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Results in Journal Advances in Literary Study: 132

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Aboubakar Nana Aichatou
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 42-52; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92006

Abstract:
The paper studies Hausa films language through the analysis of communication strategies, namely figurative language (proverbs, metaphor), Code switching/Code mixing and Coded-language. The paper attempts to demonstrate how the characters’ use of these devices is deliberate, conscious. It shows that proverbs are commonly used as communication strategy not only to “embellish” but also to “convey deeper meaning” (Aduku, 2018) which helps reveal character competence and proficiency in the language. It also discovers that code switching/code mixing is used purposely as a communication strategy to structure speech in film conversation. As for coded message, it reflects a change in handling matters where communication is done in a restricted secret manner through coded message. Also, the examples extracted from the Hausa Film Basaja are to show that for proper understanding of the language, the surface meaning of words is to be examined.
Reema Salah
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 105-113; doi:10.4236/als.2021.93012

Abstract:
Second language users use the language for various reasons. Three reasons are examined in this paper: linguistic, social, and academic. A sample of Jordanian students from three universities in Jordan was asked to complete a survey about their use of English (N = 1052). A 2 gender (male, female) × 2 dwelling (urban, rural) × 3 university locations multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) found significant main effects of gender on the linguistic social factor. No interaction effect was significant. The results show that male students tend to feel more linguistically competent than females, but females tend to use English for social reasons more often than males. Students who live in a city tend to use English more than those living in a village when they use the language for linguistic or academic purposes.
Yan Li
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 21-25; doi:10.4236/als.2021.91004

Abstract:
Chinese herbal medicine features strong national characteristics, and carries heavy cultural connotations. The use of Chinese herbal medicine originated in ancient China, which was called Japanese Kampo medicine after it was introduced into Japan. With the close cultural exchanges between China and Japan and the continuous improvement of medical technology, Chinese herbal medicine has become more and more appreciated and recognized by the Japanese for its unique charm. At the same time, the research on herbology in China and Japan has also been unprecedentedly developed. Based on the purpose of mutual learning and reference, this paper discusses the Japanese-Chinese translation studies of the popular science text of traditional Chinese pharmacology in Japan.
Giuseppe Giordano
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 127-134; doi:10.4236/als.2021.93014

Abstract:
Lady Audley’s Secret is a novel first published in 1862 by Mary Elizabeth Braddon, a Victorian writer. It is the story of a young lady who, in her attempt to climb the social ladder, commits several crimes. Her behaviour was considered abnormal and improper in a society in which women had to be obedient and docile. The originality of this work is the representation of a woman whose behaviour was not considered as insane rather intentional and calculated but, despite this, she was confined to an asylum. Psychiatry was an emerging medical specialty during the Victorian period and the diagnosis of psychiatric conditions was not sophisticated and precise as today. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Lady Audley was likely affected by antisocial personality disorder according to the medical assessment criteria of the present time.
Dimitrios Politis
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/als.2021.91001

Abstract:
Although in 1982 Chambers’ book, Dance on My Grave, was considered bold, rather provocative, today, almost forty years later we can only treat it as one of the classic daring books that still attracts and challenges modern readers, teenagers and adults. And if the issue of homosexuality mainly identifies the novel nowadays seems commonplace, the matter of death stands virtually as a threatening scene throughout this book. However, the novel’s central hero named Hal Robinson, trying to clear his memories up, after he had experienced an adolescent love that still surpasses everything, entices all but poetically his teenage friends-readers into a dance that exorcizes death and praises life. Following Hal in his pursuits, the present paper seeks, though not exhaustively, to provide some more insights into Chambers’ novel concerning the torturous search of the self as well as the depressing idea of inevitable death that is very closely linked to the transgressions of adolescence.
Yan Yang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 53-60; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92007

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to study the artistic conception of the English translation of ancient poems. Artistic conception, as the main artistic feature of poetry, is produced by the superposition of images. In this paper, I choose three different versions of famous translators’ translations of Prelude to Water Melody, to make a comparative study, and discuss how to convey the artistic conception in the process of English translation.
Fatema Akter, Bithi Mojumder, Maruf Rahman
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 27-41; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92005

Abstract:
This study aimed at investigating the students’ responses towards the course entitled “History of English Language” in the English Department, learning whether the course was effective or not and also identifying some teachers’ views towards the course. In order to collect data for analysis, two separate questionnaires were distributed to English department students and teachers of Noakhali Science and Technology University (NSTU) and an interview was conducted with teachers in the English Department. The major findings of this study revealed that teachers and students provided similar views about the importance of knowing the history of English, the content of the course and the essentiality of the course in graduation level at non-native countries. Some differences between teachers’ and students’ opinions regarding the course including the effectiveness of the course have also been found in this study. Finally, some recommendations have been provided to fill the gap between the teachers’ and the students’ opinions in order to ensure the effectiveness of the course in the syllabus of English department in non-native countries like Bangladesh.
Jiawei Lim
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 84-90; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92010

