed model demonstrated considerable similarities to the HARV and Hi models and can be reliably used in practical breeding work under contrasting environments.
Ahmet Korkmaz
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 80-90; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.6

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine some paddy varieties resistant to iron toxicity. Two different nutrient solutions were applied in the form of iron sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) (Fe concentrations of I) 45 µM Fe (sufficient Fe), II) 3.50 mM Fe (toxic Fe) to paddy cultivars grown in sand media. Among the paddy cultivars grown at toxic iron level (3.50 mM Fe), the closest paddy cultivars in terms of investigated traits were identified as Hamzadere and Edirne cultivars, while the furthest cultivars were identified as Biga incisi and Ronaldo cultivars. Present findings revealed that Biga incisi and Edirne paddy cultivars were tolerant to toxic iron levels and Ronaldo paddy cultivar was the most susceptible to iron toxicity. Biga incisi and Edirne paddy cultivars formed a group and the best traits of these cultivars designating iron toxicity were identified as iron ratio transported to shoot, tolerance index to toxic iron level, shoot total iron content and leaf relative peroxidase activity. According to biplot analysis, Ronaldo paddy cultivar formed a different group and the best traits of this cultivar at toxic iron level were identified as iron ratio remained in roots and root cold-extractable Fe/Zn ratio.
Chamila Pilapitiya
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 17-36; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.2

Abstract:
Sri Lanka is the third largest tea exporter in the world, but nearly 60% of its total exports are comprised of bulk tea. Bulk tea secures the lowest prices in world tea market. Sri Lanka earned an average value of US$4.83 per kilogram from 2014 to 2018 for its tea exports, compared to US$24.24 per kilogram over the same five-year period in Japan, a highly innovative tea-producing country. The objective of this study is to examine the root causes of product innovation in Sri Lanka, as compared to Japan, by conducting a historical analysis followed by a survey and key informant discussions. Sri Lanka has mainly focused on incremental innovations in blending, flavoring and packaging than radical innovations. About 98% of the tea produced in Sri Lanka is black tea, produced mainly in large scale-processing factories. The focus on economies of scale and heavy dependence on traditional product baskets and market destinations have bottlenecked product innovation capabilities in Sri Lanka. In contrast, Japan produces a large number of innovative beverage and non-non-beverage products. Their main beverage type is sencha (58%), followed by many other beverages including gyokuro, kabusecha, matcha, tamaryokucha, black tea, oolong tea, fermented teas and white tea. The Japanese produce a variety of non-beverage products including confectionaries, snacks and cosmetics made from same tea plant that beverage tea is made from. Having a large number of processing factories (4698), Japan’s product innovation capabilities are mainly attributed to firm-level factors and support services. This study recommends that Sri Lanka should link together farmer organizations, processing factories, research institutes and universities to make its tea industry more innovative and flexible and consequently more profitable and sustainable. Foreign direct investment and partnerships presumably would be instrumental in bringing in much needed funding, expertise and advanced technology to stimulate product innovation.
Julian Witjaksono, The Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of Southeast Sulawesi, Muhammad Alwi Mustaha, Sarjoni Sarjoni, Imran Imran
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 70-79; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.5

Abstract:
Cocoa beans have been existed in Indonesia particularly for smallholder farmers as the cash crop of household in the rural area. Today’s its productivity is going down due to the aging cocoa three, pest and diseases. Introducing technology into the farmers group as the alternative way for income diversification based on the cocoa commodity. This study was conducted in East Kolaka District of Southeast Sulawesi Province. Purposive sampling technique was used to select four sub districts of Aere, Ladongi, Lambandia and Tinondo. In each sub district, we chose two sample villages by purposive sampling based on the number of cocoa growers per village and selected 15 farmers respectively based on the random technique due to the homogeneity of the population. In total, we selected eight villages as our sample villages with a total sample size of 120 households. Five components of technology has been introduced, viz. Introducing utilization of cocoa shell for bio-char, utilization of cow dung as organic fertilizer, making cocoa powder for instant beverage, utilization of cocoa shell as the alternative feed cow, and utilization of cow dung as Bio-Gas. This study results show that most farmers have a good and positive response by following or implementing recommended technology. The results of open interviews with farmers at the study site show that the technology introduced is technically feasible based on indicators of easiness of technology application (uncomplicated), easily access to technology, available of supporting materials and inexpensive, easily labor used, and easily in supporting facilities and infrastructure. A good response of farmers indicated that introduced technology has been implemented and adopted by farmers. Moreover, these technology have been implemented which economically feasible, technically easy, culturally done by farmers and environmental friendly.
Sinan Süheri & Suresh Kumar Pande Theophile Nıragıre, Selcuk University, Sinan Süheri, Suresh Kumar Pande, University of Rwanda-College of Agriculture Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine(Ur-Cavm)
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 37-51; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.3

Abstract:
This study was carried out with the main objective of evaluating the efficiency of the government-funded irrigation project equipped with hand-moved portable sprinkler irrigation system in the Nyagatare district of eastern Rwanda. The study was performed in maize field irrigated by a sprinkler irrigation system during the 2014 agricultural season. Catch cans experiments were used to assess the efficiency of the current field irrigation sprinkler system. Performance indicators such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity (DU), Potential application efficiency of the low quarter (PAElq), pressure variation along laterals, delivery performance ratio (DPR), evaporation and wind drifts losses were analysed. The Christiansen equation was used to measure the CU. The results of this study revealed that the coefficient of uniformity, uniformity of distribution and efficiency of water application of the method were 84.7%, 88% and 88% respectively. These experimental findings indicated that the performance of existing hand-move sprinkler irrigation system was satisfactory. The study put forward performance guidelines and advices for the designers and managers of sprinkler irrigation systems to achieve optimum performance.
Ahmet Korkmaz
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 91-102; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.7

Abstract:
Demmouche Ghozlene & Boufatah Zakia Mahi Zineb, University Mohammed Boudiaf Usto-Mb, Demmouche Ghozlene, Boufatah Zakia, University of Sciences and Technologies Mohamed Boudiaf (Usto-Mb)
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 124-140; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.10

