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Ravisha S Salve, Jeevan M Khatri
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 8, pp 15-19;

Allergic reactions are of increasing concern to practitioners in health-related fields. In modern orthodontic practice, adverse patient reactions to orthodontic materials are of both an irritant and a allergic in nature. Allergy in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment can be seen due to several reasons and these include nickel allergy, allergy to the acrylic resins that are used during treatment, latex products, etc. Safe and effective practice depends on identifying patients with allergy along with knowledge of materials that can potentially cause them. The Orthodontists should have basic understanding of allergic reactions and should be efficient enough to manage them. The aim of this paper is to review and analyse critically the current available literature in the field of allergy in orthodontics and to provide clinical implications based on scientific evidence on the topic
Myrthala De La Garza Aguiñaga, Norma Cruz Fierro, Lizeth Edith Quintanilla Rodriguez, Daniel Lizarraga Rodriguez, Rosa Alicia Garcia Jau, Sergio Eduardo Nakagoshi Cepeda, Obed Martinez Ortiz, Juan Manuel Solis Soto
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 252-256;

Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is one of the most common in dentistry. It is chronic and presents a burning sensation in the oral mucosa with appearance in the tongue, mucous tissue, lips and / or palate that lasts from days, weeks or even months. Objective: To analyze the literature on the characteristics of burning mouth syndrome of etiology, epidemiology, classification, differential diagnosis and treatment. Methodology: For the bibliographic review with electronic search by the PUBMED and Google Scholar search engine with the keywords “burning mouth syndrome, etiology, epidemiology, classification, differential diagnosis and treatment
Shubham Kajani, Sophia Thakur, Arun Jayasheel
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 317-321;

Adequate cleaning and shaping of the canals to reduce the microorganisms below the threshold level is one of the most important goals of endodontic treatment. With the advent of newer materials and techniques, this goal can be achieved in a single appointment in many teeth which have been endodontically treated, but have failed the endodontic treatment. This case series highlights single visit endodontic retreatment as an important aspect of day-to-day dental practise.
Jayaprasad Anekar, Krishna Santhosh Kumar, Jayalakshmi Baipadavu, Ivin Elsa John
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 14-16;

Accessory parotid glands are salivary tissue collections seen as separate glandular mass detached from the main parotid gland lying on the masseter muscle. It develops from the branching of the blind end of the parotid tube and by glandular proliferation of secretory and stromal structures. They are anatomical variations seen in the mid cheek region with a frequency of 21% to 56% found in autopsy studies. The following case report depicts a case of accessory parotid gland presenting as a mid-cheek mass in the right buccal mucosa.
Sabzar Abdullah, Mahbooba Khazir, Geeta Rajput
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 32-37;

Objective: To assess the obturator functioning in maxillofacial patients with obturator prostheses after the surgical treatment of the maxilla (maxillectomy) for the treatment of oral cancer. Setting: Dr Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College and Hospital. Methods: 30 patients were taken for the study. A questionnaire ‘Obturator Functioning Scale’ developed at “Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre New York, USA”, consists of 15 questions was given to these patients after the insertion of the obturator used by them for at least 3 weeks. 5-point Likert scale was used for recording the responses for all the questions. The problems experienced with the frequent use of obturator prosthesis by the patients were presented in the form of percentage and frequency. Result: The patients face different problems by using the obturators, but the commonly faced problem is difficulty in chewing food which is followed by xerostomia (dry mouth). Other problems encountered during the use of obturators are leakage during swallowing food, numbness in the upper lip, patients avoid going in family and social events and functions, face difficulties while inserting obturator, during talking in public, pronouncing different words, talking on the phone, nasal speech. Patients also complain about change of voice before and after the surgery, a noticeable clasp of obturator on front teeth, weird look or dissatisfaction with a look while using the obturator. Conclusion: The results suggest that obturator prosthesis serves the functions of speech and esthetics very well but it is not very efficient in terms of mastication and swallowing.
Manpreet Kaur Sandhu
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 38-46;

Intracanal instrument separation thwarts the ongoing treatment process adding to woes of the dentist as well as the patient because it trammels the cleaning, shaping and filling of root canals. This captiously affect the outcome of endodontic treatment by building more impediments, thus compromising the prognosis. Therefore clinicians must be aware of the possibility of instrument fracture in endodontic practice to stave off this mishap. This article quotes narrative review accentuating the techniques for retrieval of intracanal separated instruments along with factors influencing its removal. (Different techniques for removal of Gutta Percha from root canal system has been discussed in detail in part 1 by the same author).
Devendra Kumar, R Ravichandran, Harsha Kumar K, Vivek V Nair
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 71-74;

Midline fracture is the most common fracture seen in the patient with conventional acrylic resin maxillary denture against the opposing complete or partial natural dentition. This happens due to excessive masticatory forces from the natural dentition against the opposing arch. To overcome this problem, stainless steel can be added either in the form of mesh, bar or plate. In this present case report described the prosthetic rehabilitation of a complete maxillary edentulous and partial mandibular edentulous patient with stainless steel mesh reinforced maxillary removable complete denture and conventional removable partial denture to improve the impact strength of the denture and also at the same time to reduce the chances of alveolar ridge resorption.
Saket Mehrotra
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 05-08;

Background: Urinary tract infections are widespread among intensive care unit patients than in the general population. But what makes the occurrence of UTIs more common in ICU patients? Although studies about the prevalence of urinary tract infections are available, significantly less data is available on the onset of UTIs in intensive care units. Therefore, we aimed this study to evaluate the prevalence of urinary tract infections in ICU patients. We also tried to find out different risk factors and their possible solutions. Aims and ObjectivesRisk factors involved in the onset of urinary tract infections in ICU patientsTo make recommendations based on the studyMaterials and MethodsThe primary target audience in our research work is particularly, i.e. intensive care unit patients. Therefore, we decided to collect data from 3 intensive care units from three hospitals. We also included a questionnaire for physicians to know their points of view about the issue. Finally, we collected data and compiled it in MS Excel for further processing.Results: The prevalence of the population was found to be very high. Almost forty per cent was recorded. Conclusion: Cleanliness, hygiene and proper sterilization is needed and is the need of the hour.
Puja C Yavagal, Manjusha Umbranikar, Gazala Sulthana Ds
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 162-165;