Abstract:
Based on the in-depth study of the text, author explains the theoretical and practical background, development process, essential characteristics, main content of the formation of Lenin’s human studies, and the historical fate and enlightenment significance of this thought in contemporary development. The book indicated that Lenin’s human studies have enriched and developed Marxist human studies in human existence theory, human liberation theory, and human development theory with its distinctive characteristics of the times, nationalities, and practices. It forms another vital stage of development after Marx’s human studies.
Tan Jing
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 61-72; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92008

Abstract:
The Northern drama (zaju) of the Yuan Dynasty has distinct formal characteristics in terms of script structure, arias and speaking lines, musical modes and song suites, as well as the linguistic register and metrical requirements. By comparing the three English translations of the Northern drama (zaju) Han gong qiu with the original Chinese text, there appear several deficiencies in presenting the capacity of performability and readability of this text, which includes the misplacing of the literary status of the songs and dialogue, the omitting of the musical modes and metrics. The formal feature exemplifies the “significant form” and poses an indispensable part of the content of Yuan Zaju.
Yong Wu
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 91-103; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92011

Abstract:
The current study was designed to understand the relationship between identity and codeswitching among 240 Malaysian Chinese undergraduate students. The data for this study consisted of questionnaires, interview samples, and various observational records. The results reveal that there is a significant relationship between identity and codeswitching. This research also indicated how Malaysian Chinese students use codeswitching when communicating with people through observational note-taking, audiotaping, and videotaping.
Yan Li
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 16-20; doi:10.4236/als.2021.91003

Abstract:
First of all, this paper briefly reviews Nida’s “functional equivalence” theory, and clarifies the core element of functional translation theory, that is, the response degree of the target readers to the translated text is roughly the same as that of the source language readers; Secondly, it introduces the characteristics and translation of popular science texts; Finally, the vocabulary, sentence and chapter of the popular science text of Takeda Pharmaceutical are selected to explain the translation practice in detail, so as to provide some reference for the development of popular science text translation.
Naiting He
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 73-83; doi:10.4236/als.2021.92009

Abstract:
As a member of human society, children are the future of the family, country, nation, and mankind indeed. With the development of human civilization, the protection of children’s rights attracts more and more attention due to increasing refugee crisis. Especially the group of refugee children caused by armed conflicts has aroused focus and sympathy worldwide. As an Afghan-born American novelist, Khaled Hosseini’s literary works are all about the theme of refugees. In particular, his new work Sea Prayer which was published in 2018 shows the issue of refugee children in a bald statement. With a strong desire to expect people to look at this issue from a humanitarian perspective, Khaled Hosseini’s stresses the importance of mutual understanding and peaceful coexistence, which happens to coincide with the idea of a community with shared future for mankind. This paper puts forward the issue of refugee children from the perspective of the community with a shared future for mankind by analyzing Khaled Hosseini and his new work Sea Prayer. In the first place, it makes the introduction to Khaled Hosseini and his work and analyzes his awareness of refugee issue. Then, the paper establishes the causes of refugee children and the current situation and difficulties to protect refugee children. The conclusion discusses that Khaled Hosseini’s work reflects the literary orientation of the community with a shared future for mankind, which will provide a certain valuable guidance and practice for effectively solving refugee crisis.
Yan Li
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 11-15; doi:10.4236/als.2021.91002

Abstract:
This paper gives a brief introduction to Nida’s life experience and the formation of “functional equivalence” translation theory. Nida’s translation theory was not formed overnight, but perfected and deepened through unceasing practical exploration. From the initial “dynamic equivalence” to the final “functional equivalence”, Nida’s translation theory fully embodies its vivid life value. This paper attempts to achieve the best functional equivalence from four aspects: the communication of language information, the transmission of spiritual style, the communication of language habits and the similar reaction of readers.
TianYue Wang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 09, pp 114-126; doi:10.4236/als.2021.93013

Abstract:
This study used a systemic functional linguistic approach to interpret the theme of Lord of the Flies, an allegorical novel written by British writer William Golding. On the basis of the clause, this research analyzed the author’s ways of writing and interpreted the functional meanings he tried to convey through the wording and structure of the novel. Excerptions from Lord of the Flies were analyzed in terms of the three metafunctions of language, namely, ideational function, interpersonal function, and textual function. More specifically, the current study focused on the author’s lexico-grammatical choices in the transitivity system, mood system, and thematic structure of the clauses and revealed that different choices encode different meanings, all contributing to the manifestation of the theme: without proper constraints, human’s inner evil will be magnified indefinitely and their reversion to savagery will be inevitable.
Huimin Gao
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 8-22; doi:10.4236/als.2020.81002

