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Results in Journal Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics: 84

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Abdullah Açık, Esra Baran Kasapoğlu, Ilke Sezin Ayaz
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.7

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to test the volatility spillover between the stock values of the major liner shipping companies in the world and the freight indices measuring the freight revenues in the container market. The dataset in the study consists of 9 stock values of the top 10 biggest liner companies in 2018 and 3 container freight indices on weekly basis covering the period between 05.11.2010 and 06.07.2018. Volatility spillovers have been determined to some companies' stock values from some container freight indices, and the most influential freight index has been determined as New ConTex. Moreover, some volatility spillovers from some companies' stock values to freight indices have been also determined. These results suggest that some stock investors position their portfolios in the market according to the flow of information from freight indices while some investors position by following macro variables.
Olusegun Onifade Adepoju
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.4

Abstract:
The approaches to managing our road transportation infrastructure are not sustainable. A sustainable road transport infrastructure must meet the needs of present road users and give allowance to accommodate future developments. There is a gap between expected life span of roads in Nigeria and actual life span after putting the infrastructure into use. This paper examined the reasons government cannot repair roads in Nigeria, identify the challenges faced by the construction companies while on road construction projects and the effects of bad roads on national sustainable development. Ministry of Works and Transport, Ibadan and ad hoc staff of two major construction companies Reynolds Construction Company (RCC) and China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (CCECC) were purposively selected based on the number of roads they have constructed in South-western Nigeria. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the various factors that are responsible for the inability of government to construct and repair roads. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the challenges of construction companies and also the effects of bad road on national development. The findings identified 20 factors that are responsible for the inability of government to construct and maintain roads which were reduced into eight components. Some challenges in road construction are erosion, inadequate skilled labour, capital for equipment, funding, user’s problem and machinery repairs. The effects of bad roads include: road crashes (27%), high vehicle maintenance cost (21%), capital flight (17%), passengers’ discomfort (14%), high transportation cost (11%) and drivers’ fatigue (10%). The study concluded that, there should be standardized procedure for road construction projects in the form of: penalty for failure to meet the required deadline, quality, usage and rehabilitation in order to achieve sustainable development.
Maria Karatsoli, Eftihia Nathanail
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.3

Abstract:
Social media are deemed influential in making decisions and seeking advice. Due to their explosive growth as critical channels for information, their content can trigger a place visit, a change of transport mode or destination, or plans’ cancellation. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of social media on users’ activity and mobility planning. Responses of 738 participants in a digital survey were used to formulate ordinal regression models. The developed models determine the contribution of users’ demographic characteristics, travel characteristics and social media usage to mobility decisions after using social media as a source of information. These decisions were expressed in two dependent variables; (i) the impact of social media use in activity and mobility planning; (ii) the impact of the proposed transport mode by social media information, on mode choice. Analysis of the results indicated that the models, which considered all the characteristics together, could better predict the two variables.
Dhibi Mohamed
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 59-71; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.5

Abstract:
This article explores one of the most important segments of public transport in developing countries, namely informal transport and its relation to the pricing system of public transport. This paper is an extension of the work of Tirachini, A. and Hensher, D.A., who have developed a model to analyze the impact of non-motorized transport on an optimal public transport pricing policy. We are looking at three congested modes of transportation, and we introduce informal transport as an independent mode of transport instead of non-motorized transport in this analysis. Informal transport has never been incorporated into an intercity transport pricing analysis and this is the first one that informal transport has been considered an autonomous mode in a pricing model. We tried to show how the pricing policy would change by considering or ignoring the Informal Transport. We propose three congested modes (Public transport, particular vehicular and informal transport) pricing model that incorporates informal transport and reconstruct the impact of a capacity constraint on optimal public transport prices. Pricing model were developed explaining the first best and second best prices and the changes effects of capacities and frequency of public transport bus.
Lidiia ‌ Savchenko, Sophia Zhigula, Kate Yurchenko, Yuriy Vovk, Andrii Oleksiuk
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 6-17; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.1

Abstract:
Purpose. The main purpose of the article is to assess the economic and socio-environmental costs of the urban delivery of small shipments in difficult weather conditions with a combination of different delivery means - a car, a motorcycle, a bicycle and a pedestrian courier. Methodology. The methodology for determining the integrated costs of urban logistics for small shipments in difficult weather conditions is based on an assessment of the region's synoptic data, statistics on road accidents and congestion levels, as well as on the specific operating conditions of the delivery company. Results. The result of the work is the cost of combining all-season delivery means with a motorcycle and a bicycle, which can only be used under favorable weather conditions. The theoretical contribution. The theoretical contribution consists in the presentation of a methodology that makes it possible to estimate the complex costs of a combination of various urban delivery means. Practical implications. Practical implementation consists in calculating the total costs for the delivery of goods for an online store in Kyiv with various combinations of delivery means, which allows to choose the most successful alternative.
Jeffrey A Shelton, Peter T Martin
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.2

