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Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology; doi:10.31031/tteft

Abstract:
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology (TTEFT) is an international, open access, peer-reviewed journal that aims to bring out the most reliable and complete source of information on the innovations and current developments in the textile industry.
Muhammad Hussnain Sethi, Jiangnan University School of Design, Muhammad Awais Naeem, Xiying Zhang
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 5, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.05.000623

Harby E Ahmed
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 4, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.04.000600

Abstract:
Harby E Ahmed* Department of Archeology Conservation, Faculty of Archeology, Cairo University, Egypt *Corresponding author: Harby E Ahmed, Department of Archeology Conservation, Faculty of Archeology, Cairo University, Egypt Submission: December 31, 2018;Published: January 11, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2019.04.000600 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume4 Issue5 Historical curtains that are still being used are subject to many damage conditions. Where it affected by the fluctuation in temperature and humidity. In addition, the effect of light, air pollution, misuse as damage factors. The historical curtain in the royal chamber of the Cairo University contains many damage aspects such as stain, dirt, separate parts, missing parts, change in color, and general weakness. A close examination was conducted to determine the type of curtain materials, and the damage aspects. The scientific documentation of the historical curtain was carried out before conservation process .In the begging, the strengthening of the weak and separate parts was carried out prior to the washing operations. Test of color degree stability was conducted for washing solutions. Mechanical cleaning, wet cleaning, sterilization, drying of the historical curtain were carried out using scientific methods. Final installation using silk thread and needle, and by reinforced by polymer adhesion. Restoration operations were recorded by photography.Keywords: Historical curtain; Light; Deteriorations; Cleaning; Support SEM Historical curtains are a very important part of historical textiles that are found in museums and historic houses. These curtains have different motifs in varying shades of color, representing the age of the period in which they established. Curtains are exposed to many different deterioration factors that cause them weakness and change color grades. Silk represents the main material for the manufacture of historical curtains [1-10]. Figure 1:show details of historical curtain. One can see the bad storage of the object, deterioration aspects such as separate parts, separate threads, dirt, and stain. The historical curtain is located in the royal chamber attached to the major celebrations hall in Cairo University. The curtain date back to the family of Mohammed Ali (late Ottoman era). The curtain has been subjected to many different damage factors, which caused decay and change in color grades. The curtain consists of three main parts; the upper part and two-side parts along the curtain. A previous restoration process was done to the historical curtain and re-use again. The curtain consists of three layers, which the first layer made from silk fabrics. The curtain is decorated with edges by adding decorative strips. The curtain was suspended with a plastic sling on a wooden display. A false fixation of the curtains was observed using stainless screws. A change in the degree of acidity of the historical carpet resulted in chemical damage. Historic curtain is subject to restoration processes to get rid of dust, stains, impurities and acidity. Figure 1 present a more details of the historical object. Visual examination: A visual examination of the historical object done by the eye in order to record the different type of deterioration. It is appearing for the reader the missing parts, some type of dirt and stain as shown in Figure 1. Morphological and dirt examination: Identification of historical object materials such as kind of fibers is a very important step. Furthermore, identification of dirt, stain and deteriorations components help the conservators to make a strategy of conservation and chosen of conservation materials and solutions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is the most frequently used analytical technique. It is appearing for the reader that the fibers is silk. In addition, one can see the damages of the fibers that that nobody can see it by the naked eye as shown in Figure 2A [11-14]. By other words, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X‐ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a used to identify type of dirt and stain that found in the crystalline form. The samples investigated by using a Quanta 200 ESEM FEG from FEI Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as shown in Figure 2B [15-18]. Figure 2:A. Show the silk fiber of the front layers of the curtain, B. XRF of dirt and attain that found on the object. Testing the stability of dyes: Testing of pigment fastness before washing is one of the most important steps. The process was done by immersing a piece of cotton wrapped round a wooden stick into the cleaning solutions and placing it in contact with the colorful parts of the ribbons, each color was individually tested. It was found that all the dyes were stable and did not bleed with the wet cleaning solution [19,20]. Strengthen and support the weak and separate parts: The historical curtain contains many separate parts and threads. Therefore, Installation and reinforcement of these separate parts and threads must be carried out before cleaning process. The stitching technique was used to strengthen and fix the separate parts and threads in the front of the curtain to the historic curtain body. Stitching was done by using silk thread and narrow needles. For the separate parts and threads in the back of the curtain. The BEVA 371 adhesive has been applied to modern silk fabric. The separate parts were fixed using the adhesive method as shown in Figure 3 [21,22]. Figure 3:Show the team during the Installations, support and fixing of the weak, separate parts and threads before the cleaning process by using dyed silk fibers with needles. A very important stage in the restoration and maintenance of historical curtains. The cleaning was done by using various soft brushes to remove the dust that is not chemically attached to the surface of the curtain. The cleaning was done with great care to the historical curtain of the front and rear layers. After this step, the...