Digital technologies in dental public health are being used in a variety of ways to improve healthcare, reduce health care costs, and improve performance of public health programs. This narrative review summarises the important applications of digital technologies in the field of dental public health and initiatives of Government of India towards digitization of public health system. Literature review through various databases like Web of Science, Pub Med, Scopus, Cinahl, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Embase, ScienceDirect, Directory of Open Access Journals was done. Results of review highlight the effective use of digital technology in the development of electronic health records (EHRs); personalised medicine and health data linkage; clinical decision support for novel treatment concepts and deep learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for diagnostic analysis. Adoption of mobile technologies in the dental field is fundamentally transforming how dental healthcare is viewed, given, and consumed. However, lack of data security and protection laws, technical infrastructure, advanced biological sensors, orientation among public health workers, linguistic diversity, patients’ fear and unfamiliarity makes the application of digital technology in dental public health practice challenging.
Minha Majeed Kak, Arya Jyoti, Anurag Nath, Priyanka Rastogi, Sachin Kumar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 142-144;

Background: Dental students routinely use extracted human teeth for preclinical and clinical procedures thus require constant handling of the same. Extracted teeth can be potent sources of blood borne pathogens and other infections thus require proper disinfection of them. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has adopted guidelines for infection control of extracted teeth used for research and teaching, requiring that teeth be sterilized before use. Many methods of disinfection have been proposed in literature having their own advantages and disadvantages.Aim: To asses vinegar as disinfectant of extracted human teeth and its effectiveness in sterilization.Material and Methods: A total of 50 extracted non-carious human teeth were sterlised both by physical methods as by Autoclaving, boiling and microwaving and chemical methods by keeping in seven disinfectant media—10% formalin, 6.5% hydrogen peroxide, 5% sodium hypochlorite, 70% alcohol, vinegar, Betadine and normal saline. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10 ml of Brain heart infusion at 37°C for 48 h to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms.Results: Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Vinegar, 10% Formalin, Betadine and 6.5% Hydrogen peroxide were effective. The results were statistically significant with Kruskal-Wallis test value 30.031 with p-value
Shafia Rashid
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 166-173;

Background and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the apical sealing ability of three different root canal sealers Bioroot RC (tricalcium silicate-based sealer), Nanoseal S (polydimethylsiloxane-based sealer) and Eposeal (epoxy resin-based sealer) by dye penetration method under a stereomicroscope. Method: Three commercially available endodontic sealers were used in this study: Bioroot RCS (Tricalcium silicate-based sealer), Nanoseal S (Polydimethylsiloxane based sealer), Eposeal (Epoxy resin-based sealer), were used to assess the sealing ability in the apical area of the single rooted permanent teeth by dye penetration method under a 30x stereomicroscope. Teeth were obturated with the sealers and gutta-percha and stored in humidifier for 1 week, centrifuged with 2% methylene blue dye and ground sections were examined under a stereomicroscope. The results were obtained by measuring the dye penetration in the apical area under stereomicroscope. Results: Eposeal (Epoxy resin-based sealer), showed the least dye penetration producing a mean dye penetration of 0.8000mm. Nanoseal S (Polydimethylsiloxane based sealer) showed the highest dye penetration with the mean of 1.5000mm. Bioroot RC (calcium silicate-based sealer) showed the moderate dye penetration of with the mean of 0.8500mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that all the sealers demonstrated dye penetration with differences according to the material used. Furthermore, Eposeal (Epoxy resin-based sealer) showed the least dye penetration among the three sealers tested, followed by Bioroot RC and Nanoseal S sealer.
Kadri Ghita, Erraji Samir, Benazza Driss
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 103-105;

Altered passive eruption is defined as a developmental abnormality in the passive phase of the eruption. It has an aesthetic impact such as the gummy smile and short teeth. The management of the gingival smile associated with altered passive eruption presents a real challenge for the practitioner, who must know the different signs of this anomaly to make the right diagnosis and to establish an appropriate treatment plan. The purpose of this article is to expose, the therapeutic modalities of management of altered passive eruption through a clinical case.
Jitendra Sharan, Ashok Kumar Jena, Smriti Kc Basnyat
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 154-161;

The COVID-19 has spread throughout the world since December 2019 and brought the delivery of the oral health facilities to a standstill. Customization of oral health care guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic at the dental division of a tertiary health care setup in India. Existing literature was searched regarding any available information regarding oral health care guidelines at the tertiary health care set up. Further, various health regulatory authorities' websites were searched for guidelines related to COVID-19 and patient management and infection control. Adhering to the health regulatory protocols for COVID-19, a total of 24548 patients were provided with dental consultations and various dental procedures, including teeth extraction, orthodontic interventions, teeth restoration, root canal treatment, and oral prophylaxis, major and minor oro-maxillofacial surgeries from April 1, 2020, to August 31, 2021. Emphasis was on providing a safe working environment to the oral health care team and the patient. None of the members of the dental health team became positive for COVID-19 during the study. On the basis of our experience, we highlight that it is very much possible to efficiently and effectively treat the patients which oral health care during and post-COVID-19 pandemic. Frequent change in the guidelines regarding COVID-19 infection by various authorities, so keeping an eye on the same is also advised because various aspects of COVID-19 infection are yet to be confirmed and brought to the light. In our setup, patient satisfaction was good among the treated patient, and they applauded the efforts put by our team.
Aasmita K Kabade, Kishor M Mahale, Shankar P Dange, Smita A Khalikar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 99-102;