Abstract:
Water is an essential resource. Its use for food, body hygiene or recreational requires a high level of physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological quality. The substances they transport are in fact likely to be ingested, inhaled, or to come into contact with the skin. Therefore, the analysis of eight parameters in addition to pH and which are the electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, chloride, Ammonium, Sulfate, Nitrate, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Matter in suspension (MES) as well as the analysis of total coliforms, faecal streptococci and clostridium were carried out on the waters of three lakes, Dayat Morsli, Telamine, and Gharabas, located in Northwestern Algeria in the Oran region. The results show that the three lakes are saline wetlands where total phosphorus is found at lower concentrations while chlorides, Ammonium and Sulfate are found at concentrations above standards. The pH of Lake Dayat Morsli, the Nitrate of Lake Telamine, the COD and the MES of Lakes Dayat Morsli and Telamine exceed international standards. These results could be used as a basis for the rehabilitation project of this wetland.
Mehdi Ghaffari, Hamid Reza Fanaei, Gholamhossein Shiresmaeili, Farnaz Shariati, Nadia Safavi Fard, Bahram Majd Nasiri
Published: 30 March 2021
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 5, pp 111-123; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2021.339.9

Abstract:
In order to identify of salt tolerant sunflower inbred lines a set of 24 inbred lines were evaluated as a randomized block design with three replications in Isfahan and Zabol in 2017. Salt stress was imposed following seedlings establishment 20 days after planting as irrigation with two (fresh water) and 8 ds.m-2 electrical conductivity. According to the results, there were significant differences among locations and also salt treatment for all measured traits except for flowering time and oil content. There were also significant differences among inbred lines for all of the characteristics which could be used a source for improvement of salt tolerance in sunflower. Salt stress had a negative impact on agronomic futures of the inbred lines. Achene and oil yield had suffered more than other traits with 34 and 31% reduction respectively. Phenological traits were affected less than agronomic traits. The inbred lines BGK259 and RGK38 had the highest and lowest achene and oil yield respectively. Three lines BGK259, BGK369 and BGK375 with higher STI expressed as more salt tolerant lines. All 12 maintainer lines had a higher STI than all the 12 restorer lines and were more tolerant. Among the restorers RGK22, RGK15 and RGK2 were more salt tolerant than others. In accordance with STI, TOL and GM indices, principal component analysis differentiated BGK259, BGK369 and BGK375 as the most salt tolerant inbred lines.
Irfan Öztürk, Trakya Agriculture Research Institute
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 473-488; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.9

Abstract:
The development of barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes over its life cycle depend on a number of environmental abiotic stress factors. Grain losses are often caused by high or low temperatures, drought, and such soil structure. The research was carried out to investigate the yield, stability, some quality, and physiological characteristics of some advanced barley genotypes under rainfed conditions. This research was established with 25 genotypes, in randomized complete blocks design with four replications at 3 locations in 2012-2013 growing years. Grain yield, plant height, days of heading, biomass, canopy temperature, 1000-kernels weight, and test weight was investigated. There were significant differences among the genotypes. Based on location, the highest yield was determined in Tekirdağ location. Cultivar Harman had higher yield potential. The highest biomass was measured for cultivars Harman and Lord and the lowest canopy temperature was measured for the G21 line. Earliness in terms of growing forage crops in the same growing year and short plant height for lodging resistance are very important characters in the Trakya region. G11 and G16 were early, and G6, G7, and G16 were the shortest genotypes. The highest 1000 kernels weight was measured in G3, and test weight in G19 lines. It was determined that cultivar Harman and 5 lines G7, G9, G22, G24, and G25 were well adapted to all environmental conditions. Genotypes Sladoran, G18, G3, and G8 were well adapted to fertile environmental conditions. Canopy temperature negatively affected and reduced grain yield, biomass, test weight, 1000-kernel weight, and protein ratio under rainfed conditions. The result of the study suggested that canopy temperature could be used in a barley breeding program for physiological parameters under rainfed conditions.
Rahim Ada & Rifat Kepildek Nursel Çöl Keskin, Selçuk University, Rahim Ada, Rifat Kepildek
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 453-460; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.7

Abstract:
The main objective of the experiment was determined suitable sunflower candidate genotypes. The experiment was conducted under Konya-Ilgın conditions in 2018 growing seasons in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The experiment materials were the sunflower candidate genotypes which was developed by Associate Professor Rahim Ada and some sunflower varieties. The observations were made hull ratio (%), oil content (%), protein content (%). According to the results of the experiment, significant differences were found in all properties among the varieties and candidate genotypes statistically. The highest hull ratio was obtained from 4CMS X SARM 6, 4CMS X NP, Bosfora, 4CMS X SB ve 4CM X C75 as 28.57 %, 27.53 %, 27.35 %,26.84 %, 26.38 % respectively. In addition to, the highest oil content was obtained from 4CMS X CO, 4CMS X C21, 4CM X C75 as 48.29 %, 47.65 %, 46.75 % respectively. Finally, the highest protein content has been obtained from 4CMS X YK-YRKKY with 20.84 %. The increase in sunflower production will be possible by expanding plantation areas, increasing the yield per unit area and producing varieties with high yield. In addition to high yield, improvement of important quality properties is also comprised of the important yield components. The experiment results indicated that in terms of the important quality properties of 4CM X C75 was a promising candidate genotype for sunflower production in Turkey.
Lóránt Szőke, Institution of Food Science, Gabriella Enikő Kovács, László Radócz, Mária Takácsné Hájos, Béla Kovács, , Plant Protection, Institue Of Plant Protection, Institute of Horticultural Science
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 396-406; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.1

