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Results in Journal Premise: Journal of English Education: 156

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Erma Hermawar, Rahmat Husein, Audi Yundayani
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 284-297;

This study investigates the types of interlanguage of adjective phrase construction that students made when writing English descriptive text. The errors function as a system and can be used to determine interlanguage. The researcher employed a cross-sectional design and used descriptive qualitative methods. The descriptive texts of the students were collected as primary data at the same time but different levels of proficiency. Thirty tenth-grade students from Matauli Senior High School in Central Tapanuli, North Sumatera, participated in the study. Error Analysis (EA) and Interlanguage theories were central to the data analysis (IL). The findings revealed that students' English production is still interlanguage because their writings contain a wide range of errors regarding adjective phrases. There are 113 errors in total. There are up to 70 items of omission errors (62%), 19 items of misformation errors (17%), 15 items of misordering errors (13%), and 9 items of addition errors (8%). Furthermore, four processes were identified as contributing to students' interlanguage in this study, with the student's native language having the greatest influence on their English production (Language transfer (71%), second language learning strategies (14%), false concepts hypothesized (9.7%), and overgeneralization (5.3%)). The findings also revealed that both interlingual and intralingual sources have caused errors in second language learning. It can be concluded that students' competence at each level is insufficient. Due to their system, they are on the interlanguage continuum, which has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages.
Evi Isfiatul Jannah, Daning Hentasmaka
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 183-200;

Discord application, a voice and text chat platform usually used for games, social, class, or business groups, started to be used as one of the alternative media in virtual learning. A deeper investigation was conducted to get more information about students’ perception of virtual learning by using Discord application. This study implemented a qualitative research design, especially a case study. The data were collected from tertiary education students who were experienced in virtual English learning by using Discord by distributing an online questionnaire and doing interviews. Based on the results of data analysis, it was found that 89.72% of the students positively perceived the use of Discord application in virtual English learning. Some advantages of virtual learning by using Discord application found in the study were elaborated.
Kharisma Sabgini, Triastama Wiraatmaja, Agista Nidya Wardani
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 221-235;

The aims of this study are: 1) to find out how the teacher training in PAUD Surya Gemilang, Malang, is carried out in implementing the book Let’s Respect Each Other: A Story-Telling Book of Character Building by using various methods and fun learning techniques, and 2) how the practice of using the book of Let’s Respect Each Other: A Story-Telling Book of Character Building. This research was conducted using a qualitative method in which the researcher described the process of the two aims aforementioned. The subjects of this study were all teachers, especially one homeroom teacher at PAUD Surya Gemilang. The results of this study found that in the first phase, namely teacher training, there were three stages. They were the provision of English for Young Learners material, the provision of story-telling material, and the provision of character education material. Then, in the second phase, namely the implementation of Let’s Respect Each Other: A Story-Telling Book of Character Building, it was found that teachers taught stories and character education by reading books in English and Bahasa alternately while showing the pictures that matched the story to students and retelling the stories by using puppets.
Lina Septianasari, Irma Wahyuni
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 123-136;

This paper aims to throw light on the students’ perception of emergency remote learning and their assessments in completing the Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs). The methods used in this study were statistical quantitative and descriptive qualitative methods. The data were collected by spreading questionnaires to the participants, having an unstructured interview, and taking the secondary data from the classroom teachers. LISREL software was used to analyze the quantitative data and descriptive interpretation was also done to analyze the qualitative data. The finding showed that most students had moderate to positive learning engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy in which affected their CLOs. The students who failed to pass the CLOs were those who faced more challenges in joining the virtual class. In short, students’ ability to cope with emergency remote learning has significant impacts on their CLOs’ assessments.
Sadiki Moshi Feruzi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 150-164;

This study aimed at assessing reading rates for learners in grade seven English second language (ESL) in Morogoro region, Tanzania. A total of 220 participants were randomly selected and assigned two grade appropriate English texts to read so as determine their reading rates. Fluency scale test was used to assess pupils’ reading fluency rates and the data was statistically analysed using SPSS software. It was necessary to asses pupils’ reading rates in the study context because there are no established fluency rate norms set for grade seven pupils in the country. In this case the current study serves as a reference for improvement. Results show that grade seven pupils in Morogoro region had an average reading fluency rate of 101words per minute (WPM) for fiction text and 95WPM for non-fiction text. The difference in the two texts can be due to the length of words and difficulty level in non-fiction text against fiction text. The scored rate is below the adopted benchmarks which implies that these pupils are at risk in reading fluency, consequently, calling for immediate interventions.
Parlindungan Pardede
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 165-182;

Various conceptual and empirical research has revealed that short stories are effective learning tools teachers can use to boost English as a foreign language (EFL) learning performances. However, most EFL teachers are still find using short stories in EFL classrooms challenging. To solve the problem, conducting action research on using short stories in EFL teaching seems to be the best option. This study aims at reviewing action research on using short story use to increase EFL students’ learning achievement. Employing four inclusion and three exclusion criteria, 12 action research articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in 2011-2020 were selected. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results showed that the use of short stories employing the Before-During-After reading strategy, language-based model, and literature as content model managed to attain the intended outcomes in 2 to 3 cycles. This review is ended by highlighting some research gaps for future action research and future review as well.
Rinda Nuningtyas, Bambang Widi Pratolo, Arina Athiyallah
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 317-330;

