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Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6;

Increased levels of bilirubin in blood serum may result from numerous physical conditions including hepatitis, cirrhosis, enzyme deficiency, drug reactions, autoimmune disorders and physiological trauma. No presumptive test for high bilirubin levels in blood serum stains currently exists, which could prove useful in the assessment of crime scenes involving victims with one of the above disorders. Here, the use of ultraviolet 365 (UV 365) is described as a simple, nondestructive method for the detection of blood serum containing elevated levels of bilirubin.
Niranjan Harshita, Rai Shweta, Raikwar Kapil, Kamle Chanchal, Mia Rakesh
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 045-048;

Background: Fingerprint development techniques are being used for a long time and are considered one among the oldest methods in forensic science used to identify suspects. Fingerprints are one of the most significant types of physical evidence. There are various types of fingerprint patterns such as visible, plastic and latent. In criminal investigation cases, chance fingerprint impressions are mostly found at the crime scene. These prints are generally invisible and therefore require several development methods. The powder dusting technique of developing fingerprints involves the application of fine powder on the impression of the print with the help of a brush such as glass fiber or a camel hair brush. Main text: This paper rather focuses on various unconventional powder methods than the widely used conventional ones. This will help identify other cheaper, non-toxic powders that are commonly available as an alternative to the expensive, toxic ones. The author’s main aim is to provide a collective review of the work of other scientists in order to identify everyday materials, commonly available that can be used as possible means to develop a fingerprint impression. Conclusion: For a better result, the unconventional powder is used on different surfaces i.e. porous, non-porous, and semi-porous for latent fingerprint impressions. After developing impressions on different surfaces, we conclude our result that unconventional powder is very useful.
Ray Pranav Kumar
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 042-044;

The study has been undertaken to investigate the determination of digital financial fraud (cyber fraud) in Jamtara district of Jharkhand (the hub of cyber fraudsters) the basic tools & techniques which are used by the offenders and to find out the socio-economic condition of their social life & find the new challenging in cybercrime investigation and to find out the more secure way of digital financial flow, by using survey research method and work on secondary as well primary data which was related to this study, cybercrime especially financial fraud becomes the new challenging task for law enforcement agencies. Digital financial frauds are being within an undefined jurisdiction so it becomes more difficult to investigate the cases and due to other different public as well private sectors of service providers like the telecom companies and the banks are unable to make the defensive system for their customer also. This is the main reason for delays in cyber-related case investigation and a very low conviction rate in cyber-related cases.
Saha Dhananjoy, Dhabal Sampa, Sen Dhrubo Jyoti
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 024-041;

Forensic analysis of explosives includes analysis of post-explosion residues, and detection and identification of traces of explosives on suspects’ hands, on clothing, and on other related items. Preliminary field tests may be used for screening the debris on the explosion site. They include commercially available explosive vapor detectors and chemical color tests. Like post-explosion residues, personal items suspected to contain traces of explosives and hand-swabs, are often heavily contaminated. It is therefore of major importance that the analytical procedures have to include good screening, clean-up, and extraction methods. The main explosives dealt with in this chapter include nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4,6, N-tetranitro-N-methyl aniline (tetryl), nitrate esters, such as ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerin, NG), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitramine explosives, such as 1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, (RDX) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX), as well as mixtures containing one or more of these explosives. Additional explosives include triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), NH4NO3.
Nj Obosi, Ao Akpantah, Vb Archibong, Go Duru
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 017-023;

The lip print pattern is the characteristic pattern of the wrinkles and grooves present on the labial mucosa. This study evaluated the determination of sex among indigenes of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using lip print patterns. 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females), aged 18-25 years participated in the study. With written consent, lip prints were collected from the subjects. Samples were analyzed using Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification of lip prints. The lip samples were analyzed as a whole and then divided into six portions Right Upper Portions, Middle Upper Portion, Left Upper Portion, Right Lower Portion, Middle Lower Portion and Left Lower Portion and analyzed differently. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and T - test analysis. The result shows that the most prevalent lip print in males considering the lip as a whole is Type I (29%) while that of the females is Type I’ (32%). In six portions, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the lip print patterns in male and female subjects in the Right Upper Portion (25.960), Left Upper Portion (15.455) and Middle Left Portion (19.948) suggesting that these portions can be effectively used for sex determination among these indigenes. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the thickness of lip in males and in females but, the lower lip was significantly thicker (p < 0.01) than the upper lip in both gender. Results also showed that the length of lips in males was significantly longer (p < 0.01) than that of females. This study, therefore, concludes that determination of sex among indigenes of Akwa Ibom State using lip length and lip print patterns in specific portions of Right Upper Portion, Left Upper Portion and Middle Left Portion can be effectively done.
Kumar Naresh, Jain Rahul, Seerat, Chauhan Amit, Verma Deepa
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 012-016;