Abstract:
One of the most dangerous diseases of corn is Ustilago maydis DC. Corda, which damages the maize yield every year. It is difficult to protect against the corn smut infection because the efficiency of fungicide treatment is inadequate. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of corn smut infection on some physiological and morphological parameters of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Armagnac). Furthermore, the aim of this research was to examine the possible compensation effects of gibberellin (GA3) and ethylene (as ethrel) separately, and in combination on the corn smut infection. The plants were grown in a greenhouse, they were infected and treated in the five leaf phenological phase with two ml of sporidium suspension (10,000 sporidium/ml), injected into the stem. At the same time, one ml of gibberellin, ethylene and the combination of the two hormones were injected. The relative chlorophyll content, stem diameter and plant height were measured in the fourth and fifth leaves of plants, 7, 11 and 14 days after the infection (DAI). The photosynthetic pigments were determined from the fourth leaf, and the rate of lipid peroxidation was measured from the fifth leaves, 14 DAI. The corn smut infection significantly reduced the relative-chlorophyll content 14 DAI compared to the control. The gibberellin reduced the harmful effects of the pathogen. No significant difference was recorded in case of stem diameter. The infected plants were shorter than the control plants when treated with ethylene. The effect of corn smut infection was more pronounced in the terms of photosynthetic pigments and the rate of lipid peroxidation. Ethylene treatment increased while gibberellin treatment reduced the impact of the infection. In this research, the corn smut infection and hormone treatments had larger impact on measured physiological parameters than on morphological parameters.
Rahmiye Zerrin Yarbay Şahin, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Ozan Örenay, Yunus Dolaş, Adife Şeyda Yargıç, Nurgul Özbay
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 447-452; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.6

Abstract:
Bio-waste which is available in large quantities worldwide is rich in biodegradable organic matter. By utilizing from bio-waste as feedstocks to attain valuable bio-based products, resource and waste problems will be solved as being “double green”. The bio-waste utilization aids decrease pollution while providing renewable energy and bio-based chemicals for the upcoming utilizations. Consequently, bio-waste resource utilization has involved growing attention in scientific and industrial societies. The characteristic of avocado seed as a bio-waste was analysed using elemental analysis resulted as 39.89% C, 5.43% H, 0.43% N, 45.2% O content. The higher heating value was calculated using Dulong Formula as 13.70 MJ/kg. The raw milled bio-waste was characterized by FT-IR containing the wavenumbers in the range of 4000-400 cm-1. The spectra bands for bio-waste demonstrated characteristic peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The mean moisture and ash contents of the “as-received” avocado seeds employed in this study were 6.54 wt% and 2.42 wt.%, respectively. Pyrolysis of avocado seed was carried out in a Heinze reactor at 500°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min and retention time of 20 min. The pyrolysis experiment yielded the liquid product (32%), solid product “char” (34%) and non-condensable gas (34%) with biomass conversion of 67%. Based on the results, it was confirmed that avocado seed can be utilized as a potential bio-waste according to pyrolysis results but liquid properties as a bio-fuel oil and solid product char properties as an activated carbon should be evaluated in detail.
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 423-435; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.4

Abstract:
In the semi-arid high plains of Algeria, water stress is one of the most significant factors restricting wheat production. This study aims at analyzing water stress effect on durum wheat behavior with a particular focus on relationships between some agronomical and physiological traits. Ten genotypes were tested under rain-fed and full-irrigated conditions in semi-arid climate of Eastern Algeria. The experiment was led down in a randomized complete block design at the experimental field of Natural and Life Sciences Faculty of Sétif1 University. Yield and its components, leaf relative water content, leaf specific weight, grain-filling rate and duration and leaf chlorophyll content were measured. Significant genotypic and environmental variations were observed for major measured traits. Water stress significantly decreased the potential yield by 28%. A significant and strong correlation was observed between agronomical and physiological characteristics. In both stress and non stress conditions, grain yield was positively and significantly associated with: Chlorophyll content (r = 0.893), relative water content (r = 0.956) and grain filling duration (r = 0.853). Wheat productivity was highly associated with high photosynthetic activities, good water status and long grain filling duration. This finding suggests using these traits as tools for screening durum wheat tolerance to water stress.
Gallina Mihova, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 436-446; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.5

Abstract:
Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI) is the largest breeding center for cereals in Bulgaria. Among the varieties developed here, 36 genotypes were included in the national list, a large part of them being strong and medium strong wheat cultivars with increased strength. It is a disputable question if a plateau has been reached in the breeding of wheat and what are the further methods for increasing of the production potential. Until recently, the increasing of the spike productivity lay at the basis of the breeding strategy, primarily through a higher number of florets and grains formed per spikelet at the expense of a lower number of productive tillers. The contemporary high level of breeding and the market requirements impose the necessity to search for new approaches to increase productivity. The aim of the investigation was to characterize the structure of the yield in new common winter wheat accessions included in the gene pool of DAI. The investigation was carried out during 2015 – 2019 and encompassed four growth seasons with different combinations of meteorological factors allowing for good differentiation. The trial was designed in two replicates, the size of the harvest plot being 10 m2. Sixty-six accessions from different ecological and geographic origin and with specific combination of the economically important traits were evaluated. The cultivars from France were with the highest coefficient of tillering, followed by the cultivars from Croatia and Germany. The variability with regard to 1000 kernel weight was considerable. The Bulgarian and Serbian accessions were with the highest absolute weight, and the French ones – with the lowest. The differences with regard to the number of grains in spike were significant at a high level, but in the separate group, Athlon (DE), Moison (F), Fani (BG), Fidelius (AT), Iveta (BG) Korona (BG) and Simonida (RS) were with high values of the trait. Within the period, the Bulgarian cultivars, which realized highest yield, were Rada and Dragana, and among the European ones, these were Andalou, Basmati, NS 407 and Sofru.
Boboc Oros Paula, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Timea Hitter Buru, Corina Cătană, Maria Cantor
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 505-523; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.12

Abstract:
Passiflora genus includes over 600 species native to tropical and subtropical areas of America, appreciated for the production of fruit and medicinal value. Their ornamental potential is especially appreciated in North America and in Europe. With the expansion of the flower trade and the use of secondary metabolites in the pharmaceutical industry, a need for the constant monopolization of new technologies and alternative in vitro techniques that allow to obtain a uniform, high quality material free of pests and diseases occurs. Passiflora’s tissue cultures began to be studied in 1966, raising more and more interest of researchers worldwide. Depending on the source and type of the explant, plant growth regulators, and the used genotype, direct and indirect organogenesis are the main regeneration pathways for Passiflora. The latest approaches regarding the choice of explant and its source, the plant material surface sterilization and the specific requirements of each micropropagation stage are presented within our review. To this genus, the reduced gas exchange of in vitro growing of seedlings has been shown as the main cause of lack of success. In this regard, for regeneration and obtained improvements in morphogenesis, different protocols have been developed by using inhibitors of ethylene. In recent years, studies suggest that via somatic embryogenesis, starting from mature and immature zygotic embryos, regenerated plants that have maintained their mother plant ploidy can be successfully obtained. This confirms the callus cultures as main path to obtain in vitro regenerated Passiflora plants.
Gizem Aksu, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Gizem Aksu & Hamit Altay
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 414-422; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.3