Abstract:
It is becoming standard practice for many departments of transportation (DOTs) to use incentive/disincentive clauses (also known as road user costs) with contractors to stay on or ahead of schedule. These road user costs are clauses that DOTs use to calculate a monetary amount to encourage contractors to complete work prior to milestone dates and/or limit the time specified on the contract. The monetary amounts are typically vehicle operating costs and vehicle delay costs encumbered by highway users resulting from construction, maintenance, or rehabilitation activity. In this paper, we propose an innovative way of calculating these costs using varied values of time based on trip purpose and departure time. In addition, we use advanced pre-trip and en route traveler information to determine the influence it has on route choice. Several scenarios are modeled using an advanced, simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment model. The goal of this paper is to identify the governing factors that contribute to road use costs by determining different approaches to derive the value one places on a trip. The approach to this study is twofold: first several research methods were used to derive the value of time. Second, the use of advanced traveler information is introduced to determine if it plays a critical role in route choice. The proposed methodology shows differences in road user cost calculations. Which approach would be more receptive to a contractor while proposing roadway construction? A case study of a roadway construction project in El Paso, Texas, is used to compare different approaches to calculate road user costs.
Stergios Mavromatis, Vassilios Matragos
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 6, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2021.6-1.6

Abstract:
In the present research, Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) adequacy is assessed through a three-dimensional approach, which associates road visibility in terms of grade effect. SSD adequacy is controlled through the difference between the available and the required SSD. The research is focused on a right turned, two lane rural road, associated with a crest vertical curve for a given speed value. The road design is in accordance with the Greek Road Design Guidelines (OMOE-X, 2001) by utilizing the control design parameters for a design speed of 80 km/h and a wide range of grade values, where the vertex point of the crest vertical curve is positioned at fixed points along the road axis. The investigation is based on a vehicle speed exceeding the design speed by 20 km/h. In total 1874 cases of compound alignments were examined and the results revealed that the available sight distance is decreasing while grade increases. The vehicle speed on the tangent sections was proved unacceptable in terms of providing SSD adequacy. However, it was found that SSD adequacy is granted when the vertical vertex falls inside the circular arc of the curve’s horizontal alignment, while the optimum area is defined shortly before the horizontal vertex point.
T. R. Elem, I. C. Ogwude, C. C. Ibe, K. U. Nnadi, Ejem Agwu Ejem
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 124-134; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.11

Abstract:
This paper explores the decoupling trend between GDP and freight volumes in the ECOWAS states to develop short sea shipping model for the ECOWAS sub-region aimed at reducing the cost per transported unit within the sub-region. The research is based on cross-sectional data from ECOWAS countries spanning from 2000 to 2013 and sourced from the ECOWAS Commission and National Bureaus of Statistics of some member countries. The data were analysed using arc elasticity which is a transport demand modelling tool, to determine the level of variations among trade volumes in the ECOWAS sub-region. It was discovered that total freight volume improved proportionally with growth in GDP for most of the periods in the ECOWAS member countries. This is confirmed by the coefficients of elasticity close 1 or higher than 1. In certain periods, however, the coefficient of elasticity of total freight volumes was found to be approximately zero, thus, indicating that considerable potential freights were lost. More stable values have the coefficients of general elasticity below 1. In most of the ECOWAS countries, the coefficients of general elasticity are unstable, both negative and positive values have a range of values (from -43.709 to 52.364). Hence, freight traffic volume and GDP in the ECOWAS region is highly decoupled. This has raised a serious question as to the prudence of continued dominance of road transport mode for intra-regional freight movement in the ECOWAS sub-region. The result of the study revealed a strong correlation between GDP, the population of member states and the volume of freight in the ECOWAS member countries. The research also showed that the development of short sea shipping model in the sub-region would depend considerably on growth in GDP, improvement in the productivity of the population and increase in seaport corridors of the ECOWAS sub-region.
Andrei Safonau, Yuriy Vovk, Oleg Lyashuk, Roman Khudobei
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 49-61; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.5

Abstract:
Widespread usage of emission free public transport is the preferred strategy in many cities to reduce a congestion and pollution from the road traffic. The trolleybus is a kind of urban public transport, i.e. a fully electric vehicle, which is considered as a promising tool to enhance the efficiency of public transport and to attain the goals of sustainable development and quality of city life. The operation control of service brake system and secondary brake system (the braking torque of traction electric motor) is realized with help of one pedal in the trolleybus. Thus, there are modes of the joint operation for these systems during the braking process. Authors focus on the development of rule-based algorithm for the blending control of traction electric motor and anti-lock braking system to enhance the overall braking efficiency of a vehicle. The mathematical model of the trolleybus braking dynamics was developed for this purpose. Test bench and ride tests on different road surfaces were carried out to determine the parameters of vehicle braking efficiency and to validate the developed mathematical model. The corresponding experimental data were used to analyse the efficiency of proposed rule-based strategy for the blending control of traction electric motor and anti-lock braking system of the trolleybus. As a result, the availability of proposed control algorithm is confirmed, which secures the required braking efficiency and provides a high braking stability of the vehicle.
Nuwan Jayarathna, Jayantha Lanel, Z.A.M.S. Juman
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 109-123; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.10