Complete denture fabrication in clinically compromised situations such as flabby ridge and/ or atrophic ridge is a challenging task for the prosthodontist for years. Flabby ridge and highly resorbed residual mandibular ridge is commonly observed in older patients. Accurate impressioning of these tissues plays a major role in ensuring a well-fitting and stable prosthesis. This article describes a technique for making a definitive impression for highly displaceable and resorbed residual ridges. The technique is especially applicable for mandibular edentulous ridges. The choice of the impression materials, as well as the design of the impression tray, focuses on preventing distortion of the displaceable residual ridges during impression making.
Nitin Vm, Priyanka Nitin, Vishal Kudagi, Shruti Shivakumar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 181-186;

Photography is one of the most important aspect of clinical practice and as well as academics. A well-documented case helps the clinician in diagnosis and treatment planning, patient communication, to evaluate the treatment progress, for academic purposes in publishing the case and in case of any form of litigation, photographs serve as an invaluable tool. The first part of the series details about the basics on photography followed by detailed camera settings required for different clinical situations.
Faizul Ariff Sahul Hamid
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 238-244;

Background: Globally, the percentage of elder people is increasing every year and has been projected that by year 2050 one in six people in the world will be 65 years and older. With advancing age, there are increased changes in the hemostatic balance resulting in acquired bleeding disorders. It has become very common for such patients to seek oral healthcare in hospitals and clinics. Hence it is essential that Dentists are able to manage such patients with regards to ensuring patient safety and delivering high standards of care.Objective: Enable Dental professionals to recognize underlying hematological comorbidities, order and interpret appropriate lab investigations, identify drugs which might cause bleeding during dental treatment, planning and delivering required dental procedures especially invasive procedures such as dental extractions.Methods: Literature review searches were done PubMed, Wiley Online & Cochrane Library Databases using keywords.
Krutika Patankar, Jeevan Khatri
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 223-227;

In orthodontic treatment, esthetics has traditionally been associated with profile enhancement. Both the Angle classification of malocclusion and the cephalometric analysis have focused attention on the profile, without considering the frontal view. Even though patients come to us mainly to improve their smiles, the orthodontic literature contains more studies on skeletal structure than on soft-tissue structure, and the smile still receives relatively little attention. An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of modern orthodontic therapy. Extensive studies on facial features have resulted in the establishment of norms that orthodontists use as guidelines to evaluate facial forms and to direct therapy. Knowledge of the influence of orthodontic treatment on smile attractiveness is very important, and recently, some smile components such as midline position, axial midline angulation, buccal corridor, and smile arc have received greater attention.
Lairenjam Shangita Devi, Khundongbam Bikramjit Singh, Kongkana Kalita
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 332-334;

Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common behavioural disorders of childhood. There is few published reports in the dental literature have focused on ADHD and its dental implications and also oral hygiene habits. The study was conducted to determine oral hygiene and plaque scores of children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and was compared with healthy children by using oral hygiene education techniques with or without self-educational manuals.Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 children, including 25 ADHD and 25 non-ADHD children were included in the study. They were divided into two sub-groups that included different oral hygiene programs. For the first sub-group only recommendations about oral hygiene practices were made, for the second sub-group recommendations were supported with self-educational manuals. The subjects were then examined at the end of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months.Results: This study demonstrated that Plaque Index scores evaluated for different evaluation periods; a statistically significant decrease was found for the test groups for both ADHD and non-ADHD but Gingival Index values were reached to the baseline averages in all groups from baseline to the third month.Conclusions: These results showed that approaches like as supporting materials, encourages the maintenance of long-term acquisition of oral hygiene habits. But further studies are necessary that performed in ADHD children.
Meer Saher Altaf, Malathi Dayalan
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 306-311;

Eighty heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base specimens (30×11×8mm) were prepared. Four materials used to retain the housings in the PMMA denture base blocks were autopolymerizing acrylic resin, composite resin, pattern resin and heat polymerizing acrylic resin. The PMMA block containing housing was then seated on a ball abutment-implant analog. Universal testing machine was used to detach the acrylic block-housing assembly from the ball abutment implant analog assembly. Scanning electron images were made to inspect the PMMA denture base-retaining material-housing interfaces for any adhesive failure. Chi square test was used to compare the results of SEM analysis. Highest percentage of adhesive failure of 55% was found in the composite resin group (Group B) at the acrylic denture base-housing retaining material junction (junction 1). Heat polymerizing acrylic resin group (Group D) exhibited 100% adhesive failure at the retaining material-housing junction (junction 2).
Ariana Berenice Rangel Castillo, Marcela Montes Villarreal, Enrique Nieto Ramírez, Maria Teresa Perez Quintero, Rosa Alicia Garcia Jau, Efigenia Moreno Terrazas, Aida De Los Santos Ruiz, Juan Manuel Solis Soto
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 294-298;

The management of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is considered challenging for patients, parents and the dentist; it has a systemic origin, it can occur in one or more permanent molars, incisors can be affected simultaneously. These enamel defects occur due to several risk factors during the pre-, peri- and postnatal period. Objective: To analyze the literature on molar-incisor hypomineralization and its relationship with prenatal risk factors, diagnosis, enamel remineralization techniques and treatment. Methodology: Using the keywords “molar incisor hypomineralization”, “etiology”, “diagnosis”, “oral manifestations”, “enamel remineralization” and “clinical management”, the Medline/PubMed and Science Direct databases were searched, with emphasis on the last 5 years. It was evaluated with the PRISMA and AMSTAR-2 guidelines. Results: Postnatal factors are based on childhood diseases and antibiotic intake in the developmental stages of the teeth. In the prenatal period, to diseases during pregnancy. Perinatal factors are related to low birth weight. MIH is evaluated depending on the severity based on defects, color, location and post-eruptive collapse and the extent of the affected surface. Techniques to remineralize the enamel are only efficient to avoid caries progression. Microabrasion is the most commonly used treatment technique. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors are attributed to the postnatal period during the first three years of life and HMD increases the prevalence of MIH.
Adrian Flores Ibarra, Alfonso Castañeda Martinez, Carlos Benitez Valle, Sara Saenz Rangel, Jose Elizondo Elizondo, Rosa Isela Sánchez Najera, Melanie Judith Gonzalez Leal, Juan Manuel Solis Soto
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 248-251;