Abstract:
Salt stress is an important type of abiotic stress that limits vegetative production in the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic areas. The aim of this study is to mitigate salt stress damage in the sugar beet plant, which is an important part of crop production, with potassium application. An experiment was designed according to a design of random blocks with 4 different doses (10, 20, 40, 80 mg kg-1 K) of potassium and 3 different salt levels (0, 100, 150 mM NaCl) and 3 replicates. Leaf length, leaf width, fresh weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, membrane damage, relative water content was determined after harvest. The data obtained from the experiment were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA). According to the results of variance analysis, leaf width, leaf length, fresh weight, MDA content, membrane damage, relative water content were found to be statistically significant in salt x potassium interaction. Due to the positive effects of potassium on the parameters known to increase the plants' stress tolerance, it is thought that it may be beneficial in reducing the salt stress in order to make the sugar beet less affected by salt stress.
Burçin Atılgan Türkmen, Bilecik Seyh Edebali Univirsity
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 497-504; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.11

Abstract:
Sustainable agriculture means meeting current food needs without compromising the ability of current or future generations to meet their own needs. Energy is the most important tool for sustainable agricultural development and growth. The agri-food chain accounts for around 30 % of the global energy demand. The agricultural sector is currently heavily dependent on the use of fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels in agriculture leads to an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the sector. The total GHG emissions from the agri-food chain account for more than 30 % of global GHG emissions per year. Emissions from energy used in agricultural activities consist primarily of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Current fossil fuel-based energy generation needs to be shifted to renewable energy such as solar, biomass, wind, and geothermal to mitigate climate change and reduce GHG emissions. There are a variety of energy-related mitigation and adaptation opportunities in agriculture. Improvements will be made by enhancing access to electricity, making more efficient use of resources, and increasing the use of renewable energy sources in agriculture. This would have the dual advantage of providing renewable energy inputs to agriculture, thereby increasing productivity, economic and social sustainability, and reducing climate change commitments. This paper details the role of renewable energy in agriculture by linking sustainability aspects.
Seda Kayahan & Nesrin Aktepe Tangu Yasın Ozdemır, Ataturk Central Hortıcultural Research Instıtute, Seda Kayahan, Nesrin Aktepe Tangu
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 407-413; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.2

Abstract:
This research is aimed to determine the quality, sensory and oxidative stability characters of olive oils of 5 cultivar candidates obtained by cross breeding of Ascolana with Karamürselsu, Tavşanyuregi and Uslu cultivars. All olive trees were cultivated with the same agricultural practices in the same orchard (Yalova, Turkey). Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific ultraviolet absorbance, oxidative stability and sensory characters were evaluated. As a result, it has been determined that all of olive oils suitable for entering the class of extra virgin olive oil. AT056 has more favorable free fatty acids content and peroxide value but unfortunately has lower sensory scores. AU016 and AU019 have higher induction time and sensory scores with other favorable free fatty acids and peroxide value. So that AU016 and AU019 were determined as outstanding cultivars for analyzed olive oil characters.
Rahim Ada & Rifat Kepildek Nursel Çöl Keskin, Selçuk University, Rahim Ada, Rifat Kepildek
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 461-472; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.8

Abstract:
The experiment was implemented to evaluate the yield and quality properties of potato varieties and candidate genotypes were examined in 2019 growing seansons under Yenisehir- Bursa conditions. The experimental design was a “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications. Eight potato candidate genotypes (“EA10”, “GAF4”, “MK-2”, “AH-11”, AFK-3”, “AA12”, “HA5”, “LOH3Y”) which were developed by Associate Proffessor Rahim Ada and four potato varieties (Marabel, Florice, Melody, Lady Olympia) were used as plant material in this experiment. The plant height (cm), number of stem per plant, number of tuber per plant, total tuber yield (t ha-1), dry matter content (%), yield of chips (%), yield of french-fries (%) were examined. According to results of this experiment, significant differences were found in all properties among the potato varieties and candidate genotypes statistically. The plant height changed between 48.3-107.3 cm, number of stem per plant was 4.6-10.0, number of tuber per hill was 4.3-16.6, total tuber yield per hectare was 8.9-52.1 t. In addition, dry matter content changed between 16.7- 25.0 %, yield of chips was 36.1-60.3 %, yield of french-fries was 55.0-70.8 %. The highest total tuber yield was obtained from Florice variety (52.1 t ha-1) and “GAF4” potato candidate genotype (49.6 t ha-1) and the lowest total tuber yield was obtained from “AFK-3” potato candidate genotype (8.9 t ha-1, respectively). The experiment results indicated that “GAF4” potato candidate genotype was found promising.
Corina Cătană & Maria Cantor Boboc Oros Paula, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Corina Cătană, Maria Cantor
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 488-496; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.320.10

Abstract:
This study was conducted to obtain biological material regenerated from Passiflora caerulea and Passiflora quadrangularis by direct and indirect organogenesis, in order to enrich the assortment of flowering plants in Romania. The endogenous latent contamination of the plant material used for in vitro culture initiation is one of the biggest problems, demanding a special approach. The explants disinfection steps was organized as a trifactorial experience which included two variants of NaOCl concentrations (0, 5%, 10%), three immersion times in the sterilizing solution (10, 15 and 20 minutes) and the four types of explants (apical buds, fragments of young and mature leaves, and flower explants represented by pedicel, receptacle and sepals) taken from mature plants, in the stage of active growth. The explants were pretreated with 70% EtOH solution with a few drops of Tween 20, for 1 minute, and rinsed with distilled water, then disinfected according to the experimental variants. The explants were initiated on Murashige and Skoog, (1962) medium in order to stabilize the culture. The leaves explants reacted best to the treatment with 5% hypochlorite for 15 minutes. P. caerulea registered an average contamination rate of 52.78%, lower than P. quadrangularis in which case the explants obtained an average contamination rate of 58.24%.
Awadallah Belal Dafaallah, Mohamed S. Zaroug
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 283-293; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.2

