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Lucas A. Lauriano, Thiago Coacci
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0586

Abstract:
Scholars typically portray employees’ management of concealable stigmas in face-to-face encounters in which social groups are easily separable (e.g., friends, family, and co-workers). This analytical predisposition overlooks the possible roles of social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and Instagram. These online platforms enable a cohabitation of different audiences, that is, a context collapse that allows a growing, invisible audience to easily access information about one’s stigma. In our qualitative analysis in a Latin American organization, we develop a model that documents the everyday dynamics of context collapse amongst gay male employees. In a disclosure dilemma, employees are uncertain about how to be a professional online and simultaneously keep SNSs as platforms where they can show more relaxed versions of themselves. As a response, most employees adopt mirroring, and attempt to reflect their face-to-face disclosure levels on SNSs. Some employees engage in destigmatization efforts online, and as an outlier case we mapped an employee in collapse denial. Our study questions the established idea of disclosure as a relatively controlled process in micro-interactions. We also nuance the assumption of SNSs as safe spaces and show the unintended impacts of context collapse on the stigmatized.
Todd Schifeling, Sara Soderstrom
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0769

Abstract:
Activists increasingly seek to influence organizations that also espouse support for social movement goals, encouraging the use of collaborative tactics. While there has been growing research on insider activists who import social movement resources, little is known about how internal activism might operate through a coordinated and collaborative approach with external social movement organizations, which we refer to as embedded activism. Likewise, collaborative activists encounter organizations with a wide range of prior reform experience, and the resulting “opportunity structure” for collaboration is not well understood. We investigate how a network of embedded activists can operate to advance reform efforts across diverse organizations. Our analysis combines surveys, interviews, and archival records from the Environmental Defense Fund’s Climate Corps program, which embeds graduate students in partner organizations to advance climate change reforms. Embedded activists accomplish this work by matching external resources with the organizational context in order to generate a fertile mixture of support and ambiguity and create new solutions. External resources are especially important for organizations that are at the extremes of prior issue development.
Isabel Neuberger, Jochem Kroezen, Paul Tracey
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0517

Abstract:
This paper seeks to advance understanding of how new social ventures can gain legitimacy in authoritarian contexts. Through a study of a new disability rights organization in post-revolutionary Egypt, we theorize how authoritarianism poses distinct challenges for social ventures that require different legitimation strategies than those commonly reported in the literature. Specifically, we use our case study to build a theoretical model that suggests social ventures need to achieve optimal assimilation by balancing protective disguise with harmonious advocacy. By explicitly theorizing social venture legitimation in authoritarian contexts, we advance the budding literature on social venture legitimation that has so far predominantly considered legitimation in more democratic contexts. Moreover, our study shows that organizational legitimacy may need to be conceptualized differently when examining social ventures—and indeed other forms of organization—in authoritarian regimes.
Leigh Plunkett Tost, Ashley E. Hardin, Jacob W. Roberson, Francesca Gino
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0339

Abstract:
We examine whether narratives about, and the psychological consequences of, perceived gender discrimination differ between women and men. We argue that women and men have different dominant narratives about the reasons that people discriminate against people of their respective genders; while women attribute the majority of their perceptions of gender discrimination in the workplace to patriarchal norms and practices, the majority of men’s perceptions of gender discrimination emerge from a belief that organizations are likely to discriminate against them in order to reduce discrimination against women. These differences in understandings about the root causes of gender discrimination also produce divergent psychological consequences. We argue that perceived workplace gender discrimination (1) reduces self-efficacy among women but not among men and (2) reduces both men and women’s sense of belonging in the workplace. We further argue that these effects contribute to a reduction of well-being among members of both genders, with the negative effect on well-being being more pronounced among women than among men. We examine these predictions in five studies of working adults. We discuss implications for research on perceptions of discrimination and for organizations seeking to reduce the negative consequences of perceptions of discrimination.
Haley Allison Beer, Pietro Micheli, Marya L Besharov
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0916

Abstract:
A compelling organizational mission can contribute to employees’ sense of work as worthy and thereby meaningful. Yet realizing this potential depends on whether and how the mission is conveyed to employees and connected to their day-to-day work, with organizational performance measurement practices playing a critical but poorly understood role. To develop empirically grounded insights into how measurement practices shape individuals’ perceptions of work as worthy, we leverage a qualitative, inductive study of two UK social enterprises. We find that employees’ encounters with measurement practices both affirm and challenge perceptions of work as worthy by influencing whether employees can accomplish their work tasks, see the impact of their work, and have a credible and valued voice in their interpersonal interactions. Building on these findings, we develop a model that theorizes practical, existential, and relational pathways through which measurement encounters create ongoing expansions and contractions of work worthiness. Taken together, our findings and model broaden understandings of the sources and processes of meaningful work, develop a dynamic conception of meaningfulness, and point toward a more agentic view of organizational performance measurement processes.
David Dwertmann, Bernadeta Goštautaitė, Rūta Kazlauskaitė, Ilona Bučiūnienė
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0084

Abstract:
Whereas advocates point to benefits of employing people with disabilities for organizations, employers’ concern over negative customer reactions is still a barrier to the employment of people with disabilities in service occupations. We contribute to this discussion and the management literature on disability by examining the effects of receiving service from employees with a hearing disability and employees who use a wheelchair on corporate reputation. Based on signaling theory, stereotypes, and valuation-by-association logic, we argue and find in a multi-study, multi-method approach that employing people with disabilities can be perceived as corporate social responsibility and leads to better corporate reputation. A field study with 317 customers of a large international supermarket chain in Lithuania demonstrates higher ratings of corporate reputation for customers receiving service from an employee with a hearing disability than for customers receiving service from an employee without disabilities. In an online experiment using a Solomon four-group design, we utilize video vignettes to test our model with corporate social responsibility perceptions as a mediator. Together, our findings show that managers’ concerns about how biased customers might respond to service employees with disabilities are likely unfounded and highlight – in addition to an ethical case for inclusion – the potential for organizations to benefit from employing of people with disabilities, as it leads to favorable reputation effects for organizations.
Ronald S. Burt, Song Wang
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2021.0676

