Results in Journal CNS Spectrums: 4,108
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CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921001012
CNS Spectrums pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921001000
CNS Spectrums pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000985
The new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, to address the overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. However, there are ongoing debates about its nosology given chronic persistent irritability in children and adolescents has contextual valence. Those meeting the criteria for DMDD may, in fact, have an oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other behavioral disorders. Similarly, in the last few years, there are many different types of treatment studies that have also yielded mixed results. These counterintuitive findings need a meticulous review for a wider debate given its clinical utility for patients, families, and practicing clinicians.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000869
Background: Panic disorder (PD) is a prevalent and impairing anxiety disorder with previous reports suggesting that the longer the condition remains untreated, the greater the likelihood of nonresponse. However, patients with PD may wait for years before receiving a guideline-recommended pharmacological treatment. The widespread prescription of benzodiazepines (BDZ) for managing anxiety symptoms and disorders might delay the administration of pharmacotherapy according to guidelines (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs). The present study aimed to determine the mean duration of untreated illness (DUI) in a sample of PD patients, to quantify and compare DUI-SSRI to DUI-BDZ, and to compare findings with those from previous investigations. Methods: Three hundred and fourteen patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition diagnosis of PD were recruited from an Italian outpatient psychotherapy unit, and epidemiological and clinical variables were retrieved from medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were undertaken for sociodemographic and clinical variables, Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank test was applied to compare the distribution of DUI-SSRI vs DUI-BDZ, and Welch’s t test was performed to compare findings with those from previous studies. Results: The mean DUI-SSRI of the total sample was 64.25 ± 112.74 months, while the mean DUI-BDZ was significantly shorter (35.09 ± 78.62 months; P< 0.0001). A significantly longer DUI-SSRI, compared to findings from previous studies, was also observed. Conclusions: The present results confirm a substantial delay in implementing adequate pharmacological treatments in patients with PD, and highlight the discrepancy between recommendations from international treatment guidelines and common clinical practice in relation to BDZ prescription.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1017/s109285292100095x
Background: Trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking disorder (SPD) are common and often debilitating mental health conditions, grouped under the umbrella term of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). Recent clinical subtyping found that there were three distinct subtypes of TTM and two of SPD. Whether these clinical subtypes map on to any unique neurobiological underpinnings, however, remains unknown. Methods: Two hundred and fifty one adults [193 with a BFRB (85.5% [n = 165] female) and 58 healthy controls (77.6% [n = 45] female)] were recruited from the community for a multicenter between-group comparison using structural neuroimaging. Differences in whole brain structure were compared across the subtypes of BFRBs, controlling for age, sex, scanning site, and intracranial volume. Results: When the subtypes of TTM were compared, low awareness hair pullers demonstrated increased cortical volume in the lateral occipital lobe relative to controls and sensory sensitive pullers. In addition, impulsive/perfectionist hair pullers showed relative decreased volume near the lingual gyrus of the inferior occipital–parietal lobe compared with controls. Conclusions: These data indicate that the anatomical substrates of particular forms of BFRBs are dissociable, which may have implications for understanding clinical presentations and treatment response.
