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Siddharth Vedula, Claudia Doblinger, Desiree Pacheco, Jeffrey York, Sophie Bacq, Michael Russo, Tom Dean
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0143

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship is routinely promoted as a solution to our most pressing societal and environmental challenges, a means to address issues ranging from poverty to human-induced climate change. Two emerging literature streams have sought to examine how and when such solutions may emerge. In this review we examine the literature on social (SE) and environmental (EE) entrepreneurship to expose potential linkages, disconnects, and a path forward. We do so by combining bibliometric network analysis with a detailed qualitative review of the literature from 1994 to 2019. Through this process we: 1) identify a pattern of convergent evolution, whereby SE and EE share some common elements today, while originating in distinct scholarly communities with different epistemological roots, 2) offer a conceptual framework that identifies specific areas for collaboration and learning between SE and EE, and 3) propose how these streams can be integrated, to elevate the impact of the field of entrepreneurship. We argue that such an integration can enable entrepreneurship research to fulfill its promise of understanding how and when entrepreneurial action contributes to the public good.
Victoria Sevcenko, Lynn Wu, Aleksandra 'Olenka' Kacperczyk, Sendil Ethiraj
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0130

Abstract:
The division of firm surplus between labor and shareholders, and its impact on firms’ value creation, are central topics in strategy theory and practice. Early studies of value appropriation within firms devoted considerable attention to the dynamics of bargaining between labor— typically, organized labor—and the owners of capital. Since the 1960s, however, a decline in unionization across most of the major economies and a series of technological and economic changes have led to profound shifts in the bargaining process between labor and capital. This review synthesizes the findings of prior literature and argues for three increasingly important and often-overlooked consequences of these changes. First, individual bargaining has dramatically expanded the range of worker characteristics, values, and preferences that can now be accommodated in employment arrangements. Second, surplus division has become a strategic variable that organizations can differentiate on. Third, labor-market institutions have become more varied, and their role in setting the terms of negotiation has become more prominent.
Tae-Youn Park, Sanghee Park, Bruce Barry
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0251

Abstract:
We review and synthesize research on the effects of incentives on ethical and unethical behavior. Our review of 361 conceptual and empirical articles, which are scattered across multiple disciplines (e.g., management, psychology, economics, education, healthcare delivery), reveals wide variation in how they conceptualize key concepts (i.e., incentives, ethics), how they theorize the effects, and what samples and research methods they use in empirical tests. We identify seven conceptual explanations that explain the link between incentives and unethicality, and synthesize them into three primary processes: cost-benefit comparison, motivated reasoning, and decreases in prosocial motivation. Our review of empirical evidence shows that some effects are relatively more established (e.g., goal-driven motivated reasoning) than others (e.g., prosocial motivation decline), but they all await more field (vs. laboratory experiments) evidence. In addition, giving substantial attention to the forms of unethicality in specific contexts, we show whether and how the effects of incentives on unethicality vary by professional domains, especially in education, healthcare delivery, and for-profit business. Building on the review, we present a multilevel, cyclical process model capturing how incentives and unethicality are related. We conclude by identifying opportunities for future research.
Prithwiraj Choudhury
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0242

Abstract:
I review and integrate a wide range of literature that has examined how geographic mobility of high-skilled workers creates value for organizations and individuals. Drawing on this interdisciplinary literature, I document that geographic mobility creates value by facilitating the transfer and recombination of knowledge, transfer of social capital, organizational norms, and financial capital, as well as by creating opportunities for individuals to develop skills, seek resources, and experience wage increases. I also review the literature around geographic immobility and synthesize this body of research under a framework of geographic mobility frictions that constrain and add costs to geographic mobility. I enumerate four key types of frictions: regulatory frictions, occupational/organizational frictions, personal frictions, and economic/environmental frictions, which act as impediments to geographic mobility. I then propose a research agenda around studying whether and how provisioning geographic flexibility through ‘work-from-anywhere’ (WFA) policies might help individuals and firms capture value from geographic mobility and mitigate adverse effects of geographic mobility frictions. I also outline future research questions related to how adoption of geographic flexibility might alter future patterns of geographic mobility, and the future geography of work.
Giada Baldessarelli, Ileana Stigliani, Kimberly Elsbach
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0198

Abstract:
Organizational aesthetics comprises a way of understanding organizational life based on immediate sensory reactions (i.e., sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) to the material components of organizing (e.g., artifacts, physical settings, and material practices). Despite the growing interest in the topic, however, research is fragmented across management areas. To advance scholarly knowledge in this field, we reviewed the empirical work examining aesthetics in organizations. Our review yields two major insights. First, we identify three perspectives on the role of aesthetics. Scholars have treated aesthetics as (1) a directed stimulus (that elicits product evaluation and work organization), (2) a knowledge tool (that is entwined with creative work and everyday tasks), or (3) an open-ended outcome (that serves as a personal experience). Second, we find that each perspective highlights emotional and cognitive mechanisms through which aesthetics is implicated in organizing. Building on these two insights, our review offers an integrative framework that provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the field, illuminating the work of aesthetics in and around organizations and providing avenues for future studies.
Filip Lievens, Spencer Harrison, Patrick Mussel, Jordan Litman
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0203

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the emergent importance of curiosity at work for individuals and organizations by reviewing management research on curiosity at work. We start by leveraging prior reviews on early and contemporary foundations of the curiosity construct in the larger psychological literature, with a focus on definitional clarity, dimensionality, and differences with other constructs in its nomological network. Next, we review different streams of management research on curiosity at work (i.e., broad generative and nongenerative effects, curiosity as a catalyst for personal action, curiosity as a catalyst for interpersonal action, curiosity as a catalyst for leadership, curiosity as an organizational or professional norm, and curiosity as a catalyst for organizing). Interweaving these diverse literatures and research streams gives us the wherewithal to provide conceptual clarity in curiosity research and highlight how curiosity has not only generative effects at the individual level but acts also as a more dynamic, interpersonal, and organizational property. In addition, our review brings attention to the potential dark side of curiosity. We end by outlining how the more nuanced insights of the role of curiosity at work generated by our review provide an impetus for future research.
Luis L. Martins, Wonbin Sohn
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0109