Abstract:
This paper explores the portrayal of motherhood in Kate Drumgoold’s autobiography A Slave Girl’s Story (1898). Drumgoold’s narrative stresses her sacred experience partly contributes to its shortage of secular life stories. Drumgoold constructs a world of love in the narrative. She got love from her white mothers, from God, and she got a different type of love from her birth mother. Drumgoold might be the first female slave narrative writer who depicts her white mistress as her mother. But Drumgoold’s depictions of white maternal love partially conceal the violence and suffering that she and her family had suffered in slavery. This paper argues that Drumgoold’s narrative demonstrates ambivalences in depicting the world of love and the hardships she and her family had to overcome. Drumgoold’s helplessness and weakness in slavery induce her to turn to God and God’s love, which helps her find an anchor in her white mother who might extend kindness to her. But Drumgoold also praises her own mother who strived to take care of her children and taught them to fight for freedom. This paper also investigates Drumgoold’s thoughts of the morality of motherhood as she relates that a mother would be rewarded by God when she takes responsibility for mothering work.
Ramji Timalsina
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 35-45; doi:10.4236/als.2020.82004

Abstract:
What is the effect of a writer’s lifestyle on his/her writings? This article tries to show how they are integrated with an analytical example of Nepali freedom fighter and historical novelist Dayaman Shumsher Rana’s life and writings. Based on his beliefs on society, individual and democracy and the lifestyle, he followed, and their portrayal in his novel Pratibaddha [Committed] (Rana, 1981), this analysis is made. Rana lived an exemplary committed life of a democrat and always worked for the establishment and promotion of democracy and its spirit and culture. In his novel Pratibaddha, the same commitment is given a fictional touch through the portrayal of the life of its protagonist and other components of the text. The study is based on the exploratory readings on Rana’s life and the basic principles of democratic spirit, and application of its major findings in the study of the novel in question. Finally, it is found that a writer’s lifestyle has a great role in the creation, and Rana’s Pratibaddha is its good example. The research has found that Dayaman was born in the aristocratic Rana family; but he grew as a revolutionary in his youth. So he fought against his own family reign and the then despotic rulers of Nepal. Once democracy was introduced in the nation, he worked as a model democrat. The main character of the novel under this study also exhibits the similar qualities of a democrat.
Long Shi
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 1-7; doi:10.4236/als.2020.81001

Abstract:
Black women lived in the bottom of the society; they suffered from oppression of both sexuality and racial discrimination. In Their Eyes Were Watching God, the writer Zora Neale Hurston creates a positive image Janie who seeks for female rights and fulfills herself through her own efforts. In the course of Janie’s pilgrimage toward female rights, she goes through three stages, that is, Janie’s loss, Janie’s awakening, and Janie’s fulfillment. Janie’s struggle expresses black feminist consciousness-awareness, which becomes an independent female individual bursting her voices in the male-dominant world.
Chaibou Elhadji Oumarou
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 133-151; doi:10.4236/als.2020.83011

Abstract:
In this paper, I focus on the attitudes of Sarki (chief or king), Malamai (Islamic leaders or elite) and Azne (non-Muslim or pagan) as well as on their motivations for actions and on how they end up constructing identities in the process. For the sake of methodology, I will begin with summaries of the two tales to help readers not familiar with them; then I will follow the theme of power relations exploring the attitudes of the three characters through their interactions in the light of historical facts. The exploration will serve as a background for the contestation of the legitimacy of the political authority of the Sarki by Malamai and of Sarki’s claim on the land by Azne. The background will also help better understand the ideological, social and cultural implications of the characters’ actions, mostly the contestation which adds the identity dimension to their relations and sheds light on some of the social and cultural crises facing the Hausaland today. Then the process of identity creation will be the last section before the conclusion followed by a short biography of the storyteller. The tale Azne is the main primary source on which I will base my interpretative analysis, although some references will be made to some tales collected by (Stephens, 1981) that illustrate contests between a representative of the Malamai and one of the royal family on the one hand and another tale dealing with power relation and contestation that involves a Sarki and an Azne from Ciibaw’s collection under study. The second tale is titled Babu sarki sai Allah (There is no king but Allah). The limitation to few primary sources will somehow make any conclusions provisional and it also suggests further research for a more comprehensive approach to the topic in particular and to the work of Albarka Ciibaw who is yet to receive adequate critical attention from scholars on Hausa oral literature.
Mustafa Taher Alhaiadreh
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 68-77; doi:10.4236/als.2020.82007

Abstract:
The art of cheating is based on the manipulation of the vocabulary and structures used, and the use of images of linguistic performance that convince the speaker, in which the listener is weak and needy, which causes the other party to respond to it. This type represents the manipulation of words and structures in the most beautiful form in the art of Maqamat, which was prevalent in the Arabic literature in successive eras. Due to this, the research aims to find out the cheating language which is used by the fraudsters in terms of its characteristics and its impact on their dealings.
Wei Ding
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 46-57; doi:10.4236/als.2020.82005

Abstract:
Animal images are important components in Virginia Woolf’s ecological novels, which are part of natural metaphor. This thesis is an exploration of the process of the cognition in Woolf’s literary creation through the analysis of the usage of the metaphorical images in her novels. Two major animal images—snail and moth—are examined following a biographical study, which can contribute to exploring Woolf’s ecological consciousness and the adoption of her concepts in her ecological writing.
Eisam Asaqli, Mariam Masalha
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 78-105; doi:10.4236/als.2020.82008

