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, , Lynn S. Broderick, Ella A. Kazerooni, Cristopher A. Meyer
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1975-1993; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170051

Abstract:
In response to the recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the coverage decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for lung cancer screening (LCS) computed tomography (CT), the American College of Radiology introduced the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) in 2014 to standardize the reporting and management of screening-detected lung nodules. As with many first-edition guidelines, questions arise when such reporting systems are used in daily practice. In this article, a collection of 15 LCS-related scenarios are presented that address situations in which the Lung-RADS guidelines are unclear or situations that are not currently addressed in the Lung-RADS guidelines. For these 15 scenarios, the authors of this article provide the reader with recommendations that are based on their collective experiences, with the hope that future versions of Lung-RADS will provide additional guidance, particularly as more data from widespread LCS are collected and analyzed. ©RSNA, 2017
, Julie B. Guerin, Caterina Giannini, , Lawrence J. Eckel,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 2164-2180; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170037

Abstract:
Radiologists play a key role in brain tumor diagnosis and management and must stay abreast of developments in the field to advance patient care and communicate with other health care providers. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an update to its brain tumor classification system that included numerous significant changes. Several previously recognized brain tumor diagnoses, such as oligoastrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and gliomatosis cerebri, were redefined or eliminated altogether. Conversely, multiple new entities were recognized, including diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor and multinodular and vacuolating tumor of the cerebrum. The glioma category has been significantly reorganized, with several infiltrating gliomas in children and adults now defined by genetic features for the first time. These changes were driven by increased understanding of important genetic factors that directly impact tumorigenesis and influence patient care. The increased emphasis on genetic factors in brain tumor diagnosis has important implications for radiology, as we now have tools that allow us to evaluate some of these alterations directly, such as the identification of 2-hydroxyglutarate within infiltrating gliomas harboring mutations in the genes for the isocitrate dehydrogenases. For other tumors, such as medulloblastoma, imaging can demonstrate characteristic patterns that correlate with particular disease subtypes. The purpose of this article is to review the changes to the WHO brain tumor classification system that are most pertinent to radiologists. ©RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 2083-2105; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160099

Abstract:
Continued improvements in diagnostic accuracy using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging will require development of methods for tissue analysis that complement traditional qualitative MR imaging studies. Quantitative MR imaging is based on measurement and interpretation of tissue-specific parameters independent of experimental design, compared with qualitative MR imaging, which relies on interpretation of tissue contrast that results from experimental pulse sequence parameters. Quantitative MR imaging represents a natural next step in the evolution of MR imaging practice, since quantitative MR imaging data can be acquired using currently available qualitative imaging pulse sequences without modifications to imaging equipment. The article presents a review of the basic physical concepts used in MR imaging and how quantitative MR imaging is distinct from qualitative MR imaging. Subsequently, the article reviews the hierarchical organization of major applicable pulse sequences used in this article, with the sequences organized into conventional, hybrid, and multispectral sequences capable of calculating the main tissue parameters of T1, T2, and proton density. While this new concept offers the potential for improved diagnostic accuracy and workflow, awareness of this extension to qualitative imaging is generally low. This article reviews the basic physical concepts in MR imaging, describes commonly measured tissue parameters in quantitative MR imaging, and presents the major available pulse sequences used for quantitative MR imaging, with a focus on the hierarchical organization of these sequences. ©RSNA, 2017
, Teri M. Sippel Schmidt, Christopher D. Carr,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 2106-2112; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160106

Abstract:
Currently, most radiology reports are highly variable and consist of unconstrained narrative text. This variability limits the ability to extract information from the report to guide clinical care, populate a data registry, or support quality improvement. This article introduces two newly available standards that pertain to radiology reports. Management of Radiology Reporting Templates (MRRT) is an integration profile that defines the format and exchange mechanisms for radiology report templates. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Part 20 defines how reports built using MRRT-based templates can be transmitted into an electronic health record (EHR). Together, these two standards enable new ways to improve report consistency and completeness, ensure proper clinical action, and improve the quality of patient care. Commercial and open-source developers are beginning to incorporate these standards into clinical systems. The authors use an example of a patient with an incidentally detected lung nodule to illustrate how these standards improve the exchange of information. The clinical scenario follows the use of the appropriate template through the completion of the radiology report, with the incidental finding structured and coded to enable automated follow-up in the EHR. ©RSNA, 2017
, Hiroto Hatabu, Lynette M. Sholl, Nikhil H. Ramaiya
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1371-1387; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170015

Abstract:
Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer have opened a new era of precision medicine for cancer treatment. Precision cancer therapies target specific molecules that are responsible for cancer development and progression, and they achieve marked treatment benefits in specific cohorts of patients. However, these therapies are also associated with a variety of complications that are often unique to specific groups of anticancer agents. The rapidly increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of various advanced malignancies has brought new challenges in diagnosing and monitoring a unique set of toxic effects termed immune-related adverse events. Familiarity with cutting-edge cancer treatment approaches and awareness of the emerging complications from novel therapies are essential for radiologists, who play a key role in the care of patients with cancer. This article provides a comprehensive review of the thoracic complications of precision cancer therapies, describes their imaging features and clinical characteristics, and discusses the role of radiologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of these entities. The authors also address the molecular mechanisms of anticancer agents that relate to thoracic complications and emphasize emerging challenges in novel cancer therapies. This article is designed to serve as a practical reference guide for day-to-day practice for radiologists in the era of precision cancer medicine. ©RSNA, 2017
, Joseph Mesterhazy, , Thomas Urbania,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1451-1460; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160195