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000900
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000912
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000857
Background: Few studies have explored the complex relationship of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with cognitive function in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder. Methods: In total, 26, 35, and 29 adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively, and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the current study. Cytokines, namely interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were assessed. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the working memory task were administered to assess cognitive function. Results: Using generalized linear models with adjustment for demographic data and clinical symptoms, patients with bipolar disorder were found to exhibit the highest levels of CRP (P = .023), IL-6 (P = .022), and TNF-α (P = .011), and had the lowest IL-2 levels (P = .034) among the four groups. According to the results of the WCST and working memory task, adolescents with schizophrenia exhibited the lowest performance in cognitive function. In addition, among the assessed cytokines, only CRP levels (P = .027) were negatively associated with WCST scores. Discussion: Dysregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and impaired cognitive functioning were observed in first-episode adolescent-onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The altered cytokine profiles may play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-39; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000948
CNS Spectrums pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000882
Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, and is associated with significant comorbidity, with university students being particularly vulnerable. We aimed to assess associations of BED with a wide range of comorbidities and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in university students, to gain better understanding of its prevalence, correlates and pathophysiology. Methods: We carried out an internet-based survey, assessing presence of BED using a validated structured self-report diagnostic tool, demographics, substance use, impulsive behaviors, psychiatric history, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity. Approximately 10 000 students were invited to take part. Group differences between students with current BED and students without BED were investigated. Results: A total of 3415 students completed the survey, with 83 (2.4%) screening positive for BED. BED was associated with female gender, hazardous/harmful alcohol use, depression and anxiety symptoms, low self-esteem, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, treatment for psychological/emotional problems (including prescribed medication) and trait impulsivity and compulsivity. However, the largest effect sizes were evident for associations with trait impulsivity and compulsivity. Conclusions: The associations of BED with trait impulsivity and compulsivity implicate these latent phenotypes in its pathophysiology. The identified links between BED and a wide range of mental disorders highlight the need to screen for disordered eating in student populations, including when students present with other mental health conditions.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000936
Background: Analysis of efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 20 mg/day, and optimal timing of dose adjustment, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Pooled analysis of six randomized, fixed-dose studies of vortioxetine 5 to 20 mg/day. Mean change from baseline in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score was analyzed by vortioxetine dose using a mixed model for repeated measures. Tolerability was assessed over the 8-week treatment period and from day 8 (ie, following dose increase to 20 mg/day). Data from three randomized, flexible-dose studies were examined for frequency and timing of dose adjustment. Results: A clear dose–response relationship for vortioxetine was confirmed in terms of improvement in MADRS total score. Significant differences vs placebo were seen for vortioxetine 20 mg/day from week 2 onwards; vortioxetine 10 mg did not separate from placebo until week 4. At week 8, mean change in MADRS total score from baseline was significantly greater for vortioxetine 20 mg/day vs 10 mg/day (difference, −1.03 points; P< .05). Incidence of adverse events was not increased in patients who received vortioxetine 20 mg/day vs 10 mg/day. In flexible-dose studies, dosage was increased to 20 mg/day after 1 week in 48.0% of patients; final dosage was 20 mg/day in 64.3% of patients. Conclusions: Vortioxetine 20 mg is significantly more effective than vortioxetine 10 mg in patients with MDD, with a similar tolerability profile. In flexible-dose studies, almost half of all patients received 20 mg/day after 1 week and two-thirds received 20 mg/day as their final dosage.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000924
Background: The clinical value of the identification of mood disorders in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well established. However, assessment based on DSM criteria presents some limitations. This study aimed to provide an innovative strategy for evaluating the spectrum of mood disturbances in ACS. Methods: A total of 288 patients with a first episode of ACS underwent interviews based on DSM-IV-TR criteria (major depressive disorder, minor depression, and dysthymia), Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research-DCPR (demoralization and type A behavior), and the Clinical Interview for Depression-CID. Additional self-report inventories (psychological well-being and distress) were administered. A total of 100 consecutive patients who satisfied criteria for DSM-IV-TR depression or DCPR demoralization were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial on a sequential combination of cognitive-behavioral and well-being therapy (CBT/WBT) vs clinical management (CM) and reassessed