Introduction: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is congenital craniofacial disorder, in which mainly the malar, a maxillary hypoplasia and peri orbital anomalies are affected. Objective: To analyze the literature on TCS from a dental perspective, to investigate information on the etiology, diagnosis, clinical and oral manifestations, and its treatment. Methodology: Using the keywords “Treacher Collins”, “etiology”, “prevalence”, “oral manifestations” and “clinical management”, the MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were searched, with emphasis on the last 5 years. It was evaluated with the PRISMA and AMSTAR-2 guidelines. Results: Its incidence was found to be 1:50000. It is mainly due to 3 genes, POLR1D, POLR1C and TCOF1; these genes manifest individually. Diagnosis can be clinical and by some genetic tests. The most common features range from mandibular hypoplasia, involvement of the external auditory canals, downward palpebral fissures, among others. Most of the anomalies can have an impact on tooth eruption, malocclusion and temporomandibular joint. The maxillary and mandibular cranial region is the most affected in this syndrome. The most common treatments in dentistry are orthodontics, palate correction and cleft lip. Conclusions: It is important to know the affectations that these patients present to be able to provide a better diagnosis and have in mind which are the possible treatments that we can apply to these patients. The work is multidisciplinary and begins at an early age to increase the quality of life and lifestyle.
War Firdous, Mushtaq Mohammad
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 322-324;

Background: Gonial angle shows a great amount of individual variation based on age and type of malocclusion. The present study was conducted to assess reliability of panoramic radiograph to determine gonial angle. Materials & Methods: 90 subjects of both genders were selected. Orthopantomograms were taken in all subjects. Gonial angle was calculated from the intersection of two planes, i.e; plane of the ramus of the mandible and body of the mandible. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the plane tangential to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle. Results: Out of 90 patients, males were 40 and females were 50. The mean gonial angle in lateral ceph in males was 118.2 degree and on OPG was 119.3 degree. The mean gonial angle in lateral ceph in females was 124.5 degree and on OPG was 122.7 degree. The difference was significant (P
Amit Kumar, Angad Sharma
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 245-247;

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of covid-19 pandemic on the orthodontic practice in India. Methodology: 75 orthodontists participated in the present research which was conducted in the questionnaire format. The questions were based on pre and post Covid pandemic influence over orthodontists and orthodontic practice in India. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis- mean and standard deviation with p value ≤0.05 is significant. Results; It was observed that the amount of patients dramatically reduced (92%) as compared to pre Covid era and the data was also statistically significant (p=0.03). orthodontists also faced that recalling old patients for follow up for the treatment continuation also took a hit (76%). Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment should ensure only the management of a true emergency with the appropriate PPE, following the guidelines and protocols provided by the WHO and local authorities after effective Tele-screening and triage.
Aswathy Subramanian, Madhu Santhakumar, Kannan Vadakkepurayil
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 289-293;

Dentigerous cysts (DC) are the most common odontogenic cystic lesions of inflammatory origin occurring in children. They are related to the crown of an unerupted tooth. These cysts are usually asymptomatic and often discovered as an accidental radiographic finding in association with an unerupted tooth. Conventionally they are treated by enucleation of the entire lesion. This article presents a case report where a conservative approach was done via marsupialisation. This conservative surgical technique allows simultaneously the normal eruption of the involved permanent teeth and the ossification of the bony defect. This case report describes management of dentigerous cyst in a 9 year old boy where extraction of 75 was done, followed by marsupialisation procedure where cyst cavity opening was kept patent with the help of an acrylic obturator.
Prajakta Bisen, Manjunath Malur, Yogesh Sahu, Ankita Singh, Praveen Mishra, Abhisek Pal, Shruti Sharma
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 257-261;

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the efficacy of XP endo finisher and passive ultrasonic irrigation for smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Materials and method: The root canals of 36 extracted single rooted mandibular premolars were selected for the study. All specimens were randomly distributed into the following 3 groups: Group I(Control): conventional irrigation by syringe Group II: passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and, Group III: XP endo finisher. In all groups mechanical instrumentation was done with rotary files iRace. The specimens of all the 3 groups was grooved buccolingually along the entire length, with the help of a high- speed bur without perforating into the root canal space. The roots was then split carefully along the length of the groove and subjected to SEM evaluation.Results: Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that XP endo finisher file (XP) was more effective in cleaning the apical area than passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and conventional side vented needle irrigation (CI).
Vishal S Kudagi, Shruti Shivakumar, Bhagyalakshmi A
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 304-305;

Orthodontic treatment helps to establish a balance between functional harmony and an improved esthetics, yet, rendering such treatment comes across with potential risks in terms of both hard and soft tissue damage. Such potential risks to various hard and soft tissue damages may include enamel demineralization, pulp degeneration, root resorption, gingival enlargement, lacerations, allergic reactions and temporomandibular joint disorders, apart from the fact that the treatment procedure may fail in itself. All such potential risks should be considered and addressed while making the final decision to render orthodontic treatment on an individual. The benefits achievable from the treatment should outweigh the risks involved with it. The orthodontist, thus, should have a thorough knowledge of all the risk factors to which the patient gets susceptible and preventive measures should be taken accordingly. This article reviews the various risks that may be associated with orthodontic treatment and the ways to manage them.
Nazima Jamal, Ausma Malik
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 325-328;