Abstract:
Bridge supervision occurs when the connection between manager and boss is a network bridge between separate social worlds. Improved communication technology has facilitated the use of bridge supervision. Manager and boss can easily interact by audio or on screen as a pair of people disconnected from surrounding colleagues. At what cost to manager and effective management? We argue that bridge supervision affects the way in which a manager plays his or her role, but not how well the role is played. We find clear support for the argument in a traditional corporate hierarchy. Managers operating under bridge supervision exclude the boss from their work discussion and are conservative in expressing emotion. Behavioral correlates notwithstanding, compensation and good ideas have their familiar association with network brokerage independent of bridge versus embedded supervision. In sum, bridge supervision affects manager style, but not performance. We discuss implications for future research.
Basima A. Tewfik
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.1627

Abstract:
Prevailing wisdom paints the impostor phenomenon as detrimental. In this work, I seek to rebalance the existing conversation around this phenomenon by highlighting that it may also have interpersonal benefits. To identify these benefits, I revisit seminal theorizing to advance the construct of workplace impostor thoughts, which I define as the belief that others overestimate one’s competence at work. Incorporating theory on contingencies of self-worth, I present an integrative model that outlines why such thoughts may be positively associated with other-perceived interpersonal effectiveness and why they may not be. I test my theory across four studies (N=3603) that feature survey, video, and pre-registered experimental data. I find that employees who more frequently have such thoughts are evaluated as more interpersonally effective because they adopt a more other-focused orientation. I do not find that this interpersonal benefit comes at the expense of competence-related outcomes (i.e., performance, selection)—a point I revisit in my future directions. When examining my theorized competing pathway, I find that whereas workplace impostor thoughts do somewhat encourage those who have them to self-handicap—consistent with prevailing wisdom—such thoughts do not operate through self-handicapping to harm other-perceived interpersonal effectiveness. I conclude by situating my findings in light of prior work.
Andrew M. Carton, Karren Knowlton, Constantinos Coutifaris, Timothy G. Kundro, Andrew P. Boysen
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1019

Abstract:
One of the most effective ways leaders can promote change is by generating visions with image-based rhetoric (“make children smile”). By conjuring visual snapshots of the future, leaders paint a portrait of what their organizations can one day achieve. It would thus stand to reason that leaders who naturally think and speak in terms of picture-like detail (a concrete orientation) would promote more organizational change than those who are inclined to think abstractly (an abstract orientation). Yet research has established that individuals with a concrete orientation tend to focus on short-term, narrow details (e.g., small features of a single product) rather than long-term visions requiring the coordinated effort of all employees. To determine how and when concrete-thinking leaders induce large-scale change, we integrate theory on attention, organizational hierarchy, and construal. We predict that leaders who have a concrete orientation will promote change by redirecting their attention toward long-term visions of the future if their organizations have strong, rather than weak, hierarchies. By contrast, hierarchical strength will have no effect on leaders with an abstract orientation. We test these predictions in an archival study of CEOs and then examine the attention-based process that helps explain this effect in a pre-registered experiment.
Dana Harari, Michael R Parke, Jennifer Carson Marr
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0049

Abstract:
Research on workplace helping suggests that helpers receive positive outcomes in return for their help. We argue that this predominantly positive view of recipient reactions to helpers is because the literature has not adequately distinguished the outcomes of reactive helping (i.e., assistance provided in response to a request) from those of anticipatory helping (i.e., assistance offered or provided in advance of being asked). We propose that anticipatory helping, especially from helpers with higher status than the recipient, is more self-threatening to recipients than reactive helping; hence, recipients are less likely to accept this help and more likely to lower their evaluations of both the helper’s performance and their relationship with the helper. We find support for these hypotheses with four studies and one supplemental study that use experimental and field methodologies across a range of work contexts and social exchange relationships. Because our findings imply that both peer and higher status employees should withhold anticipatory help, which is impractical and potentially detrimental, we identify how these helpers can instead mitigate the negative effects of anticipatory helping by signaling a more balanced social exchange relationship with the recipient. We discuss how our findings expand research on helping, social exchange, and status.
Jeffrey Dyer, David Kryscynski, Christopher G. Law, Shad Morris
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1605-1624; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0555

Abstract:
The firm-specific human capital dilemma suggests that firms generally want employees to make firm-specific investments but that employees prefer not to make them. We suggest that individual performance may moderate this dilemma such that the dilemma increases as individual performance increases – i.e. firms may prefer high performers in firm-specific roles while high performers may resist these roles more than their lower performing counterparts. We examine our extended firm-specific human capital theory in a context where the classic firm-specific human capital dilemma likely exists: business academia. Using a unique dataset of 4,164 business school professors from 39 of the top 100 US business schools, we examine how research performance affects propensity to become an Associate Dean and their compensation increases when taking on these roles. We find that higher performing individuals are less likely to become ADs, but, surprisingly, we find that these higher performers actually receive smaller pay increases when taking on these roles. We conduct exploratory interviews to understand this surprising finding and discuss implications and opportunities for future research.
Laura Claus, Royston Greenwood, John Mgoo
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1497-1526; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.1089

Abstract:
Why do ideas that have been successfully moved across highly different contexts subsequently fail? To answer this question, we use longitudinal data on the Dutch organization Villages for Africa that introduced ‘macro-credit’ loans to rural Tanzanians that would enable them to establish their own village enterprises. Only two years after the seemingly successful implementation of the idea, it collapsed. Our findings allow us to make two key contributions. First, we provide a process model of high-distance translation that shows how proponents can strategically introduce an idea across highly different contexts by ‘culturally detaching’ it from its institutional origins, leading to the idea being ‘culturally assimilated’ into the recipient context. But, although cultural detachment and cultural assimilation indicate the successful translation of an idea, the means of doing so can later prompt its rejection. We call this the reactance effect of translations across highly different contexts. Second, we showcase the role of history for translation theory more generally. History – particularly the historical relationship between the socio-cultural categories of the mzungu (Swahili: “foreigner”) and the villagers – influenced the way in which the macro-credit idea could be introduced to villagers and played a key role in its subsequent rejection.
Shi Tang, Sucheta Nadkarni, Li-Qun Wei, Stephen X. Zhang
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1578-1604; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0378