The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of species identification of unknown biological samples for forensic applications, especially in illegal trade of animals as well as meat fraud. Meat fraud and adulteration not only affects the market but also increases the risk of religious and ethnic conflicts around the world [1]. In this study, species-specific and gender differentiating Real time PCR technique was employed to analyse 15 meat samples collected from a suspected site. Out of 15 samples collected from suspected site, 54% and 13% samples were of Cow and buffalo origin respectively. All 54% cow samples were of male while one each of buffalo were of male and female origin. Two samples were inconclusive. These findings indicated that species and gender-specific PCR is very sensitive and can be used for forensic species identification and the detection of meat fraud and adulteration.
Nsor Bassey, Hm Inuwa
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 001-005;

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction has considerably evolved since it was initially performed back in 1869. It is the first step required for many of the available downstream applications used in the field of molecular biology and forensic science. Blood samples is one of the main body fluid used to obtain DNA. This experiment used other body fluids such as saliva, sweat tears and mucus. There are many different protocols available to perform nucleic acid extraction on such samples. These methods vary from very basic manual protocols to more sophisticated methods included in automated DNA extraction protocols. This experiment used extraction kit (Zymo research). The DNA result from isolated saliva samples on the facemask range from 133.7, 213.6, 599.1 and 209.1 mg/ml. theoretically; such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 707.7, 202.5, 99.2, and 62.6 mg/ml. Theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 615.3, 66.2, 78.5, and 68.2 mg/ml. theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. Extracted DNA from saliva and sweat produced visible bands on agarose gel, mucous stain produce obscure band on agarose gel and the tears stain produce invisible bands. DNA from sweat satin, saliva stain, mucus stain and tears stain in face mask can be used as alternative for forensic investigation.
Afrifah Kofi Adjapong, Badu-Boateng Alexander, Antwi-Akomeah Samuel, Motey Eva Emefa, Boampong Emmanuel, Adjem David Agyemang, Owusu-Afriyie Osei, Donkor Augustine
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 6, pp 006-011;

DNA identification is very important in cases of high decomposition of dead bodies, in which the bodies cannot be identified by physical means. To compare the results of DNA typing, it is necessary to have related subjects with which to perform comparative analyses. Such tests are normally performed by comparing DNA profiles from people known to be immediate family members of the presumptive victim, such as parents or children because they share half of their genetic material with the unidentified. We report on how DNA analysis was used to solve a case of mixed-up bodies at a local mortuary in Ghana, West Africa. Two families and three buried human remains were in contention in this case. The first body (E9) was buried three months before exhumation. The second body (E11) was buried two and a half months before exhumation whiles the third body (E10) was buried a month before exhumation. Exhibit E5 was taken from an alleged child of the deceased, E11. Toenails of the exhumed bodies were sampled by a pathologist and used for DNA extractions using the QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes. All samples gave a quality amount of genomic DNA after quantification. DNA was amplified with a GlobalFiler PCR amplification kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes. The human remains (exhibit E11) cannot be excluded as the biological father of the child (exhibit E5) because they share common alleles at all 23 genetic loci. The applicable combined paternity index was 17218125604.492 assuming a prior probability of 0.5. The probability of paternity is 99.99999999%. Based on this relationship testing, one of the bodies was successfully identified and handed over to the family for re-burial.
Stephen Omorogbe Owen, Kelvin Orhue Osazee, Edeaghe Ehikhamenor, Udogadi Nwawuba Stanley
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 053-057;