Abstract:
This study deals with the use of folk songs in two poems by the Egyptian poet ʾAmal Dunqul (1940-1983), ʾiJāza ʿlā Shāṭiʾ al-Baḥr (A Seaside Vacation) and the Al-ḥidād Yalīqu bi Qaṭr Al-nadā (A Mourning Becomes Qaṭr Al-nadā), The study reveals the cultural heritage and references from which ʾAmal Dunqul draws in his poetry. It further examines the reasons and motives that prompted the poet to employ these sources. The study shows that ʾAmal Dunqul, who came from the village, reveals his unfamiliarity with city life and the various psychological, social and political shocks it inflicts on him. He sees that the poet’s life in the city is full of anxieties and is very black; he sees that he is suffering living there. Dunqul compares his status to that of others. He feels attuned to the spirit of the nation, and he believes that he belongs to it. He uses Egyptian folk songs and reflects on their content to criticize the prevailing political, social and economic conditions. Since he dreams of a more beautiful future, he believes that poetry should be a voice of opposition and resistance to the state of reality. Poetry, for him, expresses the rejection of the humiliation heaped upon us. Dunqul leverages his cultural heritage to increase peoples’ national identity. He quotes Egyptian folk songs and roundelays, including them in his poetry after changing their context to decry the country’s political and moral corruption, and the loss of Egypt’s firm and moral political leadership. His poems express his sadness and grief because of the political and moral corruption on the one hand, and the infirmity of presidents on the other.
Aboubakar Nana Aichatou
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 58-67; doi:10.4236/als.2020.82006

Abstract:
One of the most frequently encountered products of cultural contact is the borrowing. Borrowing is seen to be a source, an important source of language enrichment as well as of language endangerment. When a given language borrows a great amount of lexical terms from another language, we assume that the two languages have the same attributes or else they have been in contact for a long time. As a result, the current study investigates the Kanuri borrowed words from Hausa. The study is limited to what lexical terms have been borrowed by the Kanuri from the Hausa, how has the borrowing come about as all languages have the means to create, enrich themselves out of their own resources. In other words, why do the Kanuri people borrow a word or words from the Hausa while they have a fully equivalent beforehand? In this research, the researcher collected the data by taking notes and later arranged as documentations for further analysis. Finally, the researcher finds that actually many consider the Kanuri borrowed terms from the Hausa as typically Kanuri and could not dissociate them with other Kanuri words. Hence, the necessity for the current study to bring out the endangerment of borrowing for the Kanuri people and point out the necessity for the language to coin new words (neologism) that could better enrich its lexicon.
Zipporah Ampofo, Jonathan Essuman, Ekua Arhin, Richard Ansah
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 23-33; doi:10.4236/als.2020.81003

Abstract:
African Writers gave little importance to the role of women in their literary works. The likes of Chinua Achebe and Ayi kwei Armah gave prominence to women characters. This is seen in Ayi Kwei Armah’s text Fragments. This article therefore examines the important role given by the author of this novel to the woman character, Naana. A critical content analysis has been engaged in to ascertain her roles in the narrative and thematic developments of the story. That is, it studies how Naana is used as a tool to bring about the success of the novel. A study of this nature has to do with gender. Thus, the underlying theories of this paper are Marxist feminist criticism and feminist literary criticism.
Linda Abd Al-Rahman Rade Obaid
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 107-118; doi:10.4236/als.2020.83009

Abstract:
This study deals with the problem of searching for salvation and death in the poem Badr Shaker Al-Sayyab, “Sifr Ayoub”, and standing by the aesthetic of artistic construction in saying the poet’s visions and his perceptions towards himself and towards existence. He was known for his inclination in his poetry towards the dualities of life and death; at times he became entangled at first despite his suffering, and he resisted the second with the images of life, her love and the possibilities of supplication and begging in search of ways to survive in harmony with his internal psychological defeats on the one hand, and with the ugliness of what is happening in Iraq in the political and social realities on the other hand, to date in his poem “The Book of Job” for the last period of his life, clinging to what he could through the ways of salvation, looking for the emancipation of himself from the torments of the body of the soul, within many contradictions that make him in his interior a certainty of destruction that is ready to kill him. Al-Sayyab relies on various artistic techniques in building his poem in line with the inherited one time, outside it and again, as a pioneer in the poetic modernity movement in the twentieth century. The study adopted an analytical textual approach to approach. It consisted of a preamble, a presentation based on sub-headings dealing with the contents and problematic of the poem, and the conclusion and a list of references and sources.
Peng Zhao
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 119-132; doi:10.4236/als.2020.83010

Abstract:
The paper attempts to reveal the narrative characteristics of The Da Vinci Code from the perspective of feminist narratology. Based on interpretation of embedded narrative, the author discovers that structure of the story is covertly inscribed with male domination over female character. In analysis of sequential communal voice, it is proved that Langdon collaborates with Teabing to indoctrinate Sophie with patriarchal ideology, which further demonstrates the novel is fraught with textually marked male hegemony and female marginalization.
Abdoulaye Hakibou
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 157-166; doi:10.4236/als.2020.84013