Abstract:
With vast range of applications in real life situations, the Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) have been the subject of countless studies since the late 1950s. However, a more realistic version of the classical VRP, where the distribution of goods is done from several depots is the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP), which has been the central attraction of recent researches. The objective of this problem is to find the routes for vehicles to serve all the customers at a minimal cost in terms of the number of routes and the total distance travelled without violating the capacity and travel time constraints of the vehicles, and it is handled with a variety of assumptions and constraints in the existing literature. This survey reviews the current status of the MDVRP and discuss the future direction regarding this problem.
Theophilus Chinonyerem Nwokedi, Obed C. Ndikom, Yusuf Kodo Hussaini, Bolaji Olaide Komolafe, Ifiokobong I. Okonko
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 73-89; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.7

Abstract:
The obsolesce and decay of rail transport infrastructure linking major seaports Cities to hinterland cargo origin and destination centers serviced via the seaports and the total lack of rail infrastructure connection between some hub seaports and the hinterland cargo centers in Nigeria induces enormous economic setback. Most rail routes from seaports to the inland container depots (ICDs) in all the geopolitical zones of the Country are currently inoperable. Government’s recent attempt to develop and make operable the rail routes is faced with funding challenges necessitating the need for a Public Private Partnership (PPP) approach in which government provides regulation and enablement while private sector operators fund the projects. This study was aimed at providing economic justification for private sector investment in developing, revitalizing and making operable, the rail-freight-corridors between hub-seaports and inland container depots in Nigeria. It estimated the operator-benefits and profitability potentials of investment in each of the ten rail-freight-corridors consisting of existing but inoperable and proposed rail routes from Lagos, Port-Harcourt/Onne, Warri and Calabar seaports to the Inland container depots in different geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Secondary data on the import and export (cargo generation) capacities of each of the ICD regions to and from the respectively connected hub-seaport were obtained from the Nigerian ports authority statistical report covering a period of two years (2018 – 2019) based upon which the annual expected revenue earnings of the operators (investment) were estimated as a product of the total annual TEU handled by each route and the price of delivering per TEU from the seaport to the ICD region. The cost of investment in developing and operating each rail-freight-corridor as determined in previous studies for the Nigerian Shippers Council for the same period were also obtained. Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BCR) and Net Present Value (NPV) tools were used to estimate the operator-benefits and profitability potentials of each rail route within the period using 10% interest rate. It was found that six of the rail routes have BCR > 1; and NPV>0; implying higher operator-benefits over costs within the period. The rail-routes from Lagos seaport to Gombe and Bauchi; Warri seaport to Aba; and Calabar seaport to Kano have BCR <1; and NPV <0; implying higher operator-costs over benefits and unprofitability of the routes within the first two years of service delivery. It was recommended that the PPP terms for rail freight corridors with BCR <1 and NPV<0, should have a higher contract period than the other routes to enable the private investor have a higher payback period to recoup the cost of investment and earn profit.
Siarhei Azemsha, Volha Yasinskaya, Tatsiana Hryshchanka
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.4

Abstract:
On September 25, 2015, UN member states adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It contains 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Two SDG targets are directly transport-related. Target 3.6: By 2020 to halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents. Target 11. 2: Aims to, by 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations - women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. There are other goals, the achievement of which is impossible without the development of transport. All SDGs related to transport are conventionally divided into 4 groups: safety, universal access, efficiency, green mobility. The purpose of this article is to review the dynamics of changes in the Republic of Belarus of indicators for achieving the goals of the universal access group.
Maryam Dhahri, Mouna Mezghani, Ines Rekik
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 6-21; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.1

Abstract:
Storage Space Allocation Problem (SSAP) is defined as the temporary assignment of unloading/loading containers to the storage blocks during a planning period with the aim of balancing the workload between the blocks. Despite the widespread literature on this topic, several previous studies neglected the practical and implementation aspect of their solutions. The aim of this paper is to formulate and solve the real-life SSAP at the Sfax seaport situated in Tunisia. A Weighted Goal Programming (WGP) based-methodology is proposed as a multi-objective resolution approach. In this proposed approach, three objectives have been accorded including: (i) the balance between the containers unloaded in the blocks, (ii) the balance between the containers unloaded and loaded simultaneously, and (iii) the minimization of the storage cost of the loading/unloading containers for each period. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides good results and can be effective and practical for the studied Sfax seaport case study.
Soufyane Bouali, Selma Douha, Nadjib Khadri
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 98-108; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.9

Abstract:
Purpose of the paper aims to find out the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global air transport sector (passenger transport, air freight) during the first three months of 2020, and after analyzing the status of the global air transport market from January to March 2020, the study found that the CORONA pandemic has significantly affected this vital sector, where airlines suffered significant losses due to the cancellation of many flights and travel suspensions, in addition to the laying off of much employment and Some of them went bankrupt, while the volume of air freight decreased after global supply chains were shut down as a result of the closure of factories and limited only to the transportation of medical equipment and food supplies in some countries, and the repercussions of this pandemic are expected to be severe on the global economy in the coming years.
Conrad Ochego Mogaka, Kellen Karimi Njiru, Wycliffe Arani
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 143-152; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.13

