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Results in Journal International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports: 323

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Aneesah Hyder,
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 10-22; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2122

Abstract:
HIV is a debilitating infection that often presents with health-related complications, further reducing quality of life. Of the most common comorbidities accompanying HIV is depression, which can induce cognitive alterations alongside those resulting from the virus. Latinxs are disproportionately susceptible to both afflictions and face innumerable challenges in the identification and diagnosis of depression. Consequently, HIV-infected Latinxs may experience additional cognitive symptomatology from the simultaneous prevalence of depression and HIV, potentially affecting their gait and cardiovascular profiles. This study aimed to determine the impact of depression on cardio-motor components in HIV-infected Latinxs. Records of 291 stable HIV+ participants were collected from La Perla de Gran Precio Community Center, analyzed for depression, and respectively allocated to the depression group (70) and the group without depression (221). Cardio-motor values were obtained by conducting the Ross treadmill test, a submaximal cardiovascular assessment. An ANOVA revealed similarities in cardiomotor profiles between groups, alluding to the absence of depression-induced modifications to gait and cardiovascular health. Community exercise and cardiopulmonary intervention programs are beneficial to the quality of life in this population during all stages of HIV. However, HIV-infected Latinxs with depression face acute cultural challenges, causing diagnoses and treatment oversights and deficiencies for those who are suffering. Public health efforts should aim to remove barriers facing this population to ultimately reduce the inflated prevalence of both afflictions. Future research should focus on the crucial differentiation of Latinx depressive symptoms from those identical in HIV prior to reinvestigating cardiomotor alterations.
Aleena Jose Spt, Martín G. Rosario
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 23-31; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2123

Abstract:
Diabetes is recognized to lead to a series of metabolic abnormalities in the body. These alterations will affect balance, body composition, and cardiovascular performance, heightening the risk of various medical complications. The problem is that the primary instruction for those with diabetes is to monitor glucose levels, paying very insufficient consideration to other fundamental factors and health profiles that could influence the quality of life in these individuals. Identify body composition, balance, and cardiovascular components in controlled type two diabetics compared to an age-matched control group. 15 participants with controlled type II diabetes without peripheral neuropathy (CT2DM) and 18 non-diabetic subjects control (CG) were recruited. Both groups had an age average of roughly 56 years old. The CT2DM subjects had an average A1c level of 6.7+/-0.5%. Body composition, cardiovascular, and balance data were collected, analyzed, and compared among groups. Minimal alterations in balance components, body composition and cardiovascular factors were identified in the CT2DM group aside from higher SBP values and decreased BBS scores contrasted to the CG group. We can attribute the analogous outcomes in both groups to CT2DM participants managing their diabetes effectively. Our examination has prompted us to establish that the cardiovascular and balance components in middle-aged Latinx-Hispanic participants with CT2DM are proportionate to CG subjects because of effectiveness in dealing with diabetes. Further, we encourage establishing more age appropriate and complex assessment tools to identify early adaptations caused by diabetes.
, Clare Hanrahan Spt, Lauren Basye Spt, Ashley Correa Spt
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 32-44; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2124

Abstract:
Over the past few years, energy drink consumption has increased among students aged 18–34 years. Energy drinks alter the balance, reduce blood flow and interfere with neuromuscular activation in the lower extremities. We attempted to determine which specific additive of three different drinks (red bull, rockstar, and bang) could contribute to changes in muscle activation of the ankle complex. Twenty healthy young adults aged 22–28 years were included in this study and allocated among 3 groups, red bull, rockstar, and bang. Neuromuscular data were obtained from EMG sensors positioned on the anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius before completing the four balance tasks. Each participant completed all the tasks before and after the 16-ounce Edrink. ANOVA was performed to compare the data before and after the beverage. Statistical significance was set at P <0.05. A trend was observed in red bull and bang groups revealing a faster anterior tibial activity and prolong activation for gastrocnemius. The rockstar group also showed a more rapid activation trend and shorter response during all tasks for the gastrocnemius. It appears that the additives found in Redbull and Bang produce an increased posterior sway, indicated by the faster activity observed on the anterior tibial muscle. On the other hand, the elements encountered in rockstars provoke anterior movements, creating the need for a quicker response from the gastrocnemius muscle. Further research is required to explore certain energy drink ingredients' effects on dynamic activities such as walking.
Jurandir Baptista da Silva, Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro, , Giovanne Moraes Ribeiro, Danielli Braga de Mello, Rodrigo Gomes De Souza Vale
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2121

Abstract:
Resistance training has been commonly used as a method of intervention in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries affecting the knee. Thus, the objective of this systematic review was to identify the methods employed with and without implements in leg press and squat exercises for the maintenance of knee alignment. The literature search was performed in the databases: PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. We used the descriptors "muscle strength" and "exercise" and their synonyms, available in the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), with the terms "valgus knee" and "varus knee". From the 1,117 articles found, eight studies were considered for the review. The included studies had samples composed of young men and women with advanced levels of training. Despite verifying conditions of valgus or varus knee, the studies presented different protocols and assessment methods. The implements comprised physioball, elastic resistance, and wedge. Electromyography and kinematics were used to assess muscle activity and movement patterns. These results reinforced the possibility of using implements to induce muscle and joint actions to reduce varus and valgus conditions. We suggest more studies to define the best strategies to reduce the excessive deviation of the patella in people who have valgus or varus knee.
Keven Santamaria-Guzman, ,
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 34-44; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2115

Abstract:
To determine the effects of a virtual physical activity (PA) program in college students during social distancing due to COVID-19. 44 college students, male and female. Methods: Participants completed self-reported measures of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, weekly PA, and a short-survey of the educational experience during social distancing. Participants completed the instruments at baseline and after 10-weeks of an on-line virtual PA program. Increased overall PA (p = 0.040) and transportation PA (p = 0.004), leisure-time PA (p = 0.031) domains increased following the program. The sitting time increased following the intervention (p = 0.0001). Students who failed to comply with at least 150 min/week of PA reduced the frequency of positive emotions compared to those who complied (p = 0.017). Social distancing and daily college tasks seem to lessen the effect of PA on sedentary behavior in college students regardless of an increase in PA.
, James R. McDonald, Danielle W. Wadsworth
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 24-33; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2114