up to 30-month post-intervention. Results: A total of 29.9% of patients showed a DSM-IV-TR depressive syndrome. Inclusion of demoralization and type A identified psychological distress in 58% of the sample. According to CID, reactivity to social environment, fatigue, depressed mood, and somatic anxiety were the most common symptoms. Somatic symptoms were significantly associated with DSM-IV-TR depression (fatigue and changes of appetite), whereas environmental reactivity with demoralization. Both depression and demoralization were associated with higher distress and lower well-being. Unlike CM, CBT/WBT was significantly associated with decrease of guilt, pessimism, fatigue, and early insomnia (CID). Conclusions: The findings indicate that standard psychiatric approach identifies only a narrow part of mood disturbances affecting ACS patients. A more articulated assessment unravels specific clinical configurations that may entail prognostic and therapeutic implications.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000894
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000870
Despite frequent benzodiazepine use in anxiety disorders, the trajectory and magnitude of benzodiazepine response and the effects of benzodiazepine potency, lipophilicity, and dose on improvement are unknown. We performed a meta-analysis using weekly symptom severity data from randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled trials of benzodiazepines in adults with anxiety disorders. Response was modeled for the standardized change in continuous measures of anxiety using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Change in anxiety was evaluated as a function of medication, disorder, time, potency, lipophilicity, and standardized dose and compared among benzodiazepines. Data from 65 trials (73 arms, 7 medications, 7110 patients) were included. In the logarithmic model of response, treatment effects emerged within 1 week of beginning treatment (standardized benzodiazepine-placebo difference = −0.235 ± 0.024, CrI: −0.283 to −0.186, P< .001) and placebo response plateaued at week 4. Doses <6 mg per day (lorazepam equivalents) produced faster and larger improvement than higher doses (P = .039 for low vs medium dose and P = .005 for high vs medium dose) and less lipophilic benzodiazepines (beta = 0.028 ± 0.013, P = .030) produced a greater response over time. Relative to the reference benzodiazepine (lorazepam), clonazepam (beta = −0.217 ± 0.95, P = .021) had a greater trajectory/magnitude of response (other specific benzodiazepines did not statistically differ from lorazepam). In adults with anxiety disorders, benzodiazepine-related improvement emerges early, and the trajectory and magnitude of improvement is related to dose and lipophilicity. Lower doses and less lipophilic benzodiazepines produce greater improvement.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000791
Treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) including treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a major unmet need. Although there are several classes of dissimilar antidepressant drugs approved for MDD, the current drugs have either limited efficacy or are associated with undesirable side effects and withdrawal symptoms. The efficacy and side effects of antidepressant drugs are mainly attributed to their actions on different monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine). Development of new antidepressants with novel targets beyond the monoamine pathways may fill the unmet need in treatment of MDD and TRD. The recent approval of intranasal Esketamine (glutamatergic agent) in conjunction with an oral antidepressant for the treatment of adult TRD patients was the first step toward expanding beyond the monoamine targets. Several other glutamatergic (AXS-05, REL-1017, AV-101, SLS-002, AGN24175, and PCN-101) and GABAergic (brexanolone, zuranolone, and ganaxolone) drugs are currently in different stages of clinical development for MDD, TRD and other indications. The renaissance of psychedelic drugs and the emergence of preliminary positive clinical trial results with psilocybin, Ayahuasca, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may pave the way towards establishing this class of drugs as effective therapies for MDD, TRD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Going beyond the monoamine targets appears to be an effective strategy to develop novel antidepressant drugs with superior efficacy, safety, and tolerability for the improved treatment of MDD and TRD.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000821
CNS Spectrums pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000845
Background Functional cognitive disorders (FCD) are an important differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. The utility of suggested diagnostic features has not been prospectively explored in “real world” clinical populations. This study aimed to identify positive clinical markers of FCD. Methods Adults with cognitive complaints but not dementia were recruited from memory, neurology, and neuropsychiatry clinics. Participants underwent structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Luria 3-step, interlocking fingers, digit span and Medical Symptom Validity Test, Patient Health Questionnaire 15, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Potential diagnostic variables were tested against expert consensus diagnosis using logistic regression. Results FCD were identified in 31/49 participants. Participants with FCD were younger, spoke for longer when prompted “Tell me about the problems you’ve been having,” and had more anxiety and depression symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses than those without FCD. There were no significant differences in sex, education, or cognitive scores. Younger age and longer spoken response predicted FCD diagnosis in a model which explained 74% of diagnostic variability and had an area under the curve (AUC) of 94%. Conclusions A detailed description of cognitive failure is a sensitive and specific positive feature of FCD, demonstrating internal inconsistency between experienced and observed function. Cognitive and performance validity tests appear less helpful in FCD diagnosis. People with FCD are not “worried well” but often perform poorly on tests, and have more anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms than people with other cognitive disorders. Identifying diagnostic profiles is an important step toward parity of esteem for FCDs, as differential diagnoses of neurodegenerative disease and an independent target for clinical trials.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000778