During the Covid-19 pandemic, there was a very significant change in student teaching and learning methods.The government policy requires that almost all activities including learning activities at school be eliminated and replaced with online schools. One of the most used applications for learning in this pandemic era is WhatsApp. The general objective of this research is to conduct a comparative study on the use of the WhatsApp application as a learning application during the Covid-19 pandemic in elementary and junior high school students in English. While the specific purpose of this research is to find out the strengths and weaknesses as well as the constraints of using WhatsApp as a learning application. The research method used is through field observations using qualitative descriptive methods and also interview techniques to several elementary and junior high school students in the research environment. This is interesting to research further based on direct observations of researchers on the use of WhatsApp on school students directly. This study assumes that the advantages and disadvantages of the learning process using WhatsApp will be found for both elementary school students and junior high school students. That elementary school finds difficulty in using WhatsApp for learning. Because some of the elementary students are still not fluent in reading. Junior high school learners assume that learning by WhatsApp is efficient but still not comparable to face-to-face meetings. The research implications are as follows: that the students would be able to learn easily by using WhatsApp as a learning application. The teacher Would find another method that enhances the understanding of the students besides using WhatsApp by necessity.
Hieronimus Canggung Darong, Sebastianus Menggo
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 250-266;

The role of culture in teaching target language is undeniable. This article belongs to a literature review. As such, it deals with the reviews of culture integration in English Language Teaching. The article provides the conflicting findings of teaching target language with local culture or target culture along with the reasonable reasons for each. The writers adopt the systematic way of doing literature review consisting of four steps namely designing the review, conducting the review, analyzing, and writing the review. Drawing from the review of the progress reports in the field, the writer recommends an intermediary for prospective English Language Teaching accommodating both local and target culture in question. Recommendations for future research studies are highlighted at the end.
Adhe Puspita Mayasari, Ani Susanti
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 298-316;

One of the ways to measure the students' English reading comprehension skills is through testing. Despite its significant value, students frequently construct bad tests without considering the main rules in doing English reading comprehension tests. This research concerns to study of techniques in testing English comprehension reading skills performed by teachers in Indonesia on Assessment of Local Education Standard in the year 2021. Assessment of Local Education Standard abbreviated as ASPD in a provincial- standardized test to maintain the quality of learning. Four EFL teachers in Indonesia were chosen based on their teaching experience in high schools. The researcher used document observation and in depth- interview techniques to collect data which were transformed into observation notes and interview transcription. The data were then analyzed qualitatively. Findings from this study shown that there are three main themes regarding the most used techniques performed by the teachers, first, students must be able to analyze the bloom taxonomy theory, second, students must be able to identify the scope of material, and third determining the keywords of the question. From understanding and doing those three themes, teachers believe that these techniques could help and improve student's ability in facing English reading comprehension tests.
Diyah Dwi Agustina, Ahmad Efendi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 267-283;

In this digital era, e-module becomes a great help in accessing knowledge combined with the good method application. This study is intended to develop an e-Module design based on Project Learning in the Speaking for General Communication course. This e-Module Project Based Learning is designed with the purpose of creating effective and efficient learning. The subjects of this study were students in 2nd semester of the English Education study program. The kinds of this research are a Research and Development (R&D) research and the method used is ADDIE development method (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation). The stages in this study are the needs analysis stage, the e-module planning and design stage, the e-module development stage, the e-module implementation stage and the evaluation and revision stage of the module. The research used descriptive qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. Through the project designed in the e-module, it is hoped that it will increase student creativity and increase student activity in speaking. Furthermore, students' speaking skills can be improved.
Irene Brainnita Oktarin, Tyas Desita Wengrum
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 236-249;

The Covid-19 pandemic is the main reason in doing online learning. The change in this learning process is one of the efforts to stop the spread of the virus. Lecturers and students must adapt with this changes so that the learning process can run well. Many problems that arise in online learning can be solved if the lecturer has good communication strategies and styles during the online learning process. This study aims to analyze and explain some problems that arise in online English course and some communication strategies between lecturer and students to improve the quality of learning. This is a qualitative study with case study method. The subjects of this study were a lecturer and 10 students of the 4th semester Management study program who took English courses. Data collection in this study was done by observation and interview. The result showed that the problems are learning burnout, students’ frustration, and obstacles in providing feedback from students. The communication strategy between lecturers and students during the online courses is very important, such as lecturer should plan the learning process as well as possible and create a creative, varied, and innovative way to foster student enthusiasm in learning, lecturer should apply two-way communication that providing opportunities for students in responding either in the form of questions, discussions, or comments, and implement a collaborative learning system strategy in the form of project based learning (PjBL) and problem based learning (PBL).
Kangxing Dong, Chiam Kee Swan, Hafizoah Kassim
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 137-149;

The Covid-19 pandemic has significantly accelerated digitization of higher education worldwide and reading online has become vital for students to grasping new knowledge and understanding course contents. As educators, it is important to understand our students’ affective attributes towards the new normal of reading online. Within this scope, the study aims to develop a self-report instrument on affective attributes towards online reading among tertiary ESL learners, and to examine the specific affective attributes students display towards online reading. The Survey of Online Reading Affective Attributes was adapted and developed to measure tertiary ESL learners’ affective attributes towards online reading for academic and study-related purposes. This questionnaire was administered to 130 tertiary ESL learners. Principal components analysis was performed and the results confirmed the three affective factors were self-efficacy, motivation, and anxiety. In addition, the analysis of the survey data revealed that the majority of students, in general, were relatively self-efficacious, motivated, and less anxious towards online reading. However, it was discovered that nearly one-third of students were relatively anxious towards online reading and one-fifth of them were less self-efficacious. The limitations of this study and pedagogical recommendations are further discussed in this paper.
Juliana Juliana, Afni Yan Syah
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 201-220;