Abstract:
The diversity literature has long proposed that diversity benefits team performance because the broader range of information, knowledge, and perspectives that members with different attributes bring to their teams enhances the cognitive processes through which teams perform their tasks. This paper reviews the empirical research based in this argument to identify what we know about the effects of diversity on team cognitive processes and identify directions for future research. We first differentiate the effects of diversity that operate through differences in cognitive resources from those that operate through differences in cognitive structures, both of which may derive from diversity in the same attributes. Then, basing our analysis in the view of teams as information processors, we review the findings of research on how diversity affects cognitive processes associated with the two major aspects of information processing – information surfacing and information combination – through which teams perform their tasks. Based on the review, we point to consistent themes, areas in need of clarification, research gaps, and avenues for future research, particularly focusing on improving the specification of theoretical mechanisms, focusing examinations of contingency effects and attending to boundary conditions, and increasing research on how demographic diversity affects team cognitive processes.
William W. Maddux, Jackson G. Lu, Salvatore J. Affinito, Adam D. Galinsky
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 345-376; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0138

Abstract:
As globalization has become a defining issue for business and society in the 21st century, an increasing amount of research has examined how multicultural experiences affect a variety of psychological and organizational outcomes. We define multicultural experiences as exposure to or interactions with elements and/or members of different cultures. We then provide a comprehensive review of the literature and detail how multicultural experiences impact a variety of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational outcomes, including creativity, psychological adjustment, intergroup bias, trust, morality, leadership effectiveness, and individual/firm performance. We also explore key mechanisms and boundary conditions that have also emerged. We then present a new theoretical framework—The Structure-Appraisal Model of Multicultural Experiences—that organizes the overall pattern of findings and provides a roadmap for future research. The structure part of model proposes that deeper multicultural experiences produce integrative processes that transform intrapersonal cognition, whereas broader multicultural experiences activate comparative processes that influence interpersonal attitudes and behaviors. The appraisal part of our model notes that these intrapersonal and interpersonal effects are only likely to occur when appraisals of one’s multicultural experiences are positive rather than negative. We conclude by discussing practical implications and future directions for understanding multicultural experiences.
Jochem Kroezen, Davide Ravasi, Innan Sasaki, Monika Żebrowska, Roy Suddaby
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 502-536; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0145

Abstract:
The concept of craft has long lived in the margins of organizational research and has typically been equated with a primitive form of manufacturing. Craft, however, seems to have had a resurgence as of late, and is now increasingly being associated with alternative approaches to work and organization in contemporary society. Yet, in spite of a growing stream of research on the phenomenon, insights have remained fragmented thus far due to a lack of common theoretical infrastructure. In an effort to synthesize the disparate threads of research on craft, we conducted an interpretive review of the use of the concept in management and organizational literature over the past century. Based on this review, we propose a reconceptualization of craft as a timeless approach to work that prioritizes human engagement over machine control. We identify the distinct work skills and attitudes that are typically associated with craft and illustrate how these appear across two conventional configurations (traditional and industrialized craft) and three contemporaneous configurations (technical, pure, and creative craft) that are visible in the literature. Finally, we suggest how our framework could be used as a general theory for understanding alternative approaches to work against the backdrop of growing affordances of machine technology and sketch future research avenues for exploring specific craft-related tensions and evolutionary processes.
Sharon K. Parker, Mary K Ward, Gwenith G. Fisher
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 406-454; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0057

Abstract:
Understanding whether and how work design affects human cognition is important because: (1) cognition is necessary for job performance, (2) digital technologies increase the need for cognition, and (3) it is vital to maintain cognitive functioning in the mature workforce. We synthesize research from work design, human factors, learning, occupational health, and lifespan perspectives. Defining cognition in terms of both knowledge and cognitive processes/fluid abilities, we show that five types of work characteristics (job complexity, job autonomy, relational work design, job feedback, and psychosocial demands) affect employees’ cognition via multiple pathways. In the short-to-medium term, we identify three cognitively-enriching pathways (opportunity for use of cognition, accelerated knowledge acquisition, motivated exploratory learning) and two cognitively-harmful pathways (strain-impaired cognition, depleted cognitive capacity). We also identify three longer-term pathways: cognitive preservation, accumulated knowledge, and ill-health impairment). Based on the emerging evidence for the role of work design in promoting cognition, we propose an integrative model suggesting that short-to-medium term processes between work design and cognition accumulate to affect longer-term cognitive outcomes, such as the prevention of cognitive decline as one ages. We also identify further directions for research and methodological improvements.
Susan Mohammed, Ramon Rico, Kent K. Alipour
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 455-501; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0159

Abstract:
A surprising and ironic lack of shared cognition currently exists about team cognition, including how to define the construct, organize the research, and integrate across multiple disjointed constructs. In response to team cognition at a critical crossroad, we provide a comprehensive and cross-disciplinary review, highlighting similarities and differences between constructs and integrating across constructs. Specifically, we synthesize ten disjointed team cognition constructs into three overarching dimensions. By establishing a common vocabulary to describe team cognition, the three-dimensional framework enhances our ability to evaluate accumulated research, recognize points of intersection, and identify key research gaps. Whereas the three-dimensional framework unites the team cognition literature conceptually, we see networks as a powerful tool to unite the team cognition literature methodologically. Networks nicely merge the structure and content of team cognition, multiple knowledge domains, the interrelationship between cognitive processes and cognitive representations, and the measurement capability to answer new and sophisticated research questions. By providing conceptual integration within a network configuration, we offer theoretical and measurement redirection to hasten the next frontier of team cognition research.
Jia Li, Daan van Knippenberg
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 577-606; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0110

Abstract:
Membership change – adding, replacing, and losing members – is a common phenomenon in work teams and charts a different theoretical space from prior team research assuming stable team membership and shared team properties. Based on a comprehensive review of 133 empirical studies on team membership change since 1948, we propose a temporal framework pertaining to the causes and consequences of membership change. Three key theoretical insights emerge from our evidence-based integration: (a) Membership change first disrupts team cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal processes and states (e.g., transactive memory systems, coordination) but can benefit team performance after teams adapt to form new processes and states; (b) whether and to what extent team performance benefits from membership change is contingent on magnitude of membership change, requirements of team communication, member adaptation-related attributes, change in team knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs), and team knowledge work; (c) poor team experiences motivate member departure and may make it challenging for newcomers to join and teams to adapt to membership change. Our review moves team research into new avenues that do not presume stable team membership and shared team properties in understanding team functioning and performance and outlines key directions to advance integrative theory.
Danbee Chon, Sim B. Sitkin
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 607-651; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0079

