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Published: 21 January 2022
African Invertebrates, Volume 63, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.63.76934

Abstract:
Scrapter is a genus of colletid bees with a primary distribution centered in Southern Africa. The genus currently comprises 68 recognized species, which are divided into nine species groups, ranging from one to 29 included species. The Scrapter heterodoxus group is presently considered to be the only monotypic group, because of synonymization of Scrapter heterodoxus with Scrapter peringueyi in a previous revision of the genus. A comparative examination of these two species using both morphological assessment and molecular sequence data from the COI barcode region supported the recognition of S. peringueyi as a valid species, which we accordingly resurrect as the second species of the Scrapter heterodoxus species group. We provide high resolution images of the type specimens for both species and updated diagnoses to enable their separation from all other species of Scrapter.
, Sergey A. Belokobylskij, Agnièle Touret-Alby
Published: 9 December 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 497-520; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.74103

Abstract:
The endemic, monotypic Afrotropical genus Spathioplites Fischer, 1962 is rediscovered based on new specimens collected in South Africa and Senegal. Spathioplites phreneticus Fischer, 1962 was previously known from the holotype (male) and 12 paratypes (11 males and a female) collected in Chad in 1959. As part of an ongoing long-term insect inventory survey program in Africa new specimens were recently collected in Tswalu Kalahari Game Reserve in South Africa, extending the distribution range southwards by 4900 km. An additional historical specimen from Senegal was discovered in the collections of the Natural History Museum in Paris, extending the range westwards by 4000 km. Possible reasons for the disjunct distribution exhibited by current locality records for this species are discussed. The holotype male and a paratype female, as well as one of the two newly collected South African females were imaged. These photographs, as well as genus and species re-descriptions, are provided. An identification key to the Old World genera in the doryctine tribe Spathiini s. str. is also presented. All images and interactive identification keys are available on www.waspweb.org.
, Louwrens Pieter Snyman
Published: 7 December 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 485-495; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.76103

Abstract:
All primary (name-bearing) types of Haematopota Meigen, 1803, deposited in the KwaZulu-Natal Museum (NMSA) are documented - Haematopota anomala Travassos Dias, 1956 (Mpumalanga, South Africa); Haematopota diasi Travassos Dias, 1956 (Gauteng, South Africa); Haematopota megaera Usher, 1965 (Eastern Cape, South Africa); Haematopota mephista Usher, 1965 (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa); Haematopota montisdraconis Usher, 1965 (Eastern Cape, South Africa); Haematopota ovazzai Travassos Dias, 1956 (Eastern Cape, South Africa); Haematopota quathlambia Usher, 1965 (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa); Haematopota spectabilis Oldroyd, 1952 (Northern Cape, South Africa); Haematopota tropai Travassos Dias, 1956 (Reunion). The reference to the original publication, including the original name, the type locality and the collector, is provided for each species. In addition, brief remarks and colour photographs are provided. This is the first in a series of publications on the primary types of the Tabanidae of the KwaZulu-Natal Museum.
Published: 12 November 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 465-484; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.73911

Abstract:
A new genus of Baetidae, Megalabiopsgen. nov., and a new species, M. madagasikarasp. nov., are described from Madagascar based on nymphs. The new genus is characterized by having a strongly enlarged mentum; pedicelli with many long, stout, pointed setae; a brush of dense, short setae between prostheca and mola of both mandibles; an apically pointed maxillary palp with a stout seta at the tip; and a labium with many long, simple setae ventrally on glossae. The patellotibial suture is absent on the fore tibia and present on middle and hind tibiae. The claw is strongly elongated with two rows of denticles. The imago remains unknown and the relationships with other African genera of Baetidae are tentative. Despite being easily identifiable, only two nymphs were found in two highly sampled localities in Madagascar.
Published: 8 September 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 427-463; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.70632

Abstract:
Material collected in 1974 during the Austrian Hydrobiological Mission of F. Starmühlner to the Comoros and during recent years by one of the authors (NM) in the course of an ongoing freshwater monitoring program in Mayotte is the basis of this first larger study of the mayfly family Baetidae in the Comoros Archipelago (Comoros, Mayotte). We identified eight different species using morphological characters, four species on both the Comoros and Mayotte, three species on the Comoros only and one species on Mayotte only. Two species, Dabulamanzia mayottensis sp. nov. and Nigrobaetis richardi sp. nov., are new to science; they are described and illustrated based on their nymphs. The nymph of Afroptilum bicorne (Ulmer, 1909) is described for the first time and its assignment to this species is discussed. The description of the previously endemic Malagasy species Potamocloeon (Aquaediva) freitagae (Gattolliat, 2001), is complemented based on the additional material from the Comoros and re-examination of the type material. A key to the nymphs of all species of Baetidae in the Comoros and Mayotte is provided and the biogeography of the family in this region is discussed.
Thembeka C. Nxele, , Inam Yekwayo
Published: 12 August 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 411-425; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.67875