Abstract:
This paper offers a novel theoretical account of why and when top management team (TMT) gender diversity lends strategic advantage. Building on social role theory, we develop a moderated-mediation model showing: a) TMT psychological safety mediates the effect of TMT gender diversity on firm ambidextrous strategic orientation (ASO) (why) and b) firm slack moderates this mediated effect (when). We tested our model in the context of Chinese high-tech small- and medium-sized enterprises. After confirming gender differences in social role-based proclivities at the TMT level, a multi-wave survey study of 373 members from 120 TMTs showed that TMT gender diversity positively affects ASO via TMT psychological safety, and this mediated effect is stronger when firm slack is lower than higher. We further interviewed 23 top managers to supplement key quantitative results. Our study advances upper echelons research on TMT gender diversity in two ways. First, it highlights the gender-specific interpersonal benefit of TMT gender diversity, which is markedly distinct from the cognitive-variety argument associated generically with TMT demographic diversity. Second, it considers both men and women in TMTs in a more balanced manner, thereby offering an alternative account to the female-focused theorization of the positive strategic implications of TMT gender diversity.
Jessica R. Methot, Emily H. Rosado-Solomon, Patrick E. Downes, Allison S. Gabriel
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1445-1471; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1474

William A. Kahn, Elizabeth D. Rouse
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1419-1444; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0880

Abstract:
Many workers experience organization dysfunction stemming from leaders. Yet organization members have limited responses; they can directly or indirectly confront senior leaders, engage individual stress coping strategies, or leave the organization. We offer another response by theorizing auxiliary routines as behavioral sequences through which multiple actors coordinate responses to complex and enduring socioemotional dynamics that threaten to undermine the enactment of standard operating task routines. Through a qualitative, inductive study of a consulting firm, we delimit three auxiliary routines—absorption, dissemination, and differentiation—through which people navigate between the destructiveness of organizational toxicity and the need to perform given roles and tasks. We illustrate how these routines emerged in response to role and psychological diminishment originating from senior leaders, how the routines helped manage and sometimes perpetuate diminishment, and the consequences for individuals’ personal agency and the organization-as-a-whole. In doing so, we contribute to knowledge about coping with toxic organizational conditions and on routines as a facet of emotional capability in organizations.
Janina Klein, John M. Amis
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1324-1354; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.0510

Abstract:
The framing literature presents something of a theoretical conundrum. While an inherently dynamic concept, most work has treated frames as static. In addition to leaving our theories of framing underspecified, this also has implications for how we go about understanding and resolving our major societal problems, including flows of displaced people, the setting for this paper. We also lack insight into the ways in which media organizations, some of the most important arbiters of understanding in our society, shape the framing process. We address these points by investigating the ways in which the photograph of Alan Kurdi lying dead on a beach in Turkey radically transformed the framing of the European migration crisis by UK newspapers. In so doing, we make three contributions to the framing literature. First, we develop the concept of an emotional array that we show is central to understanding how frame composition changes over time. Second, we expose the mechanisms by which framing change takes place. Third, building on our insights on the role of emotional arrays and the mechanisms underlying framing change, we provide new theoretical insights into the dynamic nature of framing.
Orlando C. Richard, María Del Carmen Triana, Mingxiang Li
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1355-1382; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0468

Abstract:
We examine whether matching levels of racial diversity in upper management and lower management (i.e., racial diversity congruence) impact firm productivity. In a sample of high tech firms, we found that congruence between upper management racial diversity and lower management racial diversity positively impacts firm productivity, supporting knowledge-based view perspectives. Furthermore, organizations with high levels of racial diversity in both upper and lower management (i.e., high-high racial diversity congruence) realized superior productivity compared to organizations with low levels of racial diversity in both upper and lower management (i.e., low-low racial diversity congruence). Results also revealed differences across levels of racial diversity incongruence between upper management and lower management (i.e., asymmetry effects) whereby firms with a more racially diverse upper management than lower management out-produced firms with a more racially diverse lower management than upper management. A supplemental sample of Fortune 500 firms enhanced generalizability, as the pattern of findings was very similar to that of the high tech sample. We discuss the study’s implications and make a call for future research that simultaneously considers the upper echelons and the lower echelons.
Markus Baer, Erik Dane, Hector P. Madrid
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1553-1577; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.1283

Abstract:
Much has been written about the liabilities of mind wandering in the workplace. Given its prevalence, however, mind wandering may carry underappreciated benefits—especially with respect to creativity. Examining this possibility, we hypothesize that mind wandering involving imaginative thoughts, also known as “daydreams,” has the potential to spur creativity. We develop a theoretical model in which we examine two facets of daydreams based on their content: problem-oriented daydreams and bizarre daydreams. In addition, we specify an antecedent condition that produces such daydreams (cognitively demanding work; Studies 1 & 2), as well as a boundary condition of the effects of daydreaming on creativity (professional identification; Study 2). Taken together, the studies reported here largely support our theoretical model. Cognitive demanding work reliably elicits both facets of daydreams. However, only problem-oriented daydreams relate to creativity directly; the relationship between bizarre daydreams and creativity is entirely dependent on professional identification. In addition, we observe negative relationships between both facets of daydreams and performance more generally when employees lack professional identification (Study 2). Our results indicate that among professionally identified individuals, daydreaming carries noteworthy benefits for creativity but also that daydreaming can impair performance in the absence of identification.
Ji Youn (Rose) Kim, H. Kevin Steensma, Ralph A. Heidl
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1527-1552; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.0225

Abstract:
We explore how an incumbent firm’s internal inventor network configuration influences its ability to assimilate and absorb new venture technologies. We find that incumbents that have internal inventor network configurations in which inventors are heavily clustered into cohesive subgroups of interconnected inventors are more likely to build on new venture technologies. We suggest that such networks engender specific social capital in terms of information conduits, trust, and common vernaculars that is ideal for inventors to translate and share with their cluster members the technological insights that they have derived from outside sources. Moreover, any insularity that may result from having cohesive clusters is mitigated by internal competition between clusters. In contrast, having a highly connected inventor network engenders social capital that impedes incumbents’ absorbing new venture technologies. Broadly distributed access to internal technology, combined with a strong social identity that results from high levels of connectedness, can lead to insularity and a “not invented here” ethos. We also find that highly connected internal inventor networks diminish any advantage that incumbent firms gain from having corporate venture capital investments in new ventures in terms of absorbing their technologies.
Abhijith G. Acharya, Timothy G. Pollock
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1472-1496; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.1144