This research is a case study. The purpose of this study was to determine the process of implementing a flipped classroom for English course and analyse students’ perceptions of the implementation of the Flipped Classroom in teaching English for the nursing students of Nursing Academy of Kesdam Iskandar Muda Banda Aceh. The participant in this study were 50 students of Nursing Academy of Kesdam Iskandar Muda Banda Aceh in the academic year 2020/2021. They consist of 4 male students and 46 female students. Data collection methods in this study are lecturer’s observation checklist, teacher’s fieldnote and questionnaires. Lecturer's observation checklist in the form of a checklist for implementing the flipped classroom strategy at each meeting. Lecturer’s fieldnote is some notes that found while flipped classroom was implemented. Questionnaires are used to obtain results from student opinions and student experiences in Flipped Classroom. More than half of students felt that Flipped classroom aided their English studies. Most of the students enjoyed the flipped classroom learning and believed that this method can support their learning. This implies that the method is still useful for EFL classroom of ELT context. .
Novriyanto Napu, Usman Pakaya
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 65-77;

The purpose of this study is to examine the English translations of brochures published by the Tourist Board of Gorontalo Province Government in Indonesia. This quantitative study looked at tourism brochures, both in Indonesian and English, as the source of data. The data were analyzed by considering the frequency and percentage to assess the problems of the English translation used as promotional material. The results reveal that the most frequent problems were syntactic problems (61.54%), followed by semantic problems (26.37%) and miscellaneous problems (12.09%) respectively. This study is expected to contribute to the form of feedback and implications regarding the level of problems and effectiveness of the promotional material in English for future improvement. The results of this study can also be used to develop a model for the use of effective and persuasive English to improve the quality of tourism promotion material by the aforementioned party so that there will be an increased number of interest in foreign tourists visiting Gorontalo in the future. The implication in language learning especially in translator training is also considered.
Francisca Titing Koerniawaty, Muhamad Nova
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 1-19;

This study aimed at developing English for Hospitality Business learning model which is adequate to Industry 4.0. This research applied the Research and Development research design. This study employed several research instruments, including a questionnaire, interview guide, observation field note, and expert judgment evaluation form. This study also invited a total number of six English lecturers and two experts on hospitality and management studies to participate in the study. As a result, a set of learning tools has been developed, including syllabus, lesson plan, and learning material. The syllabus made contains 14 learning outcomes distributed into sixteen learning topics in line with the hospitality management scope. The lesson plan developed has been arranged and organized with the combination of synchronous and asynchronous learning. The teaching and learning programs are designed for online and offline activities. The learning materials are arranged into a module covering learning materials, quiz, assignments, and discussion. The result of expert evaluation is 4.6 which can be classified as high-quality product. This learning model can be implemented for tourism vocational college, especially for hospitality management study program which needs the English subject as professional support to their career.
Margaretha Dharmayanti Harmanto
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 88-100;

This study investigates the influence of MALL (Mobile Assisted Language Learning) on enhancing students' literacy skills in the international program of accounting. The mobile-phone platforms worked as media of interaction with the students in the learning-teaching and outside the classroom. The mobile phone is used as a medium for practising both reading and writing. This research was a quantitative study using an experimental design. The population of the study was the students of the International Program of Accounting department. The result showed that Sig. (2-tailed) .197 > 0.05 which means there was no significant effect in the use of MALL to enhance the students' literacy skills in general. Instead, the use of MALL has a significant effect in improving the spelling which was Sig. (2-tailed) 0.043 < 0.05, and grammar for the plural and singular parts for Sig. (2-tailed) 0.025<0.05.
Yasmika Baihaqi, Bambang Eko Siagiyanto, Rahmad Adhi Pamungkas
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 78-87;

The people usually ignore pronunciation when speaking, telling something, discussing, singing, etc. The focus of this research is to explore the learning style of an EFL learner named Kharis Fikril Muhorobin in practicing pronunciation. The design of this research is a case study in the form of qualitative research design. The objective of this research is finding the learning style of an EFL learner. This research was conducted on campus and in the informant's boarding house. The data were collected by using triangulation involving observation, interview, and documentation. The analysis of the data was conducted using descriptive analysis. The result shows that the informant focused on British pronunciation. Based on the result of data analysis, it is found that there are three strategies applied by an informant in practicing British pronunciation. Those strategies are listening and practicing English songs, watching, and listening to English movies, and reading out loud English books
Rahmadi Nirwanto
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 54-64;

This study aims at investigating the types of cohesive devices (CDs) and the errors in using cohesive devices (CDs) in opinion essays made by the Indonesian students of EFL.The subjects were twenty-six (26) undergraduate program students of EFL enrolled in an Argumentative writing class. To get the data, they were asked to write an opinion essay which consists of five paragraphs (including introductory and concluding paragraph). After the data were collected, each of the students’ paper was read to identify the use of cohesive devices based on the theory of cohesion proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976). Then, the number, the frequency and the percentage of cohesive devices were counted. The results of the study revealed that reference had the highest percentage (52.04%), followed by lexical cohesion (32.95%) and conjunction (15.02%). Meanwhile, substitution and ellipsis were absent. Although there were three types of cohesive to be used, the errors still happened in small number such as in conjunction; but, so, or and and.
Diyas Herdian Putra, Ikhsanudin Ikhsanudin, Eusabinus Bunau
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 10, pp 36-53;

This research, entitled “Correlation Between Vocabulary Mastery and Fluency in Speaking” was carried out to the fifth semester students of English Education Study Program. The population of this research is fifth semester students of English Education Study Program of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Tanjungpura University with the sample size of 30. The result of data analysis revealed the correlational between both variable from the samples is showing the correlational coefficient (r) value of 0.19. This value showed vocabulary mastery has low correlation with fluency in speaking. The contribution of vocabulary mastery to fluency in speaking is 3.6% which is almost non-existent. The hypothesis was tested by comparing the r value with r table, with the degree of freedom (df = n-2) of 28 and 1% level of significance. The r value (0.19) is lower than r table (0.463). It means, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected and null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted. With this research done, students should improve their speaking ability and remember more vocabularies to become a more and better speaker. The writer hopes this research may be beneficial to the readers and might resulting in newer research with different aspect and better concepts.
Muhamad Nova
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 111-128;

