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Results in Journal Tourism and Travelling: 18

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Ben Sidiq, Mobolaji Stephens, Wilfred Ukpere
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 3, pp 16-24; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.3(1).2021.03

Abstract:
In recent years domestic airlines are improving their services, and the major airlines in Nigeria are ahead of others based on superior strategies; in fact, some airlines are not fully utilized, which affects their profitability, while others are highly utilized. Market dynamics and regulatory forces are the key variables that influence airline attributes, features, and developments, but this is most evident where each airline competes for passengers despite the different route choices and airports of departure. This study aimed to examine the significant variables that are currently influencing air travelers’ preference for domestic airlines in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through systematic and random sampling of air passengers, and a questionnaire was employed for data analysis. In Lagos and Abuja airports, 757 and 682 questionnaires were administered respectively with 71.1% and 61.9% returned respectively. Regression analysis was utilized to analyze the primary data. The study found that time, safety, and fare are the most influencing factors determining passenger choice of domestic airlines in Nigeria. The current findings are crucial for policymaking, particularly during the phase of airline planning and management especially during the Covid-19 pandemic era that has challenged the economic buoyancy and the purchasing power of passengers.
Ramdas Lad
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 3, pp 3-15; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.3(1).2021.02

Abstract:
Nainital is a famous tourist destination of India, attracting hundreds of both domestic and foreign tourists every year. Some of the important places in the district are Nainital City, Hanumangarhi, Haldwani, Kaladhungi, Ramnagar, Bhowali, Ramgarh, Mukteshwar, Bhimtal, Sattal and Naukuchiatal. However, Nainital also faces an unsure future, near-stripped of its natural heritage, invaded by vested interests. Moreover, it is converting into concrete jungles. There is an urgent need to embrace conservation of natural resources and to conserve and cherish the value of local traditions, customs and cultural heritage. Thus, ecotourism has a huge potential to attract tourists to Uttarakhand State without destroying or degrading the natural or cultural assets that the visitor has come to see. The primary data was collected using questioners filled mainly by tourists, chief executives, senior managers, mangers and other staff of the organizations. Statistical tools were used to analyze data. In addition, secondary data was taken from the various journals, books and research papers. It was revealed that ecotourism would provide employment and business opportunities to trained individuals of the state. Accordingly, conservation management and tourism activities may provide equitable, social and cultural benefits to men and women of Nainital community through education, training and creation of full time employment opportunities.
Alla Okhrimenko, Liudmila Bovsh
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 45-59; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.06

Abstract:
The sustainable development of tourism, which provides for natural and cultural and historical resource-saving and increase, observing the environmental standards becomes dominant and is a requirement for tourism successful development. The main direction of sustainable tourism development within a certain country – national tourist system (NTS) is inclusiveness. According to the results of human and inclusive development indicators, the volumes of employment in tourism, there were defined the problems of Ukraine concerning the insufficient level of human development, the presence of displaced population from the military actions zone and the population that suffers from grievances and has features of poverty. It is emphasized that NTS can implement the inclusive business models through such key foundations: Particular attention is paid to substantiating the mutual satisfaction of the economic interests of stakeholders when forming the NTS inclusive business models. There was elaborated the vision of possible key strategies of business entities for expanding the economic opportunities in the context of inclusive development. According to the study results, there was presented the architectonics of the interaction of NTS subjects when implementing the inclusive business models, where the groups of stakeholders, directions, forms of activity, and possible effects of their implementation were defined. Attention is paid to the need for further systemic studies of the considered problem in response to challenges and threats to tourism as a global social, environmental, and economic phenomenon.
Apostolos D. Zaridis, Helen Soldatou, Anna-Ipapanti Soldatou
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.05