Orthodontic treatment frequently requires bonding brackets onto various types of surfaces like enamel, metal restorations, composites, ceramics, zirconia, acrylic temporaries etc. The development of new materials and techniques, simplifies the clinical procedures. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the SBS of all surface bonding Primer (Assure plus Primer) compared with conventional primer (Transbond XT) onto tooth, acrylic temporary crown and Zirconia crown surfaces using metal and ceramic brackets. 120 samples were divided into 3 Groups - Tooth surfaces (n=40), Acrylic temporary crown (n=40) and PFM crown surfaces (n=40). Subgroup A surfaces were primed with Transbond XT and bonded using Transbond XT adhesive paste to metal brackets and ceramic brackets. Subgroups B were primed with Assure Plus and bonded using Transbond XT adhesive paste. After debonding procedure, SBS was assessed. Group-III showed higher SBS values compared to Group-II and Group-I. The least SBS was seen in Group I, Subgroup-I B, Assure Plus Primer and metal brackets combination and the highest was seen in Group-III, Subgroup-III B, Assure Plus Primer and ceramic brackets combination.
Sanjay Talnia, Mamit Kumar, Saurav Bhargava, Siddhant Sharma, Kartika Goswami
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 338-340;

Aims: To evaluate the comparison of analgesic efficacy of preoperative intravenous (IV) ketorolac versus tramadol in preventing postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery. Methodology: Hundred patients in the age group of 20–40 years with asymptomatic impacted mandibular molars were randomly allocated into one of the two groups. All the patients underwent third molar surgery under local anesthesia. Group I received IV ketorolac 30 mg and Group II received IV tramadol 50 mg preoperatively. The difference in postoperative pain was assessed by five primary parameters: pain intensity being measured hourly by Wong Baker pain assessment scale for 6 h, onset of analgesia, duration of action, total number of analgesics consumed, and patient’s global assessment. Results: Throughout the 6 h investigation period, patients reported significantly lower pain intensity scores, longer duration of action, lesser postoperative analgesic consumption, and better global assessment in ketorolac when compared to tramadol group. Patients in the ketorolac group significantly performed better than the tramadol group in terms of all parameters except onset of analgesia. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that preoperative IV ketorolac 30mg is more effective than tramadol 50mg for postoperative pain following third molar surgery.
Awani Gupta, Rajiv Kumar Gupta, Pallavi Sirana
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 329-331;

Dental implant therapy has provided us with one of the most promising tooth replacement procedures. The prognosis of dental implants as a restorative technique depends largely on the predictability of osseointegration. In the last few decades dental implants as a fixed treatment modality have emerged in various aspects. This article discusses the loading protocols for the better understanding of implant success rate. Different protocols have been discussed briefly for the selection of loading technique in implant dentistry.
Smitha Sharan, Brunda K, SreeHarsha Tv, Pradeep Chandra K
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 149-153;

Face is the mirror of the mind and the eyes serves as a window to the soul. The sensory system is accountable for providing information to the brain regarding where the body appears in reference to the horizon. Poor vision may lead to loss of balance. Corneal disease is the second most common cause of blindness in the world and occurs in association with a severely damaged corneal and ocular surface. Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis (OOKP) is a surgical procedure to restore vision where the diseased cornea is replaced with an artificial cornea. OOKP consists of autologous tissue derived from tooth and bone that surrounds a central PMMA Optic (Poly Methyl Methacrylate). This review discusses the types, parts, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques and complications of Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis.
Abdullah Mubarak Rasheed, Mahmoud Sedky Adly
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 106-112;

Aim: This study is to report both patients’ and parents’ orthodontic treatment expectations by utilizing a questionnaire.Materials and Methods: A sample of 160 individuals that were equally divided into patients and parents and were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding their expectations towards orthodontic treatment before the start of any procedure. The filled questionnaires of both patients and parents were compared and statistically analysed.Results: The results showed significant differences between patients and parents in regards to scores of the questionnaire where the parents gave significantly higher scores than the patients expressing a more like hood of the procedure (p
Ngurang Anam, Gopa Kumar R Nair, Niharika Kumari, Binish Khan
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 25-26;

Ramsay hunt syndrome is a serious neurological condition caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus at the geniculate ganglion. It is distinguished by a triad of facial palsy, vesicular eruption in the ear, and otolgia. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Type II additionally known as herpes zoster oticus. It's a presentation of lower motor nerve fiber lesion of seventh cranial nerve, deafness, vertigo, pain, vesicles on the face, ear and altered taste perception, vesicles on ear could be a typical pathognomonic feature. Immediate treatment is crucial to avoid permanent complications.
Abdurahman Musbah Elmezwghi, Abeer Hussein Elsagali, Salma S Mo, Nesrin Hassan Musa, Naima M El-Kakalli, Walid Kamel Ftis
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 93-98;

Background: tongue lesions are reflecting many systemic diseases of the body. Despite the relative frequency of Median Rhomboid Glossitis (MRG), its exact etiopathogenesis is controversial. A direct association between tongue lesions including MRG and oral candidiasis, tobacco smoking, denture wearing, and systemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported.Objective: The objective of this present study was performed to determine the prevalence of MRG among Libyan diabetic and non-diabetic patients (NDPs), and hence detect and estimate the possible associations.Method: The sample was made of 928 patients, divided into 2 groups. Group1 consist of 464 diabetic patients (DPs), while group 2 consists of 464 NDPs as a control group. Results: the prevalence of MRG in all diabetic cases was (12%) whilst in NDPs was 3.4%. MRG was present in 56 DPs 39 (70%) were males and 17(30%) were females. There was a significant association between MRG and burning sensation P
Shambhu Sharan Yadav, Anela Thomas
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 17-19;

Focal gingival growth is one of the most commonly encountered lesions in the oral cavity and it is considered a non-neoplastic reactive lesion. These lesions include pyogenic granuloma, irritational fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying fibroma. This paper presents a case of peripheral ossifying fibroma in a 24 years old male patient, with an accurate diagnosis, satisfactory clinical management, and follow-up.
Nikita R Galgali, Shankar P Dange, Kishor M Mahale, Smita A Khalikar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 09-13;