Abstract:
Drawing on status characteristics theory, we explore how boards’ social structures influence board turnover. We theorize that (1) understanding directors’ relative standing and spheres of influence in the local status hierarchy creates deference structures that reduce conflict and enhance stability, thereby reducing board turnover; and (2) shared performance expectations and attraction based on homophily in the global status hierarchy can also reduce conflict and enhance stability, and thus serve as another means of reducing board turnover. Using data on the five years following the initial public offerings (IPOs) of 218 firms that went public between 2001 and 2005, we find that overlaps in directors’ local status characteristics captured by their tenure and expertise and directors’ global status homogeneity increase the likelihood of director exit. However, the combinations of directors’ local and global shared specific status characteristics shape the relative salience of the positive or negative effects of board’s local status characteristics, leading to different effects on board turnover.
Weiguo Zhong, Zhiming Ma, Tony W. Tong, Yuchen Zhang, Luqun Xie
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1625-1647; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.0468

Abstract:
It is unclear why, despite the increasing emphasis on innovation in modern business, firms are still myopic in their search efforts. Although prior studies have examined the role of supply-side factors such as technologies, capabilities, and managerial cognition, they rarely explore how demand-side factors such as customers can shape managerial cognition and firm search behavior. Extending the attention-based view to the demand side, we argue that major customers channel the attention of executives to the existing competitive environment, resources and capabilities, and management practices (i.e., existing-oriented attention), resulting in firms’ increased emphasis on deep search within familiar domains and limiting their search in new fields. Through an empirical examination of the patenting behavior of U.S. publicly listed firms, we show that customer concentration increases search depth and decreases search breadth via executives’ existing-oriented orientation. We also find that both performance feedback above social aspiration levels and product market competition amplify the effects of customer concentration. Our study contributes to the organizational search literature by adding a demand-side explanation. It also extends the cognition view by foregrounding the role of customers in shaping executive attention. Moreover, it explores the interaction between supply- and demand-side factors in driving firm search behavior.
Xu Li, Freek Vermeulen
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1383-1418; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2017.1311

Abstract:
Common wisdom suggests that high-risk strategies will be associated with high expected returns, and vice versa. Focusing on the effect of new-product development on firm performance, in this paper we argue that this relationship may reverse in a market undergoing substantial institutional transition. We examine domestic pharmaceutical firms in China during the 1990s and find that, in this context, introducing new products was associated with lower average firm profitability but higher variance. In conformity with our predictions, these relationships were stronger in areas where the rate of institutional change was higher and for product types that take longer to develop. Thus, we explain why, for particular strategic actions, high risk may be associated with low returns. A key conceptual corollary of these findings—also for strategic management research in general—is that firms may sometimes be more focused on the potential upside of their actions than on the expected value of those actions.
Wei Jee Ong, Michael D Johnson
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0493

Abstract:
Job demands-resources research has largely adopted a variable-centered approach to test main and interactive effects of demands and resources on employee outcomes. Although this approach can inform what happens on average across employees, it cannot detect distinct configurations of job demands and resources that may lead to the same outcomes in different subpopulations. Multiplicative models have also received little empirical support. To address these limitations, we adopted a person-centered theoretical approach to examine configurations of demands and resources that are sufficient to produce exhaustion and engagement. Using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) across three studies, we find evidence for equifinality and causal asymmetry in exhaustion—three distinct configurations were sufficient to produce exhaustion, but none for its absence. We also find evidence for causal asymmetry, but not equifinality, in engagement—one configuration was sufficient to produce engagement and none for its absence. Our person-centered approach yielded more theoretically consistent results than a variable-centered approach. The findings highlight that certain job demands may only be buffered by specific resources, and that certain configurations of demands cannot be buffered at all. We conclude by offering propositions to advance theory and change the current direction of research on job demands and resources.
Jennifer Howard-Grenville, Andrew Nelson, Heather Vough, Tammar B. Zilber
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1313-1323; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2021.4005

Curtis K. Chan, Luke N. Hedden
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.1014

Abstract:
Enacting occupational values is vitally important to expert professionals’ solidarity and sense of purpose. Yet, many professionals face audiences in their relational contexts—especially powerful clients—who can hold incongruent values and may threaten professionals’ jurisdictional control. How can experts enact their values without jeopardizing their jurisdictional control amidst clients holding incongruent values? We examine career advisers in undergraduate business schools, whose occupational values often contrasted with values common among their student clients. Through an ethnography of one school’s career advisers, combined with interviews of such advisers throughout the U.S., we find that advisers navigated interactions by discerning student values and accordingly modulating their value-enactment practices through masking, moderating, or magnifying their values. This allowed advisers to uphold their jurisdictional control when facing students exhibiting incongruent values, while enacting their values with students exhibiting unclear or congruent values. We contribute to the relational perspective on occupations and professions by positing how discernment and modulation help experts navigate relational tensions by recognizing and drawing on intra-clientele heterogeneity, unpacking how professionals might not entirely resist or change amidst incongruence but instead pursue a more mixed approach, and highlighting when and how experts mask or moderate rather than overtly enact their values.
Helen H. Zhao, Hong Deng, Rocky P. Chen, Sharon K Parker Parker, Wei Zhang
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1110

Abstract:
Experienced passage of time, the extent to which employees perceive the passage of work time as being fast or slow, is a fundamental aspect of work experience. We identify two novel temporal work design characteristics that can speed up employees’ experienced passage of time: temporal predictability and task segmentation. Jobs with high temporal predictability do not make employees go through uncertain wait times before embarking on their next task. High task segmentation occurs when a large chunk of work time is segmented by categorically different temporal markers. We tested a model in which temporal predictability and task segmentation affect experienced passage of time, which in turn influences job performance, with five studies: two experiments that established the internal validity of temporal predictability and task segmentation (Studies 1a and 1b), a naturalistic field study in a factory that investigated the natural consequences of distinct temporal work design (Study 2), an organizational field study that constructively replicated the model using a sample of knowledge workers and their supervisors (Study 3), and an online survey in which we connected our model with the broader work design literature (Study 4). Altogether, the studies support a new temporal approach to work design.
Saouré Kouamé, Taieb Hafsi, David Oliver, Ann Langley
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1143

