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Iffat Ghani, , Ruhul Nissa
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33276

Abstract:
Climate change has been one of the most sought out and debated topic of this decade and is evident to have profound effect on human health, climatic conditions and biodiversity. Though changes in climatic conditions has been referred as natural process but scientific investigation has shown that the recent climatic variation has gone beyond the natural level suggesting the evolution of a process i.e. “global climate change”. The disease burden of a population, and how that burden is distributed across different subpopulations (e.g. infants, women), are important pieces of information for defining strategies to improve population health. Disease burden estimates provide an indication of the health gains that could be achieved by targeted action against specific risk factors. The measures also allow us to prioritize actions and direct them to the population groups at highest risk. It has been noticed that one in three developing-country children under the age of five – 178 million children suffers stunting due to chronic under nutrition and poor quality diets. Chronic malnutrition during the first two years of life usually results in irreversible harm. Keeping in view the above conditions this review paper was prepared to pledge the proficiency and admonish the people i.e., our children from ill effects of climate change by making people aware how they can save their children with suggestions to overcome the severe and grievous effects of looming climate change, and most of all through various suitable government policies at national and international level.
, Z. O. Opafunso
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32187

Abstract:
Aims: The study examines the effect of capital cost and operating cost on some selected quarries within North Central Nigeria. Study Design:  Survey design was used in designing the questionnaire used for collecting data from the selected quarries. Study Area and Methodology: Twenty four quarries were selected in North- Central Nigeria for this study. Sixteen of these quarries were for commercial purposes while eight were for construction purposes. A total number of one hundred and fifty-five questionnaires were randomly distributed to the workers and managements of the various quarries to collect data on the quantity of granite rock blasted per month, cost of drilling accessories used, cost of explosives used, cost of maintenance of plant/equipment and cost of manpower. Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Returns (IRR) were the two economic evaluation data analyses used for the study because they rely on the time value of money. Results: The result shows that Majok quarry, Cafon quarry, Rock bridge quarry, Academ quarry, Trans Engineering and Sinac granite quarry are not doing well as their internal rate of returns falls short of the annual internal rate of returns of 20%. This indicates that the companies could not break even as they failed to cover the average operating cost. Conclusion: The study noted that it is not only huge capital cost that determine the production cost of aggregates, rather, such measures as the size of the jaw of the crushing plant, appropriate spacing and burden drilling plan are very important to guide against the extra operating cost of secondary blasting.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32806

Abstract:
In this paper we are investigate in the evolution equation p(x)- laplacian with the initial boundary value question. We translate the parabolic equation into the elliptic equation by using a finite difference method, and then the existence and uniqueness solution are obtained. The blow-up property is shown, by using the energy method. We perform, using Matlab (Ode45 subroutine), some numerical experiments just to illustrate our general results.
O. T. Oginni, O. L. Rominiyi, J. F. Eiche
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32374

Abstract:
Aims: The paper compares the residential household energy consumption pattern between the densely and sparsely populated dwellers on the basis of income level classification with a view to ensuring functional distribution of energy. This study identified, determined and evaluated the various households’ energy choices, quantities and costs of domestic energy consumption and provided a database for documentation. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between December 2014 and March 2015. Methodology: Primary data were collected through a well structured questionnaires administered on households. Direct and personal observations were used to corroborate same information obtained from the questionnaires used to present more accurate information in the paper. Data obtained were analyzed using both independent and paired t-tests conducted at 5 and 10% levels of significance in the annual energy consumption between the low and high income earners in the visited areas respectively. Results: The result revealed that, the densely populated area remains the larger consumer of energy content of 827,411.20 MJ (63%) against the sparsely populated areas with 486,267.60 MJ (37%), while on the basis of households’ income level; the energy consumed by the low income earners (790,719.30 MJ) is significantly higher than the high income earners (522,959.49 MJ). Conclusion: The study established that, fuel wood was the poor man’s energy source (6.5%) as well as charcoal (11.2%) majorly used in sparsely populated areas with high demand. Kerosene consumption (29.6%) was positively and significantly influenced by income and population in both locations while, LPG (44.9%) and electricity (7.8%) were used mainly in the densely populated areas. However, the results implied that, there was a positive link between income and choice of energy consumption by households that showed the low income earners consumed more energy than the high income earners due to their cooking frequency and unit energy purchase index.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33142

