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Results in Journal World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology: 246

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, M. N. Harakeh, , Yi Xu, , , V. Kroha, , V. Glagolev, Ŝ. Piskoř, et al.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 265-273; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.54026

Abstract:
The study of inelastic scattering and multi-nucleon transfer reactions was performed by bombarding a 9Be target with a 3He beam at the incident energy of 30 MeV. Angular distributions for 9Be(3He, 3He) 9Be, 9Be (3He, 3He) 8Be, 9Be (3He, 7Be) 5He, 9Be (3He, 6Li) 6Li and 9Be (3He, 7Li) 5Li reaction channels were measured. Experimental angular distributions for the corresponding ground states (g.s.) were analyzed within the framework of the optical model, the coupled-channel approach and the distorted-wave Born approximation. Cross sections for channels leading to unbound 5Heg.s., 5Lig.s. and 8Be systems were obtained from singles measurements where the relationship between the energy and the scattering angle of the observed stable ejectile was constrained by two-body kinematics. Information on the cluster structure of 9Be was obtained from the transfer channels. It was concluded that cluster transfer was an important mechanism in the investigated nuclear reaction channels. In the present work an attempt was made to estimate the relative strengths of the interesting (n + 8Be) and (α + 5He) cluster configurations in 9Be. The contributions of different exit channels have been determined confirming that the (α + 5He) configuration plays an important role. The configuration of 8Be consisting of two bound helium clusters (5He + 6He) is significantly suppressed, whereas the two-body configurations (n + 8Be) and (α + 5He) including unbound 8Be and 5He are found more probable.
, M. O. A. Oladipo, , U. Sadiq
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 233-240; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53023

Abstract:
The epithermal neutron shape factor (α) was determined in the permanent cadmium lined irradiation channel installed in the large outer irradiation site of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR- 1) by the cadmium covered multimonitor method using the monitors Al-0.1% Au, Zr and Zn thin foils and Mo thin wire and was found to be -0.137 ± 0.018. The high negative value of α indicates a hardened epithermal neutron spectrum in the cadmium lined irradiation channel. The α value obtained was used in the single comparator method of ENAA (ko-ENAA) for the determination of the concentrations of elements in the standard reference material NIST 1515 Apple leaves using Al-0.1% Au thin foil as the single comparator. The concentrations of the elements Sm and Br were determined in the NIST 1515 Apple leaves because of their high Qo values and are in good agreement with the certified values.
, Do Xuan Anh, Le Dinh Cuong, Duong Duc Thang, Vuong Thu Bac, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Quang Long, Trinh Van Giap, Nguyen Hao Quang
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 183-191; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53018

Abstract:
Based on guides RG 1.109, RG 1.111 published by United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), our research concentrates in assessing radiation doses caused by radioactive substances released from the nuclear power plant (NPP) Ninh Thuan 1 under the scenario of normal operation using software package NRCDose72 provided by the USNRC. The database including the released radioactive nuclides, meteorology, terrain, population and agricultural production activities have been collected and processed to build the input data for the model calculation. The wind rose distribution obtained from the meteorological data in a five-year period from 2009-2013 showed that the radioactive nuclides released to environment spread in two main wind directions which are North East and South West. The X/Q (s/m3) and D/Q (s/m2) qualities which are, respectively, the ratio of activity concentration to release rate and that of deposition density of radioactive nuclides to release rate were calculated within an area of 80 km radius from the NPP site using XOQDOQ. Population doses were calculated using GASPAR. The XOQDOQ and GASPAR are two specific softwares in NRCDose72 package.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 149-156; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53015

Abstract:
This article presents a study on the kinetics of the uranium conversion process, consisting in the reduction of uranium trioxide to uranium dioxide using hydrogen gas at temperatures of 500°C, 600°C and 700°C. Hydrogen concentrations used in the flow were 0.25 M, 0.50 M and 0.75 M. The mechanism established for the study of the kinetics of reduction of uranium trioxide was through the formation of an intermediate compound, U3O8. For this reason, these tests were divided into 2 stages: the first one the reduction from UO3 to U3O8, and second one from U3O8 to UO2. The results of each test were quantified by the release of H2O(g) produced by both reactions. Tests showed that the ideal working conditions are for hydrogen concentration flows of 0.75 M and temperatures in the range of 500°C - 600°C, with the intent to decrease the occurrence of side reactions that interfere with the process.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 221-232; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53022

Abstract:
Many developing countries need ecologically clean power sources (PS). The nuclear power plants are such sources. However, a great number of the developing countries do not possess developed large capacity power systems. Moreover, currently in the developing countries, there are no highly skilled personnel to provide construction and reliable and safe operation of the nuclear plants, which are complex and potentially hazardous systems. In some countries, the level of terroristic threat is extremely high. For that reason, there are specific requirements to the nuclear PSs intended for use in the developing countries. In the presented report, the specific requirements which must be met by the NPT proposed for use in developing countries are formulated, basic statements of the SVBR-100 concept are presented, design and principal scheme of the reactor fa-ility are described, major characteristics of SVBR-100 are summarized.
Hesham A. Yousef, A. H. El-Farrash, A. Abu Ela, Q. Merza
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 141-148; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53014

Abstract:
In this paper, forty samples of building materials collected from local market in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The radon concentration in these samples were measured using solid state nuclear track detector. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become an important tool in every investigation of the radon levels in the surrounding environment. The obtained results have shown that the highest average of radon concentration in granite samples and the average value is 845.43 Bqm-3, while the lowest average value is white cement 68.42 Bqm-3. The present work is important to detect any harmful radiation in our houses that affect human and to establish a data base for building materials which, used in a local market. The obtained results show that the radon concentrations of the most samples are below the allowed limit of ICRP.
Babak Sharifi, , Anita Alipoor, Arjang Shahvar, Ali Negarestani
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 200-207; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53020