Abstract:
Are self-aware leaders more effective? Are self-aware workers more productive and satisfied? Studies of self-awareness, which have been undertaken in a range of fields, have implications for a wide variety of topics in organizational behavior. Yet this research has been scattered, resulting in gaps, siloed insights, a lack of clear and consistent conceptualization, and the confounding of causes and effects with self-awareness itself. The authors reviewed the organizational behavior and psychology literatures to distinguish, summarize, and assess research on self-awareness as both process and content. Our synthesis of past work on the content of self-awareness is organized around three distinct targets: internal, external, and social. We close with implications for future research.
Anna T. Mayo, Christopher G. Myers, Kathleen M. Sutcliffe
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 537-576; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0115

Abstract:
We review research on “organizational science and health care” (OSHC), defined broadly as research focusing on topics commonly studied in the organizational and management literatures, and conducted in health care settings. Using almost 700 articles published in leading organizational science (OS) and health care (HC) journals in the past decade, we first apply network methods to map this burgeoning field of research, highlighting topics that are more in the foreground (and background) of the field. We then conduct an in-depth review of recent and influential articles studying the five most prominent topics (organizational change, learning, coordination/cooperation, teams/structure, and performance). Next we synthesize this research, highlighting the patient-centered, dynamic, and specialized nature of health care work, and detailing disciplinary distinctions across studies published in OS and HC journals. Whereas research in OS journals tends to emphasize broad generalizability and organizing processes, research in HC journals tends to emphasize contextualized problems and the role of organizational structures and practices in solving them. We conclude by articulating the need for a broader orientation that integrates both of these disciplinary orientations, in ways that could allow scholars to advance OSHC with future research that is both rigorous and relevant.
Ivana Naumovska, Vibha Gaba, Henrich R. Greve
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 377-405; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0102

Abstract:
The diffusion of organizational practices remains a central concern for scholars from diverse disciplines and backgrounds. We assess the most recent 20 years of research on inter-organizational diffusion to establish findings that are now conclusive and identify important questions or areas of research that remain unaddressed. We identify five key issues with the literature, which are largely a consequence of viewing diffusion as a source of homogeneity across organizations. We further propose a point of view that calls for a more fundamental reorientation of diffusion research. Our main contention is that researchers have focused on diffusion processes as producing similarities among organizations but have overlooked theoretical and empirical indications that diffusion processes often create and sustain differences among organizations. We seek to draw attention to this omission, demonstrate its significance, and make a case for a reorientation of diffusion research. In doing so, we hope to advance a more realistic future research agenda that considers diffusion as a source of both homogeneity and heterogeneity across organizations.
Kevin Rockmann, J. Stuart Bunderson, Carrie R. Leana, Paul Hibbert, Laszlo Tihanyi, Phillip H. Phan, Sherry M. B. Thatcher
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 335-344; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2021.0122

Elizabeth J. Altman, Frank Nagle, Michael L. Tushman
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0244

Abstract:
Management research has increasingly explored the domains of ecosystems, platforms, and open/user/distributed innovation - governance structures focused on engaging with external communities. While these research areas include substantial empirical and theoretical work and share notable similarities, the literature streams have evolved separately limiting our ability to understand underlying mechanisms and dynamics. We comprehensively review these distinct literatures to highlight commonalities and induce novel insights. We introduce the overarching concept of the managed ecosystem governance structure through which an organization engages external communities for value creation and capture such that the locus of activity resides outside organizational boundaries while the locus of control remains within the organization. It represents a translucent hand between the invisible hand of the market and visible hand of the organizational hierarchy. Because the extant literature only lightly addresses incumbent organizations transitioning to these models and rarely touches upon those operating with multiple governance structures simultaneously, we further review and synthesize research on organizational adaptation and ambidexterity. From this integrative review, we identify capabilities to execute managed ecosystems including shepherding communities without exploiting them, managing data and intellectual property, ecosystem-driven open adaptation, and ambidextrous governance. We additionally present opportunities for future research across these research domains.
Gokhan Ertug, Julia Brennecke, Balazs Kovacs, Tengjian Zou
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0230

Abstract:
Understanding the consequences of homophily, which is among the most widely observed social phenomena, is important, with implications for management theory and practice. Therefore, we review management research on the consequences of homophily. As the consequences of homophily have been studied at the individual, dyad, team, organizational, and macro levels, we structure our review accordingly. We highlight findings that are consistent and contradictory, as well as those that point to boundary conditions or moderators. In conducting our review, we also derive implications for management research from insights gained by research in other disciplines on this topic. We raise specific issues and opportunities for future research at each level, and conclude with a discussion of broader future research directions, both empirical and conceptual, that apply across levels. We hope that our review will open new vistas in research on this important topic.
Felipe Csaszar, Thomas Steinberger
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0192

Abstract:
A rarely acknowledged fact about organization theory (OT) is that many of its ideas stem from the field of artificial intelligence (AI). For example, key OT concepts such as problemistic search, heuristics, exploration, requisite variety, and organizational scripts, all have their roots in AI. The main goal of this paper is to expose the full range of AI ideas that have been used in OT. We do so by explaining key AI ideas and showing how OT used them. Our review covers over 100 OT works that depend on AI ideas both critically and explicitly. We group these ideas into ten AI approaches that speak to three fundamental processes in organizations: search, representation, and aggregation. We argue that this broad and deep borrowing from AI stems from fundamental structural similarities between AI and OT, as both fields study how artificial systems (programs and organizations) can pursue intelligent behavior. We also identify areas of AI from which OT scholars may continue to draw inspiration and suggest ways in which AI technologies may continue to affect organizations. Overall, our work shows that, beyond its effect as a technology, AI has given OT a set of models about how organizations work.
Rongrong Zhang, Milo Shaoqing Wang, Professor Madeline Toubiana, Professor Royston Greenwood
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 188-222; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0031