Abstract:
Blocks are widely used in construction industry for both load and non-load bearing walls, blocks are of different forms and shapes and the most common is hollow sandcrete blocks. Glass wool fibre is an industrial waste product which can be turned to a useful material in the construction industry. The effect of glass wool fibre on the strength properties of hollow sandcrete blocks was investigated. Sieve analysis was done on the sand used. The batching of the materials were done by weight and the mix ratio used was 1:8 with an average water-cement ratio of 0.5. Block samples of 150×225×450 mm (6” block) were produced by hand moulding process. Glass wool fibre at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement were added to the mix and compressive strength test was done by the ADR Touch 1500 kN Compression Testing Machine on the block samples. The Coefficient of Curvature (Cc) and Coefficient of Uniformity (Cu) of the sand were 1.04 and 4.47 respectively, the sand is well graded. The compressive strength test results of an average of 0.6, 0.8, 0.9, 1.1 and 0.4 N/mm2 were obtained respectively. It was concluded that the compressive strength of the hollow sandcrete block gradually increased and attained the maximum strength at 15% addition of glass wool fibre which is 33% increase in the compressive strength, where the weight also decreased by 1.6%. Therefore, the block at 15% addition of glass wool fibre can be used for non-load bearing walls such as fence and partition walls in building construction.
, Ramesh P. Nayakar, Raghunath Patil
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33261

Abstract:
Statement of Problem: Castability plays an important role in success and failure in the field of restorative and prosthetic dentistry. Recasting of base metal alloys can alter its castability value and some of its physical properties. Aim: To evaluate the castability of new and recasted Ni-Cr alloy using conventional ring and ringless casting system and compare the results. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics and crown and bridge, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, KLE University, between August 2016 and February 2017. Materials and Methods: Thirty identical mesh - runner bar - sprue patterns were prepared and divided into 2 different groups of 15 each, namely; Group 1 – Metal ring casting system and Group 2 – Ringless casting system. Each group was further divided into 3 sub-groups based on weight percentage of new-recasted Ni-Cr alloy; Group 1A and 2A – 100% new Ni-Cr alloy, Group 1B and 2B – 50% new and 50% recasted Ni-Cr alloy, and Group 1C and 2C – 100% recasted Ni-Cr alloy. Castability of the alloy was tested using modified Whitlock’s method. Results: The results of this study revealed that the mean castability values ranged from 99.64% – 99.86%, and there is no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the castability of new alloy and recasted alloy using ring and ringless casting techniques. Conclusions: Ring and ringless casting techniques have comparable accuracy and can produce clinically acceptable castings.
Purno Mohon Ghosh, Liton Chandra Paul, A. F. M. Zainul Abadin
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31737

Abstract:
Over the last decade, detrimental effects of human exposure to electromagnetic radiations have received widespread attention. With the increasing number of cellular communication system around the world, the number of base transceiver station is also increasing. This scenario is very common around us. When these base stations are located in a crowd place and even on the top side of the building, it can create some panic to the general public. The electromagnetic radiation from these base stations may cause serious health hazard. This paper takes into account the adverse health effects caused by radiated electromagnetic energy from typical base stations in different countries and the exposure level due to these base stations are compared to international guideline like ICNIRP and FCC.
, Lakhwinder Kaur, Ritu Mittal, Samanpreet Kaur, Sukhjeet Kaur
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32513