Abstract:
The major purpose of this research paper is to examine supply chain management practices as a strategic tool for third-party logistics firms’ performance: by presenting practical and theoretical advantages by reviewing the corresponding literature, and also by proposing more forward-looking studies. A literature review was developed to help today's supply chain managers and analysts to thoroughly scrutinize what was already recognized as well as what requires further research. The research broadens, from a centered company perspective, the understanding of supply chain management practices as a tactical resource for success of third party logistics firms, as well as limitations for future studies. This research paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the literature to develop a proposed general framework for a strategic tool research initiative to perform TPLs' supply chain management practices. The research paper provides perspectives into deficiencies in current practices of supply chain management, along with the progress of third party logistics sector literature. The research paper proposes specific research into the logistics process, as it relates to planned and current performance. The research paper makes a series of important literary contributions. First, it provides the first comprehensive analysis of the fundamental concepts used throughout the current supply chain management activities research in relation to the performance of third party logistics companies. Indeed, when carrying out a similar exercise, the approach used to conduct the systematic literature review may be used as a guide for future investigators. Current research is aimed at providing a researcher who meets the needs of modern business leaders.
Uka John Okeleke, Moses Olatunde Aponjolosun
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 135-142; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.12

Abstract:
There is no doubt that Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted negatively on global shipping and the effects are also being felt in the Nigerian shipping industry. Through review of extant literature, the effects of COVID-19 on Nigerian shipping industry with specific focus on port operations and Nigerian seafarers were examined. The findings revealed that lock down of the economy and restriction of movements in Nigeria presented a challenging situation for stakeholders in the shipping industry to fulfill their contractual obligations, import and export operations are hampered , Nigerian seafarers are mentally and psychologically disturbed as a result of lack of social support and extension of contract beyond the agreed contractual term with exhausting workload onboard with little or no support from the management who are more concerned about contract execution than the welfare of the crew onboard. However, it was recommended that living and working conditions of Nigerian seafarers onboard in this pandemic era should be given utmost attention by applying practical and pragmatic approach on issues bordering on facilitation of crew change, resupply, repairs, survey and certification and licensing of seafarers.
Ejem Agwu Ejem, Vivian N. Ikeogu, Chinenye L. Okafor, P. O. Erumaka
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 62-72; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.6

Abstract:
This paper outlines a multi-dimensional user-oriented performance metrics approach in evaluating the operation of the terminal airspace system to aid in the airport and airspace planning and decision making. Safety, delay and predictability metrics contribute to the analytical framework. From the findings, the occurrence of air incidence has a high severity level at departure, and arrival phases of flight, higher likelihood at the radar room and much of the incidences were as a result of faulty equipment and inherent absence of modern airspace infrastructure. Also, in Lagos terminal airspace, the number of incidences has no close correlation with the level of traffic complexity. Total schedule arrival delay ranges from 1-392 minutes representing an average of 7.8-17.9 minutes per aircraft that arrived Lagos airport at that period. Besides, the total approach contact time ranges from 1-57 minutes, translating to 4.6-7.1 minutes per aircraft. However, variability in arrival time of 1-5 minutes is common from published airline arrival scheduled time. In the same vein, the variability of 1-5 minutes is common from approach contact times of aircraft. These figures indicate sound arrival predictability signature for Lagos airport. Also, departure time variability above 30 minutes is familiar from the ATC clearance time for the various routes under study. However, there is about or more 25% variability of more than 15 minutes, and this indicates possible inconsistency of predicting departure times from the times ATC clearance was acquired. Above all, the predictability of departure times in Lagos airport is weak compared to those of the arrival. Taken by it, this may be a sign of airspace congestion or ATC deficiencies at the Lagos airport. This is an indication of the lack of users' confidence in Nigeria's air transport industry to deliver just-in-time service.
Shikha Juyal, Sudhakar Yedla
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 153-167; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.14

Abstract:
Sustainable transport is about taking holistic approach by considering economic, society and environment along with the mobility and accessibility requirement of people. In case of Greater Mumbai, there is presence of inequity in provision of transport infrastructure and service. The first part of paper arrives at sustainability indicator by means of compounded economic, social & demographic, land use and transport access indicators. The second part of paper measures the extent of sustainability in various wards of Greater Mumbai. It was important to study the extent of sustainability by measuring the gap between sustainability & HDI indicator and sustainability & transport access indicator. In terms of transport access, the gap between transport access indicator and sustainability indicator is present in most of the wards of Greater Mumbai. The overall result proves that there is urgent need to address the provision of transport access in most of the wards of Greater Mumbai. Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to arrive at sustainability indicator and to measures the extent of sustainability in various wards of Greater Mumbai in transport. Methodology: The paper arrives at sustainability indicator by developing compounded economic, social and demographic, land use and transport access indicators. In order to calculate economic, social & demographic, land-use and transport access indicator considered normalized value of each indicators derived from maximum point normalization across all wards. Finally equal weighted average of all indicators was taken to calculate the overall sustainability indicator. To measure the extent of sustainability in various wards of Greater Mumbai was done by comparing aggregate sustainable indicator with HDI indicator and transport access indicator. Result: The overall result proves that there is urgent need to address the provision of transport access in most of the wards of Greater Mumbai. The theoretical contribution: This paper arrives at sustainability indicator by compiling economic, social and demographic, land use and transport access indicators. Practical implications: This paper calculates ward level sustainability in Greater Mumbai and identifies the need to make provision of different transport infrastructure.
Yash Soni, R.C. Gupta
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.3