The choice of appropriate definitive restoration of endodontically treated teeth should be guided by the amount of remaining hard tissues as well as functional and aesthetic considerations. Post and-core materials with biomechanical properties similar to the dentin could also be advantageous in reducing the risk of root fractures. The high performance polymer Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is an example of one such type of material. This case report describes the restoration of endodontically treated mandibular premolar with the use of CAD-CAM milled post and core system followed by restoration with full coverage porcelain fused to metal crown.
Ravi Sagar Singh Shahi, Chahat Saini
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 78-81;

Obturators are the most common treatment modality compared to surgical reconstruction for Maxillectomy in oral cancer patients. The obturators frequently become bulky and need to be hollowed out properly in the defect area to decrease weight and make them comfortable for the patient. This case report describes the technique of using a hollow bulb obturator on an adult patient who had undergone a maxillectomy. An obturator was fabricated with the use of a self-cured acrylic resin shim filled with wax in the defect area during the packing procedure of the prosthesis, and the wax was eliminated after curing. It is a single step process for the closed-hollow bulb obturator fabrication as a single unit, with uniform wall thickness around the hollow space, ensuring the least possible weight of the hollow obturator. This technique attains the probable internal facet of the hollow space with a uniform wall thickness of the prosthesis.
Ubaid Iqbal, Mohammad Arif Lone, Shabir Ahmad Shah, Shazana Qazi
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 75-77;

Aim & Objective: A questionnaire based study on the impression techniques used for implants by practioners. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was made & distributed to dental practitioners and students of different colleges. Around a 100 doctors were chosen by random sampling, and Questionnaire was given to those who were willing to participate. This research focuses on impression materials and the various impression techniques that can be used in implant restorations with note on recent advances in implant impressions. Results: 88.71% of the dentists feel that special components are required for an implant impression and majority believe that the level at which the impression should be taken depends on many factors. Majority believes that an FPD like impression is sufficient for cement retained FPD and also the fact that implant level impression can be taken for multiple angulated implants. Most of the dentists support the fact that multiple implants should be splinted before an impression and the most accepted material for an implant is addition silicone.
Aditi Bhajantri, Sophia Thakur, Rahul Gupta
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 145-148;

Over the course of years, there has been a paradigm shift from the conventional GV Black concept of Extension for prevention to prevention of extension. Prime importance is now being given for the conservation of the tooth structure and pulpal vitality with modified concepts of caries excavation based on consistency of the dentin. This case report highlights modern time selective removal of carious dentin and its subsequent composite restoration.
Vishal Kudagi, Shruti Shivakumar, Nitin Vm, Priyanka Nitin
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 187-189;

As the demand for esthetic treatments is increasing, more people are seeking alternatives to fixed orthodontic appliances. Clear aligners are an esthetic and comfortable option for orthodontic treatment and have gained immense popularity over the last decade. This review will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligners by describing some aligner systems frequently used today. Most of the patients seeking orthodontic treatment these days are motivated by esthetic con¬siderations. The majority of these patients rejects wearing conventional orthodontic appliances and has a strong preference towards more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and esthetic thermoformed appliances. The Align technology introduced the invisalign appliance in 1999, since then the Invisalign appliance and similar kinds have gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The thermoformed esthetic appliances (invisible retainers and clear aligners) are gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patient in multidisciplinary complex cases to simplify the treatment plan.
Maniyammai A. S., Amudha M, Renuka Devi R, Esther Nalini H, Arun Kumar Prasad
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 89-92;

Periodontium that anchors the teeth to the jaws comprises of gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. At clinically healthy sites, the balance between the microbiota and periodontium is beneficial, resulting in resistance to colonization by commensal periopathogens and also triggering well-defined responses of the host innate immune system. By contrast, at diseased sites there is an alteration of defense mechanisms in the periodontium resulting from heterogeneous etiologies including complex biofilm in the sub gingival microenvironment, which is influenced and modulated by the host's immune and inflammatory responses. The present review will focus on the cells of adaptive immune response like B- and T-cells in periodontal disease progression.
Astrid Aimee Huidobro-Guerrero, Arturo Santoy-Lozano, Fanny Lopez-Martinez, Rosa Alicia Garcia-Jau, Aurea Elizabeth Valle-Urias, Sergio Eduardo Nakagoshi-Cepeda, Juan Manuel Solis-Soto
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 20-24;

Introduction: Autologous platelet concentrates, have recently emerged as a possible tool to improve regenerative procedures in the medical field. Objective: To analyze the literature on autologous platelet concentrates in regenerative endodontics, such as: Platelet Rich Plasma, Platelet Rich Fibrin, PRP/PRF Vs Blood Clot as a scaffold in regenerative endodontics. Methodology: Using the keywords Regenerative Endodontic Treatment, Autologous Platelet Concentrates, Immature Teeth, Platelet-rich Fibrin, Platelet-rich Plasma, Revitalization Endodontics, the MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were searched, with emphasis on the last 5 years. It was evaluated with the PRISMA and AMSTAR-2 guidelines. Results: Platelet-rich plasma releases growth factors during the first hours after placement and induction of mesenchymal stem cells. Platelet Rich Fibrin is a second-generation platelet concentrate that releases growth factors more slowly, forming a network that traps leukocytes and platelets, liquid platelet rich fibrin has a higher concentration of leukocytes, which enhances immune defense in LPS-induced inflammation. Compared to blood clot, PRP and PRF show improved healing results, reducing infection and inflammation. Conclusion: The use of autologous platelet concentrates presents a more controlled scaffold in regenerative endodontics, with successful results, such as periapical healing, root thickening and apical closure.
Manpreet Kaur Sandhu
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 27-31;

For successful endodontics, major emphasis is placed on judicious instrumentation, microbial control and complete obturation of the root canal system. During retreatment of previously endodontically treated teeth, one may encounter variety of different materials, which must be removed before these objectives can be achieved. The intent of this article is to present various methods for Gutta Percha removal from the root canal system to aid in re-treatment attempts. Gutta Percha is the most commonly used obturating material, so, therefore this article deals with various techniques available for its removal in retreatment cases.
Swati Kale, Nidhi Chowhan, SahilI Mungekar-Markandey
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 01-04;