Roman Knížek
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.05.000603

Abstract:
Roman Knížek* Department of Textile Evaluation, Czech Republic *Corresponding author:Roman Knizek, Department of Textile Evaluation, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic Submission: March 05, 2019;Published: May 07, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2019.05.000603 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume5 Issue1 These days, nanofiber layers are used not only for filtration and separation purposes, but also in the clothing industry. Nanofiber membranes are highly suitable for this purpose because of their high porosity, which is 25% higher than the porosity of common porous PTFE membranes, and which provides much better water vapor permeability than other membranes available on the market. Keywords: Nanofiber membrane; Nanofiber; Outdoor Figure 1:The membrane function diagram. In Figure 1 you can see how such a nanofiber membrane for clothing works. Drops of water (snow, rain) fall on the top surface material. The top material tries to stop these drops from getting under this textile. This top material is often impregnated or has some chemical finish to achieve this, but at the same time it must be able to let water vapor through. This top material with its good properties has also got its limits and that’s why a nanofiber membrane is added. The different materials (woven or knitted textile and nanofiber membrane) are laminated together to form 2-layer, 2.5-layer or 3-layer laminates. The membranes are made of polymers, the most common ones being PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene), PES (Polyether sulfone) or PUR (Polyurethane). The membrane thickness is in the range of micrometer units [1-3]. A Nano spider machine was used to produce the nanofiber membrane (Figure 2). Polyurethane polymer was chosen because it is easy to use on a Nano spider machine, but also for its elasticity as it gives the final laminate sensibility that is very desirable in some kinds of closing. The produced nanomembrane is made hydrophobic using Fluorocarbon type C6 monomer in low vacuum plasma to achieve a higher hydrostatic resistance. The hydrostatic resistance can be more than 20000mm depending on the top material laminated to the membrane. After hydrophilization the nanomembrane is laminated together with other textile materials. Many long-term tests have shown that a 3-layer laminate is the only solution for nanofiber layers as these layers are very susceptible to friction and for that reason must be well protected on both their sides by other textile materials laminated onto them. (Figure 3) shows such a 3-layer laminate. Figure 2:The Nano spider machine for the production of nanofibers by electrospinning [4]. Figure 3:3-layer laminate cross-section Table 1: Table 1 shows the results for 2-layer and 3-layer laminates with a nanofiber membrane and a 3-layer laminate from the Gore-Tex company (with the same areal weight). a) Top layer: 100% PES, 80gsm, ripstop weave b) Membrane: 100% PU, 3gsm c) Lining: 100% PES, 66gsm, weft-knit fabric d) Gore-Tex: Active The results show, that the nanofiber layer laminate has a much higher water vapor permeability than the laminate with a Gore-Tex membrane while at the same time both laminates have a similar hydrostatic resistance. The nanofiber membrane shows a slightly higher air permeability, but the value is insignificant with respect to the material’s function. All laminates are 100% windproof. © 2019 Roman Knížek . This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Ramesh G
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 5, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.05.000602

Abstract:
Jothi Manikandan A and Ramesh G* Department of Textile Chemistry, India *Corresponding author:Jothi Manikandan A and Ramesh G* Submission: March 18, 2019;Published: April 01, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2019.05.000602 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume5 Issue1 In this study, development of sustainable cotton poly blended woven fabric made from pre-consumer & post-consumer waste suitable for apparels with anti-pilling finish has been compared with regular non-sustainable fabrics. The need aroused to develop this recycled cotton poly blended fabric came to create a sustainable product by taking cotton-from garment cutting waste, rejected garments, used garments & Poly- from used PET bottles. The fabric made from this development was having some amount of pilling due to recycled yarns. To overcome the pilling of recycled cotton poly blended fabrics, anti-pilling agents to be applied in the bulk. This development study will provide the solution of sustainable fabrics which is commercially viable for apparel industry in terms of cost, lead time and fashion aspirations in coming days, reduce carbon footprints, reduce energy & water consumption, Lessened demand for dyes, create eco-friendly & sustainable textiles Keywords: Pre-consumer & post-consumer waste; Anti-pilling finish; Carbon foot prints; Energy; Water saving; Reduction in dye stuff Sustainability is the process of maintaining