Abstract:
To examine long term changes on glycated hemoglobin in sedentary employees exposed to two different walking programs during a 10-week intervention. A total of 68 sedentary employees participated in a 10-week walking intervention and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: intermittent walking, continuous walking or control group. Hemoglobin A1cNOW+ device tested glycated hemoglobin and accelerometry assessed physical activity. Results showed glycated hemoglobin significantly decreased over the ten weeks (5.82±0.49, 5.66±0.44) F(1,64) =4.229, p=.044) in the continuous walking group. Post-Hoc test showed the continuous walking group was significantly affected, F=8.463, p=.009, with a large size effect n2=.297. There were no changes within the intermittent group (5.69±0.63, 5.63±0.6) or control group (5.59±0.6, 5.6±0.54) (p>0.05). Accelerometry showed a main effect of time by group interaction F(4,124) =4.688, p=0.001). Post-Hoc indicated that the continuous walking group took significantly longer bouts of moderate to vigorous intensity walking at week-6 compared to pre-test (p=0.006) at this could have influenced the results, there were no changes in the length of bouts in the intermittent or control groups (p>0.05). Sedentary employees who perform a moderate intensity continuous walking program show benefits in controlling blood glucose, thereby, reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Asterios Patsiaouras
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 16-23; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2113

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of coach leadership style on resilience level of volleyball players and to trace possible differences that exist between the two genders. Participants included 101 volleyball players (53 females and 48 males) and 31 coaches (11 females and 20 males), with the Self Evaluation Resilience test and the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS) used as instruments. The data was analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using t-test for independent samples, and simple regression (stepwise) analysis. Results of t-test showed statistically significant differences between male and female volleyball players in ‘‘orientation on solution and aims’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’ variables, with no other statistically significant differences observed for the rest resilience variables. Additionally, no statistically significant differences were observed for the LSS variables between the two genders of volleyball coaches. The results of simple regression (stepwise) analysis suggest that the autocratic behavior of volleyball coach has a significant impact on volleyball players’ resilience. Future research should investigate whether variables such as anxiety affect the resilience level of volleyball players.
Bojan Bjelica, Borislav Cicović, Ljubica Milanović, Milan Zelenović, Danijel Božić
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 10-15; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2112

Abstract:
The development of instruments and the use of the same is expanding from year to year. The paper aims to determine the usefulness of Myotesta (MT), Optojump (OJ), Globe Ergo System (GES) as modern methods for assessing motor performance. The research included nine original scientific papers. All works satisfied the problem and could answer the set goal. The selection of works from 2009. to 2014. was taken as a method. There are specific differences when comparing the results for each of the instruments. Myotest has stood out as the smallest instrument and is easily portable and therefore effective to use. The assessment of explosive power is easy to perform, and the results it gives are reliable.
, Jose Luis Hernández
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2111

Abstract:
Olympic weightlifting movements and their derivates are commonly used within resistance training sessions. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of different rest intervals (RI) over five sets of the high-pull (HP) on power output performance, lactate concentration [La] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses in trained subjects. Eleven well-trained males attended four testing sessions. The first session consisted of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) assessment. The next three sessions consisted of the same protocol (5 sets x 6 repetitions at 80% 1RM in the HP) but differing in the RI between sets used (1, 2 and 3 min). No significant power output decreases over the five sets in any RI condition. [La] did not significantly differ between RI conditions. The 1 min RI condition led to greater RPE values (6.5 ± 1.8) than both 2 (5.4 ± 1.6) and 3 min RI (5.0 ± 1.8). The present study shows that short RIs (i.e., 1 min) can be used by strength coaches to design more time-efficient sessions. The use of RPE during power training sessions should be considered as a sensitive tool to quantify training intensity.
Aleksandra Samełko, Szczypińska M, Guszkowska M
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 85-90; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2049

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of coping strategies used by students of Physical Education during a pandemic. Women and men were compared in terms of strategies considered positive and negative. The study used the psychological tool: Inventory for the Measurement of Coping with Stress. The participants were students of Physical Education (aged 25.69 ± 5.908); 26 women, 28 men. Results: the examined women show a higher intensity of both positive and negative coping strategies. The most common strategy among students is positive re-evaluation. Conclusions: The surveyed students experiencing difficult situations choose rather positive than negative strategies of coping with the problem. Women showing a higher level of coping strategies may be more aware of a difficult situation or experience a pandemic more intensely in relation to men.
Christopher B. Scott, Maegan Chartier, Joshua Hodgkiss, Matthew Mallett, Mikaela Shields
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 91-96; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20410

Abstract:
We examined the energy costs of different resistance training protocols where exercise and recovery periods were equated: 48 total seconds of exercise and 210 seconds of between-set recovery. Two separate investigations were carried out at 65% of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM): back squat (7 men, 3 women) and bench press (9 men). Lifting cadence for concentric and eccentric phases was set at 1.5 sec each with 30 sec between-set recovery periods for the 8 sets, 2 reps protocol (sets) and a 3 min and 30 sec between-set recovery period for the 2 sets, 8 reps protocol (reps). The amount of oxygen consumed during lifting and between-set recovery periods was significantly greater for sets vs. reps protocol for both the back squat (+41%) and bench press (+27%) (p = 0.0001). Moreover, the total aerobic cost including the after-lifting excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was larger for the increased sets protocol for both the squat (+27%, p = 0.01) and bench press (+29%, p = 0.04). Total energy costs - aerobic plus anaerobic, exercise and recovery - were not different among sets or reps protocols. We conclude that a greater volume of oxygen is consumed with a lower repetition, increased number of sets resistance training protocol. We suggest that more recovery periods promote a greater potential for fat oxidation.
Pier Morera-Siercovich,
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 70-84; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2048

Abstract:
To determine the effect of small-sided games (SSG) on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) in male soccer players. A meta-analysis was conducted in which studies were selected from the electronic databases Medline, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Results: Six studies were included and 44 effect sizes (ES) were computed from 116 men (age = 18.0 ± 2.8 yr., height = 175.8 ± 3.3 cm, weight = 68.6 ± 5.6 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 22.3 ± 1.1 kg–m2, VO2max = 56.9 ± 2.1 ml–kg-1–min-1). The SSG training improved the overall RSA performance (ES = -.54, 95%CI = -.89, -.20, p < .05), reduced RSA total time (ES = -.41, 95%CI = -.81, -.01, p < .05), and fatigue index (ES = -.83, 95%CI = -1.65, -.02, p < 0.05). Moderator analysis showed that the fatigue index is impaired when several sessions/week are performed (β = .69, 95%CI = .29, 1.10, R2 = 82.9, p = .001) and is enhanced when the duration of the intervention is extended over several weeks (β = -.25, 95%CI = -.47, -.03, R2 = 56.6, p = .05). The methodological use of SSG enhances the capacity of repeated sprints, while technical and tactical elements are worked concomitantly.
Erin Angelini, Kathryn N Oriel, Greta M Myers, Kyle D.A. Cook, Ross M Drawbaugh, Jennifer Price
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 60-69; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2047