Abstract:
Little is known about the species composition of earthworms in agroecosystems in South Africa even though earthworms provide soil ecosystem services and are useful biological indicators of changes in the habitats. Given the land use and management impact biodiversity, the aim of this study was to document earthworm species that occur under cultivated land in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. A survey of nine farms that practise conservation agriculture was carried out between 2018 and 2020. Twelve earthworm species belonging to four introduced families: Acanthodrilidae (Dichogaster bolaui), Rhinodrilidae (Pontoscolex corenthrurus), Lumbricidae (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea trapezoides, Lumbricus rubellus, Octolasion cyaneum, Octolasion lacteum), Megascolecidae (Amynthas aeruginosus, Amynthas corticis, Amynthas gracilis, Amynthas rodericensis) and juveniles from an indigenous family Tritogeniidae were recorded from cultivated fields. The type of crop (habitat) affected both species richness and abundance of earthworms significantly. However, post hoc results showed differences in species richness between the soya and the maize only, with greater species richness in the maize. Our results demonstrate that habitat type has a major influence on communities of earthworms in agroecosystems.
, Shelley Edwards
Published: 3 August 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 399-410; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.66891

Abstract:
The cicada genus Tugelana Distant, 1912 is monotypic and endemic to south-eastern Africa. Material was not available for a recent molecular phylogeny of its tribe, so its precise phylogenetic placement is unestablished. Consequently, a 627 bp sequence of the cytochrome oxidase gene was obtained and its candidate relatives identified as several species of Platypleura Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 using the BOLD Identification System and NCBI Genbank’s BLAST. Bayesian inference analyses indicated that the type species, the Maputaland Orangewing Cicada Tugelana butleri Distant, 1912, is closely related to the Dune Koko Orangewing Cicada Platypleura zuluensis Villet, 1989, which has a geographical distribution that is parapatric with T. butleri and which has aberrant genitalia for a member of Platypleura. This pair of species is placed fairly deep within the African clade of Platypleura. We therefore formally recognized Platypleura Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 as a senior synonym of Tugelana Distant, 1912, syn. nov., and assign T. butleri Distant, 1912 to Platypleura as Platypleura butleri (Distant 1912), comb. nov. The species occurs on the wooded grasslands of the Maputaland coastal plateau east of Lebombo Mountains and south of Maputo Bay. Its Extent of Occurrence is about 6360 km2, which would qualify it as Vulnerable under the IUCN’s classification criteria for conservation status.
Published: 15 July 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 383-397; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.68360

Abstract:
The African endemic hover fly Meromacroides meromacriformis (Bezzi, 1915) (Syrphidae, Eristalinae) was described more than a century ago and its monotypic status established in 1927, but subsequent collections and publications are rare. Only the male has been described and nothing is known about its biology. We re-describe the male, including geographic variation, describe the female for the first time and provide the first DNA barcodes for the species. Despite the large range and observed variations, there is insufficient evidence to describe additional taxa in the genus. Biological observations are presented, which may shed some insight into this rare and enigmatic hover fly, whose known distribution now spans the Afrotropical Region.
Published: 27 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 355-382; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.64885

Abstract:
Material collected between 1984 and 1988 in Guinea and Mali and between 2003 and 2008 in the Ivory Coast substantially increased our knowledge of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in West Africa. We identified eight different species using morphological characters. One species, L. ediaisp. nov., is new to science; it is described and illustrated, based on its nymphs. The status of L. boussoulius (Gillies, 1993) is discussed and the divergent morphology of L. elouardi (Gillies, 1993) is compared to other species of Labiobaetis. A key to the nymphs of all West African species is provided and the distribution of Labiobaetis species in the Afrotropical realm is discussed.
Axel Ssymank, Kurt Jordaens
Published: 23 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 339-353; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.61504

Abstract:
The taxonomy of Syrphidae is far from being complete in the Afrotropical Region and many species have been described from a single sex only. One of these is the enigmatic monotypic genus Syrittosyrphus Hull, 1944, of which, so far, only the male of Syrittosyrphus opacea Hull, 1944 was described from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Here, we re-describe the male and describe the female. We summarise all known distribution records from South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces) and Zimbabwe (Vumba), of which several are new. We also provide notes on the species’ ecology.
, , Elizabeth Grobbelaar, Maurizio Biondi
Published: 19 April 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 315-337; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62426

Abstract:
Calotheca Heyden, 1887 is a flea beetle genus that occurs predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 29 species. The examination of new material is revealing a significantly higher species richness and high intraspecific variability. A group of five species, occurring in the southernmost portion of the distribution range for the genus, is here attributed to the C. parvula species group: C. parvula (Weise, 1908), C. pallida (Bryant, 1945), C. danielssonisp. nov., C. oberprielerisp. nov., and C. prinslooisp. nov. Species in the C. parvula group have strong similarities in body shape and sculpture on the integument, spermathecal shape, and for most species the morphology of the median lobe of the aedeagus. A key to species of the Calotheca parvula group is provided along with photographs of the habitus, main diagnostic characters, median lobe of the aedeagus and spermatheca. In addition to the geographic distribution, the available information on the habitat, host plants, and phenology are provided for the five species analysed.
, Rosali Smith, Julie A. Coetzee
Published: 9 March 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 287-314; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62842