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s109285292100081x
Background: Highlighting the relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorder (TD), two highly disabling, comorbid, and difficult-to-treat conditions, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) acknowledged a new “tic-related” specifier for OCD, ie, obsessive–compulsive tic-related disorder (OCTD). As patients with OCTD may frequently show poor treatment response, the aim of this multicenter study was to investigate rates and clinical correlates of response, remission, and treatment resistance in a large multicenter sample of OCD patients with versus without tics. Methods: A sample of 398 patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of OCD with and without comorbid TD was assessed from 10 different psychiatric departments across Italy. For the purpose of the study, treatment response profiles in the whole sample were analyzed comparing the rates of response, remission, and treatment-resistance as well as related clinical features. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify possible factors associated with treatment response. Results: The remission group was associated with later ages of onset of TD and OCD. Moreover, significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities, TD, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts emerged in the treatment-resistant group, with larger degrees of perceived worsened quality of life and family involvement. Conclusions: Although remission was associated with later ages of OCD and TD onset, specific clinical factors, such as early onset and presence of psychiatric comorbidities and concomitant TD, predicted a worse treatment response with a significant impairment in quality of life for both patients and their caregivers, suggesting a worse profile of treatment response for patients with OCTD.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000833
Background Clinicians who recognize functional neurological disorders (FND) may not share that diagnosis with patients. Poor communication delays treatment and contributes to substantial disability in FND. Diagnostic (ICD-10) coding, one form of medical communication, offers an insight into clinicians’ face-to-face communication. Therefore, quantifying the phenomenon of noncoding, and identifying beliefs and practice habits that reduce coding, may suggest routes to improve medical communication in FND. Methods We reviewed all pediatric neurology consultations in our hospital from 2017 to 2020, selecting those in which neurologists explicitly stated an FND-related diagnosis (N = 57). We identified the neurological symptoms and ICD-10 codes assigned for each consultation. In parallel, we reviewed all encounters that utilized FND-related codes to determine whether insurers paid for this care. Finally, we assessed beliefs and practices that influence FND-related coding through a nationwide survey of pediatric neurologists (N = 460). Results After diagnosing FND, neurologists selected FND-related ICD-10 codes in only 22.8% of consultations. 96.2% of neurologists estimated that they would code for non-epileptic seizure when substantiated by electroencephalography; in practice, they coded for 36.7% of such consultations. For other FND manifestations, neurologists coded in only 13.3% of cases. When presented with FND and non-FND scenarios with equal levels of information, neurologists coded for FND 41% less often. The strongest predictor of noncoding was the outdated belief that FND is a diagnosis of exclusion. Coding for FND never resulted in insurance nonpayment. Conclusion Noncoding for FND is common. Most factors that amplify noncoding also hinder face-to-face communication. Research based on ICD-10 coding (eg, prevalence and cost) may underestimate the impact of FND by >fourfold.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000808
Background: Increasing research is stressing the importance of identifying autistic traits (ATs) in clinical and general populations. University students may be a group at higher risk for the presence of ATs. Recently, specific attention has been paid to camouflaging strategies used by subjects in the autism spectrum in order to cope with the social environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of ATs and camouflaging behaviors in a population of University students. Methods: Subjects were requested to anonymously fill out through an online form the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum and the Camouflaging AT Questionnaire. Results: ATs were more represented among males and among students of specific fields of study. Camouflaging behaviors were significantly more frequent among subjects with more severe autism spectrum symptoms, without differences depending from sex. Conclusions: Our study confirms the strong association between ATs and camouflaging behaviors and the relationship between ATs, sex, and specific fields of study.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s109285292100078x