The urgency of technology integration has arisen due to the current pandemic break. With a sudden shift from conventional learning to virtual learning, less proper preparation on utilizing the technology integration may occur. The present study aimed at unraveling the perception and obstacles faced during the implementation of videoconferencing as a speaking assessment medium. By applying qualitative research with a snapshot case study design in a vocational education institution, this study gained the data through questionnaires, focus group discussion, and an interview. As a result, the majority of the students perceived negatively toward the implementation of videoconferencing as a speaking assessment medium. These negative reactions occurred due to the nervousness and anxiety along the online speaking assessment process. Moreover, the obstacles faced, such as bad internet connection, technical problems, and surrounding disturbance, also contributed an impact on students’ language production and the sound heard by the students during the online speaking assessment. From the results of the present study, the application of videoconferencing as a medium in assessing students’ speaking ability needs to be reappraised to preview its function whether it can be used as an alternative way or it contributes a drawback effect during the assessment process.
, Dwi Iswahyuni, Sri Rejeki, Sutanto Sutanto
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 231-250;

This study presents an assessment tool in which it aims to investigate the positive features and limitations of Google forms as an EFL assessment tool. The research method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative study in which the instruments employed are class activity log and observation checklist. Moreover, the participants are 240 non-English major students. The results of the study showed that there are 5 positive features and 2 limitations of Google Forms as an EFL assessment tools.  It can be concluded that the positive features of Google forms as an EFL assessment tool are in terms of efficiency in time and energy, conformity to the students’ characteristics, less cost, detail result, and helpful features. In other words, the significant implication is that the use of Google Forms as an assessment tool can alleviate the lecturer’s workload. Furthermore, the limitations deal with scoring and tools issues.
Asep Hardiyanto
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 129-142;

The current article attempts to develop teaching material for intermediate grammar in form of electronic book (e-book) which utilize epub format. E-book is assumed to be an interesting learning sources since it utilizes digital media, in which it is suitable with the students’ condition in digital era. This research was carried out by using Research and Development method. In developing e-book, several stages were conducted; pre-liminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. From the assessment result, it was found that three experts in; material, language used and media declared that this e-book is appropriate to be used. Moreover, in term of students’ perception, it was revealed that from aspect relevance (4.0); consistency (3.8); practice (4.4); and effective (4.2) which hence it can be said that students have positive perception toward the use of this e-book.. Therefore, it can be concluded that generally this e-book is very good and recommended to be used in pre-intermediate grammar classroom.
Juliana Juliana, Novi Afrianti
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 183-197;

This research is a descriptive correlative study. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect and relationship of English extracurricular activities (English Club) on the English learning achievement of nursing students. This research took place at the Academy of Nursing Kesdam Iskandar Muda Banda Aceh. The population in this study were all students of the Academy of Nursing Kesdam Iskandar Muda Banda Aceh. The samples are students of 2018/2019 who take part in English extracurricular activities as many as 50 students. Data collection methods in this study are the documentation and the questionnaire. Documentation is used to obtain data about the names and number of students who become research respondents. The questionnaire was used to find out students' opinions about English extracurricular activities. The data was analysed in term of percentage by using statistic descriptive SPSS 16.0 and Ms Excel 2013. The results of this study are the researchers found that the average value of students' perceptions reached 82.3% which means students strongly agree with the existence of English language extracurricular activities to support the improvement of their English learning achievement. The data is strengthened by the results of documentation of students' English grades. From the results of the analysis showed that English extracurricular activities proved to have an effect on students' English learning achievement.
Dedi Turmudi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 251-276;

This study investigates the written test results of the Indonesian undergraduate students’ argumentative essay. For that reason, three research questions are made. 1). what is the level of achievement of the students in the argumentative essay quantitatively? 2). what aspects of an essay appear in respect to the argumentative essay generic structure as formulated? 3). how well did they use the rhetoric reputation and argument in their essay?. 27 handwriting' answer sheets of undergraduate English Department students enrolled at semester four of a state university in Indonesia were taken purposively. The data analysis uses a quantitative and qualitative approach. The results show that the students quantitatively achieved average score 76,74 which means good. All parts of generic structures were expressed in different quality. However; the organization of the essay is the lowest part compared to the other four parts respectively content, vocabulary, and language use seen from their segmented scores. This study is confirmed to be inline the previous study in that the majority of the students did not present the refutation section in both their English essays. This implies that teachers should be more aware of promoting this absent aspect as this refutation or rebuttal is a distinguishing marker in argumentative and discussion essays.
Abang Fhaeizdhyall, Collin Jerome
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 143-163;

The studies on error correction have been laying their emphasis on grammatical structures of the language with lack of focus on non-grammatical aspect such as lexical collocation. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the effect of direct and indirect written corrective feedback on low-performing ESL learners. Ninety-two students of a public university involved in the study. Three intact groups that have equal proficiency were identified at the beginning of the university’s academic term. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two experimental groups receiving indirect WCF and direct WCF separately, and a control group deprived of any treatment. The groups were measured in three different time points with pre-test before the intervention, immediate post-test after the intervention, and delayed post-test to measure retention effect. One-way ANOVA and repeated-measures ANOVA were used to measure the effect. The findings reveal that significant differences were detected in immediate post-tests of direct and indirect WCF groups which indicate that both WCF strategies can enhance participants’ collocational competency. Additionally, the findings also show that direct WCF strategy greatly affects participants collocation errors despite both groups performed better than the control group. This study demonstrates that retention effect was detected in the group that received direct WCF while the indirect WCF group was not able to retain - in delayed post-test. Recommendation is also discussed for Future directions of studies.Â
Fuad Abdullah, Soni Tantan Tandiana, Risma Amelia
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 164-182;