Abstract:
The hospitality industry is an increasingly developed sector in the international economy, and innovation and its results are relatively new subject of research. The purpose of this study is to identify the innovation initiatives that have been implemented in a particular sector, especially in the last decade, as well as those strategies and practices, which help to innovate in this sector worldwide. Based on an Online Desk Research, information was collected from some sources, i.e. electronic databases, business press and hospitality industry. The authors found out that these innovative activities include technological and non-technological activities that enterprises of the industry try to exploit and gain a competitive advantage in the market. A significant part of sector-specific innovation involves innovation implemented more on procedures and management than on the product itself. Technological or non-technological innovations have been used over the last decade by the hospitality sector enterprises to improve their ranking in competition. Operating several innovative activities of this kind should support businesses in the industry to gain one or more competitive advantages in the hospitality market, and the enterprises which are trying to innovate in this sector should implement a business growth strategy, but all of these activities need to be included in an integrated and appropriate business model.
, Amanj Ahmad Hamdamin Dewana, Saadaldeen Muhammad Nuri Saed
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.04

Abstract:
The tourism industry has been one of the leading service industries in the global economy in recent years and the number of international tourism in 2018 reached 1.4 billion. The goal of the research is to evaluate the performance of various methods for forecasting tourism data and predict the number of tourists during 2019 and 2022. Performance of 15 prediction models (i.e. Local linear structural, Naïve, Holt, Random walk, ARIMA) was compared. Based on error measurements matrix (i.e. RMSE, MAE, MAPE, MASE), the most accurate method was selected to forecast the total number of tourists from 2019 to 2022 to Kurdistan Region (KR), then forecasts were performed for each governorate in KR. The results show that among 15 examined models of tourist forecasting in KR, Local linear structural and ARIMA (7,3,0) model performed best. The number of tourists to KR and each governorate in KR is predicted to increase by most experimented models, especially those which demonstrated higher accuracy. Generally, the number of tourist to KR predicted by ARIMA (7,3,0) is a lot bigger than Local linear structure. Linear structural predicted the number increase to 3,137,618 and 3,462,348 in 2020 and 2022, respectively, while ARIMA (7,3,0) predicted the number of tourists to KR to increase rapidly to 3,748,416 and 8,681,398 in 2020 and 2022.
Bożena Sanetra, Sabina Sanetra-Półgrabi
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.03

Abstract:
The article indicates the role of local authorities in influencing the development of tourism, including the creation of regional tourism products. The aim of paper is to define and characterize the capabilities of local authorities concerning the development of tourism, including legal, organizational, investment and promotional instruments. Also, the importance of regional tourism products was substantiated, including their structure, conditions and approaches to creation as well, as their role in regional development. The article is an introduction to in-depth research on the importance of regional tourism products in providing social and cultural security.
, Efigénio Rebelo
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.02

Abstract:
The customer loyalty plays a vital role within the Tourism and Hospitality industry. It is very important to make sure the customers are satisfied and remain as loyal as possible, because the loyal customers work as a good promotion tool as they spread the WoM (word of mouth) within their friends, family, relatives and others. On the contrary, not being satisfied to the service or product may translate into a negative feedback, which can lead to a bad image for the business of a certain destination. The main purpose of this study is to identify the variables that are significant to explain loyalty to Portugal, as a touristic destination. Moreover, this study also aims to quantify the impacts of those variables to the probability of different types of costumers being loyal to this destination. Based on an online survey which included significant number of travelers from six continents and travelers to Portugal were asked about their appreciation in different aspects. Then, all the data received through the survey was introduced in SPSS and analyzed using a binary logistic regression. Using the right modelling strategy, the authors have been able to find the appropriate model for the current study and that is overall high-quality infrastructure (transportations, gastronomy, information centers), appealing climate (humidity, temperature, sunny days) and satisfaction with price & marketing (travel packages, value for money, variety in travel products) can improve travelers’ loyalty to Portugal.
Anzor Devadze, , Fedir Zhuravka
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2018.01