Abstract:
How do senior managers of social mission-driven organizations build and sustain stakeholders’ emotional resonance with organizational identity beliefs over time in the face of repeated existential threats? This is an important question, given the dependence of many such organizations on external stakeholders who provide the resources necessary for survival. In this paper, we investigate the case of Solidum, a philanthropic organization devoted to poverty causes. Drawing on ethnographic, interview and archival data over 20 years, we develop a process model showing how senior managers may create and sustain stakeholder emotional resonance through three practices of emotional resonance work: building emotional bridges, enrolling stakeholders in collective soul-searching and materializing an appealing identity symbol. We show that stakeholder emotional resonance needs to be continually renewed and reshaped in the face of ongoing challenges associated with macro-organizational trends and the routinization of existing practices that can result in the dissipation of emotional resonance over time. The paper contributes to the literature on organizational identity maintenance by drawing attention to the active managerial work required to sustain stakeholder emotional resonance over time to allow mission-driven organizations to survive and prosper.
Jordan D. Nielsen, Amy E. Colbert
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1288

Abstract:
Contact with beneficiaries has been described as an important job characteristic for shaping perceptions about the meaning of work; however, little is known about the role of negative beneficiary contact. We draw from two tenets of social information processing theory to propose that negative contact with beneficiaries has a dual effect on employees. Whereas negative contact may make employees perceive low social worth, it may simultaneously lead employees to believe they are engaging in self-sacrifice for a worthy cause—a relatively positive justification of such experiences. We investigated these ideas in three studies. In Study 1, a three-wave survey of registered nurses and their supervisors supported the hypothesized dual effect. Further consistent with our theorizing, the effect of perceived self-sacrifice on job satisfaction and performance was contingent on co-worker emotional support: at higher levels of support, perceived self-sacrifice exhibited a null relationship with satisfaction and a positive relationship with performance, whereas at lower levels of support these effects were negative. In Study 2, we again studied nurses using an experimental vignette method, showing that negative contact exhibits a causal effect on employee perceptions, and that negative contact is more likely to lead to perceived self-sacrifice when the contact is attributed to the nature of the work as opposed to one’s own performance. In Study 3, a two-wave survey of people from various occupations replicated the effects of negative contact on perceived social worth and perceived self-sacrifice. Moreover, the effect of negative contact on sacrifice was contingent on affective commitment to beneficiaries.
Cyril Taewoong Um, Shiau-Ling Guo, Fabrice Lumineau, Wei Shi, Ruixiang Song
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0943

Abstract:
The prior literature on role congruity theory has revolved around demographic-based expectations, emphasizing role incongruity derived from a mismatch between prescriptive expectations of distinct roles. In this paper, we depart from this traditional focus on between-role incongruity and explore an alternative source of role incongruity by examining how language can trigger the within-role incongruity of function-based expectations. Through an analysis of conference call transcripts and contracts for 7,649 deals during 2003–2018, we show that the incongruity of function-based expectations manifested through the language of the CFO increases banks’ perceived hazards, leading them to employ more debt contract covenants. In addition, by investigating the moderating effects of corresponding CEO language and media sentiment, we show how the social context and sentiment toward the firm weaken this incongruity effect. We discuss the theoretical implications of our study for future research on the sources of role incongruity and the antecedents of contract design.
Paolo Aversa, Emanuele Bianchi, Loris Gaio, Alberto Nucciarelli
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1303

Abstract:
Research on clusters highlights that some areas display superior conditions to locally nurture concentrations of businesses. But why do certain industries—despite ascribing their origin to specific locations—emerge away from their birthplace? We respond by qualitatively investigating the influence that the town of Arco, Italy, and its periodic event ‘RockMaster’ exerted on the emergence of the global sport climbing industry. We advance the concept of ‘catalyzing places’ that support the emergence and growth of industries through an ongoing, cyclical process of three forces—centripetal (i.e., attracting), catalyzing (i.e., reacting), and centrifugal (i.e., ejecting). The forces attract communities of practice to the place, expose them to intense, transformational experiences towards entrepreneurship, and ultimately induce them to establish their businesses elsewhere. By redeploying the resources and reputation acquired in the place, these scattered communities enact a collective phenomenon of user entrepreneurship, and ultimately industry emergence. We claim that the ongoing activities of the place, and the periodic ones of the event, are mutually reinforcing. We advance two novel elements, ‘portable economies’ and ‘springboard firms,’ which in catalyzing places exert the antithetical effect of ‘agglomeration economies’ and ‘anchor firms’ in clusters. We discuss our contribution to research on industry emergence, new practices, and user entrepreneurship.
Dean Xu, Kevin Zhou, Shihua Chen
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0810

Abstract:
The Chinese Communist Party began decoupling its policies and practices from Maoist communist ideology more than four decades ago, yet, why does Maoism continue to influence the behavior of Party members? In this study, we argue that although the influence of Maoist ideology has become weaker among younger Party members and Party members with higher educational attainment, such ideological decay is countered by a process of secondhand ideological imprinting. Based on data from 1,298 non-state-owned Chinese listed firms for 2000–2017, we find that firms with Party-member board chairs file fewer patent applications and are more likely to commit patent infringement. These effects are weaker if a board chair is younger or has higher educational attainment. Importantly, the moderating effect of young age is reduced as the presence of older Party-member corporate directors in a region becomes more prominent. However, the moderating effect of education appears to be unaffected by the presence of older Party-member directors. These findings generate fresh insights on the dynamics of ideological decay and persistence.
David Thomas Welsh, Ryan Outlaw, Daniel W. Newton, Michael Baer
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1187