Abstract:
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder impacts children’s participation in activities that require attention to instruction, sustained mental effort, and executive functioning. Physical activity has been correlated to improvement in attention in children with ADHD. Rock climbing challenges muscular endurance, attention, and route planning. Five participants, aged 8-13, participated in the climbing program. Attention was measured pre and post climbing intervention with Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) for time to complete. Exercise intensity was measured by heart rate. Parent feedback on behavior was collected with the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). The social validity of the intervention was measured by the IRP-15 measures. Statistically, significant intrasession attention improvements were noted in all 5 climbers (p=.43). Two climbers were consistently working at a moderate intensity (40-60% HRmax) while 3 climbers maintained a light level of intensity (20-40% HRmax). No statistically significant improvements were found on the CPRS, although improvements are noted with qualitative reports from parents. The IRP-15 showed 100% of parents believed rock climbing was an effective intervention for their children with ADHD. Rock climbing at a light to moderate intensity is associated with improvements in attention and behavior in children with ADHD.
Claudio Joaquim Borba-Pinheiro, Amauri Gouveia-Jr, Italo Sérgio Lopes Campos, Edna Cristina Santos Franco, Alam Dos Reis Saraiva, Délson Lustosa De Figueirêdo, Alexandre Janotta Drigo
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 51-59; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2046

Abstract:
Our study presents a methodological proposal for the practice of judo as a viable, alternative exercise method to improve the health of older men and seniors. Bibliographic survey was utilized to analyze the results. A number of studies attempt to adapt the practice of judo to enhance different health variables in middle-aged and elderly men. The proposal of adapting judo methodology to older men was conceived based on these studies. The methodological proposal presented in this study corroborates the health and quality of life needs of judo enthusiasts, in addition to providing an opportunity for exercise that is normally appealing to men. In this respect, the methodological adaptations described in the present study may be an effective and viable way to prevent disease, maintain and promote health and quality of life, applying an exercise method that uses adapted judo training.
, Robert Girandola, Ankul Suresh Kokate
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 37-50; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2045

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to explore the effect of Oxyjun™ on the cardiovascular function of overweight people by reducing obesity induced systemic inflammation. Males aged between 18 - 35 years and body mass index of 25 - 34.9 kg/m2 were recruited in the study. Participants were randomized on baseline visit in two groups to receive either single dose of 400 mg of Oxyjun™ and placebo (for 8-weeks. Participants were evaluate for obesity related inflammation and quality of life using the change in neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and 36 items short form survey (SF-36). NLR was reduced by 0.71 in the Oxyjun™ group and by 0.42 in the placebo group. Within group comparison was significant for Oxyjun™ when compared from baseline (p
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 31-36; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2044

Abstract:
Post-activation potentiation enhancement (PAPE) refers to increased force generation following a muscular conditioning pre-activity that acutely enhances subsequent strength and power performance. Athlete apprehension to use heavy weights (i.e. >80%1RM) immediately before a competition or inability to use weights before the performance (e.g. due to regulations) prevent materialising the benefits of PAPE. Therefore, this study examined whether PAPE can be induced with bodyweight squats. Sixteen healthy, team sports players (male: 10, female: 6, mean ± SD: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years, height 1.67 ± 0.08 m, body mass 70.2 ± 8.2 kg) performed three sets of ten repetitions of bodyweight squats with 30 seconds recovery between each set. A countermovement jump was performed 5 minutes before, 2 and 4 minutes after the squat sets and jump height was calculated. The results showed existence of PAPE with the jump height increasing at both 2 (30.8 ± 5.6 cm, p = 0.045, g = 0.21) and 4 (30.8 ± 6.1 cm, p = 0.037, g = 0.20) minutes, compared to baseline (29.5 ± 6.4 cm). This is the first study to use bodyweight squats rather than loaded squats. Our findings indicate that three sets of ten repetitions of squats using bodyweight only can be a sufficient stimulus to induce PAPE.
Carrah Nelson, Kirsten Fuchs, Lacie W Pennington, Colin G Pennington
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 27-30; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2043

Abstract:
Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. Cerebral palsy can significantly impact the amount of physical activity and individual obtains, and the scope and quality of the physical activity may be limited by cerebral palsy. High-quality physical education can integrate children with cerebral palsy into movement programing, as to enable children with cerebral palsy to achieve goals related to cognitive skills associated with exploring physical health, maintaining physical health, as well as affective values towards physical health, movement, play, and general wellbeing. This article provides a basic overview of the physical characteristics of cerebral palsy, as well as outlines ways the child’s educational care-team can work with physical educators and physical therapist to enhance movement skills and health behavior.
, Spottova P, Fajfrlikova T
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 17-26; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2042

Abstract:
Low physical activity in children of pre-school and younger school age has been a multifaceted problem for several years, which is being addressed by several scientists, primarily doctors, educationalists, and psychologists. The purpose of our study is to compare somatic and motion prerequisites among physically active and physically inactive children from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region. The research sample consisted of 753 pupils from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region, of which 421 boys and 332 girls. Of a total number of pupils, 176 (23.4%) girls and 275 (36.5%) boys are engaged in any sporting activities. At the time of measurement, their average age was 6.87±0.59 years. To obtain somatic characteristics, body heights and weights of children were measured, and from the measured data, a body mass index (BMI) for the child category was calculated. To determine the level of motion prerequisites, we used the DMT 6-18 test battery, consisting of 8 tests. The tests are aim to assess the level of dynamic and explosive power, speed, coordination, balance, flexibility, and endurance. The results of our study highlight the fact that even in the age range of 6 to 7 years, there are significant differences between physically active and physically inactive children in the tests, which monitor motion prerequisites of children. Statistically significant differences were seen primarily in tests which monitor the level of fitness abilities, i.e. the components of the body health-oriented fitness.
Samantha Thompson, Ellen M. Evans, Sami Yli-Piipari
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 01-16; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2041