Abstract:
The Brazilian waterweed, Egeria densa Planchon, 1849 (Hydrocharitaceae), is an invasive species in South Africa where it is a host plant for the aquatic leaf-miner Hydrellia egeriae Rodrigues-Júnior, 2015 (Ephydridae, Diptera). Efficacy of the biocontrol agent can potentially be affected by parasitoids. Three species of braconid parasitoid wasps were reared from puparia of Hydrellia egeriae. By comparison with the type specimens, these species have been determined to be Ademon lagarosiphonae van Achterberg, 2012 (Braconidae: Opiinae), Chaenusa anervata van Achterberg, 2012 and Chaenusa seminervata van Achterberg, 2012 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Dacnusini), all previously recorded as parasitoids of an ephydrid dipterous aquatic leaf-miner, Hydrellia lagarosiphon Deeming, 2012, on Lagarosiphon major (Ridley, 1886) Moss ex Wager (Hydrocharitaceae) in South Africa. The chalcidoid, Janicharis africanus Gumovsky & Delvare, 2006 (Eulophidae), was also reared from Hydrellia egeriae and is possibly a hyperparasitoid of the braconids. South Africa is a new country record for J. africanus. We provide comprehensive images of all species including the braconid types and illustrated identification keys to the Afrotropical species of the two braconid genera are also provided. All images and online keys are available on WaspWeb (http://www.waspweb.org).
Dancun A. Oketch, Esther N. Kioko,
Published: 26 February 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 273-286; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62963

Abstract:
Three new species of the genus Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué, 2002 of the family Liocranidae Simon, 1897 are described from Kenya: T. tharaka Oketch & Li, sp. nov., T. waruii Oketch & Li, sp. nov., and T. nyeri Oketch & Li, sp. nov. Types are deposited in the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), Nairobi, Kenya.
, Crystal-Leigh Clitheroe, Martin H. Villet,
Published: 25 February 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 257-271; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.58842

Abstract:
Sap beetles of the genus Omosita Erichson are stored-product pests that are also associated with carrion, potentially making them biosecurity risks and forensic tools. The discovery of a specimen of the Nearctic species Omosita nearctica Kirejtshuk in South Africa prompted an investigation a decade later to determine if this species had established itself in the country, which was confirmed by the collection of further breeding specimens that also facilitated the first description of mature larvae of O. nearctica. A new key to adults of all Omosita species is presented.
Published: 24 February 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 231-255; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.62029

Abstract:
Material collected between 2017 and 2019 in Ethiopia in the Awash River catchment substantially increased our knowledge of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in this country. Four species were previously reported based on ecological investigations of Ethiopian rivers: L. glaucus (Agnew, 1961), L. latus (Agnew, 1961), L. vinosus (Barnard, 1932) and L. bellus (Barnard, 1932). We have identified six different species using a combination of morphology and genetic distance (COI, Kimura 2-parameter). Two of them, L. alahmadii Gattolliat & Al Dhafer, 2018 and L. potamoticus Gattolliat & Al Dhafer, 2018 were previously assumed to be endemic to the Arabian Peninsula. The status of L. bellus is discussed and remains unresolved. One species is new to science; it is described and illustrated based on its nymphs. A key to the nymphs of all Ethiopian species is provided. The interspecific K2P distances in Ethiopia are between 17% and 23%, the intraspecific distances are usually between 0% and 1%. The total number of Labiobaetis species worldwide is augmented to 145. The Afrotropical species of Labiobaetis are discussed in comparison to the species of other realms.
Grace M. Kioko, , , Esther N. Kioko,
Published: 19 January 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 47-229; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.58776

Abstract:
A checklist of 805 spider species and subspecies belonging to 57 families described and/or reported from Kenya up to 31 December 2018 is provided. Species distribution within Kenya is given according to counties and specific localities. A historical survey is provided and each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Salticidae and Linyphiidae (160 and 110 species, respectively). Eighteen families are represented by a single species. About 300 species are known exclusively from Kenya and 158 species are sub-endemics. Two hundred and forty two species are described from a single sex (159 females and 83 males) and 24 from juveniles. Nairobi County has the greatest number of records, five counties had a frequency of one, while nine counties had no collection records. There are two fossil spiders known from Kenya belonging to the family Oonopidae. One new combination is proposed: Hypsosinga holzapfelae (Lessert, 1936), comb. nov. (ex. Araneus Clerck, 1757).
Michael Stiller
Published: 4 January 2021
African Invertebrates, Volume 62, pp 1-45; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.62.54721