Abstract:
Industrial engineers always want to implement optimization techniques in all activities performed in an organization, which is only possible by synchronizing multiple activities of each department, and combining it in a way, which is optimized as per efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and profit are concerned. Organization plant managers and logistics providers have long been dissatisfied with extensive waiting times and severe on-site traffic congestion. This research paper highlights activities of logistics management in this organization which covers activities like determination of supply chain driver affecting logistics and supply chain management of an organization, analysis of current vehicles freights which particularly involves number of freights per day, checking how effectively collection plan needs are fulfilled by current vehicles running, implementation of new techniques to improve present working system, scheduled such that the total weighted tardiness is minimized, initiation of practices which organization has to do for withstanding sustainability in logistics management, estimation of cost saving from implementation of new techniques and checking feasibility of conducting these activities repetitively in long run.
Sodiq Olusegun Buhari, Moses Olatunde Aponjolosun, Babatope Gabriel Oni, Matthew Woridigitere Sam
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.8

Abstract:
In Lagos state, the relationship between urbanization and motorization is unbalanced because the present transportation interventions of the state do not commensurate with her growing population and migration rate. However, the state cannot be said to be totally insensitive to these challenges as witnessed in her renewed effort by providing suitable public transportation system with a dedicated lane and the expansion of other modes of transport such as rail and inland water transport. Through content analysis, this research examined the present situation of Lagos state public transport system with her prevailing population size, sustainable urban mobility approach and the future of public transport in Lagos State in line with global practices. The study reviewed the Lagos state non-motorized transport policy and the impact thus far. It was revealed that unless certain strategic decisions and policies are made, the state will continue to experience the current traffic congestion on her roads as well as increased vehicular pollution and waste of resources. Also, for Lagos state to attain her acclaimed position of a 21st century economy, she must as a matter of policy initiate and implement interventions that align with the principle of urban mobility where cycling, walking, high capacity buses operation is effectively operational and open up of other modes of transportation in the state. It was further recommended that the Lagos state government should take a bold step as recently done in the restriction of motorcycles and tricycles operation on certain routes within the state, hence, initiating interventions that will best enhance public transportation, improve habitable environment and safety of lives and properties in the state.
Ralph Gambetta, Danijela Barić
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-2.2

Abstract:
Following the growing world population and associated need for increased transportation, there is a growing interest in some aspects of transport such as sustainability, to reduce CO2 emissions and reach climate objectives. Modern urban living is rapidly changing with new technological innovations, one of which is the possibility to integrate different electronic “on demand” services into one single medium. Public transport users need innovative, multi-applicative, multi-functional, safe and secure ticketing systems, easy to use. Concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) as an integration of various forms of transport services into a single mobility service accessible on demand is a new way of thinking about public transport. This paper focuses on mobility market transformation with main question how Mobility as a Service based on open source principles will impact the ecosystem.
Retraction
Nuwan Dhammika Jayarathna, Chula J. Jayawardene
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 28-28; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.3

Abstract:
The government of Sri Lanka established several economic centres in the provinces according to the budget proposals in the year 1998. The Dambulla economic centre was the first such centre that was established on the 01st of April 1999. Thereafter, a number of economic centres were established throughout the island. However, the Dambulla main hub remained the central warehouse of vegetables in the island. This paper deals with a vehicle scheduling problem related to transportation, and investigates a method whereby a solution can be arrived at to overcome the problem using linear programming (LP). Marketing Department Logistics (MDL) Ltd needs to distribute vegetables and fruits to different provinces. Its main hub is situated near the Dambulla vegetable and fruit market, and minor hubs are situated in different provinces in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this research is building a cost minimized model which creates a suitable method for delivering vegetables and fruits from the Dambulla major hub through its minor hubs to outlets in the provinces. Hence, to optimize the cost of outbound distribution, a mathematical model has been developed by using Integer Linear Programming, and by using reliable sources to collect data. Software assistance was obtained using the LINGO 06 optimizer, Java, MS Access and MS Excel tools to solve this mathematical model. This study is based on the Dambulla economic centre. This is an initial step to bring a correct protocol to arrange a transport model to distribute the vegetables and fruits from this centre in a cost-effective way. According to this study, all districts in Sri Lanka could be divided into four clusters. At the beginning of this research, we assumed that each district contains two warehouses and three vendors. This model is flexible enough to be re-scheduled at any request. It paves the way to create a larger model for solving any type of transportation planning problem. Keywords: Vehicle scheduling; Minimizing transportation cost; Hamiltonian cycle; LINGO AMS Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 90C10, 90C05, 90C90
Georgiy Prokudin, Myroslav Oliskevych, Olexiy Сhupaylenko, Kateryna Maidanik
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 66-76; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.7