change in a balanced fashion, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. a) Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. b) Under the accordance of sustainability, recycled clothing upholds the principle of the “Three R’s of the Environment”: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle, as well as the “Three Legs of Sustainability”: Economics, Ecology, and Social Equity (Figure 1). Figure 1: Sustainable clothing refers to fabrics derived from eco-friendly resources, such as sustainably grown fiber crops or recycled materials [1]. Material: Post consumer apparels, used PET bottles. Method: manufacturing process which requires lessened amount of water & highly ecofriendly (Table 1). Table 1:Testing standards & type of tests. By creating a product that is comfortable and 100% recycled, to rethink plastic waste and repurpose it in a way that simultaneously benefits ourselves and the community. It has a superior hand feel, currently the best in the recycled polyester market, and “Rethink” is the only company doing 100% recycled polyester ring spun. Furthermore, 90% less water is used in using recycled polyester than virgin polyester, dramatically decreasing Rethink’s negative environmental impact. Because our products are 100% recycled polyester, Rethink can maximize environmental benefits and our garments can offer the use of sublimation printing and may be garment recycled [2]. Cotton recycling prevents unneeded wastage and can be a more sustainable alternative to disposal. Recycled cotton may come from older, previously used garments or by textile leftovers which are then spun into new yarns and fabrics. There are some notable limitations of recycled cotton, including separation of materials that are cotton/polyester mix. There may also be limits to durability in using recycled cotton. A fabric made from a cotton poly blend combines the strengths of the two fibers. Cotton poly garments are breathable, wrinkle free, tear-resistant, and can be fashioned into abrasion-resistant fabrics, like canvas. While not as inexpensive as pure polyester, cotton poly blends do tend to cost less than comparable garments made of 100% cotton and they provide much more comfort. The previously mentioned 80/20 blend of cotton and polyester is the most popular for work garments, particularly because of price & durability. The actual fabric resulted out of this development was having some amount of pilling due to recycled yarns. Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion [3]. Pilling proceeds in two stages. Individual fibres start protruding from the surface of the fabric and form an uneven nap. The protruding fibres rolls together become entangled and felt together to form knops (Figure 2). To eliminate this problem in fabric stage, the antipilling finishing treatments can be applied to the recycled fabrics developed [4]. Different chemical finishing approaches are made to prevent pills from accumulating on fabric surface such as application of polymers by padding and coating techniques, reduction in the strength of fiber to reduce pilling to cause the pills to fall off from the material as soon as they get formed and application of enzymes (bio finish) to 100% cotton textiles to cause removal of loose fibers in the yarn to reduce pilling tendency (Figure 3). Figure 2:Pilling Formation.. Figure 3:Process sequence flow chart. Attached Fabric Package Test reports of both normal cotton fabrics & recycled fabric with anti-pilling finish -both are passing with the satisfactory results. Below are the standard testing requirements. While we look at all the possible ways of promoting sustainable products for value retail industry which is need of an hour for the future generation to live safely, considering the fact every apparel manufactured using freshly produced fabrics leaves a huge threat to environment, hence it is imperative that we all look at the possibilities of adopting apparel made from Sustainable fabrics without any second thought. Since the yarns are made from reused garments & reused pet bottles some amount of a) Yarn thick and thin are visible in the fabric...
Manik P, Majumder S, Hossain Rk
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 5, pp 1-5; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.05.000601

Abstract:
Manik P*, Majumder S and Hossain RK Department of Textile Engineering, Bangladesh *Corresponding author: Manik P, Department of Textile Engineering, Bangladesh Submission: February 18, 2019;Published: April 01, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2019.05.000601 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume5 Issue1 Cotton is a cool, soft, comfortable and is the principal clothing fiber of the world. Cloths made of this fiber absorb and release perspiration quickly, thus allowing the cloth to “breath.” The advantages of polyester over cotton fibers are its strength, brightness, easy-care, low price, consistency in quality and availability. But it has low moisture regain (0.4%) as compared to cotton (8%). There is no perfect fiber that contains all the qualities of cotton and polyester mentioned above. In this context, blending