Abstract:
Two new genera of macropterous leafhoppers, tentatively included in the tribe BonaspeiiniZahniser and Dietrich (2013) from the Fynbos biome of south-western parts of South Africa, are described. These are Retevolatusgen. nov. with type species R. flexiverpussp. nov., R. semicurviverpussp. nov. and R. subspiniverpussp. nov. and Flavorubivolatusgen. nov. with type species F. glabriverpussp. nov. and F. tensiverpussp. nov. and F. curtiverpussp. nov. Collection records and distribution modelling confirmed that species of both genera occur within a confined region of south-western parts of South Africa.
Published: 11 December 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 119-135; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.59354

Abstract:
A new genus of Baetidae, Pedicelliopsgen. nov., and a new species, P. capillifersp. nov., are described from Guinea (West Africa) based on larvae. The new genus is characterized by having strongly enlarged pedicelli and very short flagella, a brush of dense, short setae between prostheca and mola of both mandibles, a small rectangular labrum, an apicolaterally pointed maxillary palp, a labial palp with a small distolateral protuberance and long setae ventrally on glossae and paraglossae. The femora of all legs are covered with numerous long, fine setae. The patellotibial suture is absent on the fore tibia and present on middle and hind tibiae. The claw is pointed with two rows of denticles. No spines are present on the posterior margins of the abdominal tergites. The imago remains unknown and the relationships with other African genera of Baetidae remains tentative. Despite being easily identifiable and of a fairly large size (body length ca. 5 mm), only two larvae were found in two highly sampled localities in West Africa.
, Jonathan D. Ablett
Published: 23 October 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 107-117; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.58085

Abstract:
A small collection containing thirty-nine lots of South African Streptaxidae land snails is housed in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (NMNZ). This material previously belonged to British/South African malacologist Henry C. Burnup, who either donated it to, or exchanged it with New Zealand-based Swiss malacologist Henry Suter, whose land snail collection was eventually acquired by the NMNZ. The lots contain type specimens of eight taxa (species and subspecies) and are presented herein in the form of an annotated and illustrated catalogue.
Ambata D. Oketch, Sergei Zonstein, Esther N. Kioko,
Published: 28 July 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 93-106; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.54004

Abstract:
A new genus and three new species of the spider family Palpimanidae Thorell, 1870 from Kenya are described. Sceliscelis Oketch & Li, gen. nov. is close to Sarascelis Simon, 1887 and Scelidocteus Simon, 1907 but differs in the structure of the male palp. The new species reported are Sceliscelis marshi Oketch & Li, sp. nov., Scelidocteus taitave Oketch & Li, sp. nov., and Hybosida machondogo Oketch & Li, sp. nov.Sceliscelis marshisp. nov. is described from males and females collected from Tsavo in south Kenya. Scelidocteus taitavesp. nov. can be distinguished from other congeners, as well as from the morphologically similar Scelidomachus socotranus Pocock, 1899, by the shape of the palpal “conductor”. Hybosida machondogosp. nov. differs from other six-eyed Hybosida spp. by possessing rudimentary posterior median eyes.
Thembeka Clara Nxele, Jadwiga Danuta Plisko, Tarombera Mwabvu, Oliver Tendayi Zishiri
Published: 10 July 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.53380

Abstract:
Species identification of earthworms using morphology can be challenging and inconclusive as homoplasy in many characters is high. The use of molecular DNA technology, such as the use of conserved regions in mtDNA and nuclear DNA has unravelled the phylogenetic background of several earthworm species. The current study utilised the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial marker to reconstruct the phylogeny of Kazimierzus Plisko, 2006 species from the Western and Northern Cape provinces of South Africa. Phylogenetic reconstructions were implemented using Bayesian Inference, as well as Maximum Likelihood. Both tree building methods adhered to the monophyly of the majority of the taxa. Results showed that species fell into two clades and validated eleven currently known Kazimierzus species (K. circulatus (Plisko, 1998), K. franciscus (Pickford, 1975), K. guntheri (Pickford, 1975), K. hamerae (Plisko, 1998), K. kleinoodi Nxele & Plisko, 2017, K. nietvoorbiji Nxele & Plisko, 2017, K. nieuwoudtvillensis Nxele & Plisko, 2017, K. occidualis (Plisko, 1998), K. pearsonianus (Pickford, 1975), K. phumlani Nxele & Plisko, 2017, K. sophieae (Plisko, 2002)). Cryptic diversity is evident in K. occidualis with genetic divergence greater than 12% amongst populations. Kazimierzus franciscus and K. ljungstroemi (Pickford, 1975) have a low genetic variability suggesting close relatedness or probably conspecificity. A group of specimens from Clanwilliam are morphologically identical to K. sophieae, but are genetically distinct and may belong to undescribed species. This study demonstrates the importance of integrative taxonomy in earthworms in order to present reliable taxonomic and biogeographic data.
Igor V. Muratov, Elodie Heyns-Veale
Published: 1 July 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 49-81; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.51989