The main aim of forensic science is to gather intelligence to enable the judge to credible and logical decisions in the court by means of scientific approach through evaluation of evidence for the administration of justice, and country around the world now considers forensic methodology as the gold standard for criminal investigation. Therefore, the present study examined the level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation in Nigeria. The design used in this study is the survey research design and the sample size of this study was a total of one hundred personnel of law enforcement and the judiciary. The study adopted descriptive statistics which involves the use of frequency and percentage. The result of the present study revealed that the participants were distributed socio-demographically as follows; there was an observable higher number of male participants (68%) relative to the female participants (32%), As per age distribution, a larger population of the participants were found to be > 40 years of age with 55%, and it was observed that age between 35-39 years ranked the least with 15%. On educational level, the result of the present study revealed that majority of the participants possesses a bachelor’s degree as the highest level of educational qualification with 75% from a pool of 100% of participants. The present study further examined responses on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation, and the result revealed an inadequate level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation. Therefore, the study recommends that the Nigerian Police Force and the Judiciary should collaborate with Universities running programs on forensics for trainings.
, Carmen Miziara Silvia Molleis Galego
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 048-052;

Introduction: The tendency to impulsive behaviors and/or violence is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. Still, the relation between alcohol/violent deaths reported in the literature is not accurate, and in general, alcohol is only seen as a trigger to aggressive actions. The relationship of the victims with their blood alcohol is less studied. They were especially concerned about the role of alcohol as a risk factor for victims of unnatural death. Thus, our goal is to check the influence of alcohol in victims of violent deaths as homicides, suicides, and accidents. Materials and methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 805 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine (IML) of Franco da Rocha, in the period 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. The variables studied were sex, age, types of violent death rates, and alcohol - these were considered positive when above 0.3 mg/ml. The dosage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was performed using samples of 10 ml of blood collected at necropsy, is preferably taken from the cardiac chambers or of the right femoral vein. Dosages of alcohol in blood samples were done in the Forensic Toxicology Center of the IML by gas chromatography, using the technique of separation “headspace” and double column. Results: Drug testing for alcohol was available for 488 (79.1%) of 617 necropsies. Of the 617 subjects studied, 532 (85.7%) were male, and 85 (13.8%) were females (with high rates of adolescents). The vast majority (n = 230) were killed, and 40.5% of victims had BAC above 0.3 mg/ml of blood. Traffic accidents came next, accounting for 181 deaths, with 41% of victims presenting positive BAC. Discussion: High blood alcohol levels of the victims were associated mainly with the genesis of accidents (drowning, falls, traffic, aspiration/ smothering) and murder (with impaired ability to resist or by causing the release of impulses to engage in violent situations), about 40% of cases. Conclusion: Our results indicate that alcohol abuse is a risk factor for victims of violent death. In these cases, alcohol has two types of action. Direct: contributes to accidents of various kinds - from traffic by decreasing powers of concentration, attention, and loss of reflexes, to other types of accidents such as drowning, falls, swallowing disorders causing airway obstruction, and mechanical asphyxia. And they were indirect, making it easier for individuals to engage in conflict (and thus become victims of crimes).
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 037-040;

The impression of frictional ridges of the finger is known as fingerprints. Owing to this uniqueness, the fingerprints have long been used to identify a person since Ancient times. In any crime scene the presence of fingerprint makes the identification of the Culprit very easy. The fingerprints can also easily be embedded on any item such as paper, Clothing and body of the victim. To utilize this uniqueness of fingerprints forensic experts devised many techniques to obtain a clear fingerprint. These come under two categories i.e. Conventional and modern methods. The conventional methods are although important but there are limitations of them. Just take the example of powder method. Powder method require different powders for different Surfaces and colors, but modern method like quantum dots method can easily detect Fingerprints on all surfaces regardless of their color giving great resolution in seconds. Other methods like physical developer method is very time consuming and expensive, carbon Black method creates mess and does not work on porous surface, iodine fuming and Naphthaloflavin does have an advantage that it can bring up prints on skin also but it does not Work on metallic surfaces. VMD also fails on heavy plastic polymers and body oils. But some modern methods like nanotechnology can obtain high resolution prints old and dried prints also within 3 minutes. Laser technology is very fast, accurate and can be used for Fingerprints up toten years old also on any surface without any mess. Multimetal deposition Method can even be used to identify smokers and drug addicts and can be used Porous, non-porous and wet surfaces.
, Rajmane Poonam, Jayakrishna P, Nair Maya S, Kshirsagar Priyanka, Meshram Mukul
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 041-047;

