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Results in Journal Kriminologijos studijos: 53

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Published: 20 December 2019
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 7, pp 27-55; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2019.7.2

Abstract:
The article deals with the international and national mechanisms used to place new psychoactive substances under control. The authors provide an overview of the systems in use in the United Nations and the European Union, as well as in many European and other states, to criminalize newly emerging psychoactive substances, as well as propose certain legislative changes that could be adapted in the European Union to make the procedures of criminalization more straightforward. The article also provides for an overview and analysis of legal formulations used to define new psychoactive substances in different European and other states: list approach, generic scheduling, blanket bans, regulation through the laws on consumer protection and health protection, establishing legal markets for new psychoactive substances.
Maryja Šupa
Published: 20 December 2019
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 7, pp 8-26; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2019.7.1

Abstract:
This article presents the specific rhetoric of social control present in the sections of national and municipal legislation pertaining to conduct in public spaces of Vilnius, Lithuania.Theoretically, the paper utilises M. Foucault’s framework of power modalities both because of Foucault’s engaged questioning of power and the applicability of his insights to the spatial dimensions of the city. The paper bases its interpretive scheme on two premises: a) that law reveals biopolitical and disciplinary aspects of social control; and b) that urban public space presents a valuable case for the analysis of these aspects.A qualitative content analysis of national and municipal legislation has revealed that national legislation is driven by biopolitical objectives and municipal legislation by disciplinary ones. The national legislation focuses the regulation of public space on public order, public calm, and public dignity – public mores that must be upheld in the interest of the population and expanding beyond strictly public space. Disciplinarity is evident in municipal legislation insofar as it breaks space up into governable fragments, imposing painstakingly detailed prohibitions and obligations, and building a hierarchy inside the population between the desired and subnormal subject.
Published: 20 December 2019
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 7, pp 104-132; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2019.7.5

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to research the concept and different definitions of gender-based violence in Lithuanian society during the late Soviet period and the first decade of Lithuanian independence. These different definitions of gender-based violence are reconstructed and presented in the different discourses of criminological knowledge and beliefs: a) the expert criminological discourse; b) the so-called discourse of the ‘well-informed citizens’; c) the so-called discourse of the ‘people from the street’. The theory of three different criminilogical discourses in Lithuanian crimininology is developed by Aleksandras Dobryninas but based on theoretical insights of Alfred Schütz. The article analyzes the third level from the perspectives‘ of the victims of gender-based violence.
Anna Markina
Published: 20 December 2019
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 7, pp 56-74; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2019.7.3

Abstract:
Based on 22 semi-structured interviews with 24 young ex-offenders in Estonia, this article looks at the effect that stigmatization has on the reintegration of young ex-offenders. The study looks at to what extent and in which domains ex-offenders experience stigma, how they manage it, and what effect it has on social participation and involvement. The results indicate that young ex-offenders experience stigma while looking for jobs and accommodation and when interacting with the criminal justice system. The strategies for managing stigma mostly include secrecy and withdrawal. These strategies are closely related to self-stigmatization, low societal participation, and a low level of trust toward state institutions.
Published: 20 December 2019
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 7, pp 74-103; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2019.7.4

Abstract:
Taking a social constructionists perspective, the article presents not widely known sides in the development of modern Lithuanian criminology related to the emergence, formation and development of criminological studies at Vilnius University. Since the emergence of the first criminological courses in Lithuanian academic institutions, they, as in other European continent universities, were usually taught in law faculties and schools. However, in the mid of 1990s, a unique situation occurred at Vilnius University, where sociologists and psychologists started teaching criminological courses at the Faculty of Philosophy. Later, in 1999, with the methodical help of the Faculty of Law, the teaching staff of the Faculty of Philosophy developed and implemented two-year masters programs in sociological and psychological criminology.The gained educational experience in managing and implementing interdisciplinary criminology programs at Vilnius University paved the way for introducing in 2017 new interdisciplinary bachelor study programme in criminology. On the one hand, the emergence of such studies would be impossible without long-term close and constructive collaboration between the sociologists, psychologists and lawyers of Vilnius University and, on the other, - without the active involvement of the new generation of young criminologists in the educational process. Authors emphasise, that the emergence and development of the criminology studies in Lithuania was influenced by both the developmental context of criminology at European and North American universities and the methodological and organisational support, which Lithuanian criminologists had been receiving from their colleagues from western academic institutions.Authors also present and describe the developmental process of both master and bachelor studies: they introduce the leaders, organisers and lecturers of these programs, observe their structure and inner consistency, analyse the role of interdisciplinarity in organising criminology studies. The article identifies the challenges and problems facing both the teaching and learning processes and their potential solutions, which should ensure the quality of studies, their correspondence to the state-of-art methods in criminological research and practical needs of contemporary society.
Published: 20 December 2018
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 6, pp 29-57; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2018.2