Abstract:
All primary (name-bearing) types of Patelloidea, Lottioidea, Fissurelloidea and Scissurelloidea deposited in the KwaZulu-Natal Museum are presented. The reference to the original publication, including the original generic position, the type locality, the collector and the cited dimensions of the type specimen(s), is provided for each species, followed by information from the label for each type in the NMSA collection (type locality, collector and catalogue number), size of the type specimen, brief remarks and colour photographs.
Jason G. H. Londt
Published: 24 April 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 29-48; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.50895

Abstract:
A year-long survey of grassland Asilidae was undertaken at Jacana Eco Estate, Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The following 18 species of Asilidae, in alphabetical order, were encountered: Caenoura annulitarsis (Loew, 1858), Damalis monochaetes Londt, 1989, Dasophrys androclea (Walker, 1849), Dasophrys fortis Londt, 1981, Dasophrys tarsalis (Ricardo, 1920), Dasophrys umbripennis Londt, 1981, Dysclytus firmatus (Walker, 1857), Euscelidia vallis Dikow, 2003, Ischiolobos mesotopos Londt, 2005, Leptogaster sp., Melouromyia natalensis (Ricardo, 1919), Microstylum sp., Neolophonotus hirsutus (Ricardo, 1920), Neolophonotus variabilis Londt, 1986, Neolophonotus wroughtoni (Ricardo, 1920), Pegesimallus bicolor (Loew, 1858), Pegesimallus pedunculatus (Loew, 1858), Rhipidocephala obscurata Oldroyd, 1966. Their flight periods were recorded and tabulated. The variety and numbers encountered suggest that the grassland invertebrate community is healthy and that the grassland is worthy of its conservation status.
, Marek Bąkowski
Published: 26 February 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.48320

Abstract:
Thirty dragonfly species were collected at 11 localities, mostly situated in central provinces of Mozambique, in the Gorongosa National Park, adjacent areas and the Chimanimani National Reserve buffer zone. These data include a new country record of Phyllogomphus selysi and records of several other species that have rarely been recorded so far in relatively poorly-explored Mozambique, such as Atoconeura biordinata, Hadrothemis scabrifrons, Gynacantha manderica, Gomphidia quarrei and Olpogastra lugubris. Faunistic considerations are given with some remarks on morphological traits.
Sergei L. Zonstein, Yuri M. Marusik
Published: 6 February 2020
African Invertebrates, Volume 61, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.61.47048

Abstract:
Two new species of the palpimanid genus Diaphorocellus Simon, 1893, D. isalosp. nov. (♂♀), and D. jocqueisp. nov. (♂♀), are described from central and eastern parts of Madagascar, respectively. Along with D. rufus (Tullgren, 1910), these new species can be distinguished from other congeners by possessing a finely and densely spotted colouration of the abdomen. They differ from one another, as well from D. rufus, by the eye group configuration and by the structure of the male and female copulatory organs. Diagnoses and illustrations presenting the diagnostic characters of D. isalosp. nov. and D. jocqueisp. nov. are provided. The genus now includes six African species.
, Connal Eardley
Published: 4 December 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 291-318; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.37752

Abstract:
We analysed country-scale distribution records of solitary bees (i.e. excluding Apis mellifera) in countries in the Afrotropical Region, excluding the southern Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Although different country estimates of bee species numbers can be explained by differences in climate, vegetation or topography, we concluded that the observed differences are mainly due to differences in sampling effort or taxonomic research intensity in different countries. We characterised three eras of bee taxonomy. The highest rate of species description per annum occurred during the first half of the 20th Century, before generic revisions were prevalent, and when the focus was on consolidating knowledge and developing identification keys. We also researched the locations of type specimens, which included all primary types and syntypes. Most types are housed in western Europe. We describe the Catalogue of Afrotropical Bees (CAB), a biodiversity information system and related GBIF checklist that is the system’s standardised, published output. In the revised CAB, all Afrotropical bee genera have been given common names, many of which are new.
Yanfeng Tong, Shijia Liu, Esther N. Kioko, Grace M. Kioko,
Published: 28 October 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 255-289; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.39146

Abstract:
Seven species of the genus Opopaea Simon, 1892 from Kenya are recognized, including five new species: O. berlandi (Simon & Fage, 1922), O. kulczynskii (Berland, 1914), O. makadara Tong & Li, sp. nov. (♀♂), O. ngangao Tong & Li, sp. nov. (♀♂), O. ngulia Tong & Li, sp. nov. (♂), O. sheldrick Tong & Li, sp. nov. (♀♂), and O. wundanyi Tong & Li, sp. nov. (♀♂). Morphological descriptions and illustrations of all the species are given. All types are preserved in the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, Kenya (NMK).
Published: 24 October 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 239-253; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.39538