Abstract:
Stigma has become an increasingly significant challenge for society. Recognition of this problem is indicated by the growing attention to it within the management literature which has provided illuminating insights. However, stigma has primarily been examined at a single level of analysis: individual, occupational, organizational, or industry. Yet, cultural understandings of what is discreditable or taboo do not come from the individual, occupation, organization, or industry that is stigmatized; on the contrary, they come from particular sources that transcend levels. As such, we propose that current silos within the literature may not only be preventing engagement with insights from different levels of analysis, but, importantly, may be preventing us from truly understanding stigmatization as a social process. To address this issue, we review the stigma literature and then present an across level integrative framework of the sources, characteristics, and management strategies. Our framework provides a common language that integrates insights across these levels and enables a shift in attention from how actors respond to stigma to broader processes of stigmatization.
Professor Ilya Cuypers, Professor Jean-Francois Hennart, Professor Brian Silverman, Professor Gokhan Ertug
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 111-150; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0051

Abstract:
Transaction cost theory (TCT) has been fruitfully applied to a wide range of organizational phenomena, as reflected in a vast and evolving body of research. However, in part due to the theory’s broad success, important advances in some fields do not diffuse to other fields. In this essay, we lay out a path toward a pluralistic view of TCT that incorporates insights from multiple fields, primarily strategy and international business. In so doing, we critically assess the assumptions, key constructs, and evolving theoretical logic of TCT. We then propose an agenda for future research, highlighting opportunities for scholars to (1) expand and deepen the exchange of insights between strategy and international business, and further integrate TCT with the trust literature and with recent insights from behavioral economics and psychology, and (2) further apply TCT to study recent phenomena such as platforms and two-sided markets, the implications of artificial intelligence for governance decisions, and the pursuit of non-pecuniary objectives such as sustainability.
Professor Mel Fugate, Professor Beatrice Van Der Heijden, Ans De Vos, Professor Anneleen Forrier, Professor Nele De Cuyper
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 266-298; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0171

Abstract:
Employability, commonly conceptualized as one’s ability to realize job opportunities within and between employers over time, has attracted considerable attention from diverse academic disciplines for decades. Research in these disciplines has largely evolved independent of the others, thus limiting the accumulation, validation, advancement, and utility of employability. Two central stakeholders in much of this research are employers and employees, yet the vast majority of studies since the year 2000 fails to explicitly consider this interdependence, and it instead is characterized by an overwhelming emphasis on the employee and individual agency. Conversely, the comparatively limited research examining the employer perspective often excludes consideration of the employee. Our review highlights these characteristics, along with outlining other common critical issues and recommendations for overcoming them. We also articulate how Social Exchange Theory (SET) can serve as an underlying mechanism to integrate research within and between disciplines, and we also present the strategic employability architecture (SEA) framework based on strategic human resource management to facilitate integration of employer and employee perspectives.
Matthew B. Perrigino, Hongzhi Chen, Benjamin B. Dunford, Benjamin R. Pratt
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 151-187; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0067

Abstract:
The concept of climate strength – the extent of agreement among group members regarding climate perceptions – has evolved from a statistical criterion for aggregation to a focal management construct. We review 156 empirical team climate studies spanning the last decade, observing a widely held assumption that environmental stimuli influence climate strength. However, closer inspection suggests that this relationship is far more complex and nuanced than previously considered. This is problematic since an oversimplified view of how climate strength develops may lead to erroneous conclusions: for example, that everyone will share similar perceptions if exposed to the same stimuli. Our review: (1) distinguishes experiences from interpretations, explaining how some stimuli are experienced by all (some) yet are interpreted differently (the same); (2) distinguishes stimuli from the contexts in which they occur, explaining how contextual elements – specifically, the structural dimensions of teams – are not stimuli but rather act as a lenses through which experiences and interpretations occur; and (3) develops a more complete theory of climate strength reflecting contemporary work practices – including informal structures and teams with more fluid boundaries – by explaining how these lenses simultaneously filter multiple stimuli in either complementary or competing ways.
Mariella Miraglia, Professor Gary Johns
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 37-67; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0036

Abstract:
Absenteeism from work is disruptive and expensive for organizations and may be indicative of poor work adjustment for employees. It is therefore important to understand the causes of absenteeism. However, traditional individual-centric explanations for absence are inadequate, particularly given the rise of contemporary relational, team-focused, and customer-driven work designs and in growing recognition of the permeable boundary between work and nonwork. Although there has been considerable, if fragmented, research interest in the social and relational causation of absenteeism, limited effort has been spent systematizing the evidence and formulating an overall model of the social dynamics of the behavior. Our review integrates this multidisciplinary body of research, explicating the social and relational determinants of absenteeism. We propose a multi-level model that identifies the social factors shaping absence that stem from the work (organization, occupation) and non-work (family, community, nation/society) domains. The model establishes six primary paths and related theories through which these social factors operate, including normative influence, social exchange, job resources, work attitudes, emotions, and ethics. The review offers extensive evidence for the influence of the social context and provides insights concerning how team dynamics, occupational norms, gender composition, family demands, community forces, and cultural context affect absenteeism. We conclude with future research directions and social implications for attendance management, bridging the absenteeism and presenteeism literatures.
Catherine E. Kleshinski, Kelly Schwind Wilson, Ms. Julia M. Stevenson-Street, Brent A. Scott
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0029

Abstract:
Research to date on leader behaviors such as justice rule adherence, abusive supervision, and ethical leadership has found a clear linkage between such behaviors and employees’ work attitudes and performance. Historically and surprisingly, an understanding of what initiates these impactful leader behaviors is much more limited and only recently have scholars begun to examine their antecedents. Thus, the goal of our integrative review is to advance cumulative knowledge of why leaders are fair, ethical, or non-abusive—which we refer to collectively as principled leader behaviors. Our review is structured around a framework of four theoretical lenses that elucidate what initiates and perpetuates such behaviors: interpersonal motives, focused on relational explanations; instrumental motives, centered on these behaviors as a means to some end goal; moral motives, which characterize these leader behaviors as an end in themselves; and self-regulation and disposition, focused on leaders’ automatic inclinations and capacity to enact these behaviors. We not only synthesize previously fragmented findings of what shapes principled leader behaviors, but also highlight areas of overlap and distinction across them. Extending our framework, we highlight the interplay of lenses and critical research avenues to better understand why leaders treat followers in beneficial and not harmful ways.
Ms. Elham Asgari, Richard A. Hunt, Professor Daniel Lerner, David M. Townsend, Professor Mathew L.A. Hayward, Kip Kiefer
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 223-265; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0061