Abstract:
The study was conducted with the aim to study the extent and level of farm women awareness about climate variability and its effect on water resources. The study was conducted in three agro-climatic zones of Punjab, India. One district from each zone was selected purposively for the investigation. A sample of 120 randomly selected farm women was interviewed. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tools like frequency, percentages, mean weighted scores. Majority of the farm women (>60%) are fully aware that pollution, deforestation, paddy straw burning and cultivation of paddy are the reasons for climate change. Most of them (>70%) are fully aware that increase in temperature and variation in rainfall were due to change in climate. Majority of them (80%) are fully aware that change in climate is leading to stress on water resources in Punjab and sixty per cent respondents perceived that more area under paddy cultivation was the major factor responsible for depleting groundwater. Most of the farm women (98%) were fully aware that water is wasted while performing various household tasks like washing of clothes, utensils, cleaning the floor, bathing animals with water pipes etc. The study concluded that majority of the farm women (59%) had medium level of awareness regarding reasons of climate change whereas most of them (80%) had low level of awareness regarding factors accountable for depletion of water. Ninety seven percent respondents had high level of awareness regarding wastage of water while performing household tasks. The study recommended that there is the need to evolve compatible water saving technologies, its effective extension and the enactment of proper legislation to prevent exploitation of water at household level.
Ali H. Al-Fatlawi
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33867

Abstract:
Increasing the demand for developing implantable devices and sensors promotes the concept of the wireless power transfer. The implanted glucose sensors, for example, shall be built small enough to allow implanting it inside the patients' body [1] to indicate the readings easily. It grants the patients the ability to read data simply through a receiver located out of the body. However, there is a problem in most of these sensors in providing them with the necessary power by using traditional chargers because any direct contact with these devices is impossible. Therefore, scientists and researchers investigate new solutions and methods to maintain transferring enough power to charge the battery of the sensor. Among all of these methods, the inductive coupling proves its ability in transmitting the power wirelessly to the application with high efficiency. This paper presents a wireless charging system to transfer the power from an external charger to an implanted device based on the inductive coupling. It discusses different considerations and possibilities in designing and implementing the proposed charger to provide enough power to the largest possible distance.
, Harpreet Kaur, Kiran Bains
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/34139

Abstract:
Addition or supplementation of legumes and oilseeds into cereal-based foods has many health benefits. Objective: This study was aimed to analyze the sensory, nutritional and glycemic properties of biscuits from cereal (oats and barley) and legume based (soybean and chickpea) combinations for diabetic patients. Design: Intervention study. Different blends of salty biscuits were prepared using the cereal and pulses above mentioned. Subjects: Ten healthy subjects in the age group of 20-40 years were selected from department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University for examining the glycemic index. Results: Biscuits made from these cereal pulse combinations were highly acceptable and were chosen for nutritional analysis. The results of nutritional analysis showed increased protein (11.72 g/100 g), crude fiber (1.5 g/100 g) and ash content (4.68 g/100 g) and decreased content of carbohydrates (47 g/100 g) in blend containing refined wheat flour, barley and soy flour (25:50:25). Glycemic index of the acceptable and highly nutritious blend (Refined wheat flour, barley and soy flour 25:50:25) was 38.7, whereas for control salty biscuits, it was 84. Conclusion: The incorporation of barley and soy flour in biscuits in the above ratio lowers the glycemic index of biscuits and it can be recommended to diabetic patients for maintaining blood glucose level.
, Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32463

Abstract:
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. The genes in living organisms contain instructions responsible for their characteristics which are transferred from parent to offspring to structure his life. These instructions are encoded in DNA molecule. This Paper presents a survey on DNA molecules in passing instructions from parents to their offspring from one generation to the other.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30224