Abstract:
A major challenge for radiologists is obtaining meaningful clinical follow-up information for even a small percentage of cases encountered and dictated. Traditional methods, such as keeping medical record number follow-up lists, discussing cases with rounding clinical teams, and discussing cases at tumor boards, are effective at keeping radiologists informed of clinical outcomes but are time intensive and provide follow-up for a small subset of cases. To this end, the authors developed a picture archiving and communication system–accessible electronic health record (EHR)-integrated program called Correlate, which allows the user to easily enter free-text search queries regarding desired clinical follow-up information, with minimal interruption to the workflow. The program uses natural language processing (NLP) to process the query and parse relevant future clinical data from the EHR. Results are ordered in terms of clinical relevance, and the user is e-mailed a link to results when these are available for viewing. A customizable personal database of queries and results is also maintained for convenient future access. Correlate aids radiologists in efficiently obtaining useful clinical follow-up information that can improve patient care, help keep radiologists integrated with other specialties and referring physicians, and provide valuable experiential learning. The authors briefly review the history of automated clinical follow-up tools and discuss the design and function of the Correlate program, which uses NLP to perform intelligent prospective searches of the EHR. © RSNA, 2017
David P. Burrowes, Alexandra Medellin, Allison C. Harris, ,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1388-1400; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170034

Abstract:
Focal liver lesions are commonly encountered and often demonstrate nonspecific findings at initial imaging. Although most incidentally discovered liver lesions are benign, their noninvasive diagnosis is necessary, especially if they are large or atypical. Imaging characterization of focal liver lesions and exclusion of malignancy are of prime importance, particularly in high-risk populations. Contrast agent–enhanced ultrasonography of liver lesions is both accurate and reproducible for evaluation of benign and malignant liver tumors. Use of an imaging algorithm and a controlled sonographic technique, including dedicated arterial phase cine imaging and imaging every 30 seconds in the portal venous phase and the delayed (or late) phase, is essential for accurate characterization. This algorithmic analysis of focal liver lesions focuses first on the determination of malignancy by imaging the portal venous phase and the late phase; washout in these phases correlates with a malignant tumor, and sustained enhancement in these phases is suggestive that a lesion is benign. In addition, the timing and the intensity of washout differentiate hepatocellular malignancies from nonhepatocellular malignancies. Nonhepatocellular tumors demonstrate early and strong washout, whereas hepatocellular malignancies show delayed and weak washout. Subsequent analysis of dynamic real-time enhancement patterns in the arterial phase demonstrates specific enhancement patterns of common benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Hemangiomas show classic peripheral nodular enhancement, and spoke-wheel centrifugal enhancement is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. Hepatic adenomas may show centripetal filling. However, arterial phase enhancement in malignancy has less specificity. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2017 •
Erratum
, Santiago Martínez-Jiménez, Melissa L. Rosado-De-Christenson, Sonia L. Betancourt, Carlos S. Restrepo, Andrés Eraso
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1607-1607; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017174011

Meir H. Scheinfeld, Daniel A. Krieger, Deepa Bhupali, Richard L. Zampolin, Amichai J. Erdfarb
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1605-1606; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160214

Abstract:
This presentation describes the imaging scales and techniques used in the 2015 endovascular stroke trials and the revised 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for endovascular stroke treatment.
, L. Jake Mickelsen, Daisha Marsh, Christoph Zorich, Stephanie Casal, Waimei Amy Tai, Nirali Vora, Gennette Olalia, Max Wintermark, David B. Larson
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1559-1568; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160190

Abstract:
Guided quality improvement (QI) programs present an effective means to streamline stroke code to computed tomography (CT) times in a comprehensive stroke center. Applying QI methods and a multidisciplinary team approach may decrease the stroke code to CT time in non-prenotified emergency department (ED) patients presenting with symptoms of stroke. The aim of this project was to decrease this time for non-prenotified stroke code patients from a baseline mean of 20 minutes to one less than 15 minutes during an 18-week period by applying QI methods in the context of a structured QI program. By reducing this time, it was expected that the door-to-CT time guideline of 25 minutes could be met more consistently. Through the structured QI program, we gained an understanding of the process that enabled us to effectively identify key drivers of performance to guide project interventions. As a result of these interventions, the stroke code to CT time for non-prenotified stroke code patients decreased to a mean of less than 14 minutes. This article reports these methods and results so that others can similarly improve the time it takes to perform nonenhanced CT studies in non-prenotified stroke code patients in the ED. ©RSNA, 2017
, , Shumpei Mori, , Diane E. Spicer, Cameron Hassani, Robert H. Anderson
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1330-1351; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170004

Abstract:
The fibrous skeleton is concentrated at the base of the ventricular mass. It provides electrical insulation at the atrioventricular level and fibrous continuity for the leaflets of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves. Its components include the fibrous trigones, the fibrous area of aortic-mitral continuity, the subvalvar collar of the mitral valve, the membranous septum, the interleaflet triangles, the tendon of Todaro, and likely the conus ligament. The majority of the mitral annulus is fibrous, but the only true fibrous part of the tricuspid annulus is where the valvar leaflets are attached to the central fibrous body. At the aortic annulus, the fibrous elements support only the noncoronary aortic sinus and parts of the right and left coronary sinuses. The ring-shaped annulus of the arterioventricular valves as localized with imaging techniques (imaging annulus) differs from the crown-shaped hemodynamic annulus of the arterial valves. The imaging annulus corresponds to the plane passing through the nadirs of the hinge-lines of the leaflets. The hinges of the pulmonary valve are not part of the fibrous skeleton. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are excellent modalities for evaluation of the anatomy, physiologic variations, and pathologic conditions of the fibrous skeleton. The submillimeter isotropic three-dimensional datasets obtained with CT and the high contrast resolution of MR imaging are the main advantages of these modalities in assessing anatomy. The function of the valves and associated annuli can best be studied with MR imaging. Pathologic conditions involving the area, including paravalvar leaks, abscesses, perforation, and pseudoaneurysms, usually occur as a complication of infective endocarditis or extensive calcifications after valvar surgery. MR imaging and CT can demonstrate these lesions equally well. CT is the preferred technique for showing the extent of calcifications in the fibrous skeleton. Large calcifications involving the central fibrous body can cause heart block by interfering with the normal function of the His bundle and its branches. ©RSNA, 2017
, Sairah R. Khan, , Henry H. Tam, Sameer Khan, Tara D. Barwick
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1512-1536; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017170035