Abstract:
A new species of Coenosia Meigen, 1826 is described, C. flagellisetasp. nov., belonging to a new aberrant group with apically globular orbital setae, previously only known from male specimens in two species. A female from this unique group is also described for the first time, having tergite 6 of the ovipositor atypical for the Coenosiini. The affinities of the group and the species within are discussed.
Published: 10 October 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 215-237; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.38432

Abstract:
Afrotropical Astochia Becker, 1913 are taxonomically reviewed. Three new species are described (A. lumariussp. nov. (Malawi), A. silvasp. nov. (Kenya, Burundi), A. similissp. nov. (Nigeria)) and added to those already known (A. africana (Ricardo, 1919), A. armata (Becker, 1909), A. neavensis (Ricardo, 1919), A. sodalis (Wulp, 1899), A. strachani Oldroyd, 1970). A key to aid in species identification is provided in addition to notes on their distribution, phenology and biology.
Milan Zúbrik, Sandrine Picq, Philippe Oremans, Audrey Nisole, Sophie Tremblay, Michel Cusson, Ľubomír Panigaj, Barbora Mikitová, Maurizio Bollino
Published: 17 September 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 195-213; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.35262

Abstract:
A total of 385 Euphaedra eberti Aurivillius, 1898, adults collected between 2012 and 2018 in the vicinity of Bangui, Central African Republic, were examined for intraspecific morphological variability, genetic diversity and genitalia structure. The species shows significant wing pattern variability. Two main morphotypes were identified in the set: the nominate form eberti, and the one comprising specimens with a red patch, form rubromaculata. However, both forms had similar genitalic structures and shared some specific wing marks, in addition to displaying the same COI (i.e., barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) haplotype, strongly suggesting that the two morphologically distinct forms belong to the same species, E. eberti. The causes of this variability remain unclear.
, Martin H. Villet
Published: 19 August 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 165-193; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.35130

Abstract:
Public understanding of the goals of applied biology and conservation is promoted by showcasing charismatic or significant organisms using vernacular names. Conservation activities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, are prioritising taxa that have high rates of provincial endemism, such as snails, earthworms, millipedes and cicadas. To assist wider public engagement in these activities, an assessment of endemism of the cicadas of KwaZulu-Natal is presented along with a dichotomous, 37-couplet key for the identification of males, based mainly on externally visible morphology and colouration. Standardised English vernacular names coined following a simple naming convention are proposed. Forty-two percent (16 out of 38) of the cicada species known from KwaZulu-Natal are endemic to the province. Photographs of some of the species are included to facilitate their identification. Photographs can be used for identification of various species providing that the diagnostic characters are visible in the photographs. For this purpose, photographs may have to be taken of hand-held individuals. Some of the endemic species are of particular concern for conservation because they are not known to occur in statutory protected areas or are only known from relatively small protected areas. The latter may not be able to ensure the long-term survival of the species. The rate and extent of loss of habitat outside protected areas is likely to be a grave threat to species that are not protected or that are inadequately conserved in statutory protected areas. The standardised vernacular names proposed here provide a tool for communicating provincial conservation plans and concerns with stakeholders in KwaZulu-Natal and for stimulating interest in cicadas amongst land users, environmental impact assessment practitioners, biologists, naturalists and citizen scientists.
Thembile T. Khoza, Robin Lyle
Published: 24 July 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 147-164; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.35269

Abstract:
The genus Planochelas Lyle & Haddad, 2009 is endemic to the Afrotropical region. Members of the genus are very small, arboreal sac spiders. They are mainly collected by canopy fogging in tropical forest and savanna. In this study, four new species of Planochelas are described: P.brevissp. nov., P.jocqueisp. nov. (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and P.haddadisp. nov., P.neethlingisp. nov. (South Africa). An updated key to the genus is provided, and the new species are illustrated by photographs and drawings. A distribution map for the genus is provided. This paper increases the number of species in the genus to seven.
Bradley J. Sinclair
Published: 26 June 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 133-145; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.35556

Abstract:
The genus Stuckenbergomyia Smith is revised with the description of a new species from Namibia (S.namibiensissp. nov.) and an undescribed species based on females from Western Cape Province of South Africa. The genus is fully illustrated and its phylogenetic relationships within the Hybotidae are discussed with the proposal of a new subfamily, Stuckenbergomyiinaesubfam. nov.
Grace M. Kioko, Peter Jäger, Esther N. Kioko, ,
Published: 19 June 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 109-132; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.34359

Abstract:
Eleven species of the spider family Agelenidae Koch, 1837 are reviewed based on the type material and transferred from the genus Agelena Walckenaer, 1805 to MistariaLehtinen 1967. These species occur in various African countries as indicated and include: M.jaundea (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♂, Cameroon), M.jumbo (Strand, 1913), comb. nov. (♂♀, Central & East Africa), M.kiboschensis (Lessert, 1915), comb. nov. (♂♀, Central & East Africa), M.keniana (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Kenya), M.lawrencei (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Zimbabwe), M.longimamillata (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Mozambique), M.moschiensis (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Tanzania), M.mossambica (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Mozambique), M.nyassana (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, Malawi), M.teteana (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♂, Mozambique) and M.zuluana (Roewer, 1955), comb. nov. (♀, South Africa).
Zhi-Shun Song, Ji-Jun Yin, Jürgen Deckert
Published: 11 June 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 97-108; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.32652

