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Results in Journal Applied Sciences: 18,896

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Published: 12 July 2013
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 3, pp 581-592; doi:10.3390/app3030581

Abstract:
Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV). X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources.
Published: 31 January 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 46-60; doi:10.3390/app2010046

Abstract:
Perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PFGI-POFs), fabricated by replacing the hydrogen atoms of standard polymethyl methacrylate-based POFs with fluorine atoms, have been extensively studied due to their relatively low propagation loss even at telecommunication wavelength. Recently, Brillouin scattering, which is one of the most significant nonlinear effects in optical fibers, has been successfully observed in PFGI-POFs at 1.55-μm wavelength. The Brillouin Stokes signal was, however, not large enough for practical applications or for detailed investigations of the Brillouin properties. In this paper, we review our recent work on Stokes signal enhancement. First, we induce stimulated Brillouin scattering based on the so-called pump-probe technique, and discuss its applicability to temperature sensors. Then, we investigate the influence of the core diameter and length of PFGI-POFs on Stokes signal, and observe the Brillouin linewidth narrowing effect. We believe our work is an important technological step toward the implementation of practical Brillouin-based devices and systems including distributed strain and temperature sensors.
Published: 1 February 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 61-99; doi:10.3390/app2010061

Abstract:
Several fluorinated and trifluoromethylated indanone, tetralone and naphthone derivatives have been prepared via Claisen condensations and selective fluorinations in yields ranging from 22–60%. In addition, we report the synthesis of new, selectively fluorinated bindones in yields ranging from 72–92%. Of particular interest is the fluorination and trifluoroacetylation regiochemistry observed in these fluorinated products. We also note unusual transformations including a novel one pot, dual trifluoroacetylation, trifluoroacetylnaphthone synthesis via a deacetylation as well as an acetyl-trifluoroacetyl group exchange. Solid-state structural features exhibited by these compounds were investigated using crystallographic methods. Crystallographic results, supported by spectroscopic data, show that trifluoroacetylated ketones prefer a chelated cis-enol form whereas fluorinated bindone products exist primarily as the cross-conjugated triketo form.
Published: 24 February 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 139-159; doi:10.3390/app2010139

Abstract:
Currently, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical tool for research and is not well established in routine diagnostics. Therefore, continuous improvement in mathematics and statistics associated with interpreting final accurate and reproducible results are fundamental. This project describes and discusses specificity and sensitivity with respect to intra- and inter-assay variances by use of a commercial Human Reference RNA and individual RNA derived from colorectal cancer patients (n = 25). All patients were treated with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and a concomitant pelvic radiotherapy (50.4 Gy). Quality assessment of target tissue samples was evaluated by clinicopathological findings and optical density (OD) measurements. We analyzed the steady state messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of a small panel of cancer relevant genes, excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TYMS) and ß-2microglobulin (ß-2M) as endogenous control. The mRNA of a Human Reference RNA, tumor and non-neoplastic material was reverse transcribed into its complementary DNA (cDNA). cDNA was amplified based on dual-labeled TaqMan real-time fluorescence measurements. The real-time efficiency and therefore the output data can be influenced through the kind of calibrator used, the amount and quality of used RNA and by the degree of individual assay variability. Each sample presents an individual amplification curve. Thus, confirmation of primer specificity, one or more invariant endogenous controls, RNA and cDNA quality, as well as real-time PCR amplification efficiencies and linearity calculations from individual slopes or R2-values must be included in each study.
Guang-Xia Li, Yao-Hui Huang, Teng-Chien Chen, Yu-Jen Shih, Hui Zhang
Published: 1 March 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 166-174; doi:10.3390/app2010166

Abstract:
A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3) as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton). It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect of KMnO4 concentration, BT-3 dosage, and operational solution pH. The results showed that the pH solution was a significant factor in the reduction of KMnO4. At the optimum level, pHf 6, KMnO4 was virtually reduced in 10 min. A pseudo-first order reaction was employed to describe the reduction rate of KMnO4.
Published: 1 March 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 175-191; doi:10.3390/app2010175

Abstract:
A new class of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl-containing urea and amide derivatives was synthesized from amino acid derivatives. Most of these compounds showed excellent gelation behavior in organic solvents at low concentrations. A few organogelators selected from the initial screening were used for surface modification of fibrous substrates to create hydrophobic and oleophobic composites. The hydrophobic and oleophobic behaviors of these composites were ascribed to a combination of increased surface roughness and the alkyl/fluorinated functionalities present in the gelator backbone.
Published: 6 March 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 206-219; doi:10.3390/app2010206

Abstract:
In this paper, we review recent progress and new challenges in the area of oxyfluoride perovskite, especially layered systems including Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), Dion-Jacobson (DJ) and Aurivillius (AV) type perovskite families. It is difficult to synthesize oxyfluoride perovskite using a conventional solid-state reaction because of the high chemical stability of the simple fluoride starting materials. Nevertheless, persistent efforts made by solid-state chemists have led to a major breakthrough in stabilizing such a mixed anion system. In particular, it is known that layered perovskite compounds exhibit a rich variety of O/F site occupation according to the synthesis used. We also present the synthetic strategies to further extend RP type perovskite compounds, with particular reference to newly synthesized oxyfluorides, Sr2CoO3F and Sr3Fe2O5+xF2−x (x ~ 0.44).
Published: 20 April 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 375-395; doi:10.3390/app2020375

Abstract:
Planar metamaterials and many microwave circuits and antennas are designed by means of resonators with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength at their resonance frequency. There are many types of such electrically small resonators, and the main purpose of this paper is to compare them as building blocks for the implementation of microwave components. Aspects such as resonator size, bandwidth, their circuit models when they are coupled to transmission lines (as is usually required), as well as key applications, will be considered.
Published: 10 May 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 465-478; doi:10.3390/app2020465

Abstract:
The current report describes the development of a dual modality tomographic agent for both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). The dual-modality agent in this study was based on a 124I (PET) radiolabeled tri-gadolinium endohedral metallofullerene Gd3[email protected]80 (MRI) nanoprobe platform. The outer surface of the fullerene cage of the Gd3[email protected]80 metallofullerenes was surface functionalized with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (f-Gd3[email protected]80) using previously developed procedures and subsequently iodinated with 124I to produce 124I-f-Gd3[email protected]80 nanoprobe. Orthotopic tumor-bearing rats were infused intratumorally by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) with the 124I-f-Gd3[email protected]80 agent and imaged by MRI or micro PET. The anatomical positioning and distribution of the 124I-f-Gd3[email protected]80 agent werecomparable between the MRI and PET scans. The 124I-f-Gd3[email protected]80­ dual-agent distribution and infusion site within the tumor was clearly evident in both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The results demonstrate the successful preparation of a dual-modality imaging agent, 124I-f-Gd3[email protected]80, which could ultimately be used for simultaneous PET/MR imaging.
Published: 29 May 2012
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 2, pp 525-534; doi:10.3390/app2020525

Abstract:
Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels, is central to the growth of tumors. Non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis will allow for earlier detection of tumors and also the development of surrogate markers for assessing response to treatment. Steady state magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic nanoparticles is one method to assess angiogenesis. In this article we explain the theory behind steady state magnetic resonance imaging and review the available literature.
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