Abstract:
Markov chain technique had been developed for numerical simulation of steady state heat conduction. However the technique could only be used to handle domain with regular boundaries. An hybrid of floating walk and Markov chain techniques has therefore been developed. The technique was used to simulate temperature distribution in rectangular and two arbitrary shaped domains with mixed boundary conditions. The results obtained were compared with that obtained using finite difference and as well as using floating walk technique. Results were statistically analysed using ANOVA (α =0.05) and the computer execution for all the three cases considered compared. The results from the developed hybrid technique were not significantly different from those from finite difference and floating walk techniques. The hybrid technique execution time was longer than that of finite difference technique but shorter than the floating walk technique. The study established the suitably of the hybrid floating walk markov chain technique for analysis of steady state heat conduction of arbitrary shaped domain.
U. K. Afegbua, T. A. Yakubu, M. S. Tsalha, C. O. Ologun, T. S. Oluwadare, D. Duncan, J. Uwazuruonye, G. Okwunwa, P. Ekweuzoh, M. Enang, et al.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31078

Abstract:
The goal of this study is to adopt international standard criteria to carefully select sites to host seismic stations in Minna and Abakaliki, Nigeria, that can give reliable seismic data with high network detectability, monitor local seismicity and record local events with improved accuracy. By this, mistakes made during the construction of existing stations in Nigeria would be avoided systematically. To achieve these therefore, detailed field assessments were carried out to select most suitable site amongst the four potentials sites earlier proposed to host the sensitive seismic equipment for each area. These steps were later followed with detailed geological, geophysical and seismological investigations to ascertain the rock types at the sites; determine the depth of the bedrock where the sensor would be placed; and evaluate the signal to noise ratios and sources of possible noise to the pre-selected sites. Results from the various investigations have helped a team of seismologists, geologists, geophysicists and GIS experts drawn from the Centre for Geodesy and Geodynamics (CGG), Federal Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), to select most reliable sites for seismic stations in Minna and Abakaliki. As this is the first time these kind of investigations have been undertaken to select a site for seismic equipment in Nigeria, it is expected this study would set standard practices for future site selection for sensitive equipment in Nigeria and in the sub-region.
Olayinka Oladele Awopetu, Adegboye Foluso Aderibigbe
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31679

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this research is to design and fabricate multi-purpose roasting machine. Study Design: Development of a manually operated multi-purpose roasting machine was achieved with the aid of conceptual sketch, design analysis and creo parametric software. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between July 2014 and October 2016. Methodology: Design of the developed multi-purpose roasting machine was done using creo parametric software. Some factors were considered before fabrication of the developed machine such as selection of materials, operating parameters, manufacturing processes and functional requirements. Results: The multi-purpose roasting machine was developed and tested on food items (maize and plantain). Conclusion: The multi-purpose roasting machine was developed based on the design. The machine developed is a simple technology which can be easily operated by a single person of an average height of 1.4 m. The developed machine is a capable of roasting food items (maize, yams and plantain) depending on the choice of the operator and season of harvest. The bill of engineering measurements and evaluation (BEME) of the developed machine is 231.26 dollars.
, Ramachandran Ponnan
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31759

Abstract:
The present paper reviews the problem of investigating incidents in systems with dependent states. Actions of an agent in such systems may lead to changes in the system, which could be made by an agent not directly, but indirectly through other agents. A method for modelling such systems is presented in this paper. The method allows defining a “manipulated system”, in which other agents can be used to obtain the changes. A method for analysis of such systems by deriving them to the non-manipulated type is also presented.
, C. S. Urho
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31447