Abstract:
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, with a wide spectrum of biologic behavior ranging from indolent low-risk disease to highly aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer. Conventional imaging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy is limited for the detection of nodal disease and distant bone metastases. In addition, advances in the available therapeutic options, both localized and systemic, drive the requirement for precise diagnostic and prognostic tools to refine the individual therapeutic approach at various times in the management of patients with prostate cancer. Positron emission tomography (PET) has a rapidly evolving role in the assessment of prostate cancer, particularly in the scenario of biochemical relapse. Fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose, the most widely available PET tracer, has limitations, particularly in indolent prostate cancer. In the past decade, several PET tracers with specific molecular targets have reached the clinical domain. These tracers include 18F–sodium fluoride, which is a bone-specific biomarker of osteoblastic activity; 18F-choline and carbon 11–choline, which are directed at cell membrane metabolism; gallium 68–prostate-specific membrane antigen ligands; and, more recently, an amino acid analog, 18F-fluciclovine (anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid; also known as FACBC), which is also directed at cell membrane turnover. The mechanisms of actions of the clinically available PET tracers are reviewed, as well as their role in the imaging of prostate cancer with reference to relevant guidelines and the technical and imaging pearls and pitfalls of these tracers. ©RSNA, 2017
Elizabeth George, Peter Liacouras, Frank J. Rybicki,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1424-1450; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160165

Abstract:
Despite the rapid growth of three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in medicine, the accuracy and reproducibility of 3D printed medical models have not been thoroughly investigated. Although current technologies enable 3D models to be created with accuracy within the limits of clinical imaging spatial resolutions, this is not always achieved in practice. Inaccuracies are due to errors that occur during the imaging, segmentation, postprocessing, and 3D printing steps. Radiologists’ understanding of the factors that influence 3D printed model accuracy and the metrics used to measure this accuracy is key in directing appropriate practices and establishing reference standards and validation procedures. The authors review the various factors in each step of the 3D model printing process that contribute to model inaccuracy, including the intrinsic limitations of each printing technology. In addition, common sources of model inaccuracy are illustrated. Metrics involving comparisons of model dimensions and morphology that have been developed to quantify differences between 3D models also are described and illustrated. These metrics can be used to define the accuracy of a model, as compared with the reference standard, and to measure the variability of models created by different observers or using different workflows. The accuracies reported for specific indications of 3D printing are summarized, and potential guidelines for quality assurance and workflow assessment are discussed. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2017
Mario G. Santamarina, Ignacio Beddings, Guillermo V. Lermanda Holmgren, Hector Opazo Sanchez, Mariano M. Volpacchio
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1352-1370; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160180

Abstract:
The extrapleural space (EPS) is an anatomic space at the periphery of the chest that can be involved in a number of disease processes. This space lies between the inner surface of the ribs and the parietal pleura and contains adipose tissue, loose connective tissue, lymph nodes, vessels, endothoracic fascia, and the innermost intercostal muscle. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and almost invariably overlooked on conventional radiographic studies. At conventional radiography, the EPS occasionally can be seen when there is extrapleural fat proliferation, which might be confused with pleural thickening or pleural effusion. Knowledge of the normal anatomy of the EPS depicted at computed tomography (CT) and of the relationship of the EPS with parenchymal, pleural, and chest wall processes is key to the detection of extrapleural abnormalities. Disease entities that most commonly affect the EPS include chronic inflammatory disorders, infection, trauma, and neoplasms. Chronic inflammatory conditions and infectious processes of the lungs and pleurae induce adipocyte proliferation adjacent to the inflamed tissue, resulting in increased extrapleural fat. Chest wall trauma with extrapleural hematoma formation causes characteristic CT findings that enable differentiation of the extrapleural hematoma from hemothorax and warrant a different treatment approach. Extrapleural air is commonly seen in patients with pneumomediastinum and should be distinguished from pneumothorax because it requires a different treatment approach. Intrathoracic neoplasms can cause an increase in the attenuation of normal extrapleural fat owing to pleural inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, lymphangitic spread, or direct invasion by tumor. The normal and pathologic appearances of the EPS, as depicted at thoracic CT, and the differential diagnosis of findings in the EPS are reviewed. ©RSNA, 2017
Michael Baad, , Ingrid Reiser, David Paushter
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1408-1423; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160175

Abstract:
Artifacts are frequently encountered at clinical US, and while some are unwanted, others may reveal valuable information related to the structure and composition of the underlying tissue. They are essential in making ultrasonography (US) a clinically useful imaging modality but also can lead to errors in image interpretation and can obscure diagnoses. Many of these artifacts can be understood as deviations from the assumptions made in generating the image. Therefore, understanding the physical basis of US image formation is critical to understanding US artifacts and thus proper image interpretation. This review is limited to gray-scale artifacts and is organized into discussions of beam- and resolution-related, location-related (ie, path and speed), and attenuation-related artifacts. Specifically, artifacts discussed include those related to physical mechanisms of spatial resolution, speckle, secondary lobes, reflection and reverberation, refraction, speed of sound, and attenuation. The underlying physical mechanisms and appearances are discussed, followed by real-world strategies to mitigate or accentuate these artifacts, depending on the clinical application. Relatively new US modes, such as spatial compounding, tissue harmonic imaging, and speckle reduction imaging, are now often standard in many imaging protocols; the effects of these modes on US artifacts are discussed. The ability of a radiologist to understand the fundamental physics of ultrasound, recognize common US artifacts, and provide recommendations for altering the imaging technique is essential for proper image interpretation, troubleshooting, and utilization of the full potential of this modality. ©RSNA, 2017
Yuko Iraha, , Rin Iraha, Kimei Azama, , Maho Tsubakimoto, ,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1569-1586; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160170