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the effects of an exposure-based resistance training (RT) intervention on perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for RT in college-aged females and to assess moderating effects of a trainer-trainee relationship on any intervention outcomes. A sample of 13 (Mage = 20.7 ± 1.3y) physically active, non-resistance training female students completed an 8-week intervention (1hr 45min, twice per week). The intervention was effective in reducing perceived time/effort (t[12] = 5.02, p < 0.001, d = 1.81), physical effect (t[12] = 2.48, p = 0.029, d = 0.86) and social (t[12] = 4.86, p < .001, d = 1.97) RT barriers. A positive change pattern was established in stress management (t[12] = 2.21, p = 0.048, d = 0.62), revitalization (t[12] = 2.71, p = .019, d = 0.95), and enjoyment (t[12] = 3.53, p = .004, d = 1.18). Finally, the analyses showed that goal (β = 0.23[0.02], p < 0001, R2 = 0.979) and bond (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.995) alliances were positive moderators with large-sized effects on changes in physical barriers. For stress management, bond alliance was the only statistically significant, small-sized moderator, with a greater bond increasing the effect on the intervention (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.997). This data suggests that an exposure-based RT intervention is beneficial for reducing perceived RT barriers in physically active, non-resistance training college-aged women and that bond-oriented support from the trainer is especially impactful in reducing some of those perceived barriers.
Andrés Abarca Molina, , Cintia Campolina Duarte Rocha, José Fernandes Filho
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 46-51; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2037

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate and compare functional capacity and biochemical factors among elderly women living in the urban and rural sectors of Yumbe, Chile. The sample consisted of 2 groups of elderly women from the province of Ñuble, from the eighth region of Chile, divided into urban elderly (UE) (n = 20) with a mean age of 67.57 ± 3.4 years, and rural elderly (RE) (n = 20), with a mean age of 71.25 ± 2.2 years. The following biochemical variables were analyzed: glycemic index a, and triglycerides levels and cholesterol levels. The test battery used to assess functional capacity was the Senior Fitness Test. It was found that the UE group presented better indices than the RE group for all variables except glycemia, for which the RE group presented better indices. In the functional capacity, in particular, the upper and lower body strength is significantly lower in the RE. The functional capacity and the biochemical parameters studied have shown that the elderly women of different social conditions in the Yumbe-Chile region do not present a good degree of functionality, and also show high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which might be the cause of the increased prevalence of health problems in this population.
Asterios Patsiaouras, Catalin Stirbu
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 39-45; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2036

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience of youth high level volleyball players. Forty-eight volleyball national team players U16 from Greece and Romania participated to the study (18 females and 30 males). The Self Evaluation Resilience test was used for the study. The data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni adjustment test. Results showed statistically significant differences between the males and females national team volleyball players in variables ‘‘healthy lifestyle’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’. It was concluded that coaches and volleyball players should recognize that female’s volleyball players focused more in healthy life style and having less self-efficacy comparing to same aged male’s volleyball players.
Novica Gardašević, Dalibor Fulurija, Marko Joksimović, Nebahat Eler, Farruh Shavkatovich Ahmedov
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 32-38; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2035

Abstract:
The diagnosis of morphological characteristics is an integral part of the entire training process in sports. This study aimed to determine the influence of morphological characteristics on the ball's speed of movement after the shoot from a spot and movement in handball. The sample included 36 female handball players aged 14.33 years. The predictor set consisted of 10 morphological variables. In comparison, the three variables constituted the criterion variables by which the ball's speed of movement was determined after different ways of shooting. Using regression analysis, it was found that the predictor set of variables explains about 70% of the variance for all three criterion variables. Individually, a statistically significant and positive influence on the speed of movement of the ball after the shot was recorded at the height and weight of the body, while a negative effect was observed for the variables; arm length, leg length and skin fold on the abdomen. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that morphological characteristics significantly influence the speed of movement of the ball after a shot in the handball, which can significantly contribute to the selection of handball players, as well as in establishing the tactics of handball, especially in situations where one shot decides the match. Also, the obtained results indicate the necessity of considering the age characteristics of the female respondents, that is, the need to adjust the training process to the period of intensive growth and development.
Shai Segev, Yoav Meckel
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 24-31; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2034

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine the performance indices of a repeated jumping test (RJT) over three different stages of a basketball game, and to examine their relationships with the aerobic capacity of young basketball players. Sixteen young (17.2 ± 0.4 yrs) trained basketball players performed an RJT (six sets of six consecutive vertical jumps) after warm-up, at halftime, and after completing a full game, as well as an aerobic power test (shuttle run test for 20m), each test taking place on a different day. Performance indices for each of the RJTs were the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the performance decrement (PD) throughout the tests. The IJ and TJ were significantly higher at the halftime compared with both after warm-up and after a full-time game (p
Greg Sun
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 18-23; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2033

Abstract:
An athlete’s 4-year Olympic preparation cycle requires systematic planning involving the use of short- and long-term goals. These goals provide athletes with increased motivation, persistence, effort and direction in their goal pursuit. Short-term goals can be viewed as steppingstones towards the long-term goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the use of short- and long-term goals by Olympic athletes. A qualitative design was used, with semi-structured interviews as the major data source. Participants were purposefully sampled from a typically understudied sports population. Four male Olympians, representing swimming and athletics, shared their experiences about how and why they set and used short- and long-term goals. The athletes spent an average of 11.3 years training and competing at the elite level. Findings revealed that winning a national championship and competing at the Olympic Games were their major long-term goals. Furthermore, these goals did not change during their athletic career. Short-term goals were primarily set to learn, develop and improve their skills/techniques that would allow them to reach their ultimate goals. Major competitive events (e.g. national championships, Pan Am Games, Olympic Games) dictated how they planned these goals. The findings also support previous research suggesting the use of both short and long-term goals. Coaches and young athletes can use the information provided to plan their sports goals. Future research should investigate the goal setting practices of team versus individual sport Olympic athletes.
Marco Ivaldi, Andrea Ciavattini, Cugliari Giovanni
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 9-17; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2032