is the technique to combine fibers which emphasizes the good qualities and minimizes poor qualities of the fibers. In blends of polyester/cotton, the fibers provide crease recovery, dimensional stability, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, moisture absorption, drape ability, etc. Different blend ratios of P/C have been considered for experiment, i.e., 100% cotton, CVC (60% cotton, 40% polyester) and PC (50% cotton and 50% polyester). In this work, we studied the yarn characteristics with several P/C blend ratios of 30/s Ne. Here, the properties of blended ring spun yarns are compared with the same of 100% cotton yarn and the results are discussed in terms of the following quality parameters: Mass irregularity (CV% and U%), Thick, Thin & Naps (IPI: Imperfection Index), CSP, single yarn strength and Hairiness. Keywords:Polyester-cotton blend; Blending ratio; Yarn properties; Performance of blended yarn Blending of various fibers is extensively practiced for uplifting the performance and the aesthetic properties of cloth. Blended of natural fibers with man-made ones can provide the benefits of combining the good properties of both fiber components, such as comfort, softness, strength etc. These advantages also allow an increased variety of products to be made and deliver a stronger marketing advantage [1]. Reckoning of the performance of blended yarns has also been studied by numerous authors [2-5]. Natural fibers and their blends with man-made fibers improve the performance characteristics. They may be used for clothing, underwear, socks, hygienic, textile products as well as for composites [6]. Blending in the cotton spinning process has the aim to make yarn with suitable quality and cost. Use of adequate machines and techniques to select bales and knowledge of its characteristics is necessary to produce a good quality blend [7]. Years back, it had been a common practice to carry out the blending of natural and synthetic fiber in sliver form on the draw frame. The best blend in longitudinal direction was obtained in this way [8]. Department of Textile Engineering, Bangladesh. Li & Yen [9] investigated that, fiber properties have a significant effect on yarn strength. However, Nawaz [10] concluded that the gradual decrease in yarn strength occurs as the share of polyester fibers in the blend decreases. Anandjiwal & Goswami [11] suggested that blending dissimilar fibers lead to their non-uniform distribution throughout the yarn cross section, which in turn, lead to preferential migration depending on both fiber properties and mechanism of spinning process adopted. Therefore, the present study was carried out to figure out the effect of polyester/cotton blend ratio on quality characteristics of resultant yarn. The study was conducted in a well-known spinning mill situated at Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh to see the quality of polyester-cotton blended yarn with respect to blending ratio. In Table 1 & 2 the details of the machineries and equipment’s, used in this study, is given. For the purpose of experiencing the quality of polyester-cotton blended yarn the following cotton and polyester samples are consider, which are shown in Table 3-5 in details. After having the cotton and polyester with mentioned mixing ratio, the resultant yarn was observed for testing the performance depending on the blending ratio. Uster® evenness tester 4 was used to have the quality parameters and performance of the polyester-cotton blended yarn. Here, three types of blend ratio were considered for yarn count of 30s’, i.e., KW (100% Cotton), CVC (60% cotton + 40% polyester) and PC (50% cotton + 50% polyester). The comparison of quality parameters of these three blends was subjected in this study, which is given in Table 6 & 7. Table 1:Detailed overview of the production machineries use is given. Table 2:Detailed overview of the testing equipment’s used is given. Table 3:Mixing ratio of cotton fiber is given. Table 4:Lab testing summary of cotton fiber is given. SCI: Spinning Consistency Index, Mic: Micron Aire Value, M: Maturity Ratio, U%: Uniformity Ratio, SFI: Short Fiber Index, +b: Degree of Yellowness, +Rd: Degree of Reflexes, CG: Color Grade of Cotton, UHML: Upper Half Mean Length Table 5:Ratio of polyester fiber is given. Table 6:Uster test result is given. KW: Carded Yarn for Weaving, CVC: Cheap Value Cotton, PC: Polyester-Cotton Blend, CSP: Count-Strength Product, CV%: Coefficient of Variance, DR: Drawing Ratio, H: Hairiness Value, IPI: Imperfection Index Table 7:Results of single yarn strength tester is given. B. Force: Breaking Force, R. Work: Work of Rupture Figure 1:Effect of polyester/cotton blend ratio on u% & cv%. Figure 1 shows the relationship between the yarn blend ratio and U% & CV% for various blend ratios of cotton and polyester. It is clearly revealed in the graph that U% & CV% decrease gradually with the increase in polyester proportion. We hereby infer that increase in polyester share in blend results in lower U% and CV% and that the increase proportion of polyester brings down yarn U% and CV% to an appreciable extent. A relationship between the blend ratio and...