Abstract:
Today, dosimeters are used generally for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are appropriate instruments for monitoring and also the dosimetry of X-ray beam in medical diagnostic equipment. The present work introduces design and investigation of a new ring-shaped monitor chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick), a special graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm3 dense) that creating two sensitive volumes and a central hole for crossing the radiation beam with less attenuation. The results of performance tests conducted at the Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI in Karaj- Iran proved the high short and long-term stability, the very low leakage current, the low directional dependence and very high ion collection efficiency through the special design of the collecting electrode. Moreover, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations certified the negligible effect of central electrode on this new ring-shaped monitor chamber. According to the results of the performance tests, the new monitor chamber can be used as a standard dosimeter in order to monitor X-ray beam in primary standard dosimetry laboratories.
, , Muzamil Ahmad Bhat, Shafiq Ahmad
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 208-220; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53021

Abstract:
This work displays a study of the compound multiplicity characteristics of 14.6 and 200 AGeV/c 28Si and 32S-emulsion interactions, where the number of shower and grey particles taken together is termed as compound multiplicity, Nc. It has been found that the average compound multiplicity depends on the mass number of the projectile, Ap, and energy of the projectile. A positive linear dependence of the compound multiplicity on the black, grey, heavy and shower particles has been found. Also the scaling of compound multiplicity distributions produced in these interactions has been studied in order to check the validity of KNO-scaling. A simplified universal function has been used to represent the experimental data. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by analyzing events generated with the computer code FRITIOF based on Lund Monte Carlo model.
, , Sylwia Ptaszek, Łukasz Modzelewski, Ewa Kowalska, Katarzyna Wołoszczuk
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 192-199; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53019

Abstract:
In accordance with the recommendations of the most recent Directive of Council EURATOM No. 2013/51, which concerns requirements for the protection of the health of the general public with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption, we are obligated to monitor the level of approximate dose of radioactive substances. The directive indicates two basic isotopes: tritium and radon, which ought to be monitored continuously. Essential are also para-metric values as well as frequency, methods of monitoring of radioactive substances and equipment requirements. Directive states that measurements of content of tritium and radon ought to be taken as well as calculations of approximate dose natural and artificial radionuclides content should be done, apart from tritium, potassium-40, radon and short-living products of radon disintegration. In case if one of radioactive concentrations is over 20% of computational value or concentration of tritium is over parametric value analysis of additional radionuclides is required. A detailed list of radionuclides is presented in appendix No. 3 in the Directive. Laboratory of Nuclear Control Systems and Methods in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) worked out a Miniature Liquid Scintillation Counter (LCS) [1] [2], within a project titled “New generation of intelligent radiometric devices with cordless transmission of information” (UDA-POIG.01.03.01-14-065/08) co-financed by European Union from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This Miniature Liquid Scintillation Counter may be used as a basic equipment resulting in the above mentioned directive. This article presents results of conducted research based on LCS and comparison of this results with the measurements carried out by Accredited Laboratory for Cali-bration of Dosimetric and Radon Instruments in Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR).
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 169-182; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.53017

Abstract:
The Fukushima nuclear accident has generated doubts and questions which need to be properly understood and addressed. This scientific attitude became necessary to allow the use of the nuclear technology for electricity generation around the world. The nuclear stakeholders are working to obtain these technical answers for the Fukushima questions. We believe that, such challenges will be, certainly, implemented in the next reactor generation, following the technological evolution. The purpose of this work is to perform a critical analysis of the Fukushima nuclear accident, focusing at the common cause failures produced by tsunami, as well as an analysis of the main redundant systems. This work also assesses the mitigative procedures and the subsequent consequences of such actions, which gave results below expectations to avoid the progression of the accident, discussing the concept of sharing of structures, systems and components at multi-unit nuclear power plants, and its eventual inappropriate use in safety-related devices which can compromise the nuclear safety, as well as its consequent impact on the Fukushima accident scenario. The lessons from Fukushima must be better learned, aiming the development of new procedures and new safety systems. Thus, the nuclear technology could reach a higher evolution level in its safety requirements. This knowledge will establish a conceptual milestone in the safety system design, becoming necessary the review of the current acceptance criteria of safety-related systems.
E. B. Faweya, , J. Kayode
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 107-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.52010

Abstract:
Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were determined in edible mushrooms samples in Ekiti State Nigeria. The edible mushrooms collected are Termitomyces striatus, Psathyrella atroumbonata, Termitomyces robustus, Pleurotus tuber-regium and Pleurotus squarrosulus. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The average concentrations of 40K varied from 254.17 ± 46.78 to 416.07 ± 68.43 Bq·kg-1, 226Ra concentrations varied from 2.68 ± 0.82 to 21.64 ± 7.23 Bq·kg-1 and 232Th concentrations varied from 8.57 ± 3.25 to 10.98 ± 4.31 Bq·kg-1. The concentrations were converted to effective dose. Effective doses calculated were found to be below maximum permissible levels. Therefore, no health risk is envisaged for those that normally consumed these mushrooms.
, F. Jimenez Barreiro, E. Jaime Salinas, A. L. Vera Treviño
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 111-119; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.52011