Abstract:
We draw on cognitive-motivational-relational theory to build a theoretical model outlining how speaking up affects voicers’ emotions and subsequent social behavior. Across three studies—an experimental pilot study, a daily within-person study of employee–coworker dyads, and a preregistered experiment—we test our proposal that promotive voice elicits pride due to a sense of social accomplishment, whereas prohibitive voice elicits anxiety due to a sense of social uncertainty. We demonstrate that these feelings of pride and anxiety have diverging effects on voicers’ tendency to withdraw from social interaction during the rest of the day. In turn, these diverging effects on voicers’ interpersonal avoidance influence voicers’ daily interpersonal citizenship behaviors. We further propose that recipients of voice have the potential to “hijack” voicers’ affective appraisals in a manner that can amplify or attenuate their emotional reactions and subsequent social behavior. Our results disentangle the complex experience of speaking up and provide novel insights into how voicers and organizations can maximize the benefits of voice while minimizing its harmful social side effects.
Linna Xu, Zhi Liu, Ming Ji, Yuntao Dong, Chia-Huei Wu
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0165

Abstract:
This research aims to explain whether leader perfectionism toward employees fosters or hinders employee creativity. From a self-regulation perspective, we theorize that depending on employees’ locus of control, leader perfectionism can influence two regulatory states of employees (i.e., engagement and emotional exhaustion) linearly or curvilinearly, which in turn affect their creativity in opposite directions. In a lab experiment and a multisource, multiwave field study, we found that for internals, leader perfectionism had a curvilinear effect on their engagement (but no effect on emotional exhaustion) and subsequent creativity such that the effect was positive but became weaker when leader perfectionism was extreme. By contrast, we found partial support across the two studies that for externals, leader perfectionism had a positive effect on their emotional exhaustion (but no effect on engagement), which undermined their creativity. We discuss the theoretical contributions of this research and its practical implications for organizations.
Trenton Alma Williams, Chad Murphy
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0963

Abstract:
Research on identity has provided key insights into the challenges individuals experience when their professional self-concept is disrupted. But there has been little consideration of individuals’ sense of how they are viewed and defined by others—their construed image—also a key dimension of the professional self, one that is similarly compromised during such disruptive events. As a result, a widespread and theoretically rich phenomenon has received virtually no attention from scholars: construed image disruption and (re)construction. We develop a grounded model of “construed image work” based on qualitative data from former professional athletes. We find that, soon after a career-disrupting event (i.e., voluntary/involuntary retirement at a young age, in this case), individuals encounter cognitive and affective disorientation (or “drift”) that impedes their careers. Our findings reveal that systematic differences in how individuals make sense of causal forces underlying the disruptive event shape the paths they take trying to achieve a new, secure construed image and alleviate the problems of “drift.” Understanding construed image work is an important first step in acknowledging the importance of construed image for our theories regarding self-perceptions in the context of careers. Our grounded process model offers an initial foray into a critical—and foundational—dimension of the professional self-concept, one that has previously been ignored in favor of explorations into identity.
Ryan Raffaelli, Rich DeJordy, Rory M. McDonald
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.0764

Abstract:
How do leaders with divergent visions for their organization come together to create a novel strategy? This paper employs paradox as a lens to investigate how leader-dyads can integrate opposing strategies to produce a new, generative approach. Drawing on a qualitative historical case study of Switzerland’s largest watch company—Société de Microélectronique et d'Horlogerie—during the quartz crisis in Swiss watchmaking, we induce a process model from the activities of two leaders whose relationship embodied the tensions and strategic contradictions of preserving the past and modernizing for the future. The model specifies a set of individual, relational, and structural mechanisms by which leaders productively engage with a preservation-modernization paradox to facilitate novel strategy in the wake of a discontinuity. We interpret our findings in terms of the demands of navigating the management and outcomes of strategic paradoxes. While tracing the theoretical and practical implications of our model and our findings, we address leadership conundrums characteristic of organizations confronting paradox.
Dean A. Shepherd, Sally Maitlis, Vinit Parida, Joakim Wincent, Thomas B. Lawrence
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0125

Abstract:
Recent dirty work research has begun to explore intersectionality, attending to how meaning is made at the intersection of multiple sources of taint. This research has shown that individuals often construct both positive and negative meanings, which can be challenging to manage because the meanings people construct require a certain coherence to provide a foundation for action. This challenge is intensified when dirty work is intractable—when it is difficult, if not impossible, for a person to avoid doing this work. Our study of meaning making in the face of intractable dirty work examines ragpickers in Mumbai, India, who handle and dispose of garbage, and are further tainted by belonging to the lowest caste in Indian society, and living in slums. These ragpickers constructed both an overarching sense of helplessness rooted in the intractability of their situation, and a set of positive meanings—survival, destiny, and hope—rooted in specific facets of their lives and enacted through distinct temporal frames. By holding and combining these disparate meanings, they achieved “functional ambivalence”—the simultaneous experience of opposing orientations toward their work and lives that facilitated both acceptance and a sense of agency, and enabled them to carry on in their lives.
Traci Sitzmann, Elizabeth M. Campbell
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1016-1048; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1254

Abstract:
Religion is a preeminent social institution that meaningfully shapes cultures. Prevailing theory suggests that it is primarily a benevolent force in business, and differences across world religions preclude examining effects that thread across religions. We develop a theoretical account that fundamentally challenges these assumptions by explaining how and why religiosity—regardless of which religion is prominent—differentiates based on gender, widening the gender wage gap. Guided by an integrated review of the religion literature, we specify three dimensions of gender differentiation—social domains, sexuality, and agency—that explain why religiosity widens the gender wage gap. A series of studies tested our theoretical model. Two studies showcased the predictive power of religiosity on the gender wage gap across 140 countries worldwide and the 50 United States via gender-differentiated social domains, sexuality, and agency, explaining 37% of the variance in the wage gap. U.S. longitudinal data indicated the gender wage gap is narrowing significantly faster in secular states. Moreover, experiments allowed for causal inference, revealing that gender-egalitarian interventions blocked the effect of religiosity on the gender wage gap. Finally, theoretical and empirical evidence converge to suggest that religiosity’s effect on the gender wage gap applies across the major world religions.
Trish Ruebottom, Madeline Toubiana
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1049-1077; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1166