The advancement of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) has significantly affected English language teaching, such as the utilization of miscellaneous applications, social media and other digital platforms facilitating the learners to invigorate their language skills, notably L2/FL writing context. However, insufficient attention has been addressed to the contributions of employing storybird to the learners’ narrative writing activities. To fill this void, this study aimed at delineating the contributions of employing storybird to the Indonesian EFL learners’ narrative writing activities. Three Indonesian junior high school learners participated as research participants. The data were gathered through semi-structured interview and analyzed with Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The findings designated that storybird (1) generated ideas for writing a story (2) facilitated to construct generic structure of English narrative texts (3) considered lexicogrammatical features of English narrative texts (4) produced English narrative texts joyfully and (5) wrote English narrative texts actively. Given these facts, storybird enables the learners to think creatively, provides them enjoyable learning experiences, brings their abstract thoughts to real life and guide them to communicate and collaborate effectively. Â
Vicente Mari Mangilaya Ii
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 198-212;

The influential work of H.P. Grice (1975) on Cooperative Principle has been extensively applied in both authentic and fictional contexts. Scholars in the field of pragmatics argued that non-observance of maxims lead into the creation of humor (Khosravizadeh and Sadehvandi, 2011; Jorfi and Dowlatabadi, 2015; Zeb, 2019; Kuang and Zhao, 2017) and character development (Pertiwi , 2013; Saradifa, 2020; Sembiring and Ghozalo, 2017). Built on this argument, the present study was conducted to confirm such claim by focusing on the instances of violating and flouting of maxims and the purpose it served in an intertwined context of reality and fiction in the television adaptation of Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale. Findings revealed that characters deliberately violated and flouted the maxims in order to avoid conflict and to also highlight information, which are deemed indispensable in building the narrative. This study also found instances of violation and flouting of maxims as a product of suppression of women characters that mirror gender inequalities in many parts of the globe.   Â
Imro Atus Soliha, Ari Susandi, Benny Prasetiya
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 213-230;

This article discusses Code switching of English and Arabic happens in the Islamic boarding school: Pondok Pesantren Terpadu Miftahul Ulum Al-Yasini Pasuruan East Java. The researchers fascinated in analyzing a code-switching which usually happened at that place. The aim of this study is to find (1) the reasons in using code-switching in PPT Miftahul Ulum Al-Yasini Pasuruan, and (2) the types of code-switching used in that place by all members of the room. This is a descriptive qualitative research. In this case, interview and observation is used to get the data. This research was conducted for two weeks in the end of January 2020. The participants were 15 students from 3 rooms from Germany area which consisted for about 70 students. The results showed that the students used code-switching because of six reasons, such as: talking about specific topic, quoting somebody else, quoting someone else, interjection, recurrence for clarification, clarification the speech content for the interlocutor, to strengthen or soften some requests and command, and because of lexical need. The implication is that code-switching is inevitable due to various situation. It occurs in the context of EFL particularly when two foreign languages are simultaneously learned.  Keywords: bilingualism, code switching, Pesantren, sociolinguistics.
Budi Eko Pranoto, Suprayogi Suprayogi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 94-109;

This research aims at constructing the ideal English material for Physical Education students of universities in Lampung. Currently, students at university are taught about general English and it stimulates the writers to conduct a research to reveal their need of ESP as the answer of the current issues. This research is conducted in two universities, namely Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia and Universitas Lampung. The participants are 50 students, and 10 lecturers of Physical Education study program from both respective universities. The data are in the form of qualitative data which are taken from the interview and the questionnaire to students and lecturers which cover topics needed, and teaching method. The findings reveal the Physical Education students’ need of ESP in varied range of topics. The highly desired topics are English for sport journalism, English for professional athlete/referee/coach. Furthermore, based on the perspective of lecturers, they believe that students’ speaking, and writing must be well developed in order to compete in international level as professional athlete, coach, journalist, and etc. The result of analysis concludes the importance of ESP for Physical Education’s students. Further research shall be conducted to test the effectiveness of the English topics constructed based on this current research.
Dedi Turmudi, Bonjovi Hassan Hajan
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 78-86;

The Philippines is held as one of the largest English-speaking countries worldwide with most of its people possessing at least some degree of fluency in the target language. The prestige of the English language in this country has attracted the attention of many foreign students including Indonesian. In this paper, we aimed to discuss the education system and the English language teaching (ELT) in the Philippines so that practical insights can be gained to reflect on Indonesian EFL learning. To this end, we first described how the Philippine education system looks like and how the English language is taught in schools from elementary to tertiary level. We then explored some prevailing challenges surrounding the ELT, and established links relating the benefits of learning English in this country to Indonesian EFL context. Drawing on qualitative approach, we realized our research objectives by carefully selecting sources and data through critical review of articles from journals, books, websites, and other reliable sources retrieved online. Ultimately, we conducted this inquiry to find out answers so that some lessons learned can be adopted to make ELT in Indonesia better and more resilient since Indonesia remains left behind in the spectrum of English literacy.
Dwi Indah Pratiwi, Juita Putri, Agung Suhadi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 30-39;

This study informs the use of short story as media for motivating students improvement in reading that is tested in third semester B class at Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu, based on research in EFL students classrooms state, a good indicator of improved motivation and interest in reading can be used by the short story (Ceylan,2016). This method in this research used experimental methods, based on the research conducted. The result showed there was an improvement in students’ motivation in reading. The mean score of the pre-test was 67,64. Then the mean score of the post-test is 94,11. There was an improvement in students’ scores between pre-test and post-test, it is improved 39,13%. It means the result of the test was satisfactory and show the best achievement. So, it can be concluded that improving students’ motivation in reading by using short stories as media is improved. It means that this technique can be used by other researchers to improve the same reading skill.
Fikriani Aminun Omolu, Andi Mappewali
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 42-57;