Abstract:
149Pm, 166Ho, 161Tb and 177Lu conjugated to chemical agents (monoclonal antibodies, polypeptide, etc.) have the appropriate decay characteristics for imaging and therapeutic studies and consequently the potential to be useful in radiotherapy and diagnosis. These carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by neutron irradiation of a lanthanide target followed by β- decay, and a posterior radiochemical separation of the daughter radionuclide from macro-amounts of the parent target. In order to produce carrier free 149Pm, 161Tb, 166Ho and 177Lu for radiotherapy, with a radionuclide purity of more than 99.9%, a device production was developed based on separation of Nd/Pm, Gb/Tb, Dy/Ho and Yb/Lu by extraction chromatography.
Eser Erim, , Ismail Evren, Mine Eren, Cengiz Tasci,
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 129-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.52013

Abstract:
Movement of the patient during myocardial perfusion SPECT leads to some artifacts that make the interpretation difficult. In this study, myocardial perfusion imaging protocol was performed on a cardiac phantom and SPECT was performed by simulating patient movements. A lesion model with dimensions of 1.2 × 2 × 2 cm was created on the inferoseptal wall of the cardiac phantom. Imaging was done in circular orbits in 64 × 64 matrix and step and shoot mode. First set of images taken with no movement was referred as the reference image. During imaging, patient movement was simulated by moving the phantom in ±X and ±Y directions between the frames starting from 8th frame to 16th frame. At the end of imaging, Bull’s eye maps of images with movement were com-pared with Bull’s eye maps of reference images. Bull’s eye maps were evaluated by an experienced nuclear medicine physician. Shifting patient’s movement in all directions by ±1 and ±2 cm, dis-placed the localization of the lesion mildly and this did not hamper the evaluation. However, movements of ±3 or ±4 cm resulted in artifacts which in turn caused partial or no visualization of the lesion. In motion corrected images, the lesion could be evaluated in ±1 and ±2 cm movements while lesion could not be evaluated in ±3 and ±4 cm movements. As a result, movement greater than ±3 cm causes significant image artifacts and this should be considered as a potential source of error in myocardial perfusion studies.
, Jong Hun Kim, Keon Sik Kim, Jae Ho Yang, Sun Ki Kim, Yang-Hyun Koo
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 102-106; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.52009

Abstract:
For an analysis of the oxidation behavior of UO2 nuclear fuel pellet under a loss of water coolant accident in a spent nuclear fuel pool of an LWR, thermodynamic assessments of UO2 oxidation were carried out under various atmospheric conditions. In a steam atmosphere, it was assessed that UO2 would not be fully oxidized into U3O8 due to the relatively lower oxygen partial pressure, while UO2 will be fully oxidized into U3O8 in an air atmosphere. In an air and steam mixture atmosphere, the UO2 oxidation was dominantly affected by the air volumetric fraction, because of the relatively higher oxygen partial pressure of air. In addition, the effect of H2 volumetric fraction on the oxygen partial pressure under a mixture atmosphere was calculated, and it was revealed that UO2 pellet oxidation could be reduced above the critical value of H2 volumetric fraction.
Reinhard Brandt, , Maria Haiduc, Elena Firu, Alina Tania Neagu, Eberhard Ganssauge, Reza Hashemi-Nezhad,
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 73-87; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.52007

Abstract:
A new approach to solving the observation of enhanced neutron production in high-energy heavy ion induced reactions in thick targets is presented. Two different reaction mechanisms in these interactions are considered: 1) Limited fragmentation of the projectile, called SPALLATION; 2) Complete nuclear fragmentation of the projectile fragment into individual relativistic hadrons only, referred to as “BURST”. The abundance of this second path increases with the charge and energy of the projectile and may be responsible for enhanced neutron production observed with radiochemical methods in 44 GeV 12C and 72 GeV 40Ar irradiations. Interactions of 72 GeV 22Ne in nuclear emulsions show that SPALLATION and BURST have strongly different interaction signatures, and also that the rate of BURSTS increases from (26 ± 3)% of all interactions in the 1st generation to (78 ± 6)% in the 2nd generation. Further experimental signatures of BURSTS will be described; however, no model based on physics concepts can be presented. This effect may have practical consequences for neutron safety considerations in the construction of advanced heavy ion accelerators.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 57-71; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51006

Abstract:
The system of point kinetics equations describes the time behaviour of a nuclear reactor, assuming that, during the transient, the spatial form of the flux of neutrons varies very little. This system has been largely used in the analysis of transients, where the numerical solutions of the equations are limited by the stiffness problem that results from the different time scales of the instantaneous and delayed neutrons. Its derivation can be done directly from the neutron transport equation, from the neutron diffusion equation or through a heuristics procedure. All of them lead to the same functional form of the system of differential equations for point kinetics, but with different coefficients. However, the solution of the neutron transport equation is of little practical use as it requires the change of the existent core design systems, as used to calculate the design of the cores of nuclear reactors for different operating cycles. Several approximations can be made for the said derivation. One of them consists of disregarding the time derivative for neutron density in comparison with the remaining terms of the equation resulting from the P1 approximation of the transport equation. In this paper, we consider that the time derivative for neutron current density is not negligible in the P1 equation. Thus being, we obtained a new system of equations of point kinetics that we named as modified. The innovation of the method presented in the manuscript consists in adopting arising from the P1 equations, without neglecting the derivative of the current neutrons, to derive the modified point kinetics equations instead of adopting the Fick’s law which results in the classic point kinetics equations. The results of the comparison between the point kinetics equations, modified and classical, indicate that the time derivative for the neutron current density should not be disregarded in several of transient analysis situations.
Vladimir G. Zinovyev, Anatolii P. Serebrov, Ivan A. Mitropolsky, Yuriy E. Loginov, Georgiy I. Shulyak, Tatyana M. Tyukavina, Sergey L. Sakharov, Anatoly V. Chernyj
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 43-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51005