Abstract:
This study examined the challenges and prospects of enforcement of environmental laws in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State. For the purpose of data collection, the research survey or descriptive method was adopted. Data obtained from the field using a questionnaire instrument constituted the primary source of data. In addition, secondary data were obtained from government organizations and previous studies carried out by eminent scholars in the field of environmental laws. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentages, cross tabulations and charts were used to explain the results of the analyses while inferential statistics such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis 1 (no significant difference in perception of Port Harcourt residents on role of environmental laws and regulations) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used in analyzing the hypothesis 2 (no significant variation in effects of the factors influencing non-compliance with environmental laws in Port Harcourt). For hypothesis 1, the null hypothesis is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted e.g; the causes of non-compliance with environmental laws among the selected communities vary. For hypothesis 2, using principal component analysis, four components explain 80.8% of the total variance in the factors causing non-compliance with environmental laws in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Component 1(Governance and Rights) explains 42.2% of the variation, component 2(Implementation and Evaluation) explains 20.5%, and component 3(Attitudes and Laws) explains 11.8% while component 4(Poverty and Understanding of Environmental Rights) explains 6.2%. On the challenges and prospects of enforcement of environmental laws in Port Harcourt city, Rivers State, some challenges were identified such as poor funding of the agencies/ministries, conflicting roles amongst the enforcement agencies, also of importance is the poor/obsolete laws. Some enhancements of enforcement were identified as follows; stiffer penalties for defaulters of the environmental laws, adequate funding and stiffer enforcement measures amongst others. The research recommends the following; the government must review the functions of all its ministries and agencies by either merging or abolishing those with same roles. The national and states assemblies should review all relevant environmental laws, and replace them with local content laws. Funding, institutional strengthening and capacity building of the enforcement agencies/ministries must be given priority. Finally the government must recognise the need to gain the confidence of the general public to achieve all these measures suggested.
A. S. L. Wouatong, O. R. M. Kenmoe, F. Ngapgue, V. Katte, V. B. K. Kamgang
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30421

Abstract:
This study of the geological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the Bidzar quarry white marble exploited for cement manufacture has given rise to an exploitation model. This model has enabled the reduction in the size of the blast products through site reconnaissance and laboratory testing. The outcrops of white marble, dolomitic marble, quartzite and shales which were revealed on the ground surface and were foliated and fractured. The foliation plans however, showed two main directions of orientation on white marble: [NNE - SSW and NNW - SSE]. Likewise, the two main directions of fractures [NNW - SSE (N160°E) in N - S and NNE - SSW (N10°E)] and two secondary directions [W - E and NNW - SSE (N140°E)] were present on white marble which is richer in CaO (52.65 to 55.45%) than the dolomitic one (30.15 to 31.78%). It came out that the quartzite was richer in SiO2 (95.43 to 98.86%) than shale (45.67 to 79.12%). The physical and mechanical characteristics of the white marble were: absolute density (2.77g/cm3) and bulk density (2.75 g/cm3). The mechanical fragmentation strength on the 6/10 mm and 10/14 mm fractions was 32% and 31%. The wear resistance on the same fractions was 33% and 25% respectively.
I. E. Agbozu, A. V. Bayowa, O. E. Oghama
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32126

Abstract:
This study was carried out to analyze the ring size distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marshy soils and sediment samples in Warri City, Southern Nigeria. The samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons from four locations within Warri and a control location in Agbarho, 20km away. Levels of 16 priority PAHs listed in United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were determined using Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization detector (GC-FID). This study was carried from January to March and June to August, representing the dry and wet seasons respectively. It was observed that PAHs concentration was generally higher in dry than rainy seasons for soil and sediment samples. Furthermore, ring size analysis revealed that for soils, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Ugboroke location, five-ringed PAHs in Okotie and six-ringed PAHs in Ogunu location. Overall, five-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season. However, for sediments, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location, five-ringed PAHs in Ogunu and six-ringed PAHs in Ugboroke location. Overall, two to three-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season for sediment samples.
, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, M. A. Mofaddel
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/28318

Abstract:
Despite their attractive properties of invariance, robustness and reliability, statistical motion descriptions from temporal templates have not apparently received the amount of attention they might deserve in the human action recognition literature. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for action recognition, where a novel fuzzy representation based on temporal motion templates is developed to model human actions as time series of low-dimensional descriptors. An NB (Naïve Bayes) classifier is trained on these features for action classification. When tested on a realistic action dataset incorporating a large collection of video data, the results demonstrate that the approach is able to achieve a recognition rate of as high as 93.7%, while remaining tractable for real-time operation.
Ukiwe L. Nnabugwu, Oki R. Remi
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33000