A language is an important tool in communication. To produce a smooth relationship between countries that have different languages, the English language functions as Lingua Franca. To understand the information in English, a good understanding is needed. Being able to translate English texts is one of the basic forms of understanding itself. Unfortunately, numerous English language learners; from junior high schools to university levels, are still experiencing problems in this translation. This study aims to uncover the strategies of students in translating English texts into Indonesian by using the Thinking Aloud Protocol method. The subjects of this study were students in semester V (five) who had gone through Structure I to Structure IV subjects. This research was conducted in the scope of the University of Muhammadiyah Palu. From this research, the most widely used translation strategy is done by students as well as the prototype of the translation process to produce good translations
Nurul Afifah
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 61-72;

This research aimed to find out the effectiveness of a hot seating strategy to improve the students' speaking skills at SMP NEGERI 3 Madang Suku III OKU TIMUR. This research adopted a pre-experimental research design. The subject of this research was the first students' of SMP NEGERI 3 Madang Suku III OKU TIMUR which consisted of 31 students with 12 boys and 19 girls. Pre-test and post-test were done to collect the data. The instrument of the test was the oral speaking test. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the data from pre-test and post-test. The finding showed that the Mean score of the pre-test was 46.63 and the mean score of the post-test was 53.27. The value of t-obtained = 2.653 was more than t-table = 2.024 with df = 30 and the value of sig. (2-tailed) was 0.000 less than significance level (α = 0.05).). The conclusion, a hot seating strategy was significantly effective to improve students' speaking skills. It implies that this technique can be used to improve students’ speaking skills among the many existing methods and techniques.
Rizqi Yusnitasari, Tono Suwartono
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 1-16;

Errors are almost inseparable from learning process, including learning new languages. Though, it is not always considered as negative, instead, it is a part of learning process. This study was conducted to assess students’ mastery of grammar in writing, to find what grammatical errors they make, to be an evaluation to overcome the problem in the future. In this study, samples were taken from EFL students of English Education Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. The grammatical errors were identified under the theory of Politzer-Ramirez which classify errors into two types: morphological and syntactic error. In the end of the study, ten types of grammatical errors were identified as the most common grammatical errors made by the students. Three of them belong to morphological error, while the remaining fall into syntactic error. Those ten errors are: The use of prepositions (75 %), redundancy (75 %), simple past tense incorrect (62.5 %), determiners (58.3 %), number confusion (45.8 %), omission of verb (45.8 %), verb construction (41.67 %), derivatives/wrong part of speech (41.67 %), nominalization (33.3 %), and errors in the use of pronoun (29.2 %). Keywords: Problematic, Grammatical Items, Tertiary, EFL, Learner Writers
Dwi Monica Lestari
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 9, pp 17-29;

The objectives of this research are: 1) To find out the undergraduate students’ Difficulties In Writing Thesis at The English Study Program of Muhammadiyah University Bengkulu (UMB) in Academic Year 2018-2019, and 2) To find out the most difficult variable they faced in writing theses. The design of this research is descriptive quantitative research. 74 students of the Seventh Semester Students of English Education Study Program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu in the Academic Year of 2018-2019 took part in this study. The instruments were questionnaires and interview. The data were collected by assigning the students to fill out the questionnaires and being interviewed afterward. The data were analyzed by checking the students’ answer in the questionnaire, classifying the students’ answers, calculating the students’ scores of difficulties in writing a thesis, describing the data and concluding the results. The results showed the students' difficulties in writing a thesis; a) Orderly, the students' difficulties in writing a thesis are: related to difficulties of students' English proficiencies; related to difficulties of students' time management; related to difficulties of students' research methodology; related to difficulties of students' attitude; related to difficulties of students' research topic; and the least related to difficulties of a co-advisor relationship, students' plagiarism, students' personalities, the big number of supervised students and advisor workload; and difficulties of students motivation. b) The most difficulties in writing thesis are related to their English proficiency which are still low and limited. Both have become the first cause that they cannot develop their writing thesis well. The implication of this study ; 1) the students should minimize their difficulties and find the solution in the way of a) Improve their English, or at least have adequate English before writing a thesis. b) Should manage their time wisely in doing their thesis. c) Read more relevant sources that can support their research. d) Give more attention to avoid plagiarism. 2) Further researchers are suggested to do similar research and add more data with adding research instruments, such as interview guides.
Al Ryanne Gabonada Gatcho, Bonjovi Hassan Hajan
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 127-143;

Learning English as a foreign/second language is never a straightforward process. Several constraints may come along the way that tend to hinder students’ learning. Studies have shown that the successes and failures of L2 learners in an English language classroom are dependent upon various psychological and social factors including anxiety. This study examined the English language learning anxiety of Filipino college students. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety survey adapted from Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) was administered to a group of 150 students randomly selected from 5 programs at a private university in the Philippines to identify students’ anxiety level in terms of fear of negative evaluation, communication apprehension, fear of test, and anxiety of English class and to determine which factor is most probable to cause anxiety among them.. The results indicated that the students expressed different levels of anxiety among the four factors as majority provided answers ranging from neutral to strongly agree. However, it was discovered that fear of negative evaluation and communication apprehension were the most probable to cause anxiety among them. The study offers practical implications as to how L2 teachers can help students overcome their English anxiety and thus be successful in the learning of the target language.
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 226-240;