Abstract:
In this work, the evaluation of natural radioactivity and spontaneous fission rates was performed for 8 nuclides from the natural radioactive 238U, 235U and 232Th decay chains. For this purpose, three samples of structural materials of the neutrino detector, i.e. aluminum, titanium and glass were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis to quantify a specific radioactivity of the samples. According to the results of this investigation, glass and aluminum samples have maximum values of the mean uranium concentrations 7.3(7) × 10-4% and 3.1(6) × 10-5%, respectively, while the lowest value for mean concentration of the uranium was found in titanium samples to be 4.7(3) × 10-6%. Aluminum sample had maximum values of the mean thorium concentrations, 2.5(8) × 10-3%, while the lowest value for mean concentration of the thorium was found in titanium samples to be 6.2(3) × 10-7%.
Eugene S. Mananga, Jalil Moghaddasi, Ajaz Sana, Mostafa Sadoqi
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 27-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51004

World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51003

Abstract:
If the microcontrollers are devices quite easy to use for experts in electronics, a scientist devoted to different research topics from digital electronics is generally totally unable to develop and use these complex components. Most of the time, the researcher is looking for simple devices able to control different parameters during his experimentation. He is obliged in this case to request the intervention of an expert in electronics to develop such a device and the result is sometimes different from the precise initial requirement. Nowadays, it is possible to find on the market, simple units able to satisfy the requirements of the scientist and easy enough to be manipulated by him in specific applications. The purpose of this paper is to present some of these devices and to compare their possibilities and the ways to use them. These devices are compared in optically stimulated dosimetry with applications found in external dosimetry, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and space dosimetry.
, Mohammadreza Nematollahi, Mehdi Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Nasim Rafiee
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 6-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51002

Abstract:
This paper reports on the modeling and simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in naturalcirculation systems, with special emphasis on simplified boiling water reactors (SBWRs). In this work, flashing-induced oscillations have been studied by using an experimental test facility (SIRIUS-N) and RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermal hydraulic code. The behavior of the test facility is investigated for different values of core inlet temperature value. The results of the simulations have been compared qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments. In general, deviations are found between the numerical and experimental results, in spite of the close similarity between the SIRIUS-N facility and the definition of the system in the RELAP code. This result indicates that predictions regarding experimental facility, based on modeled system, should be carefully considered.
Kyoko Saito, , Naomi Ogano, Hirotaka Shimada, , Hiroki Okada, Kei Yokota, Kaori Hatano, Yuki Yoshida,
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 05, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2015.51001

Abstract:
The acquisition method for planar 67Ga imaging has hardly changed for 30 years. In this study, in order to improve image quality and diagnostic accuracy, we take steps to optimize the acquisition method, and to choose a scatter correction. First, we acquired individual images from the 93 keV, 185 keV, and 300 keV photopeak; then the images were added together and compared to the individual images. Second, we compared results from a low-medium-energy (LME) collimator with those from a conventional medium-energy (ME) collimator. Also, we examined whether to combine the data from all three of the usual window locations (set about 93 keV, 185 keV, and 300 keV) or to use the data from only two. Third, we compared results from a conventional photopeak ± 10% window with those from a photopeak ± 9 keV window. Fourth, for scatter correction we compared results using the triple energy window (TEW) method with those using the multi-photopeak dual window (MDW) method. The phantoms studied were cold rods in a uniform background, and hot spheres within a cylinder containing uniformly radioactive water. The clinical study involved 22 patients with lung lesions. By the comparison by the contrast ratio in cold rods phantom, 15.6% is improved in LME (2 peaks) than ME (3 peaks), and 3.2% is improved in photopeak ± 9 keV than photopeak ± 10%, 10.2% is improved in TEW than MDW. However, the TEW scatter correction method recognized unstable to the contrast ratio in a clinical study. In addition, a body outline might disappear.
Xiaodong Li, Qijun Liu, Gongyi Li, Yihe Li, Zengyong Chu
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 237-248; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44030

Abstract:
A nuclear structure model of “ring plus extra nucleon” is proposed. For nuclei larger than 4He, protons (P) and neutrons (N) are basically bound alternatively to form a ZP + ZN ring. The ring folds with a “bond angle” of 90° for every 3 continuous nucleons to make the nucleons packed densely. Extra N(‘s) can bind to ring-P with the same “bond angle” and “bond distance”. When 2 or more P’s are geometrically available, the extra N tends to be stable. Extra P can bind with ring N in a similar way when the ratio of N/P < 1 although the binding is weaker than that of extra N. Even-Z rings, as well as normal even-even nuclei, always have superimposed gravity centers of P and N; while for odd-Z rings, as well as all odd-A (A: number of nucleon) nuclei, the centers of P and N must be eccentric. The eccentricity results in a depression of binding energy (EB) and therefore odd and even Z dependent zigzag features of EB/A. This can be well explained by the shift of eccentricity by extra nucleons. Symmetrical center may present in even-Z rings and normal even-even nuclei. While for odd-Z ring, only antisymmetric center (every P can find an N through the center and vice versa) is possible. Based on this model, a pair of mirror nuclei, PX+nNX and PXNX+n, should be equivalent in packing structure just like black-white photo and the negative film. Therefore, an identical spin and parity was confirmed for any pair. In addition, the EB/A difference of mirror nuclei pair is nearly a constant of 0.184n MeV. Many other facts can also be easily understood from this model, such as the neutron halo, the unusual stability sequence of 9Be, 7Be and 8Be and so on.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 228-236; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44029