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the heart rate adaptations during deep dave diving with MCCR (mechanical closed circuit rebreather). Previous studies on this matter have not been conducted to the depths reached in this study and most of them have been conducted inside hyperbaric chambers trying to recreate the immersion conditions. The data collection took place during the exploration of two hydrogeological sites by a professional cave diver. The recordings were made using a SCUBAPRO GALILEO SOL® dive computer capable of monitoring the heart rate, with a sampling interval of 0,25 Hz. The data collected confirm a direct relationship between the increase in diving depth and the increase in the detected heart rate.
Tina Twilleger, George M Dallam, Carol P Foust
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 1-8; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2031

Abstract:
In this present work we took an initiation to compares the effects of two common approaches to group exercise: CXWORXTM and TabataTM , which employ differing exercise strategies, on common fitness measures and psychological perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TabataTM versus CXWORXTM on body mass index (BMI), body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) measured self-perceptions in adult exercisers. The mixed gender sample consisted of a sub-set of 10 adult cross fit exercisers and 10 students from a regional comprehensive university class randomized to each exercise program. Analysis of Variance was used to examine program effects. While no significant main effect of the training period on body composition or BMI was found; mean VO2max was significantly increased as a large main effect across the study groups (F=1.054, P
Jacopo Terenzi, Jeremy Moody
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 79-89; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20210

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine if performing a lower body resistance training priming activity effects athletic performance completed 24 hours later. University level field hockey players (N = 10) completed 1 control (CON) and 2 experimental trials on separate days. A randomised, counter-balanced experimental design with cross-over was used across three conditions. The CON trial consisted of complete abstention from physical activity. For the ‘strength’ (STR) experimental trial participants performed a parallel back squat exercise for 5 sets of 2 repetitions with 90% 1RM; while for the ‘hypertrophy’ (HYP) experimental approach was 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 75% 1RM. Subjects attended a testing session 24 hours after each trial, consisting of CMJ, SJ, 22-cm DJ, 38-cm DJ and 40 m sprint. The 5 m sprint performance was significantly better (p < 0.05) for CON group when compared to the HYP group. No other significant differences were highlighted between trials. The results indicate that performing resistance training in-line with STR and HYP the day before competition does not improve athletes’ performance. The results also suggest how a lower body STR priming activity can be implemented the day before competition without negatively impact subsequent performance. For the strength and conditioning coach, this may be a useful window to train athletes during the ‘in-season’ schedule.
Ahmed I, Khan Md Jobair, Khan Ar, Zaman S, Hawlader Mdh
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 90-98; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20211

Abstract:
Patients are most commonly advised by medical practitioners even after remaining wide range of controversy regarding wearing of lumber corset in low backache (LBA). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the potential evidence of using lumber orthosis in LBA. The study adopted 50 participants (21 male and 29 female) ages ranging between 20 to 60 years as sample selecting randomly from September to December 2015. Outcome evaluated by calculating and presenting descriptive statistics at 0.05 p-value and x2 test with confidence intervals (95%), Odd Ratio (OR), and Relative Risk (RR). Age and sex were not statistically significant determinants (x2 1.172, p 0.279 and x2 0.593, p 0.441, respectively). Wearing orthosis and reduce pain in a journey found as protective (RR 0.79 and RR 0.94) also poor relationship discovered in considering OR (OR 0.242, 95% CI 0.021-2.780 and OR 0.857, 95% CI 0.164-4.467). Our data were unable to provide adequate proof that wearing lumber corset bring any clinical or therapeutic benefit in managing LBA to the patients.
Amit Bandyopadhyay
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 72-78; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2029

Abstract:
Cooper’s 12-minute run test (CRT) for prediction of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) has not yet been explored in Indian sportspersons. Present investigation was conducted to evaluate the applicability of CRT in Indian cricketers. 75 male and 45 female cricket players were randomly recruited from reputed cricket academies of Kolkata, India and were randomly assigned into the study group (male = 45, female = 25) and confirmatory group (male = 30, female = 20). Incremental cycle ergometer exercise was used for direct estimation of VO2max by expired gas analysis and the indirect prediction of VO2max (PVO2max) was performed by CRT method. The current protocol of CRT was found to be inapplicable in both the genders of Cricketers due to a significant difference between PVO2max and VO2max and a large limit of agreement between PVO2max and VO2max in the study groups. A significant correlation (r = 0.76 in males and r = 0.79 in females, p
Christopher L. Bakker, Matthew F. Watson, Jeremy A. Moody
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 57-71; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2028

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of assisted and unassisted plyometric training of vertical jumping and rebounding activities following a six-week training intervention. 13 youth males from a professional football academy completed six weeks of either unassisted (n = 6) or band-assisted (n = 7) plyometric training sessions twice a week during their competitive season. Pre- and post-assessments of counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, 50 cm drop-jump (DJ50) ground contact time (GCT), jump height and reactive strength index (RSI), and submaximal-hopping (SMH) GCT, jump height and RSI were compared. Pre- and post-assessment ankle angle at touch-down (TD), peak flexion (PF) and mid-flight (MF) were also analysed for the submaximal-hop test only. Following training, significant main effects of time were observed for CMJ height, DJ50 GCT and MF ankle angle (p < 0.05) and a significant effect of group was observed for DJ50 RSI (p < 0.05). These results suggest that both unassisted and assisted plyometric training may be useful for enhancing the kinematics and technical performance of plyometric activities in a youth male football population.
Jan Carboch, Kocib T, Cabela M, Kresta J
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 45-50; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2026

Abstract:
There are several tactical variants that can be used by the serving and receiving teams before the serve is struck in tennis doubles. The goal is to analyse the frequency and efficiency of the tactical variants of the serving and receiving teams in doubles at the elite level. We analysed 1067 points in 18 doubles matches in professional men's top-level tennis tournaments. Next to the Classical formation, the I-formation was used in 46 % of points when players hit the first serve and in 41 % of cases when the point started with the second serve. Both formations had very equal efficiency, both after the first and second serve. The receiving team preferred a formation where both players were positioned at the baseline (53 %) when returning the first serve, but only in 18 % of points when they faced the second serve. The results summarize strategies and specific tactical variants in current game performance of male doubles at the top tennis level and the results can help to set a default set-up of training volumes of these game situations. The coaches can use the information and adjust the practice sessions according to the tactical demands of professional tennis.
Novica Gardasevic, Marko Joksimovic
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 51-56; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2027