Abstract:
Gynecologic emergencies include various diseases that result from adnexal and uterine disorders. Adnexal disorders may be classified into the following three categories: (a) disorders that cause hemorrhage (hemorrhagic ovarian cysts and ectopic pregnancies); (b) disorders related to adnexal tumors (adnexal torsion and rupture of ovarian tumors); and (c) disorders related to pelvic inflammatory disease, such as tubo-ovarian abscesses. Unusual adnexal torsion, such as massive ovarian edema, isolated fallopian tube torsion, and paraovarian cyst torsion, has also been described. Uterine disorders in gynecologic emergencies may be classified into two categories: (a) acute fibroid complications, including red degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma, torsion of subserosal myomas, and torsion of the uterus; and (b) causes of acute uterine bleeding, including retained products of conception and uterine arteriovenous malformations. Some gynecologic diseases are self-limited, while others cause infertility or life-threatening infection or bleeding if left untreated. Therefore, prompt and accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate life-saving treatment and for the preservation of fertility. The imaging findings are important when evaluating acute gynecologic diseases because the symptoms and physical examination findings are often nonspecific and limited. Ultrasonography is the first-line imaging modality; however, when a definitive diagnosis cannot be established, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may narrow the differential diagnosis. Appropriate management requires radiologists to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of gynecologic emergencies. With respect to rare conditions, radiologists should take into account the representative findings presented in this article to increase diagnostic accuracy. ©RSNA, 2017
, Christine O. Menias, Meghan G. Lubner, Vincent M. Mellnick, Amy K. Hara, Terry S. Desser
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1461-1482; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160162

Abstract:
Targeted cancer therapies encompass an exponentially growing number of agents that involve a myriad of molecular pathways. To excel within this rapidly changing field of clinical oncology, radiologists must eschew traditional organ system–based approaches of cataloging adverse effects in favor of a conceptual framework that incorporates molecular mechanisms and associated clinical outcomes. Understanding molecular mechanisms that underlie imaging manifestations of adverse effects and known associations with treatment response allows radiologists to more effectively recognize adverse effects and differentiate them from tumor progression. Radiologists can therefore more effectively guide oncologists in the management of adverse effects and treatment decisions regarding continuation or cessation of drug therapy. Adverse effects from targeted cancer therapies can be classified into four categories: (a) category 1, on-target adverse effects associated with treatment response; (b) category 2, on-target adverse effects without associated treatment response; (c) category 3, off-target adverse effects; and (d) category 4, tumor necrosis–related adverse effects. This review focuses on adverse effects primarily within the abdomen and pelvis classified according to established or hypothesized molecular mechanisms and illustrated with images of classic examples and several potential emerging toxic effects. ©RSNA, 2017
, Benjamin W. Carney, Christopher R. Ingraham, Guy E. Johnson,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1246-1267; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160102

Abstract:
Endocrinopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders often resulting from pathologic sources of hormone production. When the clinical scenario, laboratory testing, and noninvasive imaging fail to aid confident identification of the source of hormone excess, endocrine venous sampling may localize obscure lesions to guide subsequent treatment. Knowledge of basic hormone signaling pathways, common pathophysiologic disruptions of these pathways, and serologic evaluation fosters informed conversations with referring physicians and effective patient selection. Success in the angiography suite requires familiarity with normal and variant anatomy of the multiple organs of the endocrine system, patient preparation, stimulation and sampling techniques, specimen handling, and results interpretation. (©)RSNA, 2017.
, , , Marta Gómez Cabrera, Jordi Broncano Cabrero,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1161-1180; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160101

Abstract:
Diagnosis and treatment of foot disease in patients with diabetes is a common clinical-radiologic challenge, particularly the differentiation of neuropathic arthropathy from osteomyelitis. Conventional clinical tests and imaging techniques have limited accuracy for evaluation of the diabetic foot. The introduction of morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in these patients has provided a qualitative leap in diagnosis. The characteristics of soft-tissue and bone marrow edema and their patterns of distribution throughout the foot allow discrimination between both entities. However, in certain scenarios, the application of MR imaging to this problem is limited because of overlapping features between the two and the coexistence of infection and neuropathic changes. Recent technical advances in MR imaging sequences have increased the capability to add functional quantitative information to structural information. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful to determine the presence and extension of osteomyelitis. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging may help to detect differences between the vascularization patterns of neuropathic arthropathy and osteomyelitis. MR angiography (with or without contrast material) is used in clinical practice to identify candidate distal vessels for revascularization. MR neurography, and especially diffusion-tensor imaging, provides quantitative information about neural damage. These new sequences may help in assessment of the different pathophysiologic conditions that occur in the diabetic foot. The physical basis of these techniques, their limitations, and their potential applications for diabetic foot assessment are detailed in this article. The introduction of advanced MR imaging multiparametric protocols, with the aim of enhancing the overall diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging, may help in treatment decision making and lead to improved patient outcomes. © RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1218-1235; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160098