Background: To identify demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar depressed patients who require antidepressant (AD) augmentation, and to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness and safety of this therapeutic strategy. Methods: One hundred twenty-two bipolar depressed patients were consecutively recruited, 71.7% of them received mood stabilizers (MS)/second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) with AD-augmentation and 28.3% did not. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and after 12 weeks and 15 months of treatment. Results: The AD-augmentation was significantly higher in patients with bipolar II compared with bipolar I diagnosis. Patients with MS/SGA + AD had often a seasonal pattern, depressive polarity onset, depressive index episode with anxious features, a low number of previous psychotic and (hypo)manic episodes and of switch. They had a low irritable premorbid temperament, a low risk of suicide attempts, and a low number of manic symptoms at baseline. After 12 weeks of treatment, 82% of patients receiving ADs improved, 58% responded and 51% remitted, 3.8% had suicidal thoughts or projects, 6.1% had (hypo)manic switch, and 4.1% needed hospitalization. During the following 12 months, 92% of them remitted from index episode, 25.5% did not relapse, and 11% needed hospitalization. Although at the start advantaged, patients with AD-augmentation, compared with those without AD-augmentation, did not significantly differ on any outcome as well on adverse events in the short- and long-term treatment. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ADs, combined with MS and/or SGA, are short and long term effective and safe in a specific subgroup for bipolar depressed patients.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000729
Background Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with suicidal behavior. Cognitive deficits in working memory and inhibitory control have been demonstrated in depressed patients and people with suicidal ideation (SI). However, the association between proinflammatory cytokines, SI, and cognitive deficits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear. Methods A total of 77 patients with MDD and age-/sex-matched 60 healthy individuals were recruited. MDD patients were divided into two groups: with SI (n = 36) and no SI (n = 41). SI was defined by a score of ≥2 in item 3 of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including soluble interleukin-6 receptor, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor type 1, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured, and cognitive function was assessed using 2-back task and Go/No-Go task. Results Patients with SI had higher levels of CRP than those without SI and controls (P = .007). CRP was positively associated with SI (β = 0.21, P = .037), independent of cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, SI was associated with cognitive deficits in working memory and inhibitory control after adjusting for confounding factors (P < .05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that higher levels of serum CRP and deficits in working memory and inhibitory control may be associated with higher SI among patients with MDD.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000754
Background A number of recent investigations have focused on the neurobiology of obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). However, there have been few reviews of this literature with no detailed model proposed. We therefore undertook a systematic review of these investigations, aiming to map the available evidence and investigate whether it is possible to formulate a detailed model of the neurobiology of OCPD. Methods OCPD can be considered from both categorical and dimensional perspectives. An electronic search was therefore conducted using terms that would address not only OCPD as a category, but also related constructs, such as perfectionism, that would capture research on neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and neurogenetics. Results A total of 1059 articles were retrieved, with 87 ultimately selected for abstract screening, resulting in a final selection of 49 articles focusing on neurobiological investigations relevant to OCPD. Impaired executive function and cognitive inflexibility are common neuropsychological traits in this condition, and suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCPD may lie on a continuum. However, neuroimaging studies in OCPD indicate the involvement of specific neurocircuitry, including the precuneus and amygdala, and so suggest that OCD and OCPD may have important differences. Although OCPD has a heritable component, we found no well-powered genetic studies of OCPD. Conclusion Although knowledge in this area has advanced, there are insufficient data on which to base a comprehensive model of the neurobiology of OCPD. Given the clinical importance of OCPD, further work to understand the mechanisms that underpin this condition is warranted.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000742
CNS Spectrums pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000730
Background There is a burgeoning body of evidence suggesting that arginine vasopressin (AVP) acts as a neuromodulator of the stress response. AVP stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, synergistic to corticotropin-releasing hormone, which might explain AVP’s role in resilience. Personal hardiness is the bedrock of resilience. Numerous studies have demonstrated elevated plasma levels of AVP in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), suggesting an etiopathogenetic role as well as a novel therapeutic target. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between AVP and resilience in patients with MDD and to determine AVP levels in serum of patients with MDD. Methods Forty patients with MDD and 40 healthy control subjects were studied using the Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness) Scale by Barton, the Quality of Life Scale, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Biochemical analysis of plasma levels of AVP, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was performed for all participants. Results Levels of AVP were statistically significantly elevated in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. Psychological hardiness was decreased in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls, a finding also statistically significant. There was a negative correlation between plasma AVP level and psychological hardiness. Conclusion AVP and psychological hardiness are negatively correlated, reflecting lower stress resilience. AVP levels are indeed higher in patients struggling with MDD.