Background: Traumatic injuries to maxillary anterior teeth are seen in children and adolescents to major extent resulting into anterior teeth fractures. Different treatment strategies are available for its management, although tooth fragment reattachment is considered to be a feasible treatment option due to its comprehensibility, aesthetics, and functional success. Case Description: Present case reports a case of a 10-year-old girl patient with a fractured permanent maxillary left central incisor (Ellis class II) with emphasis on hydration and reattachment of the fractured fragment. The present paper reports the reattachment of the stored fractured fragment in milk as a hydrating medium. The fragment was reattached using an adhesive bonding system and a resin composite material on the mesioincisal angle of 21 and the distoincisal angle was built up with traditional method. At 2-years follow up tooth maintain its vitality along with aesthetics and function. Conclusion: The retrieved fractured fragment of anterior teeth can be stored in milk till patient report to clinic followed by hydrating the fractured fragment using normal saline in dental office before reattachment. Clinical Significance: Management of available fractured tooth fragment by reattachment technique, offers a feasible and minimal non-invasive option for the dental clinician.
Abinaya R, Pallavi Urs, Priya Nagar, Arul Selvan, Smitha S, Janani J
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 82-88;

Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of Bioactive glass, combination of 1% Chlorhexidine gluconate gel and Calcium hydroxide powder and 1% Chlorhexidine gluconate gel as intracanal medicament in primary molars.Settings and Design: In vivo study design Methods and Material: The present study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bengaluru. This study included 48 subjects within the age group ranging from 4-11 years who were indicated for multi visit Pulpectomy. These subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups, containing sixteen samples per group. Group 1: Bioactive glass; Group 2:1% Chlorhexidine gel and Calcium hydroxide powder; Group 3:1% Chlorhexidine gel. Under rubber dam isolation, following lesion sterilization S0 sample was obtained. Following access opening and working length, sample S1 was obtained and the respective medicament was placed inside the canals after cleaning and shaping and a double seal was done with ZOE and GIC. Patient was recalled after a period of 5 to 7 days and the medicaments were flushed under isolation and sample S2 was obtained. Pulpectomy procedure was then completed. S0, S1, S2 samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and the total bacterial count in CFU/ml was calculated.Statistical analysis used: Kruskal Wallis Test and One-way ANOVA.Results: The mean percentage of reduction of bacterial count from S1- S2 (Before and after placement of medicament) with Group 1: Bioactive glass was 75.7%, with Group 2:1% Chlorhexidine gluconate and calcium hydroxide was 52% and Group 3:1% Chlorhexidine gluconate was 28.6%, revealing that bioactive glass has the superior antibacterial efficacy when compared with other groups. Antibacterial efficacy of bioactive glass was significant in both primary maxillary and mandibular first molar and second molar proving it to work best for all types of root anatomy in mixed dentition population. Superior clinical and microbiological results were found when bioactive glass was used as intracanal medicament in both intraoral and extra oral abscess cases in primary molars.Conclusions: Bioactive glass; intracanal medicament; primary dentition; primary molar; mixed dentition.
Sumit Thote, Kishor M Mahale, Shankar P Dange, Smita Khalikar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 214-222;

Tooth loss is a common problem which affects the oral cavity but also hinders the overall health of a person. Common consequences of tooth loss include progressive alveolar bone resorption and decreased masticatory performance. Edentulism affects oral and general health in addition to quality of life . Both disability and handicap have been associated with a negative impact on psychosocial well-being, especially when considering elders. Treatment for edentulism includes conventional complete dentures (CCDs), implant-retained overdentures (IODs) and, in some cases, implant supported full arch fixed complete denture prostheses. Common problems, especially with mandibular CCDs, include lack of stability and retention, soreness and pain and further loss of function. Overdentures are used as a treatment option in dentistry for more than hundred years. Implant retained overdentures are cost effective and maintainence is also easier compared to implant supported restorations. An evaluation of the long-term outcome of mandibular implant overdentures in relation to maxilla may provide useful guidelines for the clinician. Therefore, this systematic review was designed with an objective to evaluate the effect of mandibular overdenture on edentulous maxilla.
Anil K Tomer, Ayan Guin, Shivangi Jain, Geetika Sabharwal, Nivedita Saini
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 177-180;

Introduction: Preservation of tooth has continuously been of maximum problem to dental practitioners on the grounds that ages. Also on this growing technology sufferers are greater aware of to be had remedy plan and its outcome. Long time period fulfillment of endodontic remedy is predicated on thorough debridement of the foundation canal gadget accompanied with the aid of using 3 dimensional obturation. Endodontic disasters aren't exception and consequently want retreatment. Case report: A 23 yr antique male affected person turned into noted the endodontist with a first-rate grievance of ache in higher the front teeth. Clinical exam found out a discoloured maxillary central incisor. The affected person directly supplied a records of root canal treatment attributed to the discoloured enamel which turned into accomplished one and a 1/2 of month in the past through a widespread practitioner. A prognosis primarily based totally on medical symptoms and symptoms i.e. lack of coronal seal with insufficient obturation turned into hooked up and affected person turned into satisfied for a nonsurgical endodontic retreatment. Conclusion: At only a graduate degree the information concerning remedy like root canal treatment is minimum and basic. This case file is a easy endodontic retreatment case, finished via way of means of the conventional technique of eliminating the gutta-percha. Every dentist ought to have a complete information of the basis canal anatomy and its feasible versions earlier than taking off root canal treatment.
Javad Faryabi, Sadaf Taheri, Farzaneh Raaii, Ali Shahabifar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 228-232;