Abstract:
The present research investigated the synthesis of a novel adsorbent by combining Moringa oleifera and silver nitrate (AgNO3). The chemical components of the pre-adsorbent and adsorbent composites were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe) for Cu, Mn and Fe in DMSH2O adsorbent was 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg/g, respectively, while that for Cu, Mn and Fe for DMSC2H5OH adsorbent was also 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg/g, respectively. The results indicate that the adsorbent was effective in removing Cu more than Mn and Fe from the aqueous salt mixture. Furthermore, the results observed for the biofilm experiment revealed that the M. oleifera-AgNO3 biocidal action was effective in deactivating oxidizable components in the wastewater system after 8 days. T-test of difference=0, at df=12, P<.05 for metal adsorption and t-test of difference=0.04, at df=8, P<.05 for COD removal indicate no statistical significant difference in metals adsorbed and COD removed in the waste stream. The above findings have demonstrated that the synthesized M. oleifera-AgNO3 adsorbent would be effective in cleaning-up waste streams contaminated with microbes and trace metals.
Fadl Mutaher Ba-Alwi, ,
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/29754

Abstract:
As a morphologically rich language, Arabic poses special challenges to Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Words in Arabic texts often contain several segments; each has its own POS category. The choice of the segmentation level or the input unit, word-based or morpheme-based, is a major issue in designing any Arabic natural language processing system. In word-based approaches, words are used the atomic units of the language. In this case, composite POS tags are assigned to words. Therefore, large amounts of training data are required in order to ensure statistical significance. They suffer from the problems of data sparseness and unknown words. In case of morpheme-based approaches, morpheme components of words are used as the atomic units. This, however, results in high level of ambiguity rate and also small size of context for resolving such ambiguity because the span of the n-gram might be limited to a single word. This paper compares and contrasts the morpheme-based and word-based statistical POS tagging strategies. This paper evaluates the tagging performance of three statistical models, namely, the Arabic HMM POS tagger with the prefix guessing models, the Arabic HMM POS tagger with the linear interpolation guessing models and the TnT tagger, given training data from both morpheme-based and word-based tokenization levels. It also studies the influence of each choice on the tagging performance of the Arabic POS tagging models, in terms of the tagging accuracy and the time complexity. In addition, this paper also evaluates the tagging performance of several stochastic models, given training data from both segmentation levels. Results show that the morpheme-based POS tagging strategy is more adequate for the purpose of training statistical POS tagging models as it provides a better overall tagging accuracy and a much faster training and tagging time.
Yusuf Abdullahi, Muhammad Bashir Muazu, Adewale Emmanuel Adedokun
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/29503

Abstract:
This research is aimed at the modification of the Remote Access Dial in User Server (RADIUS) protocol with the one-time password (OTP) technique for the authentication environment with a captive portal to prevent replay attacks. One of the important network security measures on a campus network is the use of authentication for identification of legitimate users and one of the most widely used solution in network authentication is the RADIUS protocol. However, there are potential security vulnerabilities in the RADIUS network especially for networks using captive portal, such as the replay attack. The Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) network is simulated using the GNS3 software on a virtualized environment using Virtualbox, which comprises of the core, distribution and access levels of the network and network devices (routers and switches). An OTP generator was developed using PhP programming language for the three variants of the OTP: Time One Time Password (TOTP), Challenge Response One Time Password (CROTP) and Hash One Time Password (HOTP). Before improvement on the OTP technique using a PhP developed script, the result obtained shows the average response time for TOTP, CROTP and HOTP as 2.5s, 5.2s and 5.7s respectively, this result showed no improvement in the TOTP, CROPT and HOTP response time respectively when compared with the recommended response time of a RADIUS server in a captive portal environment which is 1000 ms [1]. After improving the OTP technique by integrating all the variants of OTP with the RADIUS server on a single server using the simulated ABU campus network using GNS3, the result shows a significant improvement over the above results. The results obtained shows the average response time for TOTP, CROTP and HOTP as 1.3s, 2s and 1.9s. The validation, based on the developed and simulated configuration was carried out using live servers, routers and switches and the results showed improvement over the above results the average response time for TOTP, CROTP and HOTP were obtained as 0.4s, 0.9s and 0.9s respectively. This shows significant improvement in the TOTP, CROPT and HOTP respectively. The result shows the average response time is less than the recommended 1000ms for RADIUS server response time in a captive portal environment.
Luis J. Osornio-Berthet, , Magdalena García-Martínez, Hugo E. Solís-Correa, José T. González-González
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31425