Abstract:
This research aimed to identify a change in the dynamics of the water polo game related to identifying differences in the number of goals scored before and after the introduction of the current 2019 rules. The sample analyzed 96 matches from the 2018 and 2020 European Water Polo Championships. The sample of variables included five variables for both subsamples, which referred to the total number of goals scored in the match, as well as the total number of goals per quarter. By applying the T-test for small independent samples, it was determined that at a statistically significant level, a higher number of goals was achieved in the third and fourth quarters, as well as the total number of goals in the 2020 European Championship in Hungary, compared to the 2018 European Championship in Spain. No statistically significant differences were found in the variables related to the total number of goals in the first and second quarters of the water polo match. The rule change, which came into force in 2019, was driven by changes in the game that directly reflected in a more dynamic game that resulted in more goals per game as well as in the final quarter of the game. These changes were undoubtedly preceded by changes in the total number of attacks, faster swimming, more frequent shots, which should definitely be determined by additional research.
Marek Kokinda, Daniel Kicura, Róbert Kandrac, Stefan Fabian
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 30-36; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2024

Abstract:
Injuries in hockey need not be primarily caused by physical contact. The second category may include injuries caused by inappropriate loading, which in turn affects the state of the musculoskeletal system during matches or training sessions. As a result of this, in the 2018-19season, two elite senior hockey teams were tested for the functional state of the musculoskeletal system, which was also related to players’ ice time and the rate of injuries during the season. The sample included 30 hockey players (15 forwards, 12 defensemen, and 3 goalkeepers). Testing was carried out at the beginning of the season. Players performed the Y balance test and underwent FMS screening. The results showed that the shoulder region is most susceptible to injury. The hockey players suffered from hamstring muscle imbalance. Active ice time can be considered a determining parameter which can cause injury. However, its relationship with other variables has not been confirmed.
Light R.L., Razak M.S.
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 37-44; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2025

Abstract:
There is a body of research on the challenges that coaches face when trying to implement athlete-centred coaching, but very little attention has been paid to the influence that the growing number of sport coaching degrees has on coaches’ beliefs and practice in regard to athlete-centred coaching. While studies have been conducted on sport coaches’ use of game-based approaches (GBA) to coaching, undergraduate sport coaching students’ interpretation of this coaching innovation has been largely overlooked. This article takes a step toward redressing this oversight by reporting on a study that inquired into the influence of the experiential pedagogy used in a course on athlete-centred coaching on students’ beliefs about coaching and their practice. The scholarship of teaching study adopted a constructivist grounded theory methodology to focus on five undergraduates in a sport coaching program with data generated through a series of three interviews with each participant. This study concludes that the experience-based course design was effective in influencing undergraduate students’ beliefs about coaching and their practice outside university.
Severiano Tiberi, Jeremy Moody
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 16-29; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2023

Abstract:
The present study aimed to suggest desirable attributes and characteristics for strength and conditioning coaches as perceived by the male and female population of collegiate athletes and statistically evaluate differences of perception between genders. Participants were 99 NCAA division I student-athletes (Male=56, Female=43) aged between 18-22 years of age, with a mean of 2.98 S&C sessions per week. Participants completed an electronic questionnaire to rank the importance of 17 research-based attributes through a 5-point Likert-type-scale. Descriptive statistics revealed that overall, “knowledgeable” and “communicative” were considered the most important attributes, whereas “overall size/muscularity” and “male gender” were the least desirable. With regards to perceived importance, attributes were ranked in the following order: knowledgeable, communicative, motivator, trustworthy, give positive feedback, approachable, organised, supportive, positive, honest, confident, role model, intense, physical fitness, sense of humour, overall size/muscularity, male gender. “Male gender” as an attribute was identified as the only significant difference in perception between genders (p = .017). The observed results are consistent with previous research that highlighted how several attributes and characteristics are important for strength and conditioning coaches. Thus, these results might foster reflection and guide personal and professional development of strength and conditioning coaches.
Süleyman Sahin, Yahya Yildirim, Duygu Yildirim
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 9-15; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2022

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the relationship between linear speed, agility and reaction time in amateur football players. Totally 15 male amateur soccer players with an average age of 20.00 ± 1.309 (years), average height 1.78 ± 0.058 (m), bodyweight average 70.05 ± 6.300 (kg) and body mass index average 22.18 ± 1.525 (kg / m2) voluntarily participated in the research. All participants completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (10, 20, 30 m), agility test (T test) and reaction time test. Fitlight TrainerTM device was used in all experiments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between linear speed, agility and reaction time. As a result of the investigation, statistically significant positive relationships were found between the reaction time and 10 m and 20 m linear speed, between agility and 20 m and 30 m linear speed, between 10 m and 20 m linear speed and between 20 m and 30 m linear speed ( p
Stefanos Sakellaropoulos, Dimitra Lekaditi, Stefano Svab
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 1-8; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2021

Abstract:
A robust literature, over the last years, supports the indication of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Understanding exercise physiology is a crucial component of the critical evaluation of exercise intolerance. Shortness of breath and exercise limitation is often treated with an improper focus, partly because the pathophysiology is not well understood in the frame of the diagnostic spectrum of each subspecialty. A vital field and research area have been cardiopulmonary exercise test in heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction, evaluation of heart failure patients as candidates for LVAD-Implantation, as well as for LVAD-Explantation and ultimately for heart transplantation. All the CPET variables provide synergistic prognostic discrimination. However, Peak VO2 serves as the most critical parameter for risk stratification and prediction of survival rate.
Jan Carboch, Petr Smocek
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 44-48; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2014

Abstract:
Male and female players may have different game characteristics and performance. The first two shots of a rally in badminton have tactical importance. The aim of this study is to identify players' actions and behaviors and to assess differences in serve and return between the genders on the international level. We observed 15 male and 15 female matches from top international badminton tournaments. A notational analysis was used while observing the serve type, return type and the point winner. Male players hit the backhand short serve in 91 % of points and female players started the point mostly with the forehand long serve (58 %). Both genders won 50 % of the serving points. The distribution of return type is quite equal among the drop, lob, clear, smash and net shots in female matches. While returning a short serve, the lob was 4-5 % less efficient than a net shot in both genders. Women can try to use backhand short serve more often as we found the highest efficiency of all the serve types.
Eduarda Sousa-Sa, McNeill J, Pereira Jr, Zhang Z, Okely Ad, Santos R
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 26-43; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2013