Development of genetic profiles from the biological mixtures has remained challenging, although modern-day technologies may help forensic scientists to attain a reliable genetic profile in the identification of the accused. In the case of rape, vaginal swab exhibits usually contain epithelial cells of victims and sperm cells of accused, such samples are more challenging when there is more than one contributor. In such cases, separation of distinct cells from a mixture that includes blood cells, epithelial cells and sperm cells for their single genetic profile is important. In the last ten decades several new techniques were developed and invented for the separation of single cell from the biological mixture that includes differential lysis, laser micro-dissection, cell sorting (FACS), sieve-based filtration, (vi) micro-fluidic devices or immunomagnetic beads cell separation of fresh samples, and the magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Out of them, some techniques have been commonly applied for cell separation in forensic biology. Each technique has its own limitation. Some recent studies showed, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), laser capture microdissection (LCM), DEPArray technology and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) has proved to be effective in separation of single cell from cell mixtures. Therefore, in this review we have evaluated these four alternative methods and their potential application in the modern-day over the others for the separation of a single cell from the mixture. In this review we also discuss the advantage of these methods and their modern–day applicability and acceptance in the forensic world.
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 030-036;

The major use of alternative light sources (ALS) in the evaluation of bloodstains has been primarily focused on detection of whole blood, with relatively little attention to visualization of blood serum. Serum may become separated from blood pools during clotting, and because it is relatively invisible on certain backgrounds, go undetected by a perpetrator attempting to clean up a crime scene. Recently, Ultraviolet 365 (UV 365) was shown to be an effective tool in blood evaluation, useful for detection of even minute quantities of blood serum. Here the effects of environmental conditions on blood serum stain appearance were evaluated, including temperature, pH, protease sensitivity, solubility, and aging. Interestingly, it was found that the UV fluorescence of serum increases upon exposure to heat, which was accompanied by color changes under visible light and decreased solubility in multiple solvents. The efficiency of visualization of serum stains was somewhat variable, depending on the type of material on which it was dried. Finally, the current study documents the effect of heating on formation of fluorescent serum halo rings in dried bloodstains. Taken together, these data demonstrate that blood serum detection may be affected by certain conditions that influence its visualization under both visible and UV light.
Swan Bruce Q
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 020-029;

The economic inequalities associated with suicide risks among 50 states in the United States were identified in this paper to form the dynamic panel data set from 1981 to 2016. The effects of growing income inequalities on suicides in the Unites States were estimated using the Arellano–Bond method. This paper is the first to associate the social inequalities with suicides using the state-level dynamic panel data in America. It is found that the change of unemployment rates significantly and positively impact the changes of the overall suicides rates, female and male suicides rates. The changes of Top 10% income index are uniformly positive to the change of female, male and overall state-level suicide rates. The Gini index has positive correspondence within the overall and female groups, along with the insignificantly vague evidence within the male groups. The potential endogeneity problem inferring from the fixed effect estimation has been also investigated accordingly. JEL Classification: A13, A14, I18.
, Kassem-Moussa Sondos, Hejase Hussin J
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 012-019;

Forensic analysts are more than ever facing challenges upon conducting their deep investigative analysis on digital devices due to the technological progression. Of these are the difficulties present upon analyzing web browser artefacts as this became more complicated when web browser companies introduced private browsing mode, a feature aiming to protect users’ data upon opening a private browsing session, by leaving no traces of data on the local device used. Aiming to investigate whether the claims of web browser companies are true concerning the protection private browsing provides to the users and whether it really doesn’t leave any browsing data behind, the most popular desktop browsers in Windows were analyzed after surfing them regularly and privately. The results shown in this paper suggest that the privacy provided varies among different companies since evidence might be recovered from some of the browsers but not from others.
, B Sirsat Kunal, Manu Sharma
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 007-011;

Death due to road traffic accident (RTA) was one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in India. In the present cross-sectional study, only the victim using two-wheelers, four-wheelers, and pedestrians were included for comparison to determine the pattern of injuries in these victims of the road traffic accident. There was a predominance of males in all three types of victims of RTA with a peak age of incidence seen in 21-30 years in two-wheeler victims, 41-50 years in four-wheeler victims, and 51-60 years in pedestrian victims. Four-wheeler (HMV/LMV) was the commonest type of offending vehicle involved in all types of victims with collision/ dash as the commonest manner of an accident. Head was the commonest region involved in pedestrian and two-wheeler victims as compared to the thorax in four-wheeler victims of accidents. Abrasion was the commonest surface injury in two-wheeler victims and pedestrians. The laceration was more common in two-wheeler victims as compared to crushed injury in pedestrian victims of road traffic accidents. The brain was the commonest organ involved in two-wheeler and pedestrian as compared to lungs in four-wheeler victims. The liver and spleen were more commonly involved in two-wheeler victims as compared to kidneys and bladder in pedestrian
, , Johnson Nicole R
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 5, pp 001-006;