Abstract:
Excessive growth of aquatic weeds in irrigation systems is a worldwide problem. In Sudan, many irrigation schemes have been greatly affected by aquatic weeds such as Gezira scheme. The objective of the study was to evaluate the community composition and distribution of aquatic weeds in some minor canals in the Gezira scheme in 2018. The study area covered six minor canals at Centre Group at Gezira Scheme. Each minor canal was divided into three sections; head, middle and tail (18 sampling sites). The sites were surveyed once in every month for a period of three months during summer and winter seasons. The community composition of aquatic weeds was detected by visual observation, whereas the distribution of aquatic weeds was determined by calculation of percentage of relative frequency. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and to analysis of variance. The results indicated that the community composition in the six minor canals consists of four groups of aquatic weeds as follows; floating, emergent, submergent and bank aquatic weeds and consisted of 12 species belonging to nine families. Results showed considerable differences in distribution throughout the year. The most dominant species within the groups were; Vossia cuspidata (33% - 41%) within the group of floating weeds, Cyperus alopecuroides (87% - 55%) within the group of emergent weeds and Cynodon dactylon (75% - 83%) within the group of bank aquatic weeds during both summer and winter seasons. Submergent weeds present only in winter season in one species Najas pectinata. Also, results of relative frequency within all aquatic species showed that Vossia cuspidata and Cynodon dactylon were the most dominant species. These finding gives many insights about the problems of aquatic weeds in minor canals and would be useful in the management and control of aquatic weeds.
İsmail Yılmaz & Ümit Geçgel Özgür Karadaş, Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University, Ismail Yılmaz, Ümit Geçgel
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 378-383; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.10

Abstract:
Sumac is the common name of the Anacardiaceae family, belonging to the Rhus genus, with more than 250 species of flowering plants, and the most known among these species is Rhus coriaria. When the general characteristics of the Anacardiaceae family are examined, it is seen that there are plants in the form of bush or shrub, which find themselves naturally distributed in temperate and warm climates. Sumac can also grow in areas that are not suitable for agriculture, and this shows the potential for commercialization of sumac plants without competing for land uses. Sumac, a natural source of bioactive compounds; It has significant potential with components that can be used in many different fields such as organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids. It also shows a strong antioxidant effect due to the phenolic compounds it contains, especially gallic acid and its derivatives. In the food industry, sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is used as a spice and sumac sour to give aroma and flavor in many dishes. It is also considered a valuable raw material for the food industry due to its bioactive components. Today, increasing the usage areas of sumac plant in the food sector and knowing its contribution to human health are increasing the interest of consumers for sumac every day. In this review article, information is given about the properties of sumac plant and its importance in nutrition.
Ina Stoycheva, Institute of Forage Crops, Ina Stoycheva & Natalia Georgieva
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 278-282; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.1

Abstract:
One of the main problems in modern agricultural production is the inefficient use and management of natural resources. The aim of the present study is to analyze the productivity and assess the species composition of natural pastures (Np) used for grazing by sheep in farms in the region of Central Northern Bulgaria. The observations were carried out in the period mid-April - mid-June 2018-2019, at intervals of 14 days on eight natural grasslands located in the region of Central Northern Bulgaria. They are selected to cover the most typical and used natural pastures in the plains and semi-mountains of the region. The comparative assessment of the 8 plant populations of pasture type, subject of the present study, under the ecological conditions of Central Northern Bulgaria showed the highest yield of dry mass observed in the natural meadows in the plains - Np 4 (780.67 kg ha-1) , followed by Np 6 (760.09 kg ha-1) and Np 8 (740.24 kg ha-1), an average of 760.33 kg ha-1. The grasslands from semi-mountains of the region (Np 1, 2 and 3), show a different reaction to the growing environment, but all of them are characterized by significantly lower productivity of green and dry biomass (respectively 1310.77 kg ha-1 and 380.90 kg ha-1) compared to the grasslands of the plains (2430.72 kg ha-1 and 740.66 kg ha-1 respectively). The green biomass yield from the natural pastures, object of study, ranges from 920.38 kg ha-1 (Np 2) to 3000.13 kg ha-1. The dry mass yield is from 290.02 kg ha-1 (Np2) to 780.67 kg ha-1 (Np 4).
Irfan Öztürk, Trakya Agriculture Research Institute
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 328-339; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.6

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to assess of flag leaf fresh and dry weight of advanced bread wheat genotypes and relation with yield component. A total of 25 bread wheat genotypes were tested during the 2017-2018 cropping cycle in the Trakia region, Turkey. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Data on grain yield, flag leaf fresh and dry weight, days of heading, plant height, peduncle length, spike length, spike number per square meter, spikelet number per spike, kernel number per spike, and spike dry weight were investigated. There were significant differences (P<0.01, and P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield. The mean grain yield was 7172 kg ha-1. The highest grain yields performed by cv Köprü (7781 kg ha-1) while the lowest by G9 (6124 kg ha-1). Ten flag leaf fresh and dry weights of the plant were weighted at heading growth stages (Z55). There were significant differences among genotypes for flag leaf fresh and dry weight. Flag leaf fresh weight was varied among genotypes from 3.25 g to 9.15 g and, the mean was 4.95 g. In the study, ten flag leaf dry weight was varied among genotypes from 1.36 g to 2.37 g and, the mean was 1.71 g. Flag leaf fresh and dry weight positively affected yield component in genotypes. There was a positive significant relation between spike length with flag leaf fresh (r=0.526**) and dry weight (r=0.529**). Flag leaf fresh (r=0.513**) and dry weight (r=0.568**) was also significantly positively associated with spikelet number per spike. Kernel number per spike was slightly significant positively correlated with flag leaf fresh weight (r=0.377) and significantly correlated with flag leaf dry weight (r=0.398*). Flag leaf positively affected and increased spike weight in genotypes and it was found a significant association among flag leaf fresh (r=0.489*) and dry weight (r=0.531**) with spike dry weight. Flag leaf fresh and dry weight was also slightly positively correlated with days of heading. Results showed that flag leaf fresh and dry weight can be used as an indirect selection in bread wheat for yield components under rainfed conditions.
Vanya Ivanova, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 353-365; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.8