Abstract:
Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017
, Jigar B. Patel, Bimal Vyas, Michael Toland, Beverly Collins, Daniel J. Vreeman, Swapna Abhyankar, Eliot L. Siegel, Daniel L. Rubin, Curtis P. Langlotz
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1099-1110; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160188

Abstract:
Radiology procedure codes are a fundamental part of most radiology workflows, such as ordering, scheduling, billing, and image interpretation. Nonstandardized unstructured procedure codes have typically been used in radiology departments. Such codes may be sufficient for specific purposes, but they offer limited support for interoperability. As radiology workflows and the various forms of clinical data exchange have become more sophisticated, the need for more advanced interoperability with use of standardized structured codes has increased. For example, structured codes facilitate the automated identification of relevant prior imaging studies and the collection of data for radiation dose tracking. The authors review the role of imaging procedure codes in radiology departments and across the health care enterprise. Standards for radiology procedure coding are described, and the mechanisms of structured coding systems are reviewed. In particular, the structure of the RadLex™ Playbook coding system and examples of the use of this system are described. Harmonization of the RadLex Playbook system with the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes standard, which is currently in progress, also is described. The benefits and challenges of adopting standardized codes—especially the difficulties in mapping local codes to standardized codes—are reviewed. Tools and strategies for mitigating these challenges, including the use of billing codes as an intermediate step in mapping, also are reviewed. In addition, the authors describe how to use the RadLex Playbook Web service application programming interface for partial automation of code mapping. © RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1304-1305; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160171

Abstract:
CT angiographic image quality and radiation dose can be optimized for each patient by applying knowledge of the principles of intravenous contrast material flow and the factors that influence contrast enhancement.
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1270-1289; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160128

Abstract:
Pregnancy results in substantial hemodynamic and prothrombotic changes that form the foundation for downstream vascular complications, both during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In addition, several important risk factors, including older patient age, diabetes, and smoking, can increase the risk for vascular-related pregnancy complications. Because radiologists often play an important role in evaluation of the pregnant patient, understanding the pathophysiology of vascular-related complications in pregnancy and their imaging appearances is essential for diagnostic accuracy. The authors review relevant normal physiologic changes of pregnancy, pathophysiologic changes, and imaging features of vascular conditions that can manifest in conjunction with pregnancy. Particular attention is given to pertinent imaging information that radiologists should provide to referring clinicians to optimally affect the management of pregnant patients as well as women in the peripartum and postpartum stages. Among the complications discussed are preeclampsia; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome; spontaneous coronary artery dissection; placental abruption; amniotic fluid embolism and acute pulmonary embolism; dural venous sinus thrombosis; ovarian vein thrombophlebitis; vasa previa; uterine arteriovenous malformations; heritable aortopathies; and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. To help radiologists avoid the use of unnecessary ionizing radiation in pregnancy, imaging examination selection and optimization are also reviewed. Radiologists should be familiar with the physiologic changes of pregnancy, radiation risks during gestation, and pregnancy-related vascular complications to improve imaging examination selection, diagnosis, and clinical management. ©RSNA, 2017
, Mithil B. Pandhi, Stephen M. Seedial, Martin F. Errea, , Robert K. Ryu,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1236-1245; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160167

Abstract:
Use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (RIVCFs) has grown exponentially since their introduction into clinical practice, but many of these devices are not retrieved. Some are not retrieved due to poor clinical follow-up, but other devices remain in situ for extended periods because they present significant technical challenges during retrieval. Because of these and other factors, many of these devices were thus left in place permanently. However, recent data have placed a renewed emphasis on device retrieval due to increased risk of RIVCF-related complications, which are positively correlated with filter dwell time. Development of advanced filter retrieval techniques has had a significant impact on the removal of embedded RIVCFs, permitting retrieval of the majority of devices. The purpose of this article is to present an imaging and data review of the dominant device-related factors that complicate RIVCF retrieval and to describe the relevant advanced retrieval techniques to manage these factors. RIVCF imaging is frequently encountered in daily clinical practice via various imaging modalities. Therefore, diagnostic radiologists can play a vital role in identifying filter-related issues. Familiarity with the context for managing these issues in the interventional suite is essential for improving triage and care of patients with RIVCFs. © RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1024-1036; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160166

Abstract:
The internal thoracic (IT) nodal basin is a first-echelon drainage pathway in the breast, accounting for up to a quarter of its lymphatic drainage, primarily from the deep structures of the breast. The presence of internal thoracic node (ITN) metastases upstages the breast cancer (BC) patient to a minimum of clinical stage III disease. Medial tumors, deep tumors, young age, axillary nodal metastases, tumors of a high nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, and triple-negative hormone receptor status are predisposing factors for ITN metastases from primary BC. It has been observed that medial tumors carry a worse prognosis than lateral tumors when all other factors are equal, indicating that understaging of ITN has a significant impact on patient outcomes. Despite the established prognostic significance of IT adenopathy in BC, this nodal basin is not routinely staged due to the difficulty in accessing it and due to the controversy regarding its management. Since the initial ITN studies in the 1960s, improvement in imaging techniques and the availability of minimally invasive biopsy techniques have fueled renewed interest in ITNs and their clinical significance in BC. Radiologists who image and diagnose BC can offer more accurate staging assessments by consistently evaluating the IT nodal chain in the BC patient. In this article, the authors discuss current knowledge of the ITNs in BC and review ITN anatomy. The imaging appearance of pathologic ITNs using various modalities, potential mimics of IT adenopathy, and image-guided sampling techniques are described. A succinct discussion of the clinical management of ITN-positive BC and its challenges is also included. © RSNA, 2017
, Kenneth S. Lee, Mahesh M. Thapa, Humberto G. Rosas
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1181-1201; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160137