Abstract:
The article deals with the modified Dijkstra’s algorithm of searching the shortest routes between all transport nodes of the road-transport network, which allows presenting the transport problem in the classical matrix form. This makes it possible to apply each of the known methods of optimal transport plans to solve it. The object of study is the transport process of freight transportation on the transport network by routes of international transport corridors. The purpose of the work is to improve the methods of solving the problems of finding the shortest routes on the transport network, including sections of international transport corridors. The research method is the analysis and modeling of freight transportation on road networks. The modified Dijkstra’s method of finding the shortest paths between all nodes of the road-transport network was work out, which allows to represent the transport problem in the classical matrix form, i.e. in the form of a table of connections. This makes it possible to apply each of the known methods of constructing optimal plans of cargo transportation in the table of connections. The software complex based on the developed algorithm was designed in the algorithmic language Delphi, which was tested on the example of a transport problem set in the form of a road network, as well as complex testing and debugging of a computer system to support decision-making on the optimization of freight traffic on Ukrainian and Western Europe transport systems.
Sahima Nazneen, Mahdi Rezapour Mashhadi, Khaled Ksaibati
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 6-18; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.1

Abstract:
Indian Reservations have suffered from high crash rates that lead to fatal and incapacitating injuries for years. Among numerous issues, resource gap, rustic nature of the reservations, cross jurisdictional issues, and scarce crash data, act as obstacles in an effort to reduce the number of these fatal and serious crashes. Numerous organizations have recognized the importance of addressing issues on Indian reservations and improving roadway safety. Wyoming Technology Transfer Center / Local Technical Assistance Program (WYT2/LTAP) center developed a safety toolkit for tribal communities to ascertain high-risk crash locations and determine the low-cost safety improvement countermeasures. This safety toolkit acts as a guideline providing information, field examples, and resources in key topic areas to improve roadway safety through the use of the five-step methodology from Wyoming Rural Road Safety Program. These steps included compiling and crash data analysis, level I field evaluation, combined ranking, level II field evaluation, and benefit-cost analysis. In this study, the safety toolkit was implemented on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (FPIR), Montana, to provide the tribes with a real-life example. This study reveals that low- cost safety countermeasures have significant impacts in reducing the number of fatal and serious injury crashes on the FPIR. This methodology with slight modification can be applied to other Indian reservations or similar entities to improve roadway safety.
Nataliia Luzhanska
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 96-102; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.9

Abstract:
Creating supply chain involving the customs infrastructure facilities is an urgent topic when shipping cargo internationally. The most in demand are cargo customs complexes, which have in their structure customs storerooms, warehouses of temporary storage, perform freight-forwarding, and customs-brokerage and other functions that are necessary to perform foreign economic activity. Also there are subdivisions of customs authorities on their territory. This type of business activity provides the business entities with the comprehensive service and enables them to reduce the time spent moving to each of the necessary control services or logistics facilities when moving cargoes in different customs regimes. Therefore, it is proposed to apply the concept of logistics chain reliability with a freight customs complex as its element. The latter will take into account business entities` financial and time expenditures with non-productive timing at the different transition stages of material flow, and will enable to optimize information flows. The paper considers the procedure of placing imported goods in a temporary storage warehouse. It is proposed the regulation methodology for individual service stages provided by a freight customs complex. The generalized algorithm for constructing a reliability model of a freight customs complex`s operation is offered allowing to determine the reliability level of each individual element in a logistics chain.
Obiageli N. Nze, Ejem Agwu Ejem, I. C. Nze
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 77-95; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.8

Abstract:
The study adopted ex post facto design. Using ship traffic, vehicle traffic, berth efficiency, turnaround time as input explanatory variables and output factors as average throughput to compare the pre concession and post concession. The six Nigerian ports: Tincan Island Ports, Apapa Port, Port of Delta Warri, Calabar Port, Rivers Port and Onne Port were sampled. It is observed that year 2014 is the most efficient year out of the 36 operation years in terms of output maximization with constant levels of inputs under the study period with score 1.0 respectively serving as 32 times benchmark for other years. It is observed from that Tin Can Island Port was technically efficient in the operation years of 1980, 1981, 1985, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2009, 2013, 2014 and 2015 with score 1.0. However, the most efficient operation years are 1998 and 2013 while the most inefficient year is with efficiency score 1.0. The post-concession years that the port was technically inefficient are 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Soner Esmer
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 115-123; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.11