This study provides an update to a previous study exploring time to restoration of adjudicative competence within an Outpatient Competence Restoration Program (OCRP). Authors examined the probability of restoration for individuals referred for outpatient competence restoration in the U.S. capital, and revisited the requirements of American Law, taking a closer look at how programmatic changes improve restoration and encourage adherence. Competence to stand trial remains a critical screening function of the judicial system to ensure that defendants have a basic understanding of courtroom procedures. Competency restoration is therefore an attempt to protect both the integrity of the system and the rights of defendants. Aggregate data from the OCRP’s previous four years of competence restoration efforts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, restoration rates, and time to restoration. Poisson regression modeling identified probability differences in restoration between sequential restoration periods. Since our initial analysis, the DC OCRP has been successful in restoring 97 of 345 participants (28.1%), with referral rates increasing from year to year. 39.2% are now restored after the 3rd round of competency restoration. Poisson regression modeling of individuals attaining competence during six successive restoration periods showed that differences for the first five rounds of restoration were not statistically significant (p = 0.418). In the 6th round, however, the difference in percentage of restored participants was statistically significant compared to previous rounds (irr = 0.32; p = 0.0001). We discuss the policy implications, especially those that suggest that the DC OCRP has improved its ability to restore competence beyond the 1st round of restoration.
Udogadi Nwawuba Stanley, Blessing Nkiruka Akpata Chinyere
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 4, pp 007-014;

Pieces of evidence have continued to emerge, demonstrating the extensive efficiency and effectiveness of the DNA database in assisting criminal investigations around the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the awareness level on the prominent role of Forensic DNA Database on Crime Investigation in Nigeria: a case study of Benin City. In conducting this research, a total of 458 questionnaires were distributed around Benin City between the periods of 12th January 2020 to 21st March 2020, with a particular focus on security agents and students. The questionnaire comprised of three main categories: Socio-demographic characteristics, Information about the National Forensic DNA Database, and Information about DNA evidence, and Nigeria Criminal Justice system. For the analysis of data collected; the statistical tool used was also Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22 for windows. Responses were compared using chi-square and presented as counts and percentages. In determining the level of awareness, the following responses were obtained. Of the total population: 53.28% had no idea about forensics, 19.21% were uncertain and 27.54% knew about forensics. The same trend was observed with Forensic DNA profiling, 42.14% did not know, 22.27% were uncertain and 35.59% demonstrated good knowledge of Forensic DNA profiling. On the knowledge about the National Forensic DNA Database, 48.47% had no knowledge, 22.27% were uncertain and 29.26% were knowledgeable about it. The result of the present study revealed that the awareness level of the forensic DNA Database was found to be inadequate.
Koehler Sa, Steven A Koehler, Victor W Weedn
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 1, pp 098-105;

Thyssen Patrícia J, Patrícia J Thyssen, Marina Fk Aquino, Natane Cs Purgato, Edmilson Martins, Alexandre A Costa, Carolina Gp Lima, Claudemir R Dias
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 2, pp 001-008;

Soon Lai Poh, Lai Poh Soon, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor, Nor Fadhilah Madon, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Mansharan Kaur Chainchel Singh, Kunasilan Subramaniam
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 2, pp 009-015;

Soon Lp, Lai Poh Soon, Khoo Lay See, Nazni Wasi Ahmad, Azlina Zulkapli, Nurul Kharmila Abdullah, Mohd Shah Mahmood, Ahmad Hafizam Hasmi
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 1, pp 046-062;

Morild I, Stig Morten Hammersborg, Paul Husby, , Peer Kåre Lilleng
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 1, pp 092-097;

Anestakis D, Konstantinidou P, Chatzifotiou E, Nikolaou A, Moumou G, Karakasi Mv, Pavlidis P
Journal of Forensic Science and Research, Volume 1, pp 063-067;

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