Abstract:
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and osteoarticular infection can cause nonspecific articular and periarticular complaints in children. Although contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is the reference standard imaging modality, musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) is emerging as an important adjunct imaging modality that can provide valuable information relatively quickly without use of radiation or the need for sedation. However, diagnostic accuracy requires a systemic approach, familiarity with various US techniques, and an understanding of maturation-related changes. Specifically, the use of dynamic, Doppler, and/or multifocal US assessments can help confirm sites of disease, monitor therapy response, and guide interventions. In patients with JIA, ongoing synovial inflammation can lead to articular and periarticular changes, including synovitis, tenosynovitis, cartilage damage, bone changes, and enthesopathy. Although these findings can manifest in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis, important differences and pitfalls exist because of the unique changes associated with an immature and maturing skeleton. In patients who are clinically suspected of having osteoarticular infection, the inability of US to evaluate the bone marrow decreases its sensitivity. Therefore, the US findings should be interpreted with caution because juxtacortical inflammation is suggestive, but neither sensitive nor specific, for underlying osteomyelitis. Similarly, the absence of a joint effusion makes septic arthritis extremely unlikely but not impossible. US findings of JIA and osteoarticular infection often overlap. Although certain clinical scenarios, laboratory findings, and imaging appearances can favor one diagnosis over the other, fluid analysis may still be required for definitive diagnosis and optimal treatment. US is the preferred modality for fluid aspiration and administering intra-articular corticosteroid therapy. © RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1111-1118; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160107

Abstract:
Audience response systems have become more commonplace in radiology residency programs in the last 10 years, as a means to engage learners and promote improved learning and retention. A variety of systems are currently in use. RSNA Diagnosis Live™ provides unique features that are innovative, particularly for radiology resident education. One specific example is the ability to annotate questions with subspecialty tags, which allows resident performance to be tracked over time. In addition, deficiencies in learning can be monitored for each trainee and analytics can be provided, allowing documentation of resident performance improvement. Finally, automated feedback is given not only to the instructor, but also to the trainee. Online supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2017
, Sebastian McWilliams, Vincent M. Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Meghan G. Lubner, , Christine O. Menias
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1119-1134; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160110

Abstract:
Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing—largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent. Secondary mycotic organisms such as Candida and Aspergillus species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Mucorales fungi are opportunistic, less virulent pathogens. Nocardia and Actinomyces species are gram-positive bacteria that behave like fungi in terms of their growth pattern and cause fungal-like invasive indolent infections; thus, these organisms are included in this review. Fungal and fungal-like infections can affect a variety of organ systems and include conditions such as meningitis, sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and enteritis. As awareness of these infections increases, timely diagnosis and treatment will become even more important. Imaging has a critical role in the evaluation of disease activity, therapy response, and related complications. Using an organ-based approach with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography to gain familiarity with the appearances of these infections enables timely and accurate diagnoses. ©RSNA, 2017
Richard A. Marshall, Michael J. Weaver, ,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1202-1217; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160127

Abstract:
Femoral fracture in the setting of a hip arthroplasty is an increasingly common complication encountered in the emergency department (ED). Diagnosis and management of periprosthetic fractures are complicated, and orthopedic surgeons rely on imaging findings to guide the appropriate management approach to the injury. Delay in identification and appropriate definitive management of periprosthetic fractures is associated with high morbidity and mortality. At present, the Vancouver classification system for periprosthetic hip fractures is the most common classification system used by orthopedic surgeons. It relies on three radiographic criteria—fracture location, prosthesis stability, and quality of the femoral bone stock—to characterize these fractures and to help guide management decisions. Familiarly with the Vancouver classification system allows radiologists to both recognize and communicate the most clinically relevant imaging findings to the treating orthopedic surgeon. This article reviews the imaging workup for hip pain in patients with a femoral prosthesis, risk factors for periprosthetic fracture, and the expected normal appearance of the most commonly encountered types of femoral prostheses. Fracture terminology and the Vancouver classification system are reviewed in a simplified algorithm with emphasis on the most common patterns of periprosthetic fractures, the radiologic determinants of prosthesis stability and bone quality, and the management implications of these imaging findings. Finally, multiple instructive clinical cases are used to demonstrate critical application of the classification system and to highlight the clinical implications of the imaging findings. ©RSNA, 2017
, Anokh Pahwa, Maitraya Patel, Jeffrey Petersen, Michael J. Nguyen, Cecilia M. Jude
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1059-1083; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160150

Abstract:
Appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract that may manifest with symptoms of appendicitis, right lower quadrant pain, or palpable mass, leading to imaging or surgical intervention. The majority of appendiceal masses consist of primary epithelial neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Epithelial neoplasms—mucinous and nonmucinous types—are more often detected at imaging than NETs due to their larger size and propensity for peritoneal spread and metastatic disease. Epithelial mucinous neoplasms are defined by the presence of mucin, detected at radiologic and pathologic examination. A mucocele or pseudomyxoma peritonei from epithelial mucinous tumors are the two most common cross-sectional imaging findings of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Nonmucinous epithelial tumors are less common and manifest as masses similar to colonic-type malignancies. NETs are often discovered incidentally at appendectomy due to their small size and nonaggressive behavior. Imaging findings of primary appendiceal tumors may overlap with those of acute appendicitis. Additionally, an appendiceal mass may cause acute appendicitis, obscuring the underlying mass. Other neoplasms including lymphoma, sarcoma, mesenchymal and nerve sheath tumors, or secondary malignant involvement of the appendix are rare. Treatment depends on the histologic subtype and extent of disease. Detailed description of organ, nodal, and peritoneal involvement informs surgical management with the goal of complete cytoreduction. Novel treatments such as hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have increased survival for patients with mucinous tumors. ©RSNA, 2017
Hsiang-Jer Tseng, Srihari Veeraraghavan, , ,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1037-1058; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160174