Abstract:
The binding energy of the deuteron is calculated electromagnetically with the Schrödinger equation. In mainstream nuclear physics, the only known Coulomb force is the repulsion between protons, inexistent in the deuteron. It is ignored that a proton attracts a neutron containing electric charges with no net charge and that the magnetic moments of the nucleons interact together significantly. A static equilibrium exists in the deuteron between the electrostatic attraction and the magnetic repulsion. The Heitler equation of the hydrogen atom has been adapted to its nucleus where the centrifugal force is replaced by the magnetic repulsive force, solved graphically, by trial and error, without fit to experiment. As by chance, one obtains, at the lowest horizontal inflection point, with a few percent precision, the experimental value of the deuteron binding energy. This success, never obtained elsewhere, proves the purely static and electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.
Xianjun Zheng, Baiquan Deng, Wei Ou, Fujun Gou
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 222-227; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44028

Abstract:
This article proposes a general framework for the conversion of U-238 and Th-232 utilizing fusion-produced neutrons. This recognizes that emerging fusion technologies may not produce sufficient net energy output to justify stand-alone applications, yet may be commercially viable for breeder transmutation or hybrid fusion-fission reactor concepts proposed herein to dispose of nuclear wastes and long life high radioactive fission products remaining in shutdown nuclear power plants. Results show that this could be achievable within a decade, given an appropriate fusion source. However, if 20% beryllium of nuclei density is added to the convertor blanket, the efficiency of the conversion process can be significantly increased. Also, the neutron energy spectrum resulting from dense D-D plasma core fusion is much softer than D-T fusion neutron source, hence the probability of (n, p) (n, α) backward decay reaction paths will be smaller and the conversion efficiency will be elevated.
, Mehran Ataee, Hamid Ravanbakhsh, Ehsan Masumi Goodarzi, Samana Ghoreishi, Gholamreza Raisali
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 208-215; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44026

Abstract:
The Adaptive Quality Control Phantom (AQCP) is a computer-controlled phantom which positions and moves a radioactive source in the Field of View (FOV) of an imaging nuclear medicine device on a definite path to produce a spatial distribution of gamma rays to perform QC Tests such as the Collimator Hole Angulation (CHA) and the Center of Rotation (COR) of Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT). The collimator hole angulation for six collimators was measured using a point source and a computer-controlled cylindrical positioning system. In this method, the displacement of the image of a point source was examined as the AQCP was moving point source vertically away from the collimator face. The results of the high-accuracy measurement method of CHA show that the measurement accuracy for absolute angulation errors is better than ±0.024°. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of CHA for LEHR, LEHS and LEUHR collimators of SMV dual heads camera and LEGP, MEGP and HEGP of GE Millennium MG were evaluated to be 0.290°, 0.292°, 0.208°, 0.154°, 0.220° and 0.202°, respectively. It is to be added in this connection that the evaluated RMS of CHA for LEHR collimator with the distance variation from the collimator’s surface ±1 mm has been varied ±0.04 degree. A new method for the center of rotation assessment by AQCP is introduced and the results of this proposed method as compared with the routine QC test and their differences are discussed in detail. We defined and measured a new parameter called Dynamic Mechanical Error (DME) for applying the gantry motion correction.
, Arun K. Nayak
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 195-207; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44025

Abstract:
Determination of turbulent mixing rate of two phase flow between neighboring subchannels is an important aspect of sub channel analysis in reactor rod bundles. Various models have been developed for two phase turbulent mixing rate between subchannels. These models show that turbulent mixing rate is strongly dependent on flow regimes; their validity was examined against specific or limited experiments. It is vital to evaluate these models by comparing the predicted two phase turbulent mixing rate with available experimental data conducted for various subchannel geometries and operating conditions. This paper describes evaluation of different models for two phase turbulent mixing rate for both gas and liquid phase against large range of experimental data which are obtained from various subchannel geometries. The results indicate that there is large discrepancy between the predicted and experimental data for turbulent mixing rate. This paper provides important shortcoming of the previous work and need for the development of a new model. In the view of this, a two phase flow model is presented, which predicts both liquid and gas phase turbulent mixing rate between adjacent sub channels of reactor rod bundles. The model presented here is for slug churn flow regime, which is dominant as compared to the other regimes like bubbly flow and annular flow regimes, since turbulent mixing rate is the highest in slug churn flow regime. The present model has been tested against low pressure and temperature air-water and high pressure and temperature steam-water experimental data found that it shows good agreement with available experimental data.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 189-194; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44024

Abstract:
Lower hybrid (LH) wave is not only convenient to generate a flat or reversed magnetic shear profiles, but also helps one to explore scenarios for steady-state tokamak operation with improved confinement. Here with LSC code (lower hybrid simulation code), we calculate density and temperature profiles, relative power of injected wave and current wave lunch for two options of DEMO at the launched LH wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different DEMO options, known as pulsed (option 1) and steady-state (option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that power deposition by using lower hybrid wave injection mainly takes place near the edge of plasma and approximately in more peripheral region for both of options but has approximately higher efficiency for option 1 compared to option 2. About current wave lunch, a major part of that is close to the plasma edge for both of options. We have some considerable parts that reach to internal layers for option 1 and then current drive mainly takes place in a wider, more peripheral region for option 1.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 177-188; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.44023