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000675
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000663
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26, pp 436-436; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852920001790
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000705
Objective To assess executive functions (EFs) in patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with healthy controls. Methods Adults diagnosed with BDD (n = 26) or OCD (n = 29) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and healthy controls (n = 28) underwent validated and computerized neuropsychological tests, spatial working memory (SWM), intra–extra-dimensional set shifting (IED), and stop signal task (SST), from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Test performance was compared between groups, and correlated with standardized symptom severity of BDD and OCD. Significance level was set to P < .05. Results There were no statistically significant between-group differences on key outcome measures in SWM, IED, or SST. There was a weak positive correlation between symptom severity and test errors on SWM and IED in both OCD and BDD groups; increased clinical severity was associated with more errors in these tests. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between symptom severity and SST in the BDD group. Conclusions Patients with BDD or OCD did not differ from healthy control subjects in terms of test performance; however, there were several statistically significant correlations between symptom severity and performance in those with BDD or OCD. More studies on EFs in BDD and OCD are required to elucidate if there are differences in EFs between these two disorders.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000699
Background Mental pain has been proposed as a global person-centered outcome measure. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test an essential requisite of such a measure, namely that mental pain incorporates independent contributions from a range of discrete but disparate outcome measures. Methods Two hundred migraine patients were assessed concerning migraine disability, psychosomatic syndromes, mental pain, depression, anxiety, and psychosocial dimensions. General linear models were tested to verify which measures would individually make unique contributions to overall mental pain. Results The final model, accounting for 44% of variance, identified that higher mental pain was associated with more severe depressive symptoms, higher migraine disability, lower well-being, and poorer quality of life. Conclusion In this sample, mental pain was shown to behave as expected of a global outcome measure, since multiple measures of symptomatology and quality of life showed modest but significant bivariate correlations with mental pain and some of these measures individually made unique contributions to overall mental pain.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000687
Objective Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by its heterogeneous nature and by different dimensions of obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are used to treat OCD, but up to 40% to 60% of patients do not show a significant improvement with these medications. In this study, we aimed to test the impact of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism on the efficacy of antidepressants in OCD overall, and in relation to the different OC dimensions. Methods In a 6-month prospective treatment study, 69 Caucasian OCD patients were treated with escitalopram for 24 weeks or with escitalopram for 12 weeks followed by paroxetine for an additional 12-week period. Patients were genotyped and assessed for treatment response. The main clinical outcomes were improvement of the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale score and in different OC symptom dimension scores. Results The Val/Val group comprised 43 (62%) patients, the Val/Met and Met/Met group comprised 26 (38%) patients. Forty-two patients were classified as responders at 12 weeks and 38 at 24 weeks; no significant association was found between BDNF Val66Met and SRIs response at 12 and 24 weeks. In analyses of the different OC symptom dimensions, the Met allele was associated with a slightly reduced score in the aggressive/checking dimension at 6 months (P = .048). Conclusions Our findings do not support the usefulness of BDNF Val66Met genotyping to predict overall response to treatment with SRIs in OCD; they did however suggest a better outcome at 6 months for the aggressive/checking symptom dimension for patients carrying the Met allele.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000651
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000614
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000626
CNS Spectrums pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s109285292100064x
It is well established that migraine is a multifactorial disorder. A deep understanding of migraine should be based upon both the underlying traits and the current states affected by different physiological, psychological, and environmental factors. At this point, there is no framework fully meeting these criteria. Here, we describe a broader view of the migraine disorder defined as a dysfunctional brain state and trait interaction. In this model, we consider events that may enhance or diminish migraine responsivity based on an individual’s trait and state. This could provide an expanded view for considering how migraine attacks are sometimes precipitated by “triggers” and sometimes not, how these factors only lead to migraine attacks in migraine patients, or how individuals with an increased risk for migraine do not show any symptoms at all. Summarizing recent studies and evidence that support the concept of migraine as a brain state–trait interaction can also contribute to improving patient care by highlighting the importance of precision medicine and applying measures that are able to capture how different traits and states work together to determine migraine.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-35; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000638