Abstract:
Africa is almost fully known for the great number of its local languages, number diversely appreciated by natives and non-natives, mainly researchers in linguistics. Some take the great number of local languages in individual countries as a handicap to national language use whereas others consider it as a cultural prosperity. Today, the question is about the real linguistic needs for Africa to start science transmission in them for competitive and sustainable development. The researcher believes that African development cannot be effective and sustainable without scientific acquisitions and applications of its own. The present paper aims to discuss the needs through which African languages could be used to conduct instructions and scientific researches. The results of the study show that some effort started with functional literacy classes in rural areas with limited contents and that today, with formal learners from universities in local language literacy classes, the main condition along with linguistic policies is lexical needs to express new cultural realities and conduct scientific writing in local languages as they try them in western languages.
Rifat Binte Joynal, Maruf Rahman
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 167-177; doi:10.4236/als.2020.84014

Abstract:
The article will detect the social hurdles experienced by the Third World Indian Women in the light of Manju Kapur’s celebrated novel, A Married Woman (2002). The obstacles such as early marriage, forced marriage, gender discrimination, domestic work, family tradition, social taboos, education inequality, discourage for degree, patriarchal hegemony, sexual politics that block the way of female freedom, education, employment and empowerment will be explored here. The common picture in the South Asian Indian patriarchy is that either educated or employed all Third World women face some common obstacles. So far been employed or empowered they have to compromise their will and choice for the sake of family or society. Patriarchy means men-women disparity but Indian women are colonized by both religious patriarchy and social taboos. Women in Third World context are restricted by both familial and social obligations. Hence, patriarchy in India is religious patriarchy and social cultures are different for men and women. In this fiction, Kapur’s resistant heroines Astha and Pipeelika are intellectually liberated from the tie of patriarchy but again enticed by a lot of social and familial customs they suffer from identity crisis and existential problems.
Hansjörg Martin Rothe
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 08, pp 152-156; doi:10.4236/als.2020.83012

Abstract:
Linguistically speaking, the family of West-Germanic languages contains English (Englisch/Engels), Hoch-Deutsch (Duits/German) and Nederlands (Dutch/Niederländisch). All of them have Germanic roots to a certain degree but each one differs a lot from the languages spoken by any German tribesman in Ancient Roman times. The list shows at once that the terms “Deutsch”, “Duits” and “Dutch” seem to be derived from the same root, while the attributes “hoch”, “nieder” and “neder” refer to geographic distinctions in terms of altitude, i.e. “hoch” or “high” meaning the language spoken in mountainous regions and “neder” or “low” meaning its counterpart of the coastal areas. In this article the process is analyzed in which one of these three languages came to be singled out and referred to as “German” in the early 18th century, while its correct name “High Dutch” was all but completely replaced by the year 1800. This process coincides with the political doctrine of the British Empire as heir to the Roman Empire being developed. The article argues that nothing precludes us now from once again using the correct terminology after the end of this temporary political entity.
Harold Toliver
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 109-121; doi:10.4236/als.2019.73008

Wenjing Lu
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 15-20; doi:10.4236/als.2019.71002

Abstract:
A Thousand Splendid Sun, the novel created by Hossein, presented the complicated experiences of depression, despair, self-redemption of the two heroines in front of the reader. The most moving point of the novel lies in the awakening and rising up and redemption of the two heroines when the world around them totally collapsed. The novel is still very meaningful to those who are seeking happiness and independent.
Robert Wade Kenny
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 123-154; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74009

Abstract:
The present essay includes the only extant translation of a famous address given by Don Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo, at the University of Salamanca’s annual, course-launching ritual. Given that the event’s festivities would include his formal resignation from the school’s rectorship on that day, followed by his honorary appointment as Lifetime Rector, Unamuno composed his speech to sum up his soul’s literary journey through this world. In it, the scholar and poet effectively renders his chosen life as a rhetorical vocation— consequently, he makes claims such as “man is the animal that speaks,” (a claim that resonates with Kenneth Burke) and “the spoken word is action” (a claim which is at the heart of a 100-year tradition in speech act theory). This being so, scholars of communication might be stimulated by his ideas and influenced by his relevance to rhetoric and communication. A prefatory essay, “Communication as a Dialectical Engagement with Becoming” is provided by the translator along with a copy-corrected version of the open-source Spanish original of the Unamuno translation in an Appendix.
Casimir Komenan
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 176-192; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74012

Abstract:
Using literary semiotics and narratology as the only criteria, and starting from the hypothesis according to which J. M. Coetzee writes slowness in Slow Man, the article shows how Slow Man is made weighty, and why it evolves sluggishly. With an actant character saddled with the epithet “Slow Man”, a designation embodying slowness, Slow Man claims to be a slow novel generated by retardation devices like speech acts narrative, polyglotism, fragmentation, epistolarity, and narrative embeddednesss. Those roadblocks prevent flashy reading, promote “slow reading”, a leisurely and innovative reading by which the reader is brought to become a textual cooperator in the actualization process of Slow Man’s meaning.
Eucharia O. Nwaichi
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 21-31; doi:10.4236/als.2019.72003