Abstract:
Gamma uranium-molybdenum alloys have been considered as the fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for material and test reactors (MTR), due to their acceptable performance under irradiation. Regarding their usage as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, it is necessary to convert the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered for this purpose is the hydration-dehydration (HDH). This paper shows that, under specific conditions of heating and cooling, γ-UMo fragmentation occurs in a non-reactive predominant mechanism, as shown by the curves of hydrogen absorption/desorption as a function of time and temperature. Our focus was on the experimental results presented by the addition of 8% weight molybdenum. Following the production by induction melting, samples of the alloys were thermally treated under a constant flow of hydrogen for temperatures varying from 500°C to 600°C and for times of 0.5 to 4 h. It was observed that, even without a massive hydration-dehydration process, the alloys fragmented under specific conditions of thermal treatment during the thermal shock phase of the experiments. Also, it was observed that there was a relation between absorption and the rate of gamma decomposition or the gamma phase stability of the alloy.
Eberhard Ganssauge, , Reinhard Brandt
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 03, pp 155-161; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2013.34026

Abstract:
An enhanced neutron production and an enhanced nuclear destruction due to secondary fragments have been observed in very thick targets irradiated with high energy ions. This enhancement is beyond theoretical calculations and it is an unresolved problem. It is observed only when primary ion interactions exceed an energy threshold (ECM/u ≈ 150 MeV). Investigations using nuclear emulsions for very high-energy nuclear reactions suggest that two distinctly different classes of relativistic projectile-like fragments are emitted in primary interactions: a “cool” channel with a temperature of (T(p)cool ≈ 10 MeV), and a “hot” channel with (T(p)hot ≈ 40 MeV. This second reaction class may induce the above mentioned enhanced reactions of secondary fragments, thus being responsible for unresolved problems. This assumption should be studied in further experiments. Nuclear interactions of secondary particles in thick targets are of interest, in particular in view of radiation protection needs for high energy and high intensity heavy ion accelerators. Many basic ideas of this paper go back to the late Professor E. Schopper (Frankfurt).
, Mehrdad Aghamohammadi
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 170-176; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.43022

Abstract:
In this work, tritium concentration was determined in different D2O enrichment in heavy water samples. Samples were prepared from Arak Heavy Water Production Plant. Tritium concentration was determined utilizing liquid scintillation detector (LSC) system based on β-decay of tritium isotope. In this work instead of simple distillation, the azeotropic distillation method was used. Absorbed spectra and fluorescence spectra were registered by Shimadz spectrometer UV-2100 model and fluorescence spectrometer LS50B model respectively. Tritium concentration was obtained from 1.75 ± 0.80 up 6.16 ± 1.01 Bq/L for 0.35% to 77.50% enrichment of D2O concentration in heavy water samples. Coefficient correlation between tritium concentration and D2O concentration in heavy water R2 = 0.853 was derived. For 99.8% enriched D2O in heavy water, deviation was observed from direct line that caused decreasing of R2.
Darwish Al-Azmi
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 163-169; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.43021

Abstract:
A mobile system comprising of a Geiger-Muller (GM) dosimeter connected with a smart phone was used for ambient gamma dose rate survey within the districts and on the roads within the state of Kuwait. While the dosimeter provides data on gamma dose rates, the smart phone provides the GPS navigation information and saves the data for subsequent analysis and mapping. The survey covered a total distance of about 2300 km within the country and 3117 data points were recorded to show the dose rate distribution on the map of Kuwait. The results show that the ambient dose rates in Kuwait range from 40 to 180 nSv.h-1 with a mean value of 103 nSv.h-1. The dosimetric system described has good potential as a tool for determining baseline background radiation dose rates in an area.
Manuel Navarrete, Miguel A. Zúñiga, Guillermo Espinosa, José I. Golzarri
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 158-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.43020

Abstract:
Radioactive contamination at planet scale started in 1945 when the first nuclear taste was performed in Alamo Gordo, New Mexico, followed by two war actions in Japan, a second test in Bikini, and more than 2000 tests were performed all over the world by different countries since then on. In this context, 10 main accidents in power and research nuclear reactors seem to be negligible in the general radioactive contamination at planet scale, which can be measured by comparing radioactivity of fission product 137Cs with that of natural 40K, both detected from marine sediments taken up at different places and depth. This paper shows 9 results obtained from Gulf of Mexico samples and one from Pacific North ocean, confirming the fact that this simple method works well enough to keep watching the process of radioactive contamination on earth, whatever may be the cause, to prove if it remains constant for a time, by equilibrium between contamination and decaying of 137Cs, it is decreasing at same rate than 137Cs radioactive decaying, or by the contrary, it is growing up and approaching at some extent the natural radioactivity from 40K.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 148-157; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.43019

Abstract:
Control valves are widely used in industry to control fluid flow in several applications. In nuclear power systems they are crucial for the safe operation of plants. Therefore, the necessity of improvements in monitoring and diagnosis methods started to be of extreme relevance, establishing as main goal of the reliability and readiness of the system components. The main focus of this work is to study the development of a model of non-intrusive monitoring and diagnosis applied to process control valves using artificial intelligence by fuzzy logic technique, contributing to the development of predictive methodologies identifying faults in incipient state. Specially in nuclear power plants, the predictive maintenance contributes to the security factor in order to diagnose in advance the occurrence of a possible failure, preventing severs situations. The control valve analyzed belongs to a steam plant which simulates the secondary circuit of a PWR—Pressurized Water Reactor. The maintenance programs are being implemented based on the ability to diagnose modes of degradation and to take measures to prevent incipient failures, improving plant reliability and reducing maintenance costs. The approach described in this paper represents an alternative departure from the conventional qualitative techniques of system analysis. The methodology used in this project is based on signatures analysis, considering the pressure (psi) in the actuator and the stem displacement (mm) of the valve. Once the measurements baseline of the control valve is taken, it is possible to detect long-term deviations during valve lifetime, detecting in advance valve failures. This study makes use of MATLAB language through the “fuzzy logic toolbox” which uses the method of inference “Mamdani”, acting by fuzzy conjunction, through Triangular Norms (t-norm) and Triangular Conorms (t-conorm). The main goal is to obtain more detailed information contained in the measured data, correlating them to failure situations in the incipient stage.
Vladimir G. Zinovyev, Ivan A. Mitropolskiy, Yuriy E. Loginov, Georgiy I. Shulyak, Tatyana M. Tyukavina, Sergey L. Saharov, Sergey V. Kosianenko, Elena I. Gorokhova, Vladimir A. Demidenko
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 139-147; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.43018