Abstract:
High-achieving employees, the “stars” of an organization, are widely credited with producing indispensable, irreplaceable, value-enhancing contributions. From the recruitment of celebrity CEOs to the fierce competition for star scientists, and from lucrative contracts for sports icons to out-sized bonuses for top salespeople, human capital strategies have long promoted the importance of star performers. Sixty years of research on stars has witnessed a wide array of contexts, levels of analysis, and sub-dimensions, much of which is focused on the accomplishments of these alpha-tail individuals. More recently, however, scholars have begun to draw varied conclusions regarding both the favorable and unfavorable impacts of star performers, leading to a balkanization of the perspectives comprising the stream. Our review of the multi-disciplinary work on stars synthesizes disparate studies, settles definitional problems, and integrates complementary factors into a coherent formative construct. Through this, we foster the development of a research agenda concerning the manner in which star performers are, by their very nature, simultaneously red giants and black holes, the precise balance of which is fertile soil for future inquiry.
Stefano Tasselli, Professor Martin Kilduff
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 68-110; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0037

Abstract:
The question of agency has been neglected in social network research, in part because the structural approach to social relations removes consideration of individual volition and action. But recent emphasis on purposive individuals has reignited interest in agency across a range of social network research topics. Our paper provides a brief history of social network agency and an emergent framework based on a thorough review of research published since 2004. This organizing framework distinguishes between an ontology of dualism (actors and social relations as separate domains) and an ontology of duality (actors and social relations as a mutually constituted) at both the individual level and at the social network level. The resulting four perspectives on network agency comprise individual advantage, embeddedness, micro-foundations, and structuration. In conclusion, we address current debates and future directions relating to sources of action and the locus of identity.
Professor Abbie J. Shipp, Professor Karen J. Jansen
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 15, pp 299-334; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0142

Abstract:
Time—whether objective (“clock”) time or the subjective experience of time—is essential for understanding how individuals, teams, and organizations evolve, grow, learn, and change. Yet most management research and literature reviews typically emphasize objective time to the exclusion of subjective time. Our review focuses on this lesser studied “other” time, beginning with a review of how seminal time articles have historically conceptualized subjective time. From this initial review, we offer an integrative and multilevel definition of subjective time as the experience of the past, present, and future, which occurs as individuals and collectives mentally travel through, perceive, and interpret time. Then, using this new definition to frame the remainder of the review, we examine the literature employing subjective time concepts to address three key questions: what is subjective time, how does it operate, and why does it matter? Our analysis provides new ways for understanding subjective time and the important role it plays in organizational phenomena. We conclude by challenging management scholars to consider three priorities for future research: the fundamental relationship between subjective time and meaning, the unclear nature of event time, and the ways in which objective time is dependent upon subjective time.
Sophie Leroy, Aaron M. Schmidt, Nora Madjar
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 661-694; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2017.0146

Abstract:
Frequent interruptions and task transitions are an inescapable reality of modern organizational life, yet the relevant research spans across numerous seemingly disconnected domains that paint an incomplete and often inconsistent picture regarding the detrimental and/or beneficial consequences of such transitions, thus undermining the potential for this body of research to inform theory and practice. In this review we review research relevant to interruptions as intrusions, breaks, distractions, discrepancies, as well as relevant work on multitasking and multiple goal self-regulation. In so doing, we identify ambiguities in the existing literature, shed light on shared and unshared features across studies and fields to bring some coherence and start reconciling existing knowledge. At a theoretical level, our review reveals that behaviors on a task and the related interruptions and task transitions cannot be fully understood without taking into account the system of goals, within which they are embedded. We highlight that how people decide what to pay attention to and when to stop a goal pursuit to engage in another have important emotional, cognitive and performance implications and provide directions for advancing knowledge on interruptions and task transitions.
Yuen Lam Bavik, Jason D. Shaw, Xiao-Hua (Frank) Wang
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 726-758; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0148

Abstract:
Social support research proliferated across multiple disciplines for more than a half-century. This growth, as well as disciplinary differences, resulted in mixed views, conceptualizations, and operationalizations. This review synthesizes knowledge and empirical findings from more than 4500 studies across disciplines. We summarize several characteristics of social support studied in the literature: quantity and quality, utilization, source, content, format, and consistency. We also identify four dynamic roles of social support in predicting individual outcomes directly, indirectly, and interactively (with stressors): a positivity catalyst, a positivity enhancer, a negativity buffer, and a negativity exacerbator. We find that the incongruence between social support, stressors, and individual characteristics accounts for the diverse roles of social support and mixed findings. Based on our analysis, we discuss how management scholars may draw insights from other disciplines to advance social support research and provide recommendations for future research.
Matthew S. Kraatz, ,
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 474-512; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0074

Abstract:
Though values were once the central focus of institutional scholarship, they occupy a marginal position in the contemporary literature. Viewing this situation as both a significant problem and a latent opportunity, our paper seeks to stimulate change by pursuing three broad aims. The first is to present an integrative review of the insitutional and sociological values literatures. This review addresses basic questions about values’ nature, origins, and functions, and uncovers many latent connections between these currently separate bodies of research. Drawing on this literature review, our second aim is to elaborate the “value of values” for institutional analysis. Specifically, we will suggest that a renewed focus on values can: a) enhance our understanding of institutions and their human inhabitants and, b) increase the moral and practical relevance of institutional scholarship. Our third aim is to sketch out a preliminary agenda for future research. While we stress that values can be incorporated into contemporary research in many different ways, our main focus is on promoting research that gives renewed attention to the enduring problems that were at the heart of early institutional scholarship.
Cynthia E. Devers, Stefan Wuorinen, Gerry McNamara, Jerayr (John) Haleblian, Inn Hee Gee, Jooyoung Kim
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 869-907; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0031