Abstract:
Entrepreneurs work not only in socially accepted and valued domains, but also in highly contested, stigmatized industries. Despite the extreme constraints of working in stigmatized domains, entrepreneurs manage to thrive. The fact that entrepreneurs in these industries appear to overcome the constraints of stigma raises questions about the actual impacts of stigma on entrepreneurs and their ventures. Our qualitative study of entrepreneurs in the sex industry in Canada reveals that the many constraints faced by entrepreneurs in stigmatized industries also create opportunities. Actualizing such stigma-based opportunities loosens the constraints of stigma and enables entrepreneurs to experience structural, cognitive, and emotional emancipation. However, such emancipation is confined to the context, and thus threatened by interactions with those outside the industry. Based on our findings, we develop a model of entrepreneurial emancipation in stigmatized industries.
Emanuele L. M. Bettinazzi, Emilie R. Feldman
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1078-1096; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0627

Abstract:
We conceptualize divestitures as a costly alternative to the internal resolution of conflicts among stakeholders, albeit one that avoids the more costly liquidation of the firm. In firms that have lower stakeholder orientation (defined as the extent to which management focuses attention on and integrates the interests of multiple stakeholders in its decision-making), divestitures will be less costly than the internal resolution of stakeholder conflicts, while the opposite will be true in firms that have higher stakeholder orientation. Consistent with this argument, we document a negative relationship between stakeholder orientation and divestiture activity, using a unique dataset of 909 U.S.-based, publicly-listed firms from 2002 to 2015. This negative relationship is more pronounced for selloffs than for spinoffs, for selloffs of businesses that are unrelated to or located far from the divesting firm, and for selloffs to acquirers that are not alliance partners of divesting firms. The core contribution of this paper is to treat different types of divestitures as increasingly costly responses to conflicts among stakeholders, thereby populating the theoretical middle ground between negotiated adaptations of firms’ governance structures and total firm failure. In so doing, this paper contributes to research at the intersection of stakeholder theory and corporate strategy.
M. K. Chin, Stephen X. Zhang, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi, Sucheta Nadkarni
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1213-1235; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1228

Abstract:
We integrate political psychology and upper echelons research to introduce an alternative conceptualization of executive political ideology by separating the two distinct ideologies: social and economic ideologies. We theorize and test how the two ideologies exert distinct effects on a critical strategic outcome—corporate entrepreneurship. We examine this contention in Iran, a political context that sharply deviates from the exclusively studied U.S. context. We find that social and economic conservatism exert opposing effects on CE through distinct strategic decision-making processes; CEO social conservatism positively affects CE by promoting intuitive strategic decision-making, whereas CEO economic conservatism negatively affects CE by impairing cooperative strategic decision- making. These results highlight the need to separate social and economic ideologies especially in non-U.S. contexts and inform the underlying strategic decision-making processes through which executive ideology shapes strategic behaviors. The promising results also underscore the importance of examining the strategic implications of executive political ideology in diverse political contexts that differ from the U.S. context.
Reut Livne-Tarandach, Hooria Jazaieri
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1127-1163; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0410

Abstract:
Relational sense of community (SOC) research suggests that SOC depends on the depth of relationships cultivated between members over time. The rise of temporary organizations, representing transient work arrangements with limited expectations for future interactions, implored us to consider: how can a swift SOC emerge in temporary organizations, where the cultivation of relationships may be challenging? We introduce a broader relational approach and draw on high-quality connections and resourcing theories to examine how a swift SOC emerges. Utilizing rich data sources, qualitative analyses show that a swift SOC is cultivated in five days in a sleepaway summer camp. We find that a swift SOC is built on brief supportive connections that are made durable by resourcing artifacts. Resourcing artifacts creates scaffolds that mobilize actors to create a web of connections, leading to an organization-wide swift SOC. We propose that a swift SOC emerges through four intertwined resourcing artifacts phases: Initial resourcing, Embracing resourcing, Reinterpreting resourcing, and Expanding resourcing. During these phases, individuals imbue artifacts with new meaning and resource artifacts for: 1) dyadic connection, 2) staff coordination, 3) membership in a subgroup, and 4) an organization-wide community. We demonstrate symbolizing and momentary connections as novel resourcing mechanisms enabling this process.
Giuseppe Beppe Soda, Pier Vittorio Mannucci, Ronald S. Burt
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1164-1190; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1209

Abstract:
In this paper we adopt a dynamic perspective on networks and creativity to propose that the oft-theorized creative benefits of open networks and heterogeneous content are less likely to be accrued over time if the network is stable. Specifically, we hypothesize that open networks and content heterogeneity will have a more positive effect on creativity when network stability is low. We base our prediction on the fact that over time network stability begets cognitive rigidity and social rigidity, thus limiting individuals’ ability to make use of the creative advantages provided by open networks and heterogeneous content. On the contrary, new ties bring a positive “shock” that pushes individuals in the network to change the way they organize and process knowledge, as well as the way they interact and collaborate – a shock that enables creators to accrue the creative advantages provided by open network structures and heterogeneous content. We test and find support for our theory in a study on the core artists who worked on the TV series Doctor Who between 1963 and 2014.
Justin M. Berg, Alisa Yu
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1191-1212; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1330

Abstract:
Past research on idea implementation has focused on employees trying to win social support for their own ideas, but employees are often handed ideas to implement that were developed by others. We propose and test hypotheses on such handoffs, focusing on how handing employees relatively mature ideas to implement may lead them to build less creative final products. We tested our hypotheses using two studies: an archival study of 5,676 movies in the U.S. film industry and a complementary experiment. Results suggest that late handoffs yielded less creative final products than no or early handoffs, meaning it was costly to creativity when employees implemented relatively mature ideas without driving at least some of their prior development. However, serialized late handoffs—when implementers are handed relatively mature ideas after an earlier handoff between two other individuals—were less costly to creativity than late handoffs from one other individual. Mediation results suggest that late handoffs reduced implementers’ creativity by restricting their sense of psychological ownership and the coherence of their final products. This research advances theory on idea implementation, handoffs, and psychological ownership in creative work.
Joyce C. He, Sonia K. Kang
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1097-1126; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1280