Abstract:
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature on the associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, in children and adolescents. The search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, PSYCINFO and CINAHL) through to 01 October 2019. Due to heterogeneity of the data, meta-analyses were not possible. We screened 2577 studies, and 15 studies were included, representing 9116 participants, from six different countries. Five observational studies and four experimental studies showed associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, i.e. an increased number of breaks in sitting time was negatively associated with a cardiovascular health outcome. No associations between number of breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health outcomes were found in the six remaining studies. Studies examining associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health in children have shown some favorable associations. More epidemiological evidence is required, to inform lifestyle interventions and public health policies, which could translate into long-term implications on population health.
Vasilis Stefopoulos, Katerina Iatridou, Dimitris Karagiannakis, Dimitris Mandalidis
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 16-25; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2012

Abstract:
Ten-pin bowling is considered a highly skilled recreational activity with players demonstrating various anthropometric and physiological characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to assess both static and dynamic body balance, in ten-pin bowlers of different level of competitiveness. Thirty four ten-pin bowlers who competed at a high (Level-A, n=17) and a lower level (Level-B, n=17) as well as eighteen individuals without experience in ten-pin bowling (Non-bowlers) participated in the study. Static balance was determined based on the anteroposterior (APd) and mediolateral displacement (MLd) of the center-of-foot-pressure (CoP) that was recorded during single-leg-stance with open and close eyes as well as with open eyes and head extension. Dynamic balance was determined based on the APd and MLd of CoP as well as the normalized distances reached during execution of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the posterior, posterolateral and lateral directions. Significantly better dynamic balance, in terms of the distances reached during SEBT execution, was demonstrated by Level-A bowlers compared to Level-B bowlers and Non-bowlers. The differences between groups regarding APd and MLd, during both static and dynamic balance testing, were in general not significant. Our findings revealed that ten-pin bowlers who compete at a higher level demonstrate better dynamic balance ability. Sports scientists and coaches should be aware of these differences to optimize performance or distinguish ten-pin bowlers with different level of competitiveness.
Samuel John Collins, Jeremy Moody, Joseph Esformes
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 1-15; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2011

Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of a strength-power complex on subsequent ballistic activity (BA) performance responses across a profile of jumps in adolescent talent-identified rugby players. Rate of force development (RFD) and BA performance responses was recorded in 22 participants over four intracomplex rest intervals (ICRI) (15s, 30s, 45s, 60s) following a complex of 3 repetitions of back squat @80% 1RM and 7 countermovement jumps (CMJs) in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Within subjects, repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on peak rate of force development (PRFD), time to peak rate of force development (TPRFD), peak force (PF), and time to a peak force (TPF). Confidence limits were set at ±90% and effect size across the sample (partial ?²) was calculated across P1-P4 for all jump profiles. No significant effects were observed across jump profiles or ICRI. The research confirms RFD and BA performance responses were maintained across all jump profiles and each ICRI. In contrast to previous research, the use of minimal ICRI of 15s, 30s, 45s and 60s following strength-power complex training is a practical time-efficient means of maintaining RFD and BA performance responses across jump profiles of seven jumps, which has important implications in practical coaching environments.
Adda Ghoual
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 149-157; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19415

Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of repetition ranges with modified intensity and volume on muscle mass and maximal strength. Fourteen healthy athletes from a sports club were randomly assigned to either a low repetitions or high repetitions group. The low repetitions (LR) group performed 3 sets of 3-5 reps at 90-95% one repetition maximum (1RM) and high repetitions (HR) group performed 5 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 60-70% 1RM in specific strength training exercises for eight weeks. Muscle strength and muscle thickness measures were taken at baseline, four weeks and after the eight weeks of training. Results show LR gained better maximal strength than the HR group after the eight weeks of training in both the flat bench press and the squat test (p=0.0201 and p=0.0165 respectively). As for muscle thickness, outcomes of the quadriceps cross section thickness were almost identical between the two groups. There was no significant difference in 4 or 8 weeks (p=0.8776 and p=0.9335 respectively). Our findings suggest performing low repetitions with high intensity (load) is more beneficial for gaining maximal strength and muscle mass in short training cycles. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings in a larger cohort.
Korkmaz Yigiter, Yunus Zengin
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 142-148; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19414

Abstract:
The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between tennis playing and self-esteem, and also, some variables at an intercollegiate tennis tournament. To this and, a total of 240 students (Mage:21,05±1,78) from different universities voluntarily participated in the study. In the process, as a data collection tool, Coopersmith Self-esteem inventory by developed Coopersmith in 1967 was used in this study and it was used to determine the participants' scores of self-esteem. A comparing design was used in the present research. This design was chosen because differences between three and more parameters were investigated in the study group. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were calculated for determining demographic features and scores (M, SD etc.). Participants were compared using MannWhitney U & Kruskal-Wallis H Tests analysis. According to the results of the research, there was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between male and female students. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem among different departments and universities. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a physical injury and not having a physical injury. On the other hand, there was a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a psychological disorder and not having a psychological disorder. This result shows that playing tennis can change the self-esteem level in a positive direction.
Charlie Song, Jianhua Zhang, Aiguang Zhou, Stu Ryan
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 125-141; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19413

Abstract:
This study assessed the attitude and perceptions of college students in China before and immediately after the 2008 Beijing Olympics toward the international media's reporting of the Games and China. A total of 657 students from seven campuses eight months before the Olympics and 1,000 students from ten campuses immediately after the Olympics were randomly surveyed. The data analysis (independent t-Test) depicts that the students' attitudes and perceptions toward the international media had positively changed from the pre- to the post-Olympic surveys. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test results revealed that the survey respondents’ political preferences were the constant factors that influenced their attitude and perception change toward the international media. This study illustrates a media effect on changing the survey participants’ and their represented population’s attitude and perceptions toward the international media’s coverage of sport mega-events that is supported by the theories of mega-events and modernity, media communication and social behaviour, and social impact.
Eun Hye Kwon
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 117-124; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19412