CNS Spectrums pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000596
CNS Spectrums pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000602
Background Few studies have analyzed compulsive buying behavior in relation to a specific product. Smartphones are hugely popular products today, especially among young people. These two aspects have motivated this research into the compulsive buying behavior of Smartphones by university students. Methods To study this behavior, the main features that differentiate compulsive buyers from those that are not are analyzed, and their risk profiles are obtained through a discrete choice model. Results Sociodemographic features that define buyers with the greatest propensity to compulsiveness are younger age, longer time spent daily using social networks, higher spending on the acquisition of Smartphones and having owned a greater number of these devices. These buyers also show shopping addiction and greater feelings of guilt after the purchase as well as more positive and negative affective states when purchasing Smartphones. Conclusions This analysis not only determines the characteristics that define young individuals with a tendency toward compulsiveness in Smartphone purchases, but also contributes to quantifying the probability of having this tendency.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000559
CNS Spectrums pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000584
CNS Spectrums pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000432
Background There is strong comorbidity between atherosclerosis (ATS) and depression which is attributed to increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance (IR), and immune and oxidative stress. Aim of the study To examine the role of the above pathways and mu-opioid receptor (MOR), β-endorphin levels, zinc, copper, vitamin D3, calcium, and magnesium in depression due to ATS/unstable angina (UA). Methods Biomarkers were assayed in 58 controls and 120 ATS patients divided into those with moderate and severe depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores >19 and >29, respectively. Results Neural network and logistic regression models showed that severe depression due to ATS/UA was best predicted by interleukin-6 (IL-6), UA, MOR, zinc, β-endorphin, calcium and magnesium, and that moderate depression was associated with IL-6, zinc, MOR, β-endorphin, UA, atherogenicity, IR, and calcium. Neural networks yielded a significant discrimination of severe and moderate depression with an area under the receiver operating curves of 0.831 and 0.931, respectively. Using Partial Least Squares path analysis, we found that 66.2% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from ATS/UA clinical features, and the BDI-II scores, atherogenicity, and IR could be explained by the regression on IL-6, IL-10, zinc, copper, calcium, MOR, and age. The BDI-II scores increased from controls to ATS to UA class III to UA class IV. Conclusions Immune activation, the endogenous opioid system, antioxidants, trace elements, and macrominerals modulate a common core shared by increased depressive symptoms, ATS, UA, atherogenicity, and IR.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000444
Background The present study explored the influence of romantic love on the expression of several obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) characteristics, including symptom severity, symptom dimensions, age at onset, sensory phenomena (SP), and developmental course, as well as other related comorbid disorders. It was hypothesized that love-precipitated OCD would be associated with a set of distinct characteristics and exhibit greater rates of comorbid disorders. Methods The analyses were performed using a large sample (n = 981) of clinical patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD (Females = 67.3%, M age = 35.31). Results Love-precipitated OCD was associated with greater severity of SP and later age at onset of obsessions. However, symptom severity, symptom dimension, developmental course, and psychiatric comorbidities were not associated with love-precipitated OCD. Conclusion It was concluded that romantic love does shape the expression of OCD, especially with regard to SP and onset age. These findings encourage further exploration to determine its clinical significance as a phenotype.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000547
Background Our goal was to identify the demographic profile of the people living homeless with mental illness in Lisboa, Portugal, and their relationship with the national healthcare system. We also tried to understand which factors contribute to the number and duration of psychiatric admissions among these homeless people. Methods We used a cross-sectional design, collecting data for 4 years among homeless people, in Lisboa, Portugal, that were referred as possible psychiatric patients to Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa (CHPL). In total, we collected data from 500 homeless people, then crosschecked these people in our CHPL hospital electronic database and obtained 467 patient matches. Results The most common psychiatric diagnosis in our sample was drug abuse (34%), followed by alcohol abuse (33%), personality disorder (24%), and acute stress reaction (23%). Sixty-two percent of our patients had multiple diagnoses, a subgroup with longer follow-ups, more psychiatric hospitalizations, and longer psychiatric hospitalizations. The prevalence of psychotic disorders was high: organic psychosis (17%), schizophrenia (15%), psychosis not otherwise specified (14%), and schizoaffective disorder (11%), that combined altogether were present in more than half (57%) of our homeless patients. Conclusion The people living homeless with multiple diagnoses have higher mental health needs and worse determinants of general health. An ongoing effort is needed to identify and address this subgroup of homeless people with mental illness to improve their treatment and outcomes.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000560