Background and objectives: Despite using various devices to improve the safety of motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the leading causes of maxillofacial injuries. Understanding the etiology and mechanisms of these injuries may be helpful in trauma prevention. The present study is aimed to investigate the psychological disorders in drivers admitted to the maxillofacial surgery ward. Materials and Methods: The present study is a case-control study in which 120 patients admitted to the maxillofacial ward of Bahonar Hospital in Kerman from June 2016 to Aguste 2016 were investigated. The case group included 60 drivers admitted to the ward due to maxillofacial injury, and the control group included 60 non-drivers (driver assistant or pedestrian) admitted to the ward. A random convenient sampling method was used. Patients were asked to carefully complete Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -71 (MMPI-71) scale. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean age of participants in the case and control groups were 25.83 + 4.08 and 24.95 + 4.40 years, respectively, which showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Fifty-two patients (86.7%) in the case group and 54 patients (90%) in the control group were men, which implied no significant difference in terms of gender distribution (p
Minha Majeed Kak, Arya Jyoti, Anurag Nath, Priyanka Rastogi, Sachin Kumar
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 174-176;

Background: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV infection are serious global health problems. Many risk behaviors as well as the routes of transmission for HBV and HCV infections are identical to those for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. They are considered as occupational risk for dental professionals and other health care workers of getting HIV, HBV or HCV infection from an infected patient and the potential transmission to susceptible patients from infected dental personnel. Due to lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of these viral diseases among the local populations, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV by detecting the presence of HBV antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibodies (HCV-Ab) and HIV antibodies (HIV-Ab) and the relation of their presence with other factors such as gender and age among dental patients visiting a tertiary care teaching hospital in Moradabad city in Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Case records of a total of 3000 patients were included whose serum was screened using Rapid card diagnostic kits using standard recommended procedure. HIV TRI-DOT for HIV antibodies, HEPACARD for HBsAg and HCV TRI-DOT for HCV antibodies. All rapid test positive samples were further tested by a third-generation Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Data was analyzed and put for statistical analysis. Results: The overall seroprevalence of the HIV, HBV and HCV increased over the eight year period by approximately 5%. A statistical significant difference in prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV in male and females was obtained. A high seropositivity was prevalent in the age group of 30-40 years. Conclusion: The sero frequency of HIV, hepatitis B and C was high among patients especially from rural population visiting the tertiary health care hospital that usually go unnoticed leading to cross infection. Thus proper history taking, diagnostic tests and sterilization protocols can minimize and prevent these dreadful blood borne infections from spreading.
Harsh Priyank, V Mahalakshmi, Ankita Verma, Shweta Tekriwal, Saurav Purbey
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 233-237;

Introduction: This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of endodontic filling material, cervical limit of root filling, and tooth location on the color variation (ΔE00)from 1 to 60 months of follow-up. Materials and Methods: Color records were obtained from 70 participant’s who received 83 endodontic treatments. CIEL*a*b* color coordinates were measured on the homologous tooth, which was considered as baseline, and on endodontic treated teeth with a spectrophotometer. ΔE00 was calculated by the CIEDE2000 method at three conditions (condition 1: homologous tooth vs endodontically treated tooth after≤1 month; condition 2: homologous tooth vs endodontically treated tooth after >1–-12 months; condition 3: homologous tooth vs endodontically treated tooth after>12 months up to 5 years) for each variable. The zinc oxide and eugenol mineral trioxide aggregate or resin-based filling materials, dental cervix or ≥2 mm in the apical direction cervical limit of root filling and anterior or posterior tooth location were considered in the comparisons. Confidence intervals for the means (95% CI) were calculated,ΔE00 values and CIEL*a*b* individual color coordinates were compared for each pair of variables using the Student t test or Welch test (α = .05). Results: Greater ΔE00 values were generally observed in the condition 3 for cervical limit (ΔE00 = 10.7), use of zinc oxide and eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate based filling materials (ΔE00 = 10.7), and anterior teeth (ΔE00 = 12.4). Only in the condition1, the ΔE00 values of the filling materials did not show statistical differences (P = .198). Conclusions: Higher ΔE00 values were yielded from zinc oxide and eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate-based filling materials, anterior teeth, and dental cervix cervical limit of root filling. Clinical significance: Tooth discoloration yielded by endodontic materials and procedures is a challenge to clinical practice resulting in aesthetic problems and discomfort to both patient and professional, especially when it occurs in anterior teeth.
Minha Majeed Kak, Jharna Bharali, Priyanka Rastogi, Krishna Kumar Chaubey
International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences, Volume 7, pp 113-116;

Background: Mast cells (MC) are mobile secretory cells containing granules which are distributed around the microvascular endothelium in the oral mucosa and dental pulp having diverse biological functions which include phagocytosis, antigen processing and production of cytokines and release of a variety of preformed and newly formed physiological mediators. Mast cells are also involved in tissue injury and repair, allergic inflammation and host defense due to the presence of these mediators. The significant contribution of mast cell mediators to tissue damage and propagation of inflammatory responses make the control of mast cell activity vital to the management of many inflammatory diseases. As Mast cells have been shown to be capable of eliciting immune and inflammatory responses in Periodontal Diseases, this study was conducted to quantify the Mast cells in healthy and diseased gingiva and also whether they correlate the degree of inflammation and clinical features of Periodontium. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 soft tissue samples 10 each of Normal healthy Gingiva, Dental Plaque induced Gingivitis (DPIG) and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) were selected. Samples were obtained from patients undergoing periodontal surgery in CP and DPIG. In healthy (Control) group patients undergoing crown lengthening procedure were selected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and stained with 1% Toludine blue stain and observed under light microscope for the presence of Mast Cells and Mean Mast Cell Index was calculated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed and interpretedResults: The Mean Mast Cell index was found to be highest in Chronic Periodontitis Group followed by Dental Plaque induced Gingivitis Group than Normal healthy Gingiva. Quantitative analysis of Mast cells with Toludine blue staining revealed statistically significant difference among the three groups examined.Conclusion: Increase in the number of Mast Cells in Human Periodontal Diseases indicates the importance of these cells in the progression to Chronic Periodontitis.
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