Abstract:
Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide important quantitative information about lung function and can be used to elucidate pathologic conditions responsible for respiratory symptoms, assess the severity and course of disease, and evaluate the patient for suitability and timing for lung transplantation. They are typically used in tandem with chest imaging, along with other ancillary data, to arrive at a specific diagnosis. PFTs may provide the radiologist with clues to the diagnosis and grading of a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. In this review, the authors discuss the clinical use of PFTs, their major components, and important measurements and graphical representations that are essential for understanding and interpreting the results. The key components of PFT panels—static lung volumes, dynamic lung function (spirometry), and diffusion capacity—are explained. The authors present a general algorithmic approach for problem solving, with recognition of common patterns of results (obstructive, restrictive, mixed, nonspecific, and normal). Pulmonary diseases from each of the major patterns and chest imaging are illustrated, and correlations between particular PFT results and disease severity and morphology at imaging are examined. Common pitfalls encountered during interpretation are also highlighted. A basic understanding of the mechanics of PFTs, characteristic patterns in important diseases, and correlation between lung function and imaging findings may assist the radiologist in diagnosis and follow-up of key pulmonary diseases and strengthen the radiologist’s role as part of a multidisciplinary diagnostic team. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2017
Jamie Marko, , Alex L. Aubin, Isabell A. Sesterhenn
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1085-1098; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160164

Abstract:
Testicular seminoma is the most common malignant tumor of the testis. It classically manifests as a painless mass. Radiologic evaluation with high-frequency ultrasonography (US) is critical for diagnosis. Seminomas are usually homogeneously hypoechoic masses at US. In challenging cases, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may help confirm that a mass is intratesticular and provide data for local staging. Computed tomography (CT) provides valuable information for staging, including the presence and size of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Testicular seminoma is treated with radical inguinal orchiectomy and is highly curable even at advanced stages of disease. Several neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions may mimic testicular seminoma at imaging. Benign mimics include segmental infarction, hematoma, infection, epidermoid cyst, adrenal rests, sarcoidosis, splenogonadal fusion, and sex cord–stromal tumors. Malignant mimics include nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, lymphoma, and metastases. These conditions are individually reviewed with emphasis on features that allow differentiation from seminoma. Spermatocytic tumor, formerly known as spermatocytic seminoma, accounts for only 1% of testicular tumors. It is distinct from classic seminoma, with unique histologic, molecular, and genetic features. It affects an older patient population than classic seminoma and demonstrates indolent clinical behavior. Radiologists serve a key role in diagnosis, staging, and surveillance of patients with seminoma. A thorough knowledge of related clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings will help the radiologist contribute to high-quality interdisciplinary care of affected patients.
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1290-1303; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160126

Abstract:
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an important cause of childhood mortality. Despite the widespread use of ultrasonography (US) as a screening tool, the prenatal detection rate is suboptimal. Improvement of the initial screening examination, which is performed in low-risk populations and often interpreted by community radiologists, targets a point in the screening process that is likely to have the largest population effect. If the goal of community-based screenings is to detect cases that may be abnormal and refer those to specialized centers for complete assessment, it is logical to use a checklist to confirm normal anatomy. This article presents a stepwise process to evaluate fetal cardiac anatomy using comparison with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images, which are more familiar to radiologists in busy general practices. In addition, this article presents a checklist for assessment of the four-chamber view and demonstrates the expected normal appearance of the outflow tract views as well as the additional views required for complex obstetric US. These additional views include the aortic arch and bicaval views, three-vessel view (3VV), and three-vessel trachea view (3TV). CHD may be isolated, but it may indicate aneuploidy or a syndrome that, if present, determines the prognosis. In isolated CHD, the prognosis is determined by the exact nature of the abnormalities. In particular, duct-dependent disease if undiagnosed results in circulatory collapse in the infant once the ductus closes. If the heart does not look normal, the patient should be referred for detailed evaluation. Timely diagnosis of significant CHD allows for development of a personalized pregnancy management plan. © RSNA, 2017
Michelle V. Lee, , Michyla L. Bowerson, Marina I. Mityul, , , , , Ann E. McCullough,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1005-1023; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160144

Abstract:
Harmful mutations of the BRCA tumor suppressor genes result in a greater lifetime risk for malignancy—breast and ovarian cancers in particular. An increased risk for male breast, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, pancreatic, prostate, and colon cancers also has been reported. The BRCA gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and tends to be highly penetrant; thus, there is an increased incidence of these cancers in affected families. Compared with sporadic tumors, BRCA-associated malignancies have unique manifestations, clinical features, and pathologic profiles. Manifestation at an early patient age, high-grade tumors, and an aggressive clinical course are common features of BRCA-associated malignancies. Understanding the behavior of these cancers aids in identification of affected individuals and families, who can then make informed decisions regarding their future health. Enhanced screening, prophylactic surgery, and chemoprevention are options for managing cancer risk factors in these individuals. Imaging has an important role in the screening, evaluation, staging, and follow-up of BRCA-associated malignancies. Supplemental screening of BRCA mutation carriers often begins at an early age and is critical for early and accurate cancer diagnoses. The authors review the etiopathogenesis and imaging features of BRCA-associated malignancies, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to determining the diagnosis, and the treatment of patients who have these mutations to improve their outcomes. © RSNA, 2017
, Brett P. Sjoberg, Sarah E. Stilwill, Leif E. Jensen, Maryam Rezvani,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1135-1160; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160121