Abstract:
[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] Straipsnyje, vadovaujantis sociologo fenomenologo A. Schutz’o episteminės stratifikacijos schema, analizuojama, kaip korupciją Lietuvoje ir jos priežastis suvokia trys episteminės grupės: „ekspertai“, „gerai informuoti piliečiai“ ir „žmonės iš gatvės“. Analizė atliekama nagrinėjant šių grupių diskursus apie korupciją mikro-, mezo- ir makrolygmenimis ir jų korupcijos kontrolės ir prevencijos Lietuvoje vertinimus. Prieinama prie išvados, jog daugiausia dėmesio telkiama ties korupcijos raiška visuomenės lygmeniu menkai tesigilinant į korupcijos ištakas individo lygmeniu. Pastebima, kad tarp gyventojų, kaip ir baudžiamuosiuose įstatymuose, dominuoja siaura korupcijos kaip baltųjų apykaklių nusikaltimo samprata kartu nureikšminant korupcijos kultūros išplitimą platesniame sociume. Kaip efektyviausios korupcijos prevencijos priemonės įvardijamos visuomenės švietimas, jaunosios kartos ugdymas ir bendruomeniškumo kūrimas, turinčios padėti mažinti korupcinę kultūrą.
Diana Dajnowicz-Piesiecka
Published: 20 December 2018
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 6, pp 86-100; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2018.6.5

Abstract:
[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian] This paper concerns the victims of parental abductions in Poland. The aim of the article is to present the victims of parental abductions in the light of the Polish criminal case law. The study has an empirical character because it presents the results of research carried out using a criminal case law analysis. The study included 59 criminal cases concerning the parental kidnapping of a child. The research revealed that the Polish law treats the person from whom the child was kidnapped as a victim of parental kidnapping. Interestingly, the child is not considered a victim. Based on the research, a conclusion was formulated that parental abductions are not only the result of disputes between the parents of a child, but that children can also be abducted from the care of other people, for example, the directors of orphanages or grandparents who look after the children. This article argues that parental abductions are not only a problem for families but also for institutions professionally involved in childcare.
Published: 20 December 2018
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 6, pp 78-85; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2018.6.4

Abstract:
[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian] Drug trafficking is a very lucrative criminal activity, with a growing number of organized criminal groups from the Balkans. According to Europol’s report, about 5000 organized criminal groups are active in the European Union.2 According to the results of the National survey on the lifestyles of the citizens in the Republic of Serbia in 2014, the use of psychoactive substances and games of chance and illegal drug use at least once during a lifetime was recorded at 8.0% of the total population aged 18 to 64 (10.8% of males and 5.2% of females), with greater prevalence (12.8%) in the younger adult population aged 18 to 34. The number of heroin users who inject drugs in Serbia is between 10 000 and 25 000. The main estimated number is 20 000 heroin users who inject drugs, i.e., 0.4% of the population aged 15 to 64. Based on the analysis of data on drug-related deaths, it can be noted that there has been a decline in the number of deaths in the past five years, and most of these cases are related to opiates. In the territory of the Republic of Serbia, the production of heroin has not been recorded, and that gives trafficking a greater primacy, which is supported by the fact that high quality heroin is further trafficked in the form of a base that is mixed with other substances (paracetamol, caffeine, sugar etc.). In this way, such a high degree of purity of heroin allows the members of criminal groups to increase the quantity of narcotics by mixing substances suitable for this and, in that way, achieve greater profits. The most commonly used illegal drug among the adult population is cannabis (marijuana and hashish), and the use of the mentioned drugs has been recorded at least once during a lifetime in 7.7% of subjects aged 18 to 64 (10.4% of men and 4.9% of women). The use of other illegal drugs is very rare; 1.6% of questioned individuals (2.5% of the population aged 18 to 34) have used other illegal drugs.
Frieder Dünkel
Published: 20 December 2018
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 6, pp 58-77; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2018.6.3

Abstract:
[full article, abstract in English; abstract in Lithuanian] First experiments with electronic monitoring emerged in Europe in the early 1990s. Within 15 years, the majority of countries in Europe reported having introduced electronic monitoring at least as pilot projects. The amazing dynamic rise of electronic monitoring in Europe may be explained by the commercial interests that become evident when looking at the activities of private companies selling the technique. Although electronic monitoring seems to have expanded in many countries, one has to realize its marginal role within the European sanctions systems compared to other sentencing or release options. On average, only about 3% of all probationary supervised persons were under electronic monitoring at the end of 2013. This article deals with questions regarding the impact of electronic monitoring on prison population rates and reduced reoffending, with net-widening effects and costs, essential rehabilitative support, human rights-based perspectives and the general (non)sense of electronic monitoring.
Published: 20 December 2018
Kriminologijos studijos, Volume 6, pp 8-28; doi:10.15388/crimlithuan.2018.6.1

Abstract:
[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] Straipsnio pagrindas yra tarptautiniame moksliniame projekte „DETOUR: Towards Pre-Trial Detention as Ultima Ratio“ atlikti tyrimai. Straipsnyje bent keliais pjūviais analizuojamos kardomosios priemonės – suėmimo taikymo ikiteisminiame tyrime praktika, ypač daug dėmesio skiriant teisinės kultūros ypatumams ir pokyčiams Lietuvoje. Pateikiama išgryninta suėmimo taikymo statistinė dinamika, apžvelgiamos objektyvios aplinkybės, galėjusios per tiriamąjį laikotarpį (2004–2017) sudaryti prielaidas teisinės kultūros pokyčiams, ir parodomi konkretūs teisinės kultūros taikant suėmimą ypatumai bei jų raida. Galiausiai Lietuvos situacija pateikiama Europos valstybių kontekste, kuris rodo, kad, nepaisant ženklaus poslinkio europinių standartų įgyvendinimo link, Lietuvoje dar lieka nemažai erdvės teisinės kultūros taikant kardomąsias priemones plėtotei.
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