Abstract:
The number of individual with autism has been increased past decades. Along with the prevalence, diverse instruction strategies were introduced and implemented in the field of adapted physical education/activity. The purpose of this case study is investigating the effectiveness of the instructional strategies for children with disabilities. A student, nine years old boy with autism, participated in this study. Four different teaching strategies, reproductive teaching style, video modeling, system of least prompts, and chaining strategy, were implemented to teach a target skill, overhand throw. Task analysis were implemented to measure the skill performance weekly for three weeks. The result indicated that the participant showed improvement in on a skill component, T position. The participant did not showed notable improvement on overall skill performance.
Belayneh Chekle, Tefera Tadesse
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 88-96; doi:10.26524/ijpefs1949

Abstract:
As a complex team sport, success in soccer relies on individuals’ performance, collective performance, and most importantly on team performance. In soccer, players are usually assigned to a specific position based on the demands of the position and the corresponding qualities of the players. The performance factors are varied and interrelated. As such, whether speed, change-of-direction-speed (CODS) and repeated sprinting ability (RSA) are used to discriminate different position players is not well-established. The purpose of this study was to examine how different position players are different against these parameters. The study participants included 88 soccer players at the Ethiopian National Soccer League classified into six playing positions such as centerbacks, fullbacks, holding-midfielders, attacking-midfielders, outside-midfielders and strikers. The participant players speed, CODS and RSA were measured weekly for about five weeks. The authors analyzed the collected data using one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell multiple comparisons. Results indicated that the position discriminating power of the three measures, including speed, CODS and RSA was found minimal. Among the different position players, only outside-midfielders were significantly higher performers with these qualities measured. Therefore, it was concluded that the performance difference in speed, CODS and RSA among the six position players is not a good discriminator, except for outside-midfielders, who outperformed all other position players (excluding the fullbacks) with the studied parameters.
A. Humeyra Islamoglu, I. Aycan Basoglu, Aleyna A. Ozbey, Feyza Tosya, F. Esra Gunes
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 18-25; doi:10.26524/ijpefs1942

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the nutritional knowledge levels and nutritional status of the sports trainers and individuals doing nine-round fitness sports, and compare the relationship between two groups. One hundred individuals doing sports and 10 trainers were included in the study. A questionnaire about general demographic information, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and sporting status were applied to the participants. In addition, 1-day retrospective food consumption record was taken to evaluate the intake levels of macro and micronutrients, and The Basic Nutrition Knowledge Level for Adults (YETBID) Scale was applied to measure the nutritional knowledge of the participants. The mean energy (kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and carbohydrate (g) intakes were found to be 1930±832,6, 117,8±61,3, 88±34,5, 159±111,1 for trainers and 1465±533, 81,8±33,9, 66,6±26,4, 128±76,9 for individuals doing sports, respectively. A significant difference was found between two groups in terms of energy intakes (p=0,042) whereas, no significant difference was found between the levels of macro nutrient intakes between trainers and individuals doing sports (p>0.05). According to the YETBID scores, it was found that the total score of individuals doing sports was significantly higher than trainers’ (p=0.037). It was concluded that the level of nutritional knowledge of sports trainers and individuals doing sports did not affect the nutritional status. Furthermore, dietitians should be present at sport centers and nutrition trainings should be arranged in order to prevent improper nutrition practices.
Katharina Petri, Peter Emmermacher, Steffen Masik, Kerstin Witte
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 55-63; doi:10.26524/ijpefs1946

Abstract:
Virtual reality (VR) is an often-used instrument in sports science research and practical training. However, VR studies with experienced athletes and sports specific tasks are rare. Furthermore, the transfer from interventions in VR into reality is even less investigated. It is possible to analyze benefits of VR using in-situ studies comparing human behavior in VR with reality. If no differences occur in the human behavior, then VR would be appropriate for interventions to improve athletes’ performance. Therefore, we let seven karate athletes respond each to ten attacks of a real attacker (reality) and a virtual attacker (VR using a Head Mounted Display) and compared the parameters “response quality” and “attack recognition” under both conditions. As attacks we chose Gyaku-Zuki (reverse punch, GZ) and Kizami-Zuki (attack with the front arm, KZ). ANOVAs and sign tests showed isolated cases of significant differences between both conditions: response quality in KZ, and attack recognition for 150ms in GZ, all p0.05). The remaining comparisons showed no significant differences (p>0.05). We conclude that further research is needed but the results of the present pilot study are promising to assume that VR is suitable for applications because similar performance outcome in reality and VR were obtained.
Cody A. Stahl, Mann J.B, Robert G. Lockie, J. Jay Dawes
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 64-75; doi:10.26524/ijpefs1947

Abstract:
The estimated one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and NFL-225 (225-lb or 102-kg) repetition test are commonly used to assess upper-body muscular strength and endurance among football players. However, little research has been focused on the relationship of these tests to playing status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between these tests and playing status in Division I football athletes. Archival data from 31 NCAA Division I football players (age: 20.1±1.4 yrs., height: 188.07 ± 5.93 cm, body mass: 112.4 ± 19.5 kg) on the 1RM Bench press test, NFL-225 test and playing status were utilized for this analysis. A one-way ANOVA was used to detect any differences in 1RM and NFL-225 performance between skill groups: big (linemen), medium (linebackers, quarterbacks, tight ends) and small (receivers, backs, and corners) (p < 0.05). Playing status (starters vs. non-starters) were compared within position groups. A point bi-serial correlation was then utilized to examine the relationship in test performance between groups, as well as between starters and non-starters. Significant differences were discovered in NFL-225 test performance between big and small skill groups. Moderate-to-strong relationships between playing status and performance on the 1RM bench press (r = .660) and the NFL-225 test (r = .685) for the big skills group. The results of this study suggest that playing status and upper-body strength and endurance are strongly related for the big skills position group.
Pantovic Marko, Marko Joksimovic, Brkic Boris, Gladysheva Anna, Karisik Sinisa, Alejandro Martinez-Rodríguez
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 97-107; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19410

Abstract:
As the main objective, this research work had to compare pre and post complex training effects on body composition in elite handball players in the Spanish 2nd Division. Eleven players were included in the study. Six of them formed an experimental group, and 5 of them the control group. They have undergone the complex training session which was done once a week. The following parameters were analyzed: BMI (Body Mass Index), somatotype, FM (Fat Mass), MM (Muscle mass), RM (Residual Mass), WHR (Waist to Hip Ratio), BM (Bone Mass). The results have shown that there was a not statistically significant difference after the 6 – week program neither in body composition and somatotypes. Since this program did not have a big influence on body composition we could say that complex training influences body composition should be further researched.
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