Abstract:
Igbo people, one of the three major tribes of Nigeria, recognise the place of soil in life and have stylishly and uniquely deployed soil to speak in proverbs that depicts maturity, wisdom, identity, environmental management and good home-training. Such strategy for an enduring communication has gone global and should be preserved. The substance of soil resource for food security, human health, fertility and plant Nutrition, poverty alleviation, land use planning, sustainable development and degradation control, remediation and reclamation, land use change, history, philosophy, and sociology of soil science, justified the declaration of the International Year of Soils by the United Nations in their Sixty-eighth General Assembly of December 20th, 2013, where they also recognized December 5th as World Soil Day. The author pays tribute to the phenomenal role of the soil resource in the social, behavioural, agricultural, and environmental life sciences. Some of the Igbo proverbs show-casing relevance and diverse application of soil are discussed.
David D. Paige, Grant S. Smith, Theresa Magpuri-Lavell
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 193-223; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74013

Abstract:
This study reports the results of a three-year capacity building effort to improve core reading knowledge and practice in 165 third-grade teachers working in 63 urban schools and its effects on student reading outcomes. Teachers volunteered to participate in one or two years of professional development lasting from 90 to 180 hours. Core reading knowledge among teachers resulted in statically significant growth with generally large effect sizes. Three cohorts of third-grade students taught by participating teachers were assessed on multiple measures of reading at the beginning and end of each school year. Results for within-year improvement showed large effects on all student outcomes. Analysis of the magnitude of student gains between the three years found that for two of the four measures gains in year one were exceeded in years two and three. Implications for professional training to facilitate improved reading outcomes are discussed.
Moula Evangelia, Malafantis Konstantinos
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 224-241; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74014

Abstract:
This study presents the process of the transformational design of a young adult novel into an alternate reality game (ARG) for educational purposes, creating this way, an affinity space for students. Since one of the primary objectives of literature’s curriculum is the cultivation of young people’s reading for pleasure disposition—whose rate is declining—such a project could be a challenge and at the same time could open up a potential prospect of enhancing the positive response of young people towards literature. At the same time, the project supports a multidimensional approach to the literary phenomenon as a means of promoting a wide range of learning goals. The contribution of this venture is that although ARGs have been used in the educational field before, there is no evidence for such a transformational process in the corresponding literature. Design issues, the main characteristics of the ARGs, the criteria and the motivational factors of successful ARGs, as well as the inherent limitations of such a project. The project was applied to the Greek young adult novel: Leros’ Code by Kostas Stoforos (Stoforos, 2016) and the derivative ARG was implemented during the 2018-19 school year in secondary education students in Rhodes, Greece as part of a postdoctoral research (ongoing). The whole project aimed to examine how an ARG could be compatible with the literary curriculum and the teaching mechanics and even more, how it could promote collaborative learning and literacy practices of the 21 st century. The data collection and processing will take place within the ensuing months, soon after which, we will be able to announce our final conclusions.
Ruoxi Li
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 44-49; doi:10.4236/als.2019.72006

Abstract:
The Anthology of Song Ci by Hu Yunyi is the first choice for the beginners of Song Ci. For long time, scholars have been controversial about Anthology of Song Ci annotated by Hu Yunyi. Some pointed out the limitation of the book, thinking that Hu Yunyi’s review on the selected works is dogmatic, rigid and subjective, while others deem that the selected Ci in this book is full of literary merit and easy to understand. They regard it as the endorsement of Song Ci. In this thesis, the Anthology of Song Ci will be evaluated from three aspects, the overall value, shortcomings and advantages in order to reveal its real value, so as to help the beginners of Song Ci to understand and appreciate Anthology of Song Ci.
Jun Luo, Guicai Chen
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 50-108; doi:10.4236/als.2019.72007

Abstract:
In the historical observation of Harlem Renaissance that has already been epitomized in the historical elaboration in the poetic production of Langston Hughes, what his readers have been insatiable with is that although both international and Chinese scholars and critics have not only made various valuable explorations of his poetic texts but also made a mention of the lower social position and their unfair treatment of the dark brothers in the American society dominated by whites’ culture, they have hardly devoted their studies to this poetic text titled I, Too, Sing America to quest for the historical reality embedded euphemistically in the textual interweavement of this poetic text. Owing to their failure to do so in their studies, this paper will try to make an exploration of the euphemistic representation of the profound reality grounded on poetic historicity of this poetic text that dwells on historical reality of the miserable lots of those dark brothers.
Jingming Wu, Zhongyang Li, Ying Zhang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 32-38; doi:10.4236/als.2019.72004

Abstract:
With the introduction of “modernity” in the 1990s, the limitation of the “modernized” model was exposed and finally replaced; thus the new turn of literary history research models from the “modernized” model to the “modernity” one has been started. Li Oufan and David Der-wei Wang’s discussion about the “modernity of the late Qing Dynasty” had a huge influence on academic circles in mainland China, after which, lots of mainland scholars began to study the literature of late Qing Dynasty from the angle of “modernity”, broadening the narrative range of modern literary history and renewing the research perspectives. The writer takes the example of Li Oufan and David Der-wei Wang to study the turn of literary history to the “Modernity” Model.
Jiayuan Chen, Jia Gao
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 39-43; doi:10.4236/als.2019.72005