Machalaba Nn, Lopandina Sk, Kozinda Z Yu, Podgaevskaya Ta, Drobyshev A Yu
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 4, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/tteft.2019.04.000599

Abstract:
Lopandina SK1, Kozinda Z Yu1, Podgaevskaya TA1, Drobyshev A Yu2, Prosycheva OO2 and Machalaba NN2* 1Central Research Institute for Garment Industry, Russia 2 Medicine and Dentistry, Russia *Corresponding author: Machalaba NN, Yevdokimov Moscow State University for Medicine and Dentistry, Russia Submission: November 15, 2018;Published: January 09, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2019.04.000599 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume4 Issue5 Dressing made of materials that have both protective, antimicrobial and sorption properties are most effective in the treatment of postoperative wounds in surgical practice. The developed dressing material consists of fiber components of various chemical nature with one of the layers being treated with antimicrobial drugs [1]. Optimal ratios of raw components and structural parameters of multilayer nonwoven materials were developed based on the results of the research of the kinetics of sorption and desorption of liquid environments imitating exudate, as well as the diffusion of antimicrobial drugs from one structural component of the material to others and into the surrounding space [2]. It was established that the main impact on the absorbing ability of a multilayer nonwoven material is made by the raw material composition of the inner layer. To a lesser degree - the thickness of the material, its surface density and the number of layers [3-6]. There are two stages of the treatment of postoperative wounds, in particular, in oral and maxillofacial surgery: the first (1-5 day) with intensive exudate secretion and the second one (6-9 day) - with moderate exudate secretion. Based on this, two types of nonwoven material (type A, type B), which differ from each other by their surface density, thickness, number of layers and the raw material composition of the inner layer, were developed. Table 1:Multilayer nonwoven materials for the first and second stages of treatment. The uniqueness of the developed material for dressings lies in its multilayer structure. As a layer that fits the wound surface a is canvas [7], made of hygroscopic fiber with antimicrobial treatment used. As the outer layer which retains absorbed exudate a canvas, made of a mixture of fibers, including a fiber with minimal hygroscopicity, is used. Characteristics of multilayer nonwoven materials are presented in Table 1. Besides, dressing the multilayer nonwoven fabric of which lies between the outer layer of a hydrojet nonwoven material and the outer layer of a spunbond nonwoven material that are bonded by ultrasonic welding, was developed [8]. In this case, the outer layer is subjected to antimicrobial treatment. The main indicator characterizing the effectiveness of the dressing, along with its absorbency, is antimicrobial activity which depends on the chemical nature of the drug, its concentration in the material, diffusion into various layers of the material and into the wound cavity [9]. According to the Medical and Technical Requirements and Guidelines for the laboratory evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of textile materials containing antimicrobial drugs, a biologically active (antimicrobial) material is considered to be a material that, when tested in vitro, provides a growth inhibition zone for test microorganisms of at least 4mm [10]. Drugs for antimicrobial treatment were selected on the basis of the results of microbiological research of canvases carried out in the laboratory of the Molecular and Biological Research of the National Institute for Microbiological Research and the Department of Microbiology of the Moscow State University of Medicine and Technology under the direction of Dr. med. Professor Tsarev V.N. Microbiological tests of fibrous canvases treated with drugs of various classes allowed for use in medical practice (furan compounds, antibiotics, sulfonamides, quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorhexidine digluconate) showed that all of them have high antimicrobial activity, 2-3 times higher than the required value (4mm) [11]. Cefazolin and chlorhexidine digluconate in various concentrations were chosen for the treatment of fibrous canvases under production conditions. Research conducted on models of wound surfaces showed that the desorption of an antimicrobial drug from the outer layer of material that fits the wound surface occurs in two directions - to the wound surface due to the difference in concentrations in the wound and the material and in the opposite direction from the outer layer together with absorbed exudate in the inner layer [12]. This process continues until an equilibrium of concentration of the antimicrobial drug in the wound and in the material is established. As a result, about 50% of the antimicrobial drug is desorbed into the wound cavity and on the surrounding skin. A significant part of the drug (about 35%) remains in the canvas that fits the wound surface, the rest (about 15%) is concentrated in the inner layer of nonwoven material [13]. In addition to absorbing ability and antimicrobial activity, atraumatic of the material providing a painless change of dressing, preventing damage to the growing epithelium and surrounding skin affects the healing process of postoperative wounds [14]. Atraumatic is characterized by a degree of adhesion to the model of the wound surface which is determined according to GOST 53498 and should not exceed 3N/cm. Research conducted in the test center for dressing, suture and polymeric materials of the FSBI “Vishnevsky Institute for Surgery”, the results of which are presented in Table 2, showed that the developed multilayer antimicrobial nonwoven materials have a high level of atraumatic, since the degree of their adhesion to the wound surface model is 2-3 times lower than that of gauze napkins most widely used in medical practice. Table 2:The degree of adhesion of multilayer antimicrobial nonwoven materials. Clinical trial of sterilized dressing with cefazolin and chlorhexidine digluconate treatment were carried...