Abstract:
Neutron activation analysis technique of the Gd2O2S:М scintillation ceramics was developed. The concentrations of 15 trace, minor and major elements (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, La, Sc, Tb, Zn, Zr, Pr, Gd, Na) have been measured with the instrumental neutron activation analysis of the Gd2O2S:Pr sample. The concentrations range of the determined elements is from 3 × 10-8 to 2.0% in mass. The determination limit of the elements was calculated to be (0.6 - 1.3 × 10-8% in mass).
, Jason Andrus, Chad Pope
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 123-138; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42017

Abstract:
The design temperature of high plutonium concentration ZPPR fuel plates is 600°C. Cladding integrity of the 304 L stainless steel cladding is a significant concern with this fuel since even small holes can lead to substantial fuel degradation. Since the fuel has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the cladding, an investigation of the stress induced in the cladding due to the differential thermal expansion of fuel and cladding up to the design temperature was conducted. Small holes in the cladding envelope would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing into a powder over a long period of time. This is the same type of chemical reaction chain that exists in the degradation of the high uranium concentration ZPPR fuel. Unfortunately, the uranium fuel was designed with vents which allowed this degradation to occur. The Pu cladding is sealed so only fuel with damaged cladding would be subject to this damage. The thermal stresses that can be developed in the fuel cladding have been calculated in this paper and compared to the ultimate tensile stress of the cladding. The conclusion is drawn that thermal stresses cannot induce holes in the cladding even for the highest storage temperatures predicted in calculations (292°C). In fact, thermal stress cannot cause cladding failure as long as the fuel temperatures are below the design limit of 600°C (1112°F).
Anirudh A. Desai, Sekhar K. Chakrabarti
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 103-122; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42016

Abstract:
A linear three dimensional finite element (FE) study has been carried out to examine the structural response of a prestressed concrete (PSC) inner containment (IC) dome of reactor building (double containment system) of a typical Indian Nuclear Power Plant, having large steam generator (SG) openings with due emphasis on the local behaviour of the steel-concrete interfaces at the SG openings, due to initial prestress transfer. The predominant thrust of the study has been placed on the objective of predicting the possibilities of separation at the steel-concrete interface zones adjacent to the embedded plates (EPs) of the SG openings. Two types of modeling and analysis have been made to study the overall and local behaviour of the structure. Prestressing ducts, passive reinforcements and EPs have been included in the models in certain ways. For the FE analysis, the interface zone has been modeled using interface elements, the properties of which were derived from the results of past experiments conducted on steel plate-concrete inter-face specimens. The FE analysis results have been compared with the results of the past two FE analytical studies on the linear behaviour of the same PSC IC dome. Important observations have been made regarding dome deformation and stresses throughout the structure with special emphasis on the local behaviour of steel-concrete interfaces at and around the SG openings.
Tran Tuan Anh, Pham Ngoc Son, Vuong Huu Tan, Pham Dinh Khang, Phu Chi Hoa
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 96-102; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42015

Abstract:
Filtered neutron technique was applied for producing quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams of 24 keV, 54 keV, 133 keV and 148 keV at the horizontal neutron channel No. 4 of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. The study on physical characteristics of these beam lines has been carried out for efficient applications in neutron capture experiments. The filtered neutron spectrum of each beam has been simulated by Monte-Carlo method and experimentally measured by a gas-filled protonrecoil spectrometer. The neutron fluxes of these filtered beams were measured by the activation technique with standard foils of 197Au, using a high efficient HPGe digital gamma-ray spectrometer.
, Lei Huang, , Shouxiang Wang
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 88-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42014

Abstract:
The dynamics of transportation, accumulation, diminishment and distribution of 95Nb in a simulated aquatic ecosystem was studied using the isotope-tracer technique, and a fitting equation was established by application of a closed, five-compartment model. The results showed that when 95Nb was introduced into an aquatic system, it was transported and transformed via deposition in combination with other ions, and adsorption and absorption by aquatic organisms, resulting in redistribution and accumulation in different parts of the organisms. Following addition, the spe- cific activity of 95Nb in water decreased sharply within a short time, and then after reaching a certain value, it decreased more slowly. Sediment accumulated large amounts of 95Nb through the exchange of ions. Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) also adsorbed a large amount of 95Nb in a short period of time. Snails (Bellamya purificata) and fish (Carassius auratus) were found to have a poor adsorption capacity of 95Nb. The amount of 95Nb found in the snail flesh was greater than that in the shell, and the 95Nb found in the fish was mainly distributed in the viscera. The amount of 95Nb in each individual component of the experimental system was affected over time.
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Abdur R. Akond, , Quamrul Huda
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 81-87; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42013