Abstract:
Iris Murdoch is a prolific female writer in the British contemporary literary world. In response to the spiritual and moral dilemma in the British society in the 1950s, Murdoch showed her concerns about egoists and society in her four early novels, trying the utmost to help those trapped in self-difficulties get out of trouble. From the perspective of existentialism, this paper is going to reveal the moral improvement process from firstly being ego to concern more with the needs and wishes of others via analyzing some excerpts of Under the Net (1954) and Against Dryness (1997), so as to demonstrate the common theme expressed by Murdoch—pursue genuine morality by caring about others. This paper will discuss the goodness and truth-analysis on the thesis and value of Iris Murdoch’s novels.
Xiaohan Mei
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 1-14; doi:10.4236/als.2019.71001

Abstract:
Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the few writers who openly said that he would create “romance” and be clearly aware of the differences between history, fiction and legend. The features of Hawthornian Romance are different with Romance in the middle ages. Based on the background of history and reality, Hawthorne described the life of ordinary Americans during the social transformation era in the pattern of Romance, but without the romanticism of romance, and its legendary and aristocratic characteristics, which can be seen as a strong feature of parody.
Songtao Xiong, Yuhua Fang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 155-163; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74010

Abstract:
Toni Morrison (1931-2019) is an inspiring female writer in the American contemporary literary world. In response to the physical and spiritual trauma caused by the slavery system, Toni Morrison shows her concerns about the black female group to females of different races and ethnics. From the perspective of J. Hillis Miller’s techniques of deconstruction, this paper is going to reveal the growth curves of the three heroines and explore the maternal love and freedom of the female subjectivity under slavery.
Djaha N’De Tano
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 07, pp 164-175; doi:10.4236/als.2019.74011

Abstract:
The article attempts to explore, in Nadine Gordimer’s The Pickup, the collision between different identities through the love between Julie, a white South African woman and her husband Abdu also called Ibrahim, a muslim Arab. With regard to postcolonial theories which envisage flattening the post-colonial legacy, Gordimer promotes a global identity beyond the tribe, by taking into account issues of globalization, cross cultural and transracial identities that have changed the identical structure of the New World. Moreover she demonstrates that the force of identity is pervasive enough to transcend binaries and move freely in and out of spaces. The article supports that the beauty of a culture lies on the changing and the flexible nature of identity rather than a fix one.
Iran Naseri Sisakht, Ashkan Pourlashkary
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 161-171; doi:10.4236/als.2018.64014

Abstract:
Provided introduction is related to imagination in children’s story books. Reviewing the books of this course, in addition to introducing the author’s styles, leads to more knowledge about the content of these books. The imaginary imagery as the main gem of these books is considered as one of the most important artistic criteria. Types of colors, shapes and characteristics are the most striking forms of imagination in this work. Applying live metaphors and exquisite combinations which appear on the vapor of imagery and the remarkable frequency of ecosystemism can be seen in these works. Children build the foundations of the future civilization; therefore, in order to understand and promote the culture of our country, the study of the effect of imagery in the works of Iranian illustrators associated with the stories of Iranian writers is considered as the research goal. Another goal of this study was to identify the elements that illustrators have been inclined to use to make more visual imagery over the past decade. The methodology of this research is historical and descriptive-analytical, and the collection of materials has been done through library and internet studies. The results of the review of books and images and examples from the age group “B and C” books by the Children’s and Adolescent Intellectual Development Center indicate that the use of fictional imagery in the illustrations of the last decade has been growing and more illustrators have taken fantastic elements in creating the story space. The most commonly used fictional imagery is imaginary space, and the smallest is imaginative characters.
Ke Zhang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 62-68; doi:10.4236/als.2018.62007

Abstract:
The study aims to solve two problems: 1) The current situation of English majors in oral English study. 2) The influence and relevance of self-efficacy on oral English learning strategies of English majors in China. The study makes a comprehensive survey on the self-efficacy and oral learning strategies of English majors in Yangtze Normal University. It intends to make an investigation about English majors’ self-efficacy and spoken English learning strategies, guiding English majors to learn how to make use of self-efficacy to solve the difficulties in oral learning and to improve oral communication ability.
Chen Guo, Ying Zhang
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 47-61; doi:10.4236/als.2018.62006

Abstract:
Words of Three Kinds depict both the writing style of the Zhuangzi and an especially useful way to interpret it. Yuyan shows the instability of meanings expressed; Zhongyan shows the truth revealed is no definite truth; Zhiyan justifies every interpretation. The analysis of words of three kinds implies Zhuangzi’s writing mode might be speaking reckless words, forgetting the words but continuing to speak, urging readers to listen recklessly, embrace all the interpretations, perspectives and values, living a life beyond dichotomy and creating new meanings in their lives.
Ying Chen
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 142-152; doi:10.4236/als.2018.63012