Abstract:
The population studies on the cause agents of the diseases in agricultural crops are an indispensable stage in the development of a scientifically-coordinated strategy in the breeding for resistance. This investigation follows the changes in the population structure of P. triticina during harvest years 2013-2014. The analysis on the population structure was carried out according to the methodology adopted at the Plant Pathology Laboratory of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo, Bulgaria. We developed 139 monoracial isolates from 47 samples. A total of 59 pathotypes were identified (27 in 2013 and 32 in 2014), 5 of the pathotypes (02762, 12722, 12762, 12763 and 52762) being determined during the two years of the investigation. Twenty-five new pathotypes were identified, which were not detected during 2000-2012. The distribution of the pathotypes in the individual agro ecological zones was uneven. Three of the pathotypes were dominant: 12762, 52762 and 53763.The genes for resistance to this pathogen demonstrated variable efficiency. The strong genes Lr 9 and Lr 19 were absolutely efficient in 2013, but in 2014 pathotypes were identified, which overcame their resistance. During the first years of the study, genes Lr 2c, Lr 9, Lr 19, Lr 22A, Lr 22B, Lr 25, Lr 41 and Lr 45 reacted as absolutely efficient, while during the second year absolute efficiency was demonstrated by genes Lr 22A, Lr 22B and Lr 25. Good was the efficiency of genes Lr 2a, Lr 2b, Lr 3ka, Lr 24, Lr 42, Lr 44, Lr 45, Lr 46 and Lr 47. Low efficiency was found in genes Lr 1, Lr3, Lr 10, Lr 11, Lr 15, Lr 16, Lr 17, Lr 18, Lr 20, Lr 21, Lr 23, Lr 26, Lr 36, Lr 37, Lr 39, Lr 48, Lr 51 и Lr 52. Absolutely inefficient were genes Lr 30, Lr 38 and Lr 60.
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 308-317; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.4

Abstract:
Background: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop of the world and commonly known as white gold. It plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. It provides raw material to the local textile industry and generates a considerable amount of foreign exchange. It plays a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. The yield of cotton is lower in Pakistan. Knowledge of association among different traits is important for the development of cultivars with better yield and quality characters. Results: In this research, two parents (PB-38 and Jambo Okra) and their crosses sown in randomized complete block design with three replications to sort out best performing genotypes for these profitable traits (plant height, number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, leaf type, boll size, boll shape, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, ginning out turn, 100 seed weight and seed cotton yield). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that parental and their F population showed significant differences for all the observed traits. Correlation and inheritance pattern of all characters provides information of association among all traits and percentage of inheritable attributes. Conclusions: The association and inheritance pattern study provides us useful information for effective selection and sustainable breeding programs. Heritability estimations revealed that heritability of traits fluctuate as following order; monopodial branches> ginning outturn>boll weight>sympodial branches>plant height>yield>number of bolls plant-1 with heritable percentages 99%, 90%, 89%, 64%, 60%, 60% and 55% respectively.
Zlatina Peycheva Uhr, Sadovo Ipgr, Zlatina Peycheva Uhr & Evgeniy Dimitrov
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 294-307; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.3

Abstract:
The study was conducted in the period 2017-2019 in the experimental fields of the Institute of Plant Genetic Resources "K. Malkov” in Sadovo, near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. At the infectious area, the immune responses of twenty-two genotypes of common winter wheat to the causative agent of brown leaf rust - Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici were tested The line MX 289/2048 has shown high resistance to the pathogen, and seven samples are characterized by a stable reaction. The biggest share of the studied breeding materials showed average resistance to the phytopathogen. A comparison of the indicators of grain weight in the central spike and 1000 kernel weight was made for samples grown on an infectious site and under natural field conditions. The obtained results showed an exceeding the values of the trait in favor of the samples grown under natural field conditions. It was found that the greatest influence on the traits grainsweight in the central spike and 1000 kernels weight has the year of cultivation. To assess the genetic diversity, a cluster analysis was applied, in which the selection materials were grouped into five main cluster groups. The lines MX 286/1777 and MX 270/3461 are characterized by the greatest genetic proximity, and the line MX 285/1058 is genetically the most distant compared to the samples from the first cluster group.
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 366-377; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.9

Abstract:
This paper investigates the marketing and channels of sale of rabbit production in Tizi-Ouzou area (Algeria). Data collected by questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and principal component analysis. 240 to 12 800 rabbits were sold alive/breed/year, either an average of 1342 rabbits sold/breed/year. Half of rabbit farmers sell their rabbits to slaughter houses or to wholesalers. 19% sell them to hotels and restaurants while 18% to butchers and 13.5% directly to the consumer. The sale price of alive rabbits (2.45 ± 0.13 Kg) depending of marketing circuit, he is of 360 and 400 AD/Kg (2.70 € and 3.00 €/Kg) for wholesale; and between 500 and 550 AD/Kg (3.75€ and 4.12 €/Kg) for retail. This difference in selling prices led rabbit breeders to choose the direct sales channel rather than selling to an intermediary. The marketing circuit of this product is disorganized, result of several problems such as the too low selling prices, high transport costs, late payments and low demand for the product.
Yıldız Aydın & Ahu Altınkut Uncuoğlu Ezgi Çabuk, Yıldız Aydın, Ahu Altınkut Uncuoğlu, Marmara University Engineering Faculty
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 384-395; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.11

Abstract:
Wheat production is affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses and fungal pathogens are the most important disease factor. Globally important fungal yellow rust diseases of wheat caused by obligate parasite biotrophic fungus named “Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici” is causing loss of quality in a grain and yield at significant level in worldwide. The obligate parasites are highly specialized, and significant variation exists in the pathogen population for virulence to specific resistance genes. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach preferred to use chemical pesticides for controlling yellow rust diseases. For this reason, determination and evaluation of the presence of wheat varieties resistant and susceptible to yellow rust diseases is of great importance for breeding. Genetic diversity and durability are the two most important features of the resistance for the global wheat improvement programs. Genetic analysis to understand the genetic basis of resistance is important to control of wheat yellow rust. In addition to traditional characterization of resistance using physiological methods, wheat populations also have been genetically characterized using DNA-based molecular markers related with genes to identify and select the presence or absence of genes in early generation populations that could contribute to durable resistance. This review will discuss about yellow rust disease resistance in wheat genotypes in the frame of molecular breeding efforts in combination with our previous findings and current technological developments at molecular level. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable yellow rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding.
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 340-352; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.7