Ferreira Ng, Couto Ab, Matsushima Jt, Edwards Er
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 4, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/tteft.2018.04.000598

Abstract:
Couto AB1, Matsushima JT1, Edwards ER2 and Ferreira NG1* 1 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil 2 Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Brazil *Corresponding author: Ferreira NG, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil Submission: December 10, 2018;Published: December 14, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2018.04.000598 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume4 Issue5 Copper/carbon fiber (Cu/CF) composites by electroless Cu deposition were studied on carbon fibers (CF) produced at three different heat treatment temperatures (HTT) of 1000, 1500, and 2000 °C. The HTT control led to different CF graphitization indexes that influenced their chemistry surfaces. As a consequence, the electrochemical and chemical pre-treatments of the CF played distinct role by forming different oxygen functional groups also influencing the Cu deposition. CF substrates as well as Cu/CF composites were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR results revealed that both pre-treatments promoted CF surface modifications concerning the OH stretching vibrations for the three HTT studied. Nonetheless, the OH stretching vibration was more intense for all electrochemically pre-treated CFs. Moreover, the C-O and C=O stretching vibrations also appeared for the electrochemically pre-treated CF1000. Cu electroless deposition showed a strong dependence on the CF microstructure acquired after the HTT as well as on the pre-treatment step. The electrochemical pre-treatment was mandatory to obtain metallic Cu deposits on CF substrates. Regarding the nitrate electrochemical reduction, Cu/CF composites obtained from electrochemically treated CFs showed the nitrate reduction to nitrite followed by ammonia formation. Keywords: Carbon fiber; Graphitization index; Copper deposition; Electroless process; Heat treatment temperature Deposition of metal particles on carbon fibers (CF) is important to produce composite that could be considered as a threedimensional material with large surface area for electrochemical applications. Copper (Cu) is the most common chemical element considering the transition metals since it presents excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. Particularly, Cu was adopted considering its use as potential electrode material to study the nitrogen compounds removal from the polluted waters [ref]. The control of nitrogen species is of great interest since the accumulation of these species on surface and ground water is linked to a high number of ecological and human health concerns [1]. In this sense, the development of methodologies economically viable and environmentally friendly has been studied for this purpose [2,3]. There are many attempts to produce Cu/CF composites by different routes like, liquid infiltration process [4], sputtering [5], electrodeposition [6], physical vapor deposition (PVD) [7], wetness technique [8], and electroless deposition [9]. The electroless plating has emerged in recent years due to its low cost, fast deposition rate, good filling capability, and low process temperatures [10]. Thus, the preparation of this type of composite using electroless process for application in electrochemical removal of nitrogen species in water is proposed in this paper. CF substrates may be produced from different precursors and at different heat treatment temperature (HTT), which may promote different organization indexes on the CF structures [11]. In the Cu electroless process, the CF chemical inertness may result in a poor adhesion of the Cu. Thus, a hard pre-treatment is needed for cleaning the surface and creating anchor points on the CF samples [12]. These anchor points are groups that appear on the CF surface, such as, hydroxyl (O-H), carboxylic (C=O) and carbonylic (C-O), which have covalent bonds at the edge and at the structural defects on CF samples. The specific pre-treatments can be obtained using different oxidation techniques, such as, oxygen plasma [13] boiling in strong acids [14], ozone exposure [15] and electrochemical oxidation [16]. It is known that different oxygen-containing groups are produced using different oxidation techniques or exposures. Furthermore, the result of the oxidation process as a function of both the amount of oxygen as well as the type of carbon-oxygen groups may also depend on the nature of CF surface. We present the Cu/CF composites formation by electroless process on CF produced at three different HTT of 1000, 1500, and 2000 °C. In this context, the goal of this work is to investigate the relationship between the HTT influence on CF structures as well as on their surface pre-treatments (chemical and electrochemical) on the Cu electroless deposition. In addition, these Cu/CF composites were used as electrode for electroreduction of nitrogen species. The CF samples were produced from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor at different HTT of 1000, 1500 and 2000 °C using temperature steps of 330 °C h-1 under inert atmosphere of nitrogen, reaching the maximum during 30min up to its cooling down to room temperature. The CF samples were analyzed in the conditions of carbon fibers without pre-treatment (WT-CF), carbon fibers with chemical pre-treatment (CT-CF) and carbon fibers with electrochemical pre-treatment (ET-CF). The numbers that appear in the sequence of these notations are related to CF HTT. Two surface pre-treatments were carried out on the CF samples: (1) for chemical process the CF were dispersed in boiling acetone for 5min and sonification with ultrasonic vibration using an ultrasonic probe of Sonic Model VCX 750W for 5min in a H2SO4/ K2Cr2O7 solution; (2) for electrochemical process, the samples were anodically polarized using 0.5mol L-1 H2SO4 in a fixed potential of 2.0V for 30min. Prior to the Cu electroless process, the sensitization on the CF was achieved using a solution of 40mLL-1 HCl containing 0.04mol L-1 SnCl2 for 5min...