Abstract:
Purpose: Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was announced by China in 2013. In the initiative, railway lines are operated (Belt), and sea transportation is continuing with sea routes (Road) between China and Europe. The geographical scope of the initiative covering the Chinese-European route is increasing day by day. The purpose of this study is to identify the strategies that container terminals in sea routes need to consider achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Methodology: To achieve the goal, it has been focused on the criteria that container ship operators considered in port selection as the main user of the container terminals. Results: It is seen that the bilateral agreements between the countries where the ports are located have gained importance especially with China and the other countries involving the initiative. Moreover, it has been determined that the connections with the railway infrastructure will create a competitive advantage. The theoretical contribution: According to the results of the research, it is observed that the container terminals located on the route have not only enough with classical advantages such as location, equipment and infrastructure to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
Donatus Onwuegbuchunam, Moses Olatunde Aponjolosun, Ayotunde Oludare, Okafor Onyekachi
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 124-132; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.12

Abstract:
This paper is based on a study that was carried out to assess the implementation of cabotage act in Nigeria from the perspectives of the seafarers and shipowners who are considered as the major stakeholders in maritime sector and are directly affected by this act. The objectives of this study were to evaluate cabotage operations and to ascertain the effect of cabotage act implementation on Nigerian seafarers onboard cabotage vessels. Primary data was used through a design of questionnaire and interview. Fifty (54) copies of questionnaires were retrieved out of 60 copies that were administered. The method of data analysis was descriptive using statistical mean and percentages with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. The data collected were measured in 5-point Likert scale with a hypothesized mean of 3.00. The findings of the study revealed that despite some successes recorded in the aspect of increase in the number of cabotage vessels operating on Nigeria waters and increase in the number of Nigerian seafarers employed onboard these cabotage vessels , there are still some challenges in respect to the implementation of this act such as, low capacity of Nigerian ship building industry to meet the demand of cabotage trade market, inability of shipowners to access fund to enhance their operations, lack of adequate attention to the condition of service and welfare of Nigerian seafarers onboard cabotage vessels. This study recommends investment in Nigerian shipbuilding industry in order to meet the demand of cabotage trade and also seeks enforcement of the ratified Maritime Labour Convention by Nigeria Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) in order to ensure better working and living conditions for Nigeria Seafarers.
Irina Kravchenya, Iryna Lebid
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 48-55; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.5

Abstract:
The problem of traffic management, especially in big cities is particularly actual. Due to unavoidable motorization increase in number of vehicles has resulted in congestion, traffic jams, difficulty of the movement of pedestrians, increasing the number of accidents. Traffic jams are undesirable because of higher fuel consumption, increased pollution due to exhaust gases as well as noise, etc. The only way to avoid harmful consequences is to optimize the operation of the traffic lights cycle. The purpose of the work is creation the simulation model in GPSS for determining the optimal traffic lights cycle at adjustable crossroads when managing vehicle flows with specified intensities. The mathematical model of adjustable crossroads can be presented as a queuing system. Development of the simulation model includes several stages: programming in GPSS, verification and assessment of the adequacy. The algorithm for optimizing the traffic lights cycle and diagrams are used to find the optimal value of the cycle. The minimum intersection travel time (including time of queuing) is selected as the optimal criterion. The object of study is the traffic lights cycle regulation of the intersection Sovietskaya St. – Rogachevskaya St. – Telman St. in Gomel, Belarus. The existing traffic lights cycle regulation at the intersection Sovietskaya str. – Rogachevskaya str. – Telman str. has been studied. Simulation modeling of the intersection has been created in GPSS and traffic light cycle optimization algorithm has been developed. According to a worked out algorithm the traffic lights cycle at research intersection during saturation flux has been improved. Transport delays both at the existing and optimized crossings have been estimated. Optimization of the traffic lights cycle will increase the traffic capacity of the intersection, reduce the volume of toxic emissions and decrease the accident risk. The developed simulation model can be modified for other types of intersections and used as the basis for a decision support system based on low-level simulation.
Obiageli N. Nze, Ejem Agwu Ejem
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 37-47; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.4

Abstract:
With cognizance to some differences among the ports and complexities in productivity measurement, the research tries to identify and evaluate productive issues in terms of technical efficiencies (managerial efficiency) and scale efficiencies (managerial and allocative efficiency) experienced at individual Nigeria ports. It equally provided a technical benchmark for assessing the overall efficiencies of the respective ports in Nigeria during the pre-concessioned and post-concessioned era. The level of inputs required for each DMU to be efficient is given i.e. for DMU 2014 to be efficient input-wise, the number of berth may be reduced by two units as a result of idleness of this two (2) berths, the average turnaround time may be reduced by 3 hours and the berth occupancy may be reduced by 3%. Since a fixed asset such as berth cannot be reduced therefore technically and complimentarily the turnaround time and berth occupancy rate need to be decreased more than 5hours and 3% respectively by allocating the queue ship at the over-utilized berth to the idle berths which in turn will mitigate underutilization of this berths been required to be reduced or alternatively the port should embrace more cargo handling technology to enhance fast loading and discharging of cargoes thus attracting more vessels to the Port.
Bouraima Bayane, Qiu Yanjun
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 103-114; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.10