This study aimed to reveal students’ skills on each English language skill and find out what students need and want on English language learning at higher education level. To meet the aim of the study, a mixed-method approach was employed. The participants of this study were students who have enrolled in a General English course at the target University. Quantitative data was gained from an online questionnaire and Qualitative data was obtained from the interviews. The result of this study showed that students are more confident with their reading and writing skills than their speaking and listening skills. The finding also showed that they need to learn more about speaking skill. For the students’ need, English for supporting their job gained the highest percentage among the other choices. However, students also wanted to learn more on grammar. Therefore, an adjustment for English teaching material at higher education level at the target university needs to conduct
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 163-175;

Syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentence that it is constructed in particular language. Whereas that every language in the world certainly has different structure. This research aim to answer: (1) What are kinds of simple sentence found in Kembhang Babur books? (2) What are the differences between English and Madurese in simple sentences? This research is a descriptive qualitative research, descriptively describing the syntactic structures of simple sentences in Kembhang Babur book. The writer followed the rule of the qualitative which the data describe in words as the basis of interpreting data. Words are of utmost importance to qualitative researchers. There are three kinds of simple sentences found in Kembhang Babur book could be classified into: (a) Affirmative sentences, (b) Negative sentences (c) Interrogative sentences. The differences in English sentence is; if this affirmative sentence Aux there is after NP, but in the interrogative sentence Aux there is before NP and there is auxiliary “do/does” as interrogative verb. In Madurese sentence is marked by the addition of the word “apah” which is put before NP. “Apah” is as question word in Madurese, not as an auxiliary.
Berlinda Mandasari, Dyah Aminatun
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 214-225;

The objective of this study is to uncover the students’ attitude toward vlogging activities in improving students’ speaking ability. Participants of this study are 40 students majoring English Education who enrolled in transactional conversation subject at Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. Research design used in this study is descriptive qualitative. Data were gained through questionnaire exposing students’ attitude toward the subject and students’ attitude toward using vlog to support learning process. There were 11 indicators with 32 questionnaire items. The results of this study reveal that Vlog helps students to understand the materials, improve students’ learning achievement, motivation, creativity, and engagement, provide interesting learning activities, efficient learning, effective learning, and lead students to be confident, independent and critical.
Rosita Aryani
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 144-162;

This study aims to develop SCREAMBLE media to enhance speaking skill among preschoolers in Cahaya Bangsa School Metro. A research question is formulated: is SCREAMBLE media effective to enhance speaking skill? The participants are 18 preschoolers of Kindergarten B chosen by purposive cluster sampling. This is a kind of educational research and development designed by certain procedures; setting the instructional goals, procedures, and materials, conducting performance objectives, field-testing, assessing instruments, doing formulative and summative evaluation. The result gathered by Wilcoxon test represents Asymp.Sig (2-tailed) values 0,000 which is smaller than 0,05 indicates that SCREAMBLE media is effective to enhance speaking skill. Besides, observation reveals that preschoolers are excited to speak since their fine motor and cognitive aspects are included simultaneously.
Angela Bayu Pertama Sari, Dwi Iswahyuni
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 176-192;

This research aimed to portray the occurrence of anxiety in the YouTube video project conducted by non-English students. It was descriptive-qualitative research. One hundred twenty-four students participated in this research. The research findings showed that 65 students felt the anxiety, and 59 were not anxious in doing the YouTube video project. There was a slight difference between those two findings. Some factors influenced the students’ anxiety, namely students’ low personal perception, peers’ negative judgment, and quite intimidating learning environment. While the factors that support the absence of anxiety were students’ positive own perception and fun-less intimidating and encouraging learning environment. However, the research finding highlighted that YouTube video project was the preferable media that was based on the 104 students’ responses claiming that they prefer doing YouTube video project than other speaking activities such as storytelling, oral presentation, and speech.
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 193-213;

The purpose of this paper is about to investigate of Code-Mixing appeared in South Jakarta Community while this community having chat each other through social media, WhatsApp and Twitter. The phenomenon of Code-Mixing and Code-Switching in Indonesia became viral in last September. The used of code-mixing helps them to communicate with others, because not all the people can use the language properly. So that, learning about language is really needed. It will increase their vocabularies whether in Bahasa or English. Also, there are few reasons why the community applies the code-mixing in the daily activities. The writer uses the method of qualitative-description research which is done by the writer by getting involved in the community of social media, having the library and internet research with the relevant sources, and collects the data to be analyzed also describes by explaining the result of the research. The conclusion of the research is by the often using of Code-Mixing, the people indirectly increase their vocabularies. This phenomenon influenced many people to start to apply the Code-Mixing
Elizabeth Liza,
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 241-259;

Learning Program Design is one of the compulsory courses offered to the English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) students to prepare for their teaching. This study is aimed to find out and to identify the possible relationship between Learning Program Design course and students’ teaching preparations. A survey study was conducted. The instrument used was questionnaire. A total of 30 students participated in this study. The perceptions of the pre-service teachers were obtained from their self-evaluations. The results of this study showed that most of the respondents had positive attitudes. They perceived that Learning Program Design Course had positive contributions to their teaching preparations.
Elizabeth Milaningrum,
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 1-16;

This research is aimed at developing the existing English module for hospitality students to fulfill the students' needs in learning English using inquiry-based language learning at Balikpapan State Polytechnic. This research was conducted in the second semester of hospitality students at Balikpapan State Polytechnic. The research methodology used in this research was a research and development (R & D) for developing supplementary existing English module for hospitality students using IBLL. There are two stages of R & D study: (1) exploration stage which consists of library research, document analysis, and needs analysis. The purpose of the exploration stage is to find out the weaknesses of the existing English module by conducting documents analysis and to find out the students' need towards English materials by conducting an interview and delivering questionnaire. The result of reveals as follows: (a) the students need ESP (English for Specific Purposes ) materials; (b) the contents of the existing module are too general, only focus on TOEFL preparation and do not correspond with students’ need and integrated English skills; (c) the procedure of the existing module only focus on lecturer center ; and (2) development stage which is purposed to design the supplementary existing English module through several processes: (a) designing prototype based on the result of exploration stage; (b) experts validation; (c) trying out the prototype; (d) final revision. The data was taken from expert validation form, questionnaire, focus group discussion (FGD), and classroom observation. The data was analyzed by using an interactive method. The result shows that supplementary existing English module for Hospitality student is suitable to use in higher vocational education.
Agung Suhadi
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 87-101;