Saravanan D
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/tteft.2018.04.000597

Abstract:
Saravanan D* and Vijayasekar R Department of Textile Technology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, India *Corresponding author: Saravanan D, Department of Textile Technology, India Submission: December 04, 2018;Published: December 11, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2018.04.000597 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume4 Issue5 Oil spills happen in the sea and land, causing serious damages to the environment. Crude oil is a mixture of gas, naphtha, kerosene, and residuals, which cause health hazards if consumed by any life forms or when it is accidentally spilled. Spills of very low quantities to more than a million gallons of oils have been reported in the past, whose impacts are still evident to various elements associated in those environments. Many anthropogenic reasons including offshore drilling and production operations, oil spills from ships / tankers and natural seeps are the major sources of oil spills. Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread hundreds of nautical miles in a thin continuous oil slick, which can also cover beaches with a coating of oil. The direction of wind, difficult to predict in the oceans, which can move relatively longer distance, is the major concern and in turn extends the extent of problems faced in remedial measures. Though it is often difficult to estimate the quantity of spill exactly, by observing the thickness of the film of oil and its appearance on the surface of the water, it is possible to estimate the quantity of oil spilled. If the surface area of the spill is also known, the total volume of the oil can be calculated, to a larger extent. Oil spills may impact the environment in terms of physical smothering of organisms, chemical toxicity, ecological changes and many other indirect effects. As the oil on the sea surface evaporates, different organic compounds enter the air from the oil slick. Oil spills kill marine mammals such as whales, dolphins by clogging their blowholes, making difficult for them to breathe properly. Oil destroys the insulating ability and water repellency of fur-bearing mammals, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh conditions. Without the ability to repel water and insulate from the cold conditions, birds and mammals die from hypothermia. Larval fish, plankton, seaweed, mussels, oysters, turtles, algae, and fish, are all considerably affected by the oil spill in the marine environment. Oil also clogs up the gills of the fish that live there and suffocates them. Common problems observed among the nearby habitats include behavioral changes, blindness, damages to internal organs, spread among the habitats, sores and stress. Losing tons of oil, which is not only a natural source of energy but also a depleting source, has a severe impact on a country’s economy that leads to severe setback. Prevention measures are focused to avoid the release of oils into the environment and also based upon early warning and provide details about the breadth of oil slick, popularly known as ‘hot spots’ to initiate clean-up processes. There are no official records related to the incidents of big oil spills in the sea, in the early 1500s spill due to natural seep has been reported near California. Later, oil spills were reported in various locations at different time frames, near US during 1859 near Pennsylvania and 1889 Los Angeles. International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has tracked 9,351 accidental spills since 1974 and there have been 18 major oil spill incidents, involving the total quantities in excess of 100,000 tonnes of oil spills. When different kinds of oils enter the sea, physical, chemical and biological reactions start with different rates. After a few hours of spill, because of the effects of wind, wave actions and turbulence of water, the slicks begin to break up and, form narrow bands or windrows parallel to the wind direction and disintegrates into fragments that spread over larger areas. Turbulence in sea water and mixing oil and water result in emulsification of oil-in-water, also known as mousse. Some of the physio-chemical reactions that might happen to the oil in water include weathering, spreading, evaporation, dispersion, emulsification, dissolution, oxidation, sedimentation and biodegradation. It is critical to contain the spill as quickly as possible, in order to minimize danger to human beings and to the environment. Cleaning up of oil spill is not an easy task and factors including quantity and viscosity of oil, temperature of water (influencing evaporation and biodegradation), type of shoreline and beaches other factors relevant to the affected sites need to be considered and might take months or years to complete the clean-up. Techniques used in order to reduce oil spill consequences include containment techniques - used to limit the spread of oil (predominantly with booms) and to allow for its recovery, removal or dispersal, and clean-up techniques-booms used in recovering oil, skimmers, sorbents, dispersants in addition to other alternative systems like in-situ burning and biological methods. Alternately, these techniques are also categorized into physical techniques, chemical techniques and biological techniques. Often the response involves a combination of all these approaches. Oil biodegrades over a period of time into harmless substances such as fatty acids and carbon dioxide. The biodegradation can further be facilitated by the addition such microorganisms into the spilled environment and micro-nutrients that support the growth of microorganisms, i.e. bioremediation or using suitable genetically modified organisms. Though different options are available to treat the oil spills chemically, they tend to leave unwanted effects like creating air pollution in the form of SOx, Nox, carbon residues and concentrated heavy pollutants in the sea environment. Though application of chemical dispersants facilitate the formation of smaller droplets of...