Abstract:
A new dictyopharid genus Neonersia Song & Deckert, gen. nov. is described here based on Dictyophora [sic] fugax Melichar, 1912 (previously also placed in the genus Nersia Stål, 1862) from Cameroon. The new genus is placed in the tribe Orthopagini. It may be easily distinguished from all other Orthopagini genera by carinate tegulae.
Sergei L. Zonstein, Yuri M. Marusik
Published: 17 May 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 83-95; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.34229

Abstract:
Based on the types deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the following African species of Palpimanus Dufour, 1820 are re-examined and redescribed in details: P.namaquensis Simon, 1910 (South Africa, Namibia), P.nubilus Simon, 1910 (Namibia), P.paroculus Simon, 1910 (South Africa, Namibia) and P.processiger Strand, 1913 (Rwanda). The distribution of the considered species is specified and the erroneously interpreted geographical data, previously presented in the World Spider Catalog (2019), are corrected.
Jason G.H. Londt
Published: 10 May 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.33075

Abstract:
The genus Empodiodes Oldroyd, 1972, a Southern African endemic, is revised. Six species are recognised, four previously described (E.greatheadi Oldroyd, 1972, E.melanoscopaeus Londt, 1992, E.namibiensis Londt, 2012, E.whittingtoni Londt, 1992) and two new species (E.pusillipessp. nov., E.torridussp. nov.). A key for their separation is provided and their distributions mapped and discussed.
Jason G. H. Londt,
Published: 13 February 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 31-65; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.30943

Abstract:
Southern AfricanChoeradesWalker, 1851 are reviewed. Six species are recognised (C.analogossp. n.described from South Africa: KwaZulu-Natal,C.bella(Loew, 1858),C.flavipes(Wiedemann, 1821),C.multipunctata(Oldroyd, 1974),C.nigrapex(Bigot, 1878),C.nigrescens(Ricardo, 1925)) and a key for their separation is provided. Distributional information demonstrates that species are found primarily in moderate to higher rainfall regions. The little that is known of their biology is discussed. Species are usually associated with indigenous forest habitats where larval development takes place in decomposing wood.
, , Ximo Mengual, Snežana Radenković, , ,
Published: 11 February 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 15-30; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.31521

Abstract:
Pre-imaginal morphology of the flower fly species Graptomyzasignata (Walker) is described and figured in detail based on specimens collected on a decomposed Aloe-like plant in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Third-instar larva is described for the first time and the puparium morphology is re-described using both light (optical) and electron microscopy. The present work represents the second larval description for a species of the genus Graptomyza, after the description of the larva of G.alabeta Séguy. The immatures of these two Graptomyza species were examined and compared to the pre-imaginal stages of the other members of the tribe Volucellini, pointing out the possible diagnostic characters of the genus Graptomyza. Moreover, new DNA barcodes are provided for G.signata and deposited in the NCBI GenBank.
, Ian Engelbrecht
Published: 6 February 2019
African Invertebrates, Volume 60, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.60.32141

Abstract:
During 2015 and 2016 several baboon spider specimens (Araneae: Theraphosidae) were collected in central Angola during surveys undertaken for the Okavango Wilderness Project. These collections represent range and habitat extensions for Pterinochilus Pocock, 1897, Ceratogyrus Pocock, 1897 and Phoneyusa Karsch, 1884. The new species Ceratogyrusattonitifersp. n. is described from female specimens and the distribution of genera mapped. Central and eastern Angola is severely under sampled for theraphosid spiders, with every species collected during the survey either being potentially new to science or representing a significant range extension for the genus.
Amanda Markee,
Published: 30 November 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 195-237; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.30684

Abstract:
The genus Microphontes Londt, 1994 (Diptera: Asilidae: Brachyrhopalinae) is revised. Currently, three species are known from Namibia and western South Africa, i.e. Microphontesmegoura Londt, 1994 from north-western South Africa, Microphontessafra Londt, 1994 from Namibia and Microphonteswhittingtoni Londt, 1994 from western South Africa. Four new species, Microphontesericfisherisp. n. from the Little Karoo of South Africa, Microphontesgaiophanessp. n. from the Namib desert of Namibia and Microphontesjasonlondtisp. n. and Microphonteskryphiossp. n. from western South Africa, are described. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International and seasonal incidence are discussed. Descriptions/redescriptions, photographs and identification keys are provided and made openly accessible in data repositories to support future studies of the included taxa. An unusual flight pattern of male Microphontesgaiophanessp. n. is discussed. A unique morphological feature on tergite 8 of Microphontes females, termed postero-paramedian T8 pores, is described, illustrated and discussed.
, Bogusław Daraż
Published: 5 November 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 165-193; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.29021