Abstract:
Our review of acquisition research from the 2008-2018 period shows that a large and quickly growing portion of this work has focused on the behavioral aspects of acquisitions. Although this contemporary scholarship holds significant potential to advance our knowledge of acquisition processes and outcomes, because it has been scattered across a wide range of topics and levels, scholars have not yet systematically discussed and integrated the insights we have gained. The growing focus on the multidisciplinary aspects of strategic decisions exacerbates this challenge. In response, we provide a brief literature review of the behavioral acquisition literature, offer a comprehensive view of the state of knowledge in this area, and develop a research agenda capable of guiding researchers toward building a comprehensive understanding of the behavioral aspects of acquisitions. We also point to novel methods we feel will help scholars pursue under explored avenues offering the potential to further advance the study of acquisitions.
Kelly A. Nault, Marko Pitesa, Stefan Thau
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 1103-1139; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0134

Abstract:
Compared with people of average attractiveness, the highly attractive earn roughly 20 percent more and are recommended for promotion more frequently. The dominant view of this “attractiveness advantage” is one of taste-based discrimination, whereby attractive individuals are preferred without justification in economic productivity. We conduct a comprehensive review of research on attractiveness discrimination, finding relatively more evidence that this phenomenon constitutes, to some extent, statistical (as opposed to solely taste-based) discrimination, in which decision makers assume that attractive people are more competent and discriminate based on instrumental motives. We then review research that speaks to whether decision makers might be correct in assuming that attractive workers are more productive, finding that the attractive possess a slight advantage in human and a notable advantage in social capital. We finally review studies evaluating whether an advantage exists beyond that explained by capital differences. We find that the current body of work provides inconclusive evidence of taste-based but relatively more conclusive evidence of statistical discrimination processes. Our integrative view suggests how attractiveness biases can be detected more effectively, and points to key directions for future research on the sources of the attractiveness advantage. We conclude by discussing the promise of an integrative approach to understanding other achievement gaps, such as those on the basis of gender, race, and social class.
Benjamin L. Hallen, Jason P. Davis,
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 1067-1102; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0063

Abstract:
Literature has long highlighted that entrepreneurs benefit from having the right network connections. We observe, however, that although the large and growing literature on entrepreneur network evolution shares a common focus around the formation and dissolution of entrepreneurs’ interdependent, socially embedded relationships, this literature is fragmented and does not always use the explicit language of network theory. We conduct an integrative review to put forth a typology of five core drivers of entrepreneur network evolution. A core insight of our review is that most entrepreneurial network research emphasizes an overarching pattern that suggests substantial path-dependence, with new ties often being local to entrepreneurs’ existing network, hierarchical, and geographic positions. We label this perspective structural localism. By contrast, more recent, emerging research on entrepreneurial action in forming interorganizational relationships, much of which does not use the language of network theory (e.g., ties and networks), suggests a more dynamic and path-creating pattern. We label this perspective agentic network change. After explicating the distinct theoretical foundations and behavioral assumptions of each perspective, we sketch a research agenda for better balancing our understanding of the two and how they intertwine.
Armando Castro, , Shaz Ansari
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 935-968; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0156

Abstract:
Given its extremely negative impact on global society, it is not surprising that there is an extensive literature focused on understanding and reducing corruption. However, the existing academic work focuses largely on corruption in government. Yet, corporations play a key role in much of the corruption that occurs in society and are important contexts for corruption themselves; they are also very different from governments and, we argue, deserve focused study and the development of a coherent theory of corporate corruption. In this article, we define corporate corruption and argue that management researchers are uniquely positioned to contribute to the development of a theory of corporate corruption and to the development of solutions to prevent it. We then examine the current state of research on this important topic and propose a framework for organizing research on corporate corruption into four perspectives – corporate corruption as rational action, corporate corruption as institutionalized practice, corporate corruption as cultural norm, and corporate corruption as moral failure. We go on to propose a research agenda for management scholars in some traditional areas of management research to take this important but under-researched topic forward and also highlight some of the methodological challenges that management researchers face in conducting research in corporate corruption.
Marlo Raveendran, Luciana Silvestri, Ranjay Gulati
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 828-868; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0015

Abstract:
Interdependence is a core concept in organization design, yet one that has remained consistently understudied. Current notions of interdependence remain rooted in seminal works, produced at a time when managers’ near-perfect understanding of the task at hand drove the organization design process. In this context, task interdependence was rightly assumed to be exogenously determined by characteristics of the work and the technology. We no longer live in that world, yet our view of interdependence has remained exceedingly task-centric and our treatment of interdependence overly deterministic. As organizations face increasingly unpredictable workstreams and workers co-design the organization alongside managers, our field requires a more comprehensive toolbox that incorporates aspects of agent-based interdependence. In this paper, we synthesize research in organization design, organizational behavior, and other related literatures to examine three types of interdependence that characterize organizations’ workflows: task, goal, and knowledge interdependence. We offer clear definitions for each construct, analyze how each arises endogenously in the design process, explore their interrelations, and pose questions to guide future research.
Christopher To, Gavin J. Kilduff, Blythe L. Rosikiewicz
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 908-934; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0145

Abstract:
Interpersonal competition is ubiquitous in organizations and is studied across a variety of disciplines. However, these literatures have developed in parallel with little integration, stunting scholarly progress and leaving researchers and practitioners uncertain as to whether competition within organizations is beneficial versus harmful. This review attempts to resolve these issues. First, we define interpersonal competition as existing when an individual desires, and directs behavior towards, attaining relative superiority over other(s) on a particular dimension. Second, we review the empirical research on the consequences of interpersonal competition, focusing on the factors that determine when interpersonal competition is helpful versus harmful for individuals and interpersonal outcomes in organizations, while highlighting the common mechanisms that appear to underlie these factors. This prior work suggests when competition is appraised as a challenge, its downsides are mitigated and its benefits are most evident. Conversely, when competition is appraised as a threat, its downsides become most evident. We hope this review provides an entry point for scholars interested in interpersonal competition, and a more parsimonious account of its consequences.
Barbara S. Lawrence, Neha Parikh Shah
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 513-597; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0147