Abstract:
Recently, there has been a sharp increase in the number of foreign tourists and revenues from international tourism in Georgia. At the same time, it was noted that the country’s tourism potential is not being used effectively enough, and the main reason for this is the insufficient development of the infrastructure of the tourism industry. The main problems that hamper the development of international tourism in the country are identified. In order to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism industry in Georgia and to achieve its significant improvement, the relevant strategic objectives have been developed.
Anzor Devadze, , Fedir Zhuravka
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2019.01

Abstract:
Recently, there has been a sharp increase in the number of foreign tourists and revenues from international tourism in Georgia. At the same time, it was noted that the country’s tourism potential is not being used effectively enough, and the main reason for this is the insufficient development of the infrastructure of the tourism industry. The main problems that hamper the development of international tourism in the country are identified. In order to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism industry in Georgia and to achieve its significant improvement, the relevant strategic objectives have been developed.
Bożena Sanetra, Sabina Sanetra-Półgrabi
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2018.03

Abstract:
The article indicates the role of local authorities in influencing the development of tourism, including the creation of regional tourism products. The aim of paper is to define and characterize the capabilities of local authorities concerning the development of tourism, including legal, organizational, investment and promotional instruments. Also, the importance of regional tourism products was substantiated, including their structure, conditions and approaches to creation as well, as their role in regional development. The article is an introduction to in-depth research on the importance of regional tourism products in providing social and cultural security.
Yusuf Hossein Khan, Efigénio Rebelo
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 2, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.2(1).2018.02

Abstract:
The customer loyalty plays a vital role within the Tourism and Hospitality industry. It is very important to make sure the customers are satisfied and remain as loyal as possible, because the loyal customers work as a good promotion tool as they spread the WoM (word of mouth) within their friends, family, relatives and others. On the contrary, not being satisfied to the service or product may translate into a negative feedback, which can lead to a bad image for the business of a certain destination. The main purpose of this study is to identify the variables that are significant to explain loyalty to Portugal, as a touristic destination. Moreover, this study also aims to quantify the impacts of those variables to the probability of different types of costumers being loyal to this destination. Based on an online survey which included significant number of travelers from six continents and travelers to Portugal were asked about their appreciation in different aspects. Then, all the data received through the survey was introduced in SPSS and analyzed using a binary logistic regression. Using the right modelling strategy, the authors have been able to find the appropriate model for the current study and that is overall high-quality infrastructure (transportations, gastronomy, information centers), appealing climate (humidity, temperature, sunny days) and satisfaction with price & marketing (travel packages, value for money, variety in travel products) can improve travelers’ loyalty to Portugal.
, Mohamed Nabil, Hossam Shehata
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 34-50; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.04

Abstract:
This research aims at describing and validating differences in word-of-mouth-related (WOM) behaviors and referral intentions according to consumers’ characteristics; demographic (gender/age), socio-economic (education), and consumption patterns (frequency of outdoor dining/restaurant type preferences). Thus, restaurant operators can better target their opinion leaders, and maximize WOM marketing potential. 221 valid questionnaires were collected from restaurant customers, covering consumer characteristics and basic WOM-related behaviors. Results concerning basic WOM-related variables conformed logically to relevant previous studies. Females, teenagers and youth, and quick-service restaurant (QSR) diners were more WOM-dependent for their outdoor dining decisions. Meanwhile, males, matures and QSR customers have been more active referrers for unpleasant dining experiences. University students showed less response for WOM referrals concerning unpleasant experiences, while being the more active referrers for unpleasant meal and foodservice encounters. It was also noted that the less the frequency of outdoor dining, the more dependent are consumers on WOM referrals, and the more referring to unpleasant dining experiences. Most available WOM-related literature spots mainly on WOM-related issues, such as its popularity vs. other types of media, and referral intentions responding to pleasant or unpleasant dining experiences. Differently, the current study concludes by determining restaurants’ key opinion leaders; that is, most active WOM referrers and most WOM-sensitive segments, based on main consumer characteristics and behaviors. Thus, restaurant operators can better tailor and target their WOM-related marketing efforts.
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 51-57; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.05