Abstract:
Zoogeographically important data on the occurrence of 22 dragonfly species in Zambia are presented, including at least seven species for the first time recorded or unambiguously confirmed in the country. They filled gaps in the previously known distribution ranges and showed that some of them reach further, especially to the south, but also west or north. Zoogeographical considerations are completed with some remarks on species’ morphological traits and habitat selection and activity.
Chang-Jun Kim, Robert S. Copeland,
Published: 17 October 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 127-163; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.24403

Abstract:
The family Ismaridae Thomson, 1858 is reported from the Afrotropical region for the first time. A total of 15 species are recognised, 14 of which are described as new: Ismarusafricanussp. n. from Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa; I.apertussp. n. from Kenya; I.bicolorsp. n. from Cameroon, Kenya; I.goodrichisp. n. from Kenya; I.kakamegensissp. n. from Kenya; I.kenyensissp. n. from Kenya; I.laevigatussp. n. from South Africa; I.madagascariensissp. n. from Madagascar; I.minutussp. n. from Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe; I.nigrofasciatussp. n. from Malawi, Uganda; I.notaulicussp. n. from Kenya; I.rawlinsisp. n. from Kenya, Malawi; I.steinerisp. n. from Madagascar; I.watshamisp. n. from Botswana, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe. Ismarushalidayi Förster is reported for continental Africa from South Africa (new record). We provide an identification key to all species in Afrotropical region.
Grace M. Kioko, Esther N. Kioko, Shuqiang Li, Liqiang Ji
Published: 6 August 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 111-126; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.26617

Abstract:
In the current study, three species reported from Kenya are transferred from Agelena Walckenaer, 1805 to Mistaria Lehtinen, 1967, i.e. M.fagei (Caporiacco, 1949), comb. n., M.nairobii (Caporiacco, 1949), comb. n. and M.zorica (Strand, 1913), comb. n. One new species M.nyeupenyeusi G.M. Kioko & S. Li, sp. n. is described.
Jason G. H. Londt,
Published: 15 June 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 75-106; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.25022

Abstract:
The asilid genus Laphyctis Loew, 1858 is revised. The genus is restricted to the Afrotropical Region where it has been confused with the more widely distributed Laphystia Loew, 1847, which currently has no Afrotropical representatives. Three previously described species are recognised: Laphyctisgigantella (Loew, 1852), type of the genus, Laphyctisargenteofasciata (Engel, 1929), reinstated from the synonymy of L.gigantella, and Laphyctisorichalcea (Lindner, 1973). Two new species are described, Laphyctiseremiasp. n. from Namibia and Laphyctisiotasp. n. from South Africa. The genus has a wide distribution ranging from northern Kenya to eastern South Africa and to western Namibia. Species are associated with dry, sandy habitats.
Published: 18 April 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 55-73; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.24461

Abstract:
The flower fly genus Ischiodon Sack (Diptera, Syrphidae) is revised and a new species, Ischiodonastalessp. n., is described from Madagascar. Additionally, a lectotype for Ischiodonaegyptius is designated and the first records of Ischiodonscutellaris for the Arabian Peninsula are reported. Diagnoses, illustrations, synonymies and distributional data are given for all described species, as well as an identification key to all known species.
, Martha Tsaliki,
Published: 13 April 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.23191

Abstract:
There are no published records of water bears (Phylum Tardigrada) from Swaziland. Two samples of foliose lichen collected in 2010 contained nine tardigrade specimens and one egg belonging to five genera and seven species: Echiniscuscf.quadrispinosus,Milnesiumsp., Milnesiumcf.bohleberi, Hypsibiuscf.convergens,Ramazzottiussp., Macrobiotuscf.pallarii andMinibiotusharrylewisi. Milnesiumsp. resemblesMilnesiumlagniappe, a species from southeastern USA, in its cuticle, and possibly in the number of peribuccal lamellae. Specimens from Lesotho and South Africa previously identified asMilnesiumtardigradumare in fact Milnesiumcf.bohleberi. The habitus ofRamazzottiussp. is consistent withR.theroni, a southern African species, but due to the condition of the specimen the presence of cuticular sculpture cannot be definitively ruled out. Macrobiotuscf.pallarii differs fromM.pallariisensu strictoin some structural details of the egg processes. This is the first record ofMinibiotusharrylewisioutside of its type location in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Chunxia Wang, Shuqiang Li,
Published: 21 March 2018
African Invertebrates, Volume 59, pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.24190

Abstract:
A new species of the spider family Telemidae from South Africa, Cangodercesglobosasp. n., is diagnosed, described and illustrated. This is the second species of the family to be recorded from the country. Consistent with the habits of most Afrotropical telemids, C.globosasp. n. was collected by sifting leaf litter in forests.
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