Abstract:
In view of the crucial role, railways have played historically inland transportation, the West African region still endure to provide an efficient transport system. While road transport has been almost the exclusive predominant transportation mode in the region, the railway is now showing a global comeback. In the absence of a new phase of modernization at the international standard, it is unavoidable that the high demand for mobility of its increasing population and the full exploitation of its natural resource endowment will be constrained. This study presents the past, present, and future developments of the railway sector. The first section includes the brief historical development of the railways, the determinants choices of their location, and the influential parameters for their construction. The second section deals with the present state of the railway infrastructure, operational performance, and railway sector institutions. The last section provides some recent investment in the key construction projects at a national level.
Donatus Eberechukwu Onwuegbuchunam
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 133-140; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.13

Abstract:
Regulation in seaports broadly covers port safety, security, pollution and terminal operations which generally fall within the purview of national government’s administrative authority. Port deregulation policy in the era of global port reforms beginning in 1990’s, was introduced to limit government interference in commercial aspects of port operations, attract private sector funding and improve port productivity etc. The involvement of private sector in port terminal management arguably, entailed risk of collusion among new entrants. This paper examined port user welfare following private sector participation in a deregulation port environment. The Nigeria’s port terminal concession policy implementation was analysed as case study. From the findings, we demonstrated the essence for and role of economic regulator in ensuring that optimal welfare gains were achieved and maintained in post port reform regime.
Conrad Ochego Mogaka, Wycliffe Arani
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 56-65; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.6

Abstract:
The goal of this research paper is to explore logistics strategy as a competitive tool for firm performance; the moderating effect of effectiveness of customer service: by presenting academic and practical advantages by explaining the preceding and suggesting a forward-looking research agenda based on a conceptual framework for competitiveness in logistics strategy. For support today's logistics managers and scholars, a literature review is established for scrutinize what was previously studied and what needs to be examined. From a focal firm perspective, the research expands the understanding of logistics strategy as a competitive tool while linking customer service effectiveness and the limitations for eventual research. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study utilizes a systematic literature review to design a suggested conceptual framework for a research agenda on a competitive tool for firm performance on the subject of logistics strategy; the moderating effect of effectiveness of customer service. Findings: The research paper provides insights into deficiencies in the current logistics strategy literature. The research paper explicitly recommends exploring the logistics strategy as it relates to expected and actual performance moderated by the effectiveness of customer service. Research limitations/implications: This article makes several unique literature contributions. First it offers the first comprehensive concise overview of the core concepts used for the logistics strategy in the current research. Next, three particular strategies that influence firm performance are examined. Third it explores the customer service effectiveness' moderating effect. Fourth as a competitive tool unnoticed problems are then exposed as ideas for potential research in logistics strategy. Eventually, when carrying out a similar exercise, the approach used to perform the systematic literature review can be used as a model for potential researchers. Practical implications: Contemporary research is aimed at providing a research group that address the needs of modern corporate executives. Originality/value: As a competitive tool for firm performance, the article presents a suggested conceptual framework for logistics strategy; the moderating effect of customer service effectiveness.
, Volha Yasinskaya, Tatsiana Hryshchanka
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 5, pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2020.5-1.2

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to formulate and structure the many goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development related to transport and to review the dynamics of changes in indicators of achievement in the Republic of Belarus of those related to safety. The article used methods of collecting and analyzing information with statistical tools using specialized software. The main results are the formation of the many Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda related to transport and their structuring. Statistical models have also been obtained showing the dynamics of changes in SDGs related to safety. The study shows how the application of methods of analysis, structuring and statistical data processing can assess the reachability of SDG and, thereby, establish the main places of application of efforts to achieve SDG for transport.
, Nurul Haqimin Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Rosni Othman
Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics, Volume 3, pp 34-48; https://doi.org/10.14254/jsdtl.2018.3-2.2

Abstract:
About 94.8 per cent of Malaysian trade is depending on collective inter/intra-regional maritime networks. Straits of Malacca is an important strait and the only strait that connecting Indian Ocean and South China Sea which contributes to the nation’s economic growth significantly. This strait plays a key character to enable the trade connection between east and west of the globe. In average, about 63,000 different types of vessels passing through the strait per year and the number of the vessels keep accelerating every year. Conversely, the introduction of Thai Canal to detour the trade voyage between Indian Ocean to South China Sea is expecting to reduce about three to four days journey time between these two passages. Although the development of this canal is predicted to provide substantial benefits to shipping lines, the grey area or disadvantages change to implications of this canal need to be explored especially on Malaysian trade and infrastructure. Therefore, a qualitative approach has been employed to achieve the aim of this paper. Face-to-face interviews with experts from various agencies had been conducted to gather information on the impact of Thai Canal on Malaysian trade and infrastructure. The outcome of this paper indicates that the implication of Thai Canal reduces the productivity of Malaysian seaports, transformation of seaports in northern region as a major hub of the nation, enforcing equal regional development between west and east coast Malaysia and administering dramatic progress on multimodalism in each state. The outcome of this research is important as an input for the preparation of Malaysian seaport system due to any significant changes in the trade route. Although, the development of Thai Canal reduce the overdependence on Malacca Straits, the impact of this this new canal will affects the trade performance of this region. Hence, this paper is significant to understand the implications that might occur to this nation due to dynamism of maritime logistics.
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