Abstract:
Hotel industry is growing at a very fast pace in the recent years, especially in developing countries like India its growth is significant. Increase in the income of middle class Indian plays a significant role in this. Nowadays a lot of Indian families go for lunch, dinner and also for refreshments to the hotels and the most significant part is the increase in number of holiday’s package taken by the Indian families. This leads to the increase in number of hotels in India, but as the industry grows it also increases the number of problems for hotel industry. In this paper author tries to take a look on these problems and also suggest some points to overcome this problems. This paper takes a look on general problems of hotel industry in Uttarakhand (India). The place is among the top ten most preferred states by tourists in India but it is also the state which faces a lot of problems in hospitality industry, mostly because of its geography.
Roxanna Michaelides
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 15-19; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.02

Abstract:
The purpose of this article/research is to explore and analyze three most important factors that directly can affect the Culture of service in European Hospitality Industry. The paper of this study showed that relationship between the quality of education in Hospitality and Leisure, the poor recruitment and especially the lack of continuing education influence the guest’s service and its quality. The findings reveal that the employee’s culture of service is a critical attribute; while unsatisfactory recruitment, low education and the most critical element lack of continuing education influence negative the guest satisfaction and expectations.
Ashraf Tag-Eldeen, Mona Barakat, Hesham Dar
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 4-14; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.01

Abstract:
In today’s competitive business environment, human resources are one of the most critical assets particularly for service-focused organizations. Consequently, employees’ morale has become invaluable for maintaining outstanding organizational performance and retaining employees. One of the most important factors which may affect employees’ satisfaction is workplace bullying from employers and colleagues at large. It is considered a negative and unethical issue which may degrade, humiliate and create a risk to a healthy working environment. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to investigate the extent to which workplace bullying may affect the organizational outcomes of a sample of five-star hotels in Egypt. Two questionnaires were distributed among the subjects of the sample; bell desk staff, kitchen stewards and head departments. The results of this research confirmed that there is a correlation between workplace bullying, employees’ morale and turnover intentions but, showed no correlation between workplace bullying and employees’ work performance.
Mariya Stankova, Ivanka Vasenska
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.06

Abstract:
Nowadays tourism is one of the few branches which creates jobs in the big Bulgarian cities and big tourist centers as in the rural and mountain areas, providing variety of opportunities for over fifty kinds of specialists from different ages. In those frames, the aim of this paper is to unveil, analyze and evaluate the possibilities for enhancing its competitiveness at destination level trough a sustainable planning model. The object of study is the competitiveness of tourism destination Bulgaria according to The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index. We have combined the expert method and the method of observation, applicable for the analysis of competitiveness, as well as the adopted Index methodology. Moreover, together with its comprehension, the paper suggests a model for sustainable planning and development for the surveyed tourism destination.
Arun Sharma, Suman Sharma
Tourism and Travelling, Volume 1, pp 20-33; https://doi.org/10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.03

Abstract:
Incredible tangible and intangible heritage of India play a vital role towards the nation’s overall growth and development. Ancient literature posse’s sufficient references about the travelers, scholars and philosophers those preserved and portrayed the heritage for future generation which is apparently visible from various travelers’ diaries, traditions and exhibitions. Despite a difficulty in finding out the right sentiment for expressing the true meaning of heritage, the concept of heritage has been explored to its core for an acceptable definition in this research study. This study suggests that heritage can act as an important holistic development tool for the overall community development. The opinion of stakeholders was recorded with the help of a questionnaire administered on local community nearby places of historic significance. The study provides ample scope and opportunities towards heritage tourism development in India as per stakes of local community. According to Mahatma Gandhi “A nation’s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people”. Therefore local community has been considered as the ultimate ambassador for heritage and cultural tourism in this research paper.
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