Abstract:
Homophily, the tendency to associate with similar others, is a fundamental pattern underlying human relationships. Although scholars largely agree on the definition of homophily, their empirical measures of it vary widely. This both raises the question of whether everyone is studying the same phenomenon, and suggests that our understanding of homophily is incomplete. To address this question, we examined the homophily literature from 1954 through 2018, and constructed a typology that includes the empirical measures most commonly used. We found that these measures tend to neglect the meaning that people attribute to and derive from homophilous relationships, in three ways. First, measures often do not capture how individuals’ interactions with others influence their sense of the world—how social constructions affect meaning. Second, measures often do not capture whether individuals interpret and attach importance to their associations or similarities the same way researchers do. Finally, measures often do not capture the meaning-related ambiguities introduced by studies of multiple types of social contexts, associations, and similarities. Since homophily remains a central construct in social science, this divergence between measures and meaning suggests a need for refinement.
Elana Feldman, Erin M. Reid, Melissa Mazmanian
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 598-626; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0148

Abstract:
Time-use refers to the amount of time spent working and how that time is allocated over a particular period. A growing number of scholars are considering how social context—people’s immediate social environments (e.g., colleagues and managers, norms, work groups, nonwork demands)—shape time-use. However, this research is fragmented across disciplines, methods, and levels of analysis. To integrate and advance knowledge in this area, we review empirical studies that inform current understanding of social context and time-use. In doing so, we develop a framework that reveals how the extant literature coalesces around four taken-for-granted social meanings: time-use as dedication, time-use as performance, time-use as identity, and time-use as power. These four meanings are anchored in broadly shared societal ideologies but are enacted and interpreted locally as people engage time in a specific context. Looking across the four social meanings, we discuss how they are interconnected, and identify overarching themes that unite them. Building on these insights, we suggest important directions for future research on the social context of time-use.
, Anita Williams Woolley
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 627-660; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0057

Abstract:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) characterizes a new generation of technologies capable of interacting with the environment and aiming to simulate human intelligence. The success of integrating AI into organizations critically depends on workers’ trust in AI technology. This review explains how AI differs from other technologies and presents the existing empirical research on the determinants of human trust in AI, conducted in multiple disciplines over the last twenty years. Based on the reviewed literature, we identify the form of AI representation (robot, virtual, embedded) and the level of AI’s machine intelligence (i.e. its capabilities) as important antecedents to the development of trust and propose a framework that addresses the elements that shape users’ cognitive and emotional trust. Our review reveals the important role of AI’s tangibility, transparency, reliability and immediacy behaviors in developing cognitive trust, and the role of AI’s anthropomorphism specifically for emotional trust. We also note several limitations in the current evidence base, such as diversity of trust measures and over-reliance on short-term, small sample, and experimental studies, where the development of trust is likely to be different than in the longer-term, higher-stakes field environments. Based on our review, we suggest the most promising paths for future research.
Bin Wang, Yukun Liu, Sharon K. Parker
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 695-725; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0127

Abstract:
People design and use technology for work. In return, technology shapes work and people. As information communication technology (ICT) becomes ever more embedded in today’s increasingly digital organizations, the nature of our jobs, and employees’ work experiences, are strongly affected by ICT use. This cross-disciplinary review focuses on work design as a central explanatory vehicle for exploring how individual ICT usage influences employees’ effectiveness and well-being. We evaluated 83 empirical studies. Results show that ICT use affects employees through shaping three key work design aspects: job demands, job autonomy, and relational aspects. To reconcile previous mixed findings on the effects of ICT use on individual workers, we identify two categories of factors that moderate the effects of ICT use on work design: user-technology fit factors and social-technology fit factors. We consolidate the review findings into a comprehensive framework that delineates both the work design processes linking ICT use and employee outcomes and the moderating factors. The review fosters an intellectual conversation across different disciplines, including organizational behavior, management information systems, and computer-mediated communication. The findings and proposed framework help to guide future research and to design high quality work in the digital era.
Regan M. Stevenson, Matthew A Josefy, Jeffery S. McMullen, Dean A. Shepherd
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 759-796; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0152

Abstract:
The entrepreneurship setting—an extreme organizational context—provides fertile ground for organizationally relevant theory testing and development. In this paper, we propose that randomized entrepreneurship experiments have considerable potential to advance theory in entrepreneurship as well as other areas of organization science using a full-cycle approach. We ground this proposition in a multipronged review of randomized experiments in entrepreneurship (REE). Based on this review of prior work and emerging trends, respectively, we provide illustrative examples of innovative theory-driven experiments and motivate future research to consider randomized experiments in the entrepreneurial context both for testing boundary conditions and enhancing organizational theorizing broadly.
Cynthia Hardy, Steve Maguire, Michael Power, Haridimos Tsoukas
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 1032-1066; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0110

Abstract:
Risk has become a crucial part of organizing, affecting a wide range of organizations in all sectors. We identify, review and integrate diverse literatures relevant to organizing risk, building on an existing framework that describes how risk is organized in three ‘modes’ – prospectively, in real-time, and retrospectively. We then identify three critical issues in the existing literature: its fragmented nature; its neglect of the tensions associated with each of the modes; and its tendency to assume that the meaning of an object in relation to risk is singular and stable. We provide a series of new insights with regard to each of these issues. First, we develop the concept of a risk cycle that shows how organizations engage with all three modes and transition between them over time. Second, we explain why the tensions have been largely ignored and show how studies using a risk work perspective can provide further insights into them. Third, we develop the concept of risk translation to highlight the ways in the meanings of risks can be transformed and to identify the political consequences of such translations. We conclude the paper with a research agenda to elaborate these insights and ideas further.
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 451-473; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0124

Abstract:
The state of the economy represents a concern for individuals and shapes their behavior in profound ways. The current review of studies on how individuals respond to economic cycles reveals that organizational relevance of such responses has often not been considered, and the literature is characterized by a variety of seemingly disconnected explanations for how and why individuals respond to the perceived state of the economy. I develop a theoretical framework that systematizes the literature and accounts for the seemingly disparate findings, highlighting the underlying functionality of such responses for individuals. I then integrate the literature on individual responses to economic cycles with organizational research to examine the meaning of the different individual responses from the perspective of organizational functioning. This integration generates a novel insight that the individually functional responses to economic cycles can be dysfunctional from the perspective of organizations, often hindering rather than helping organizations’ performance and undermining the wellbeing of other organizational members. The systematization of the literature also reveals that many responses which would be predicted by the identified theoretical processes and which would be also relevant to organizations have not been studied, laying an agenda for future organizational research.
Ann-Kristin Weiser, Paula Jarzabkowski, Tomi Laamanen
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 969-1031; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0137