Abstract:
Despite decades of research and intervention efforts, gender-based occupational segregation remains a significant problem. An emerging body of research suggests that one way women overcome gender discrimination when applying for male-dominated jobs is by deliberately managing gender impressions. However, social role theory and research on prescriptive stereotypes suggests that these attempts to manage gender may backfire. In this research, we theorize that, while women actively respond to anticipated sexism using social-identity-based impression management (SIM) strategies (e.g., attempting to appear less feminine in cover letters), these actions can actually backfire because they clash with prescriptive gender stereotypes. Across three studies, we investigate the motivations, techniques, and outcomes of managing gender in job applications for different kinds of jobs. We find that women, but not men, manage gender when applying for gender-incongruent (i.e., male-dominated) jobs by using less feminine language, and that, paradoxically, they are less likely to be hired when they do so. The current research contributes to our understanding of the consequences of SIM strategies and shows that women’s coping behavior in response to existing gender inequalities in the labor market is a novel and ironic mechanism through which occupational gender-segregation is perpetuated.
Edwyna Theresa Hill, Fadel K. Matta, Marie S. Mitchell
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1265-1287; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1282

Abstract:
In this paper, we develop and test theory to explain how employees’ perceptions of supervisor justice behavior are subjectively influenced by optimistic and pessimistic states. We propose that state affect gives rise to optimistic and pessimistic states, which color justice perceptions and impact performance behaviors (i.e., task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior). Results from an experience sampling study and a set of experimental studies showed that state positive affect fosters an optimistic state that promotes perceptions of justice rule adherence, which influences task performance and citizenship behavior, whereas state negative affect promotes a pessimistic state that promotes perceptions of justice rule violation, which influences counterproductive behavior. Interestingly, state affect did not have a direct relationship with justice perceptions, which points to a new perspective on affect and justice.
Margaret M. Luciano, Virgil Fenters, Semin Park, Amy L. Bartels, Scott I. Tannenbaum
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1236-1264; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0707

Abstract:
Multiteam systems (MTSs) operating in complex and dynamic environments often have a formal hierarchical leadership structure. However, it is unclear whether individuals should stick exclusively to performing their designated tasks within the hierarchical leadership structure, or if instead, they should switch between different types of tasks to align efforts with changes in the environment. We refer to such task switching – an individual shifting to or from tasks designated for a particular leader position – as leadership task transitions. Our qualitative study of six MTSs responding to live-actor mass-casualty incidents revealed that leadership task transitions are a double-edged sword as they can simultaneously help manage the MTS-environment interface and harm MTS internal functioning. More specifically, leadership task transitions benefit the MTS by rapidly reallocating effort to alleviate the dominant environmental pressure at that time. However, they also harm the MTS by disrupting its internal task-based cycles. Rapidly restoring the disrupted cycles mitigates this harmful effect, but such cycle restoration was not successful when there was a high level of cycle activity and/or when multiple areas of the MTS were disrupted. Our findings generate new knowledge on how and why leadership task transitions impact MTSs. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Kristin Bain, Tamar Admati Kreps, Nathan L. Meikle, Elizabeth R. Tenney
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1288-1312; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.0621

Abstract:
We extend the field’s understanding of voice recognition by examining peer responses to voice. We investigate how employees can help peers get a status boost from voicing, while also raising their own status, by introducing the concept of amplification—public endorsement of another person’s contribution, with attribution to that person. In two experiments and one field study, we find that amplification enhances status both for voicers and for those who amplify voice. Being amplified was equally beneficial for voicers who framed their ideas promotively (improvement-focused) and prohibitively (problem-focused; Study 1), and for men and women (Study 2). Furthermore, amplified ideas were rated as higher quality than nonamplified ideas. In an intervention in a nonprofit organization, select employees trained to use amplification attained higher status in their work groups (Study 3). Amplification also helped amplifiers: participants reading experimentally manipulated meeting transcripts rated amplifiers as higher status than those who self-promoted, stayed quiet, or contributed additional ideas (Studies 1 and 2). In all, these results increase our understanding of how social actors can capitalize on instances of voice to give a status boost to voicers who might otherwise be overlooked, and help organizations realize the potential of employees’ diverse perspectives.
Katherine A. DeCelles, Jennifer Howard-Grenville, Laszlo Tihanyi
Academy of Management Journal, Volume 64, pp 1009-1015; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2021.4004

Paula Jarzabkowski, Rebecca Bednarek, Konstantinos Chalkias, Eugenia Cacciatori
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0745

Abstract:
While market-based solutions are increasingly being proposed to address major societal and development issues, they are also often considered antithetical to issues such as climate change, poverty alleviation and disaster response. In particular, the interorganizational systems involved in such market solutions gives rise to multiple contradictory tensions, known as paradoxes. We therefore adopt a paradox lens to explain the dynamics through which different actors within these systems navigate the contradictions that are generated. Drawing on a global qualitative study of multi-country risk pools that provide rapid capital in the immediate aftermath of disaster, we advance paradox theory by showing how organizational actors’ interactions i) maintain equilibrium by generating mutually reinforcing balance among paradoxes, whilst ii) the clustering of poles from different paradoxes generates disequilibrium, and iii) the reknotting of poles from different paradoxes restores equilibrium. As our process framework shows, these dynamics form an iterative cycle between equilibrium and disequilibrium that is essential in enhancing the promise of market-based solutions to address development issues; in our study increasing the rapid availability of capital to respond to disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and droughts.
Sarah Page Doyle, Nathan C. Pettit, Sijun Kim, Christopher To, Jr. Robert B. Lount
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1008

Abstract:
Any single competition is rarely a “one-off” event, and instead is often part of a larger sequence of related competitions. Thus, we contend that, in order to better understand people’s competitive experience, we must take a more holistic view where their experience and behavior in the present is a function of their past and expected future outcomes. This research expands the temporal lens of competition by examining how past outcomes (i.e., winning vs. losing streak) and future expectations (i.e., underdog vs. favorite standing) collectively influence an actor’s cognitive and affective reactions to a competition, with implications for their willingness to transgress. Studies 1 (Fantasy Football managers) and 2 (the English Premiere League teams) show that streaks and underdog vs. favorite standing interact to predict competitive transgressions: winning streaks increase transgressions for underdogs, and losing streaks increase transgressions for favorites. Studies 3 (public defenders) and 4 (Democrats and Republicans) experimentally manipulate streaks and standing and unpack the cognitive (i.e., outcome uncertainty) and affective (i.e., excitement for underdogs, anxiety for favorites) mechanisms that precipitate these transgressions. Theoretical implications for the competition literature, as well as managerial insights, are discussed.
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