The experiential core of the obsessive mind rests on subtle, primary mental phenomena (such as obsessions and so called “sensory phenomena”) which precede and trigger behavioral compulsions. Converging evidence supports a possible pathophysiological role for altered corollary discharge (phenotypically expressed in sensorimotor symptoms and contributing to a reduced Sense of Agency [SoA]), in the neurodevelopment of obsessions and “sensory phenomena.” In phenomenological terms, “sensory phenomena” may represent the subjective experiential resonance of an individual history of persistent inaccurate sensory predictions, whereas accompanying manifestations, such as the obsessive need for order and symmetry, may represent a compensatory attempt to mitigate “sensory phenomena” (eg, by increasing the sensory predictability of the surrounding world). Since disturbances of both SoA and Sense of Ownership have been thematized as potential pathogenetic factors in the neurodevelopment of the psychotic mind, a dimensional account of altered sensorimotor prediction may partly explain the affinities (and high comorbidity) between obsessive–compulsive disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000572
Background The aim of this study is to examine the effects of quetiapine as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) type I. Methods In this 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 47 patients with BD in euthymic phase that had OC symptoms were randomly allocated to receive either quetiapine or placebo plus their routine medications (lithium + clonazepam). Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) was used to assess the outcomes. Adverse effects were also recorded. Results Of 47 BD patients with OC symptoms that were randomly allocated in two groups of quetiapine (n = 24) and placebo group (n = 23), 40 patients (20 in quetiapine group and 20 in placebo group) completed the trial. Throughout the trial, the mean score of YBOCS in the quetiapine group dropped from 24.37 ± 1.51 to 15.26 ± 1.16 (P < .001) and in the placebo group decreased from 24.21 ± 1.33 to 23.94 ± 1.66 (P = 1.97). At the end of the study, 12 (60%) patients in the quetiapine group and 1 (5%) patient in the placebo group had more than 34% decline in YBOCS score (P < .001). No serious adverse effects were reported in two groups. Conclusions Our double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that quetiapine may be an effective adjuvant agent for reducing OC symptoms in BD patients.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000535
Exploring space is one of the most attractive goals that humanity ever set, notwithstanding, there are some psychological and psychopathological risks that should be considered. Several studies identified some possible hazards of space travels and related physical and psychological consequences on astronauts. If some psychological reactions are obviously inherent to the characteristics of the spaceships (habitability, confinement, psychological, and interpersonal relationships), other (disturbances of sleep-wake cycle, personality changes, depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosomatic symptoms, neurovestibular problems, alterations in cognitive function, and sensory perception) represent a clear warning of possible central nervous system (CNS) alterations, possibly due to microgravity and cosmic radiation. Such conditions and eventual CNS changes might compromise the success of missions and the ability to cope with unexpected events and may lead to individual and long-term impairments. Therefore, further studies are needed, perhaps, requiring the birth of a novel branch of psychology/psychiatry that should not only consider the risks related to space exploration, but the implementation of targeted strategies to prevent them.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000523
Antipsychotic medications are used in a wide range of mental health and neurodevelopmental conditions in children and adolescents. Their efficacy and tolerability with long-term use have not been clearly established. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the long-term use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents. All relevant double-blind randomized control trials (RCTs), on any antipsychotic used for 12 weeks or longer in any mental health/neurodevelopmental condition in this age group, were included. We evaluated several efficacy and tolerability measures. Meta-analysis was performed for adverse events. Seven RCTs were identified (n = 939, age = 5-17 years), four on aripiprazole and three on risperidone. All studies reported symptomatic/functional improvements or more time before discontinuation with antipsychotics compared to placebo. Weight gain was identified as a significant side effect with antipsychotics. Serum prolactin was reduced with aripiprazole and increased with risperidone, and abdominal pain/discomfort, respiratory tract infections, were more common with Aripiprazole compared to placebo. Musculoskeletal pain may be more common with aripiprazole compared to placebo. Use of antipsychotics for 12 weeks or longer may be associated with symptomatic/functional improvements, but may be associated with additional side effects compared to short-term treatment. Further research in this population is needed.
CNS Spectrums pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852921000511