Abstract:
The COOLOD-N2 and PARET computer codes were used for a steady-state thermal hydraulic and safety analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor located at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The objective of the present study is to ensure that all important safety related thermal hydraulic parameters uphold margins far below the safety limits by steady-state calculations at full power. We, therefore, have calculated the hot channel fuel centreline temperature, fuel surface temperature, cladding surface temperature, the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) heat flux and DNB ratio, axial fuel centreline temperature and compared. The comparison indicates that the calculated values are in satisfactory agreement between the codes. The data obtained in this investigation are largely far to compromise safety of the reactor. The results can also be used to upgrade the current core configuration of the TRIGA reactor.
, Muhammad Asim, Majid Irfat, Shahid Manzoor
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42012

Abstract:
Ionizing radiations are widely used to sustain and enhance our quality of life in the areas such as medical diagnosis, therapy, scientific research and industry etc. Ionizing radiations are available from radioactive sources which are made of radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are produced in either nuclear power or research reactors or nuclear accelerators or extracted from the naturally found radioactive ores. These radioactive sources and radioactive materials need to be transported from their places of production to the places of applications and finally to waste repositories. The radioactive materials are transported in well designed packages having various shapes and sizes. In the field of radioactive transport, it is a mandatory to find the Transport Index (TI) to be mentioned on each package for transportation. This research is focused on the determination of the maximum γ-ray radiation dose at one meter from the surface of cubic and rectangular shaped package or containers. A computer code “Solid Angle for Transport Index” (SAFTI) has been developed using MATLAB to determine the location of maximum value of the radiation dose rate from the surface of a rectangular or square container. This maximum dose rate is used to determine the transport index. Some of the results of the code have been compared with the experimental results. The results of this research are useful not only to determine TI for individual packages but also to find the TI of the vehicles carrying the transport packages.
Zengyu Xu, Chuanjie Pan, , Jiming Chen
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42011

Abstract:
Up to now, no a real full-cover liquid metal (LM) free surface flow have been successfully used in magnetic fusion devices as MHD instability and unavoidable rivulet flow. Recently, after we carried out a guidable free curve-surface flow on theoretically and experimentally, seeking for other way to get a full-cover free surface flow is also in implementing. The superficial layer MHD effect in free surface flow is experimentally observed. After compared and analyzed the characteristic parameters of the free surface flow, the conditions of full-cover free surface flow are found. Meanwhile, the new two parameters of surface cover ratio and rivulet flow index are introduced to characterize the flowing characteristic of the full-cover free surface flow under magnetic field. According to the analysis rule, for different liquid metal, there are the different unique conditions to meet full-cover free surface flow under magnetic field. This may be a way to solve free surface flow major MHD key issue for LM PFCs.
Pham Ngoc Son, Vuong Huu Tan, Phu Chi Hoa, Tran Tuan Anh
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 59-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42010

Abstract:
External filtered neutron beams have been developed at the horizontal radial channels No. 4 of Dalat research reactor. In the material composition of the neutron filters, the primary material components of Iron, Aluminum, Nickel and Vanadium are used to obtain the mono-energetic neutron beams of 24 and 59 keV, with low level of Gamma and slow neutron background. A computer code and Monte-Carlo simulation technique were applied to optimize the filter configurations and to deduce the neutron energy distributions in the filtered beams. A hydrogen-filled proton recoil detector and the activation method with Gold foils were used to measure the neutron energy spectrum and flux of each beam at sample position. The results of experimental neutron fluxes are 6.1 × 105 and 5.3 × 105 n/cm2/s for 24 and 59 keV beams, respectively.
, Igor Alvarado, Xiangrong Fu, Alexei Bekemishev
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.42009

Abstract:
Research on controlled nuclear fusion has been largely concentrated on plasma confinement using toroidal magnetic fields. Toroidal systems are complex. A simpler magnetic confinement system may provide a valuable platform for understanding fusion plasmas. The linear mirror machine has delivered good performance with the potential of giving a direct conversion of nuclear energy into electric power. The GAMMA-10 (G-10) linear mirror confinement system at Tsukuba University demonstrated the principle of the direct conversion of plasma energy into electric power on a small scale from the exhaust plasma in the exterior divertor chamber. The tokamak fusion system has to prove that the 10 to 15 MA of plasma current can be sustained continuously with acceptable efficiency. Plasma confinement is due to the magnetic field from the plasma current in tokamaks. There is room for creative new solutions in the magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas, and consideration is given for the alternative approach of using a linear machine with high magnetic mirror fields and the direct conversion of the high temperature escaping plasma to electric power.
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 04, pp 21-25; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2014.41004

Abstract:
Prior to the installation of the Cd-liner in one of the large outer irradiation channels of NIRR-1, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed using MCNP5 version 1.4 code. This was done to investigate the effect of installation of Cd-liner in either an inner or outer irradiation channel on reactor physics parameters. Data obtained indicate that the core excess reactivity in both inner and outer irradiations channels is reduced by 3.60 ± 0.07 mk and 0.64 ± 0.06 mk, respectively. Considering the fact that NIRR-1 has a cold core excess reactivity of 3.77 mk, results obtained show that installation of the 1 mm thick Cd-sheet in one of the large outer irradiation channels would have no significant impact on the core physics data. After installation of a 1 mm Cd sheath in a large outer irradiation channel, the neutron flux distribution and the stability in the irradiation channels were monitored by foil activation method. Results indicate that the uniformity of neutron flux distribution in the irradiation channel is preserved and the neutron flux data were found to be comparable with the data obtained before the installation.
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