Abstract:
Today’s literary criticism has reached a deadlock between dogmatic theory criticism and theory of immanence criticism, and lacks a spirit of “dialogue”. This kind of “dialogue” is not to obliterate the discourse right of other literature, but a kind of “harmony but difference”, which is the balance of subjectivity. It is not the rigid binding of the local experience that is cut one-sidedly by western experience, but a kind of “not holding a corner”, which is explained in two directions and equally. It is not the stiff patchwork of various theoretical discourses, but the fusion of horizons based on inherent logic and identity.
Mehran Karimian Yousefi, Rozita Sepehrnia, Nassim Majidi Ghahroudi
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 30-40; doi:10.4236/als.2018.61004

Abstract:
The purpose of this study, as an applied study, was to investigate the role of parents’ incarnated cultural capital on their children’s studying habits. To do so, the design of the study was chosen to be a survey study. The population of the current study were 1200 parents of the primary school students living in Tehran zone one. Due to the limitation of the study, the Cochran formula was used and 291 individuals were selected. In this study, random-cluster sampling was used and the questionnaire was distributed among the participants. To collect theoretical information, different sources such as the related books and articles were used. To collect information for the matter of the research hypotheses, a questionnaire was used. In the descriptive statistics, first, the necessary indexes were obtained, and then, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were computed. Moreover, to see the normalization of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used. Then after, to test the hypotheses, Pearson coefficient, and regression on SPSS have been used. Based on the obtained in-formation, all of the hypotheses were supported and incarnated cultural capital of the parents and its different aspects had positive effects of the studying habit of the children.
Abdoulaye Hakibou
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 8-18; doi:10.4236/als.2018.61002

Abstract:
The present study on the topic “Imagination and thematic reality in the African novel: a new vision to African novelists” aims to show the limitation of the contribution of the African literary works to the good governance and development process of African countries through the thematic choices and to propose a new vision in relation to those thematic choices and to the structural organisation of those literary works. The study is carried out through the theory of narratology by Genette (1980) and the narrative study by Chatman (1978) as applied to the novels by Chinua Achebe, essentially on the notion of order by Genette and the elements of a narrative by Chatman. It is a thematic and structural analysis that helps the researcher to be aware of the limitation of the contribution of African fiction to the good governance of African States and their real development, for the reason that themes and the structural organisation of those works are past-oriented. In such a context, readers are supposed to decode the different messages so as to put forth the necessary behaviour from the depicted ones. But, when one compares the literary effort of the novelists with the actual positive change, one realises that the gap is still obvious. This brought the researcher to the proposal of a new thematic orientation that does not depict societal misbehaviour but rather builds an ideal society in which the character embodies what the African society should be, African society which is here our particular concern so as to be able to make up the challenge of globalisation. This is not to deny the “fictionality” of the novels, but to reinforce it with stories that are not only past-oriented. This change may constitute a new source of attraction for African future literary works.
Maina Ouarodima
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 109-119; doi:10.4236/als.2018.63009

Abstract:
This paper analyses the image of women in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Anthills of the Savannah to bring into focus on the shifting of the canon through Achebe’s depiction of female characters in the two novels. The study focuses on some of the evil practices against the freedom of women, in the Igbo society, as reflected in Things Fall Apart and then contrasts with the positive image of women as reflected in Anthills of the Savannah. While the citizens, in general, and women, in particular, are ignorant in Things Fall Apart, written in the colonial period; they are, both, educated in Anthills of the Savannah, written in the postcolonial period. As findings, this study foregrounds the dynamism of the Igbo society, which allows Achebe, as a writer, to overcome prejudice and make obvious his quest for a once lost female identity. For instance, In Anthills of the Savannah and through Beatrice, Achebe presents the rise of new Nigerian women who are truly as active as men. Thus, for any meaningful development in our societies, the relevance of women must be taken into consideration. Otherwise, we will all end up like the Okonkwo of Things Fall Apart. Finally, in analyzing the position of women in both Things Fall Apart and Anthills of the Savannah, the researcher draws on postcolonial criticism to enable the readers to uncover its contribution to create a society without discrimination.
Wenjing Lu
Advances in Literary Study, Volume 06, pp 172-178; doi:10.4236/als.2018.64015

Abstract:
The novel Corrosion, masterpiece of Mao Dun, accused the dark side of the society at that time. Zhao Huiming, the leading role in the novel Corrosion, was a young woman who was misguided first to be a spy and then hoped to break away from the spy organization—“den of monsters”. The novel revealed the corrosion of dark society to the youth by the record of the inner struggle and the life of Zhao Huiming. The author tried to arouse the sympathy and concern of people for the youth by the tragedy of the youth in that era. The novel was tried to show that how the bad and repressive social environment affects the growth of youth. The first and the most important thing for the young people is to distinguish and choose the right road of growth. Even if one is misguided to deviate the right road, he/she can still return to the right direction by struggle and fight to the bad environment and evil forces.
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