Through social networking sites, many users or writers convey the strict message and statement in the platform of their twitter for whom those are addressed. This study was to analyze the use of language bias in worldwide twitter status; how its form and what is the underlying motive behind the words used. The researcher only focused on the “Trending Topic” from worldwide twitter status during February 2018 by taking up 25 twitter status as samples. The result of analysis obtained that there were six categories of language bias which are used in twitter statuses such as age, sex (gender), race, social class, and traits. Semiotically, all above upon deliver were visible strictly words, but all of the words subtle conveyed some important values for readers in terms of five categories above like to be an independent person, respect and not underestimate others. In short, by understanding the clues words of language bias in social media, readers can understand easily for whom the message or statement are addressed and not easy to give a negative response as users of social media.
Yupika Maryansyah
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 31-45;

This research aims to investigate factors affecting willingness to communicate in English in social media. This research was conducted in a descriptive method framework. Specifically, the research described factors that affect students' willingness to communicate in English in social media at English study program at the fourth semester of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu academic year 2018. The subjects of this research were fourth-semester students of English Education study program of Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu Academic Year 2018 consisted of class A, B, and C. The populations of the study were 77 students. The instruments used were questionnaire and interview. The data obtained from both questionnaire and interview were then analyzed by the process of checking, classifying, determining, and analyzing the data by using the percentage formula. The results of the study showed that there were five factors affecting willingness to communicate in English in social media. They were self-confidence, personality, motivation, attitude, and anxiety. The dominant factor was motivation since it had the highest percentage. In addition, the study also revealed some reasons why students have the willingness to communicate through social media.
Adelina Anum,
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 57-72;

The researchers intended to know what strategies were used by male and female students in learning speaking, especially at the tenth grade of SMKN Karangpucung and what dominant strategy was used by male and female students in learning speaking. The main question to be answered in this research was concerned with the strategy used by male and female students and what the dominant strategy used by male and female students. The population in this research were 320 students at the tenth grade of SMKN Karangpucung consisting of automotive and accountancy programs, and 32 students were taken as the sample. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire consisting of 30 questions to determine the students' strategies used by every male and female student. This research showed that male students tended to use metacognitive strategies and female students tended to use affective strategies. Therefore, the researchers concluded that metacognitive strategies are more likely to be used by male students and affective strategies are more likely to be used by women students. Surprisingly, metacognitive strategies were dominated by male students, while affective strategies were dominated by female students.
Endang Mastuti Rahayu, Endah Yulia Rahayu
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 102-116;

Many English teachers are not confident when they are required to examine their students essay although they have sufficient education and experience in assessing their students’ written works. Therefore, they need to be trained over a short period to rate their students’ writing. They are also required to improve their knowledge or cognitive in order to literate ESL writing assessment to focus their students on learning to write and to edit their writing. Their affective or attitude to the feedback of writing assessment for writing instruction, the importance of writing assessment, the competence to administer the assessment, time-consuming writing assessment, the confidence of good writing instructor affect their quality in writing assessment. Therefore, in real practice of assessing writing, experienced teachers mostly plan and do their assessment based on what they believe about the assessment. Thus, successful assessing students’ writing does not only constitute the major portion of second language writing teachers’ workloads but also quantifies teachers affective factors. In addition, in administering assessments, teachers as raters need to care their students' and their own affectiveness, so students will value what they learn and teachers will pay attention more to their students’ learning.
, Anjas Anjas, Ivan Ahmad Nurcholis
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 17-30;

The aims of this article are to analysis onomatopoeia with use some poems of Lee Emmett. There are five poems that have been analyzed: running water, Bake a Cake, wind and rain, the gentle sound of rain, and See the Skater. These articles, Authors apply observation method and note taking technique. The process of this article covers several steps such as read the poems, identify, and make a table to collect Onomatopoeia word. From five poems that have been analyzed, there are two types of onomatopoeia word; primary onomatopoeia (PR) and secondary onomatopoeia (SC). Onomatopoeia found as many as 21 words. From 21words, the dominant types and meaning that used in five poems are secondary onomatopoeia; 15 words. This article is to help readers easier to understand the meaning of sound trough poems by Lee Emmet.
Ahmad Syafiq, Bambang Eko Siagiyanto
Premise: Journal of English Education, Volume 8, pp 46-57;

The aim of this research is to know if there are effects of teaching method and vocabulary mastery on student’s speaking skill at private senior high schools in Teluk Betung, Bandar Lampung. The sample of this research is 60 students. This research is experimental research with two factors, teaching method using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Conventional Method and Vocabulary Mastery. The data about vocabulary mastery and speaking skills are taken through tests which their validity and reliability have been tested. The researcher used SPSS Program 20 to analyze the data. The results are: experimental class (A1) has to mean score 68, it is more than a control class (A2) that has to mean score 59,97. Testing of three hypotheses used ANOVA (analysis on variants), it has got a sig. score 0,000 in communicative language teaching and vocabulary mastery got sig 0,002. It means the first hypothesis, there is a significant effect of CLT on students’ speaking skill is accepted. The second hypothesis, there is a significant effect of vocabulary mastery on students’ speaking skill is also accepted. While the third hypothesis, there are the effects of teaching method using CLT and vocabulary mastery on students’ speaking skill is rejected.
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