Abstract:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing immune-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD includes two major disease entities: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of these complex disorders. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance enterographic techniques have been refined in recent years to provide a superb means of evaluating the gastrointestinal tract for suspected IBD. Although the intestinal imaging manifestations of IBD have been extensively discussed in the radiology literature, extraintestinal imaging manifestations of IBD have received less attention. Multiple extraintestinal manifestations may be seen in IBD, including those of gastrointestinal (hepatobiliary and pancreatic), genitourinary, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cardiac, ocular, and dermatologic disorders. Although many associations between IBD and extraintestinal organ systems have been well established, other associations have not been fully elucidated. Some extraintestinal disorders may share a common pathogenesis with IBD. Other extraintestinal disorders may occur as a result of unintended treatment-related complications of IBD. Although extraintestinal disorders within the abdomen and pelvis may be well depicted with cross-sectional enterography, other musculoskeletal and thoracic disorders may be less evident with such examinations and may warrant further investigation with additional imaging examinations or may be readily apparent from the findings at physical examination. Radiologists involved in the interpretation of IBD imaging examinations must be aware of potential extraintestinal manifestations, to provide referring clinicians with an accurate and comprehensive profile of patients with these complex disorders. © RSNA, 2017
Erratum
Brett S. Talbot, Christopher P. Gange, Apeksha Chaturvedi, Nina Klionsky, Susan K. Hobbs,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1004-1004; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017174003

Erratum
Nanda Venkatanarasimha, Karthik Damodharan, Apoorva Gogna, Sum Leong, Chow Wei Too, Ankur Patel, Kiang Hiong Tay, Bien Soo Tan, Richard Lo, Farah Irani
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1004-1004; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017174004

Erratum
Mizuki Nishino, Simon K. Ashiku, Olivier N. Kocher, Robert L. Thurer, Phillip M. Boiselle,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1004-1004; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017174002

, Maria A. Manning, Markku M. Miettinen
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 797-812; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160201

Abstract:
Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, solitary fibrous tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal chondro-osseous sarcomas, vascular sarcomas, and sarcomas of uncertain differentiation uncommonly arise in the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall. Although these lesions are rare sarcomas and their imaging features overlap, familiarity with the locations where they occur and their imaging features is important so they can be diagnosed accurately. The anatomic location and clinical history are important factors in the differential diagnosis of these lesions because metastasis, more-common sarcomas, borderline fibroblastic proliferations (such as desmoid tumors), and endometriosis have imaging findings that overlap with those of these uncommon sarcomas. In this article, the clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings of uncommon soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall are reviewed, with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis.
, , , Saurabh Gupta, Stephen F. Miller
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 1001-1002; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160143

Abstract:
The most important clues to narrow differential diagnosis of benign bone tumors in the pediatric population include patient age, location of the lesion, number of lesions, type of matrix, margin features, and presence of periosteal reaction and extraosseous extension; a systemic imaging approach helps guide clinical management and prevent unnecessary patient anxiety and medical intervention.
Eugenio Zalaquett, Christine Menias, Francisco Garrido, Matías Vargas, José Francisco Olivares, Daniel Campos, Natalia Pinochet, Antonio Luna, ,
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 901-923; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160172

Abstract:
Hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of a tapeworm that is endemic to many regions around the world—South America, Africa, and Asia, in particular. Humans are infected as intermediate hosts in the parasite’s life cycle; thus, HD can be seen in persons living in areas where animal husbandry is practiced. However, owing to the varied patterns of migration and immigration during the past several decades, HD can be diagnosed in individuals living anywhere. The liver is the most common organ involved, with hepatic HD accounting for the majority of published cases. However, HD can affect multiple organs and tissues other than the liver, including the spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, peritoneum, muscles, and brain. Knowledge of the route of spread, clinical findings at presentation, and possible complications involving each extrahepatic location can be useful for the radiologist when evaluating imaging findings in patients suspected of having HD. The ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of extrahepatic hydatid lesions frequently simulate those of hepatic HD, as long as rupture, bleeding, and/or superimposed bacterial infection has not occurred. Specific features of HD seen at different extrahepatic sites can help tailor the diagnosis. The differential diagnoses that can mimic HD at every nonhepatic location should be considered, as many of these entities are common, especially in nonendemic areas. ©RSNA, 2017
RadioGraphics, Volume 37, pp 979-998; https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2017160155

Abstract:
The placenta plays a crucial role throughout pregnancy, and its importance may be overlooked during routine antenatal imaging evaluation. Detailed systematic assessment of the placenta at ultrasonography (US), the standard imaging examination during pregnancy, is important. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta along with the multimodality and methodical approach for evaluation of its related abnormalities is necessary, so that radiologists can alert clinicians regarding appropriate prompt management decisions. This will potentially decrease fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This article reviews early placental formation and the expected imaging appearance of the placenta during pregnancy, as well as variations in its morphology. It also discusses various placental diseases and their potential clinical consequences. Placental pathologic conditions include abnormalities of placental size, cord insertion, placental and cord location, and placental adherence. Other conditions such as bleeding in and around the placenta, as well as trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic tumors of the placenta, are also discussed. US with Doppler imaging is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental evaluation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is reserved for equivocal cases or when additional information is needed. Computed tomography (CT) has a limited role in evaluation of placental abnormalities because of the ionizing radiation exposure and the relatively limited assessment of the placenta; however, CT can provide important information in specific circumstances, particularly evaluation of trauma and staging of choriocarcinoma. This article also addresses recent techniques and updates in placental imaging, including elastography, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. These advanced imaging techniques may provide additional information in evaluation of abnormal placental adherence and new insights into placental pathophysiology in selected patients. Online supplemental material is available for this article.©RSNA, 2017
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