Abstract:
Salinity is one of the most abiotic stresses restricting wheat growth and productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. This study was carried out to examine the effect of salt stress induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) at different concentration levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) on seed germination rate, root length, roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights of eleven durum wheat varieties. The results revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the measured parameters. The increase in NaCl concentrations showed concomitant decrease in all morphological attributes, but varied depending on cultivars and levels of salinity. Seed germination rate and root length demonstrated a linear response to NaCl treatment, while significant linear and quadratic regression on salinity for roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights were observed. The cluster analysis based on Ward’s method sequestrated the studied genotypes into three clusters. Seed germination rate and root length showed the lowest difference among the groups; and the remaining traits: roots number, coleoptile length, root and shoot fresh weights were the most indicative of salt-tolerance. Waha, Megress and GTA dur were the most tolerant genotypes that could be used as donors of choice in wheat breeding programs targeting the improvement of salinity tolerance during the seedling stage.
Muhammed Said Gölpınar & Müge Erkan Can Mahmut Çetin, University of Cukurova, Muhammed Said Gölpınar, Müge Erkan Can, Çukurova University
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 318-327; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.274.5

Abstract:
The quality and quantity of water varies from place to place and time to time. Therefore, supply of fresh water is a limiting factor for irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, including Mediterranean region although irrigation and fertilizers are two of the major inputs of modern agriculture in the region. Pollution from anthropogenic sources or activities degrades the quality of freshwater, lessening its usefulness. In this regard, irrigated agriculture has negative impacts on surface and groundwater resources. Staple objectives of this study are two-fold: a) to derive mathematical forms of relationship between electrical conductivity and concentrations of some minerals in groundwater, b) to bring those relationships into the use in areas where shallow water table with poor quality is dominant and only EC measurements are available. In line with those objectives, the study was conducted in an irrigated catchment, covering an area of 9 495 ha, located in the Lower Seyhan Plain irrigation project area, in the Mediterranean region of southern Turkey. A total of 362 groundwater samples were collected from 105 drainage observation wells with the depth of 4-m in winter, spring and autumn in 2016 and 2017. Electrical conductivity (EC, dS m-1) and concentrations (meq L-1) of major ions, i.e. calcium and magnesium (Ca+Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), carbonate (CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3) and sulfate (SO4), were determined in the lab by following standard methods. Then, total dissolved solids (TDS in mg L-1) concentration in each was calculated by summing up the major ion concentrations considered. Correlation and regression analysis was performed to derive mathematical forms of relationship between EC and TDS, and other ion concentrations. Analysis results showed that a strong linear mathematical relationship existed between TDS and EC, and Na with the determination coefficient (R2) greater than 93 percent (r≥0.95). Surprisingly the relationship between EC and Cl was found to be in the form of quadratic (R2=0.97). On the other hand, although the association between EC and Ca+Mg was linear and weak (R2=0.71), ANOVA results lead us to conclude that the relationship was statistically significant (α=0.05). Contrary to the expectations, no statistically significant relationship existed between EC and the remaining ion concentrations. Mathematical forms of the relationships between EC and mineral ion concentrations may be used to derive additional information regarding groundwater quality in agricultural areas where drainage observation wells are available and EC measurements are taken for granted.
Mariyan Yanev, Agricultural University, Anyo Mitkov, Nesho Neshev, Tonyo Tonev
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 251-258; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.9

Abstract:
The broomrapes are root, obligate parasites without chlorophyll. They parasitize mostly the dicotyledonous plants. Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel attacks a wider range of hosts among which is the winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The broomrape can reduce the yields and aggravate the quality of production. There are few effective measures to control this parasite. One of the most promising approaches is the cultivation of Clearfield® oilseed rape and the treatment of imazamox-containing herbicide products. For this purpose during the growing seasons of 2016 - 2017 and 2017 - 2018 a field pot experiment with the Clearfield® oilseed rape hybrid РТ 228 CL was conducted. The soil of the field pots was artificially infested with Ph. ramosa seeds. The herbicide application was performed in two stages of the crop in the spring - BBCH 31–33 (1-3 internodes visible) and BBCH 51 („green button“). Variants of the trial were: 1. Untreated control; 2. Cleranda® (375 g/l metazachlor + 17,5 g/l imazamox) – 2,00 l/ha (BBCH 31–33); 3. Cleravo® (250 g/l quinmerac + 35 g/l imazamox) – 1,00 l/ha (BBCH 31–33); 4. Pulsar® Plus (25 g/l imazamox) – 1,00 l/ha (BBCH 31–33); 5. Pulsar® Plus – 2,00 l/ha (BBCH 31–33); 6. Pulsar® Plus – 0,50 l/ha (BBCH 51); 7. Pulsar® Plus – 1,00 l/ha (BBCH 51); 8. Pulsar® Plus – 2,00 l/ha (BBCH 51). Average for both years of the study, the highest efficacy against the parasite after the application of Pulsar® Plus – 2,00 l/ha (BBCH 51) – 92,9% followed by Cleranda® – 2,00 l/ha (BBCH 31–33) - 91,2% was reported.
Viliana Valentin Kosev & Yalçın Kaya Viliana Vasileva, Institute of Forage Crops, Valentin Kosev, Yalçın Kaya, Trakya University
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 156-165; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.1

Abstract:
Biochemical assessment of the aboveground biomass of 8 winter vetch (Vicia villosa) varieties was performed in two stages of plant development - beginning of flowering and technical maturity of seeds. Field trial was carried out in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria (2014-2016). The variability in crude protein (CP) content (5.55 - 6.12%), calcium (8.17 - 9.87) and phosphorus (5.34 - 6.74%) in both phenological stages was weak. The variation of crude fiber (CF) content (6.02 - 11.08%) and crude ash (CA) (7.42 - 10.88%) was found stronger. At the beginning of flowering with a higher crude protein content Asko 1 (21.78%) and BGE001076 (21.53%), phosphorus content BGE001076 (0.48%), BGE004222 and BGE000643 (0.47%) were distinguished. In the technical maturity stage with a high crude protein content BGE004222 (20.51%) and BGE001847 (20.07%) are characterized and with phosphorus BGE004222 (0.38%). Positive statistically significant relationship was found between the grain yield and crude protein content (r = 0.58).
, Albena Parzhanova, Snezhana Ivanova, Vanyo Haygarov, University of Food Technologies, Institute Of Viticulture And Enology
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 177-188; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.3