Silvia S Oishi, Marta Santos, Neidenei G Ferreira2
Trends in Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Volume 4, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/tteft.2018.04.000596

Abstract:
Marta Santos1,2, Silvia S Oishi2* and Neidenei G Ferreira2 1 Faculty of Technology of the State of São Paulo (Fatec), Brazil 2 LAS, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil *Corresponding author: Silvia S Oishi, LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos-SP, CEP 12227-010, Brazil. Submission: November 21, 2018;Published: December 04, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/TTEFT.2018.04.000596 ISSN 2578-0271 Volume4 Issue5 CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond deposition on different materials requires surface treatment such as diamond particles seeding on the substrate dispersed in an appropriate solvent by using ultrasonic agitation. On the other hand, seeding process by electrostatic attraction of nanodiamond particle have produced films with higher nucleation density compared to that obtained from ultrasonic treatment. In addition, nucleation and growth of micro/nanocrystalline boron doped diamond films (BDD/NBDD) on titanium (Ti) substrates represent a complex process, mainly due to the poor film adhesion related to the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the substrate. Thus, the substrate morphology associated to the seeding process can be determinant for this adhesion. In this context, the adhesion of BDD and NBDD films on Ti substrate was systematically considered in five different Ti surface roughness associated to two different seeding processes: ultrasonic agitation with 0.25μm diamond particle and electrostatic seeding with 4nm diamond particle in potassium chloride. Thus, twenty different diamond film sample sets were grown by CVD technique following the combinations of BDD and NBDD morphologies, Ti roughnesses, and seeding methodologies. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adhesion tests were performed by the Rockweel hardness test according to VDI 3198. The results showed that the BDD and NBDD films grown with electrostatic seeding with 4nm diamond particle presented the best adhesion regardless of substrate roughness while only the Ti substrates with higher roughness presented good adhesion for ultrasonic agitation pre-treatment with 0.25μm diamond particle. These results indicate that the electrostatic seeding pre-treatment associated with greater surface roughness have an important role in improving diamond films adhesion for the two studied morphologies. Keywords: Micro/nanocrystalline boron doped diamond; HFCVD; Diamond seeding; Titanium; Adhesion CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond deposition on titanium (Ti) substrate is a way to promote a significant improvement for industrial applications especially as electrodes since Ti present corrosion and mechanical stability in addition to the good electrochemical properties of boron doped diamond (BDD) [1,2]. Different authors have been studying diamond adhesion on Ti as well as the Ti surface pretreatment using different processes [1,3,4]. The manual substrate scratching or abrasion by different diamond powders can increase the diamond nucleation rate [5]. One of the most widely used approaches is the substrate seeding with diamond particles dispersed in an appropriate solvent accompanied by ultrasonic agitation [6,7]. Other widely used method in the scientific and the more efficient the BEN (from English Bias Enhanced Nucleation. The process consists in applying a difference of potential between the substrate and the activation region. With this potential difference, the ions are accelerated toward the substrate promoting an increase in nucleation density [8]. This is one of the most efficient processes reported in the literature, since the nucleation rate is from 108 up to 1011cm-2. A process as efficient as BEN, but without the inconvenient incorporation of graphite particles in the film, is the process of seeding with 4nm diamond particles on the substrate. This process consists in saturate the surface of the substrate with nanometric diamond, before the process of growth and, thus, to obtain a high nucleation density [9]. Depending on the treatment, the nucleation rates can reach densities of the order of 1011cm-2. For the electrostatic interaction between diamond nanoparticles and substrate, Kim et al. [10] have discussed the process called the ESAND (Electrostatic Self-assembly Seeding of Nanocrystalline Diamond), in which the substrate surface energy was modified from functionalization with a polymer soluble in water or in another solvent [10]. This technique allowed them to produce a polycrystalline diamond onto an oxide film without mechanical damage. Besides the seeding process, the substrate roughness also represents a significant contribution on diamond film adhesion that can be favorable on its anchorage course. Mallik et al. [11] have discussed the substrate roughness influence on diamond growth on silicon substrate. They concluded that the substrate roughness has a strong effect on the morphology and quality of diamond coatings grown on Si (100) substrate by hot filament CVD technique. As the depth of valley increases with surface roughness, more diamond particles get embedded within the asperities and through of the surface enhancing diamond nucleation in addition to improve its growth behavior. Lim et al. [1] have also studied the stability of Ti-based BDD (boron doped diamond) electrode involving the surface roughening. They showed that a roughened substrate surface is essential to reduce the thermal stress built-up in the BDD film grown on the Ti substrate and, consequently, improving the diamond film adhesion. Taking in mind the above information, a systematic study was performed concerning the adhesion of BDD and NBDD (nanocrystalline boron doped diamond) films on Ti substrate. Five different Ti surface roughness were considered for two different seeding processes: ultrasonic agitation with...
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