Abstract:
Based on our review of the past 40 years of strategy implementation research, we find that the focus of the research area has moved from the pioneering structural control view to a more adaptive conception of strategy implementation. Whereas early research focused mainly on how to conceptualize strategy implementation plans and how to establish optimal structures, systems, incentives, and controls for strategy implementation, the adaptive turn has shifted the research emphasis on to how organizations make sense of and enact strategies in practice. Although this adaptive turn has contributed significantly to understanding how strategies are implemented and adapted, it has also led to a further fragmentation of the field. We put forward an integrative view that aims at combining the distinctive strengths of the two complementary views. Instead of focusing on either conceptualizing or enacting, we call for researchers to examine the continuous interplay of conceptualizing and enacting strategies at multiple hierarchical levels and in multiple organizational units simultaneously. We hope that our review will inspire future strategy implementation research to complete the adaptive turn through an enhanced, integrative view of strategy implementation.
Kathleen Ann Stephenson, Ari Kuismin, Linda L. Putnam, Anu Sivunen
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 797-827; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0146

Abstract:
The past decade has experienced an increase in the number of studies on organizational space or where work occurs. A number of these studies challenge traditional views of organizational space as a fixed, physical workspace because researchers fail to account for the spatial dynamics that they observe. New technologies, shifting employee-employer relations, and burgeoning expectations of the contemporary workforce blur boundaries between home and work, connect people and things that historically could not be linked, and extend workspaces to nearly everywhere, not just office buildings. Research on these transformations calls for incorporating movement into the physicality of work. Thus, organizational scholars have turned to process studies as ways to examine the dynamic features that create and alter spatial arrangements. However, the rapidly growing work in this area lacks integration and theoretical development. To address these concerns, we review and classify the organizational literature that casts space as a process, that is, dynamically as movements, performances, flows, and changing routines. This review yields five orientations of organizational space scholarship that we label as: developing, transitioning, imbricating, becoming, and constituting. We discuss these orientations, examine how they relate to key constructs of organizational space, and show how this work offers opportunities to theorizing about organizations. Keywords: organizational space, process studies, spacing, organizing, performing, becoming, constituting
Andrew P. Knight, Lindred L. Greer,
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 231-266; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0061

Abstract:
Academic interest in start-up teams has grown dramatically over the past 40 years, with researchers from a wide variety of disciplines actively studying the topic. Although this widespread interest is encouraging, a review of the literature reveals a lack of consensus in how researchers conceptualize and operationally define start-up teams. A lack of consensus on the core phenomenon—a foundational part of a strong paradigm—has stifled the systematic advancement of knowledge about start-up teams, which has downstream implications for the viability of this field of research. To advance the development of a stronger paradigm, we present a multidimensional conceptualization of start-up teams that is derived from points of consensus in existing definitions. Our multidimensional conceptualization accounts for the fact that, although all are under the umbrella of the concept of “start-up team,” start-up teams vary in a set of key ingredients—ownership of equity, autonomy of strategic decision-making, and entitativity. This conceptualization serves as a framework for reviewing and beginning to integrate past research on start-up teams. It also serves as a framework for guiding and informing an integrated program of future research on start-up teams. By introducing a multidimensional conceptualization of start-up teams, we highlight the value of considering the defining ingredients of start-up teams for furthering a stronger paradigm.
Mara Olekalns, Brianna Barker Caza, Timothy J. Vogus
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2017.0111

Abstract:
Although high quality work relationships are essential for organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, they often fracture in the course of organizational life. To better understand how work relationships recover from relationship fractures, we provide an integrative review under the umbrella of relational resilience. We establish a unified definition of relational resilience, and then use two broad attributes – resilience processes and resilience foundations –as an organizing framework for our discussion of relational resilience. Resilience processes describe how fractures are triggered, interpreted and repaired. We review common triggers of relationship fracture and describe two distinct pathways – gradual drifts and abrupt shocks – to fracture; highlight the important role that positive attributional and prosocial sensemaking processes play in facilitating post-fracture repair; and, discuss the process by which fractured relationships are restored or strengthened. Resilience foundations describe the preconditions for successfully engaging in prosocial sensemaking and relational repair. Our review identified the relational foundations critical to positive sensemaking and positive relational attributions, and the reparative foundations critical to relational repair. Finally, we organize insights and future directions around six themes: balancing and realigning emotions, synchronizing attributions and cognitions, contingencies of effective repair, fracture pathways and repair, trajectories of repair, and reciprocal relationships.
J. Alberto Aragon-Correa, Alfred A. Marcus, David Vogel
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 339-365; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0014

Abstract:
This paper presents an in-depth review of scholarship on how mandatory and voluntary regulatory pressures on firms affect their environmental strategies and performance. While mandatory regulation typically has a strong and positive influence on firms’ environmental performance, studies of the effects of voluntary pressures demonstrate that by themselves they are unlikely to bring about significant improvement in environmental outcomes. Accordingly, future research should focus on the complementary impacts of mandatory and voluntary programs on organizations’ environmental strategies and performance rather than analyzing their separate influence. Scholars should examine i) more than a single environmental pressure at a given time, ii) more than one response to the regulatory context, iii) the synergy between mandatory and voluntary pressures, iv) the impact of imperfect enforcement, and v) the political influence corporations exert on the mandatory and voluntary pressures that affect them. This essay argues that managers react to environmental regulations in different ways depending on how they understand the multiple pressures that they confront and their opportunities to influence the outcomes.
John Matthew Amis, Johanna Mair, Kamal A. Munir
Academy of Management Annals, Volume 14, pp 195-230; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2017.0033

Abstract:
With societal inequalities continuing to increase and organizations providing the vast majority of people with their income, we wanted to assess the ways in which organizational practices are implicated in the burgeoning of social and economic inequality. Following an integrative review of the literature drawn from across the social sciences, we found that the multiple ways in which five major organizational practices – hiring, role allocation, promotion, compensation and structuring – are enacted emerged as being central to the reproduction of inequality. We also uncovered how the persistence of these practices, and the inequality they induce, can be largely attributed to a constellation of three highly institutionalized myths, efficiency, meritocracy and positive globalization. Our analysis further reveals how, as scholars, we bear a corresponding responsibility to reconsider how we engage in research on and teaching about organizations. The implications of this for our future work are discussed.
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