Abstract:
A gas chromatographic (GC-FID) study to determine the volatile composition of wine distillates with the addition of 50% and 70% ethanol extracts of thyme (Thymus callieri) was conducted. The incorporation of 70% ethanol extracts led to higher final levels of total volatile compounds compared to 50%. The total content of higher alcohols was also higher when 70% ethanol extracts of the plant source were added to the distillates. The main identified representatives of this fraction were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-butanol. Acetaldehyde has been identified at a lower concentration level compared to the control. Its quantities were in the range in which it positively affected the distillates aroma. The thyme extracts not produced the effect on increasing of the total ester content in the distillates. The basic ester was ethyl acetate. Its amount in the experimental samples was lower than the control but balanced for its positive effect on the aromatic profile. The incorporation of 50% and 70% ethanol extracts of thyme in the distillates led to a significant increase in their total terpene content. This may be an effect that increased the biological value of the distillates. Decreased methyl alcohol concentrations have been found with the used extracts in the experimental distillates. This improved their methanolic purity. The application of thyme (Thymus callieri) extracts to distillates is a prospect of obtaining new alcoholic beverages with improved and balanced volatile composition, aromatic quality and biological value.
Coşar Coşar Tosun & Cennet Oğuz, T.c. Selcuk University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Cennet Oğuz, T.c. Selcuk University Faculty of Agriculture
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 189-209; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.4

Abstract:
Trajche Dimitrovski, Danica Andreevska, Dobre Andov, Necmi Beşer, Trakya University
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 259-268; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.10

Abstract:
The effect of Storm (fertilizer with 3% growth regulators from Sargassum and A. nodosum algae and 6% organic N) on germination parameters and seedling vigor in rice was examined in seed from San Andrea cultivar produced in 2017 and 2018, treated with three concentrations: 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% against a control (no fertilizer added). Germination energy, total germination, germination speed, seedling (root, shoot and total) length and dry weight and vigor indexes (I and II) were examined. The results were statistically evaluated by two-way ANOVA and LSD test. The total germination (94.38% to 96.75%) was not affected by the treatments, while the germination energy and the germination speed were significantly negatively affected by the 2.5% treatment- 83.00% and 21.53 accordingly against 90.63% and 23.94 in the control). All Storm treatments significantly increased the seedling length. With the increase in concentration, the root length decreased while the shoot length increased. Even thought all of the Storm treatments significantly increased the Vigor index I (1587.44 to 1644.75) and Vigor index II (35265.38 to 37753.75) compared to the control (1362.07 and 29984.50 respectively), they affected the seedling development differently. The 2.5% treatment negatively affected the development of the seedling, as promoted increased development of the seedling shoot, but inhibited the development of the root. Best results were obtained with 0.1% concentration, as it significantly promoted both the root and shoot development and resulted in significantly higher index I, index II, shoot, root and total seedling length compared to the control. With this treatment were obtained the longest root (7.98 cm), the highest root dry weight (3.89 mg) and the highest root volume (50 μL) in the trial.
Ilker Huseyin Celen & Gurkan Guvenc Avci Eray Onler, Ilker Huseyin Celen, Gurkan Guvenc Avci, Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Agriculture And Forestry
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 242-250; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.8

Abstract:
The widespread use of pesticides has negative impacts on human health and the environment. This situation increases the severity day by day. Especially spray drift is one of the factors that should be controlled. In addition, pesticide costs have led to new solutions. Conventional spraying nozzles and anti-drift spraying nozzles are discussed in this study. The study carried out in viticulture areas. Pesticide residual amounts were determined by sampling surfaces placed in different parts of the plant. The sampling surfaces were placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the leaves. Pesticide residue rates were determined in different regions of the plant. The average pesticide residual amounts on the leaves with the anti-drift spray nozzles AITX 8002 VK and ITR 8002 were found to 63.5% and 49.9% higher than the conventional TX VK12 spray nozzle, respectively, also 44.2% and 32.2% higher than the other conventional spray nozzle TR 8002, respectively. The lowest value of top to bottom pesticide residue ratio for leaves was 2.22 at anti-drift ITR 8002 spray nozzle and the highest value of top to bottom pesticide residue ratio for leaves was 2.95 with the conventional spray nozzle TR 8002. All the type of spray nozzles except anti-drift AITX 8002, produced less residue in the inner parts compared to outer parts. The highest penetration rate was 90% with the AITX 8002 VK spray nozzle and the lowest penetration was 55% with the conventional TX VK12 spray nozzle type.
Hüseyin Mert & Çağla Özbek Nuray Güzeler, Çukurova University, Hüseyin Mert, Çağla Özbek, Toros University
Published: 23 June 2020
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 4, pp 210-219; https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiaar.2020.254.5

Abstract:
Hatay Cheese is a kind of cheese produced in and around Hatay with its own shapes and sizes. In this study, the use of microbial transglutaminase enzyme was tried to improve the textural structure of Hatay cheese which is in fresh cheese class. Enzymatic modification of milk proteins by microbial transglutaminase enzyme has been applied in the production of half-fat Hatay cheese with different pre-ripening time applications and some sensory properties of the cheeses have been investigated such as external appearance, internal appearance, texture, odor and taste during 60 days of storage. In this study, four different Hatay cheese were produced as control sample (A), 30 minutes pre-ripening with enzyme (B), 45 minutes pre-ripening with enzyme (C) and 60 minutes pre-ripening with enzyme (D). When the sensory properties of the cheeses were examined, it was observed that the application of different pre-ripening time significantly affected the external appearance, internal appearance, texture and taste scores on the 60th day of storage (p0.05). The effects of different pre-ripening periods and storage time on the odor scores of the cheeses were not significant (p>0.05). Taste scores of cheese D were significantly affected by storage time (p<0.05). As a result of all sensory analyzes, it was found that the cheeses supplemented with MTG enzyme were more liked and the scores given to the cheeses increased as the pre-ripening period increased. As a result, the most admired cheese was D cheese.
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