Abstract:
In this work, efficiency and quality of water by artificial wetland with subsurface flow were obtained. This wetland is 12.15 m long and 8 m wide with three channels. Its substrate bed consists of volcanic rock (“tezontle”), with three particle size (5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm), where the influence of porosity and its relation to hydraulic conductivity were determined, both parameters were related to Manning and Darcy equations for obtain water flow behaviour in each channel of wetland. The system was planted with Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia. For input to each channel were designed curved shapes with slope of radius 2.67 m, to avoid short circuits, with 6% minimum curvature, 1% slope, 0.5 m/min minimum velocity, and 2 L/s of flow (expense). Quality parameters of treated water were evaluated and with IBER software was modelled the hydrodynamic from wetland. It was concluded from results that curves sloped forms in channels improve treatment, achieving more efficiency. Furthermore the result of hydrodynamic modelling indicates that flow between channels is homogeneous, continuous and short circuits are avoided.
Christopher I. Ekeocha, Cynthia E. Ogukwe, Joy O. Nikoro
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30779

Abstract:
Heavy metal contamination has become a serious environmental problem due to their negative effects on humans, organisms, soil quality, underground water and ecosystem. This research was targeted at the use of multiple ecological risk indices approach in assessing the ecological risk associated with heavy metal contamination in soils in some mechanic villages in Abuja, central Nigeria. To achieve this set objective, four pollution indices models namely: contamination factor (Cf), ecological risk factor (Er), degree of contamination (CD) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were explored. Fifteen soil samples were randomly collected with a hand dug auger to a depth range of 0-15 cm with five sample points from each of the three investigated mechanic villages. A control sample was also collected from a distance of 100 km where neither commercial nor industrial activities take place. The sampled soils were further subjected to standard chemical analysis. The automated Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for this purpose. The results of the chemical analysis revealed that concentrations of heavy metals in Apo, Kugbo and Zuba mechanic villages followed a trend of Cu > Zn > Cr > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd; Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Fe > Pb > Cd and Zn > Cr > Cu > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd respectively. The multiple ecological risk indices models explored in the study showed various ecological risk level associated with heavy metal contamination of soils from the investigated sites with classes ranging from low to very high ecological risks. This could be traceable to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminate discharge of heavy metal containing waste in soil and poor waste management practice in the mechanic villages. This calls for urgent measure in curtailing indiscriminate waste discharge and the introduction of environmental friendly waste management in the mechanic villages so as to avert epidemics and environmental degradation due to heavy metal pollution.
, J. A. Alalade, M. K. Adewunmi, K. A. Adaramola, H. M. Tairu
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/22403

Abstract:
The quality assessment of fresh cow milk collected from Fulani herds in Ogbomoso, Arolu, Ife-Odan, Oyo and Iseyin in the derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria were carried out in a Completely randomized design with emphasis on the nutrient composition and microbial loads. Four fresh cow milk samples from separate settlements (rugas) were from Ogbomoso, Arolu, Ife-Odan, Oyo and Iseyin and preserved for seven days with 0.01 cm Potassium permanganate and kept in the refrigerator at 4°C before laboratory analyses. The moisture content of fresh cow milk from different locations ranged between 87.46-88.62%, the crude protein 3.26-3.85%, ash 0.65-0.75%, crude fat 3.49-3.55%, Lactose 0.46-0.64% and solid-non-fat 8.3-9.7%. Mineral composition of the milk showed that potassium content from different locations ranged between 0.46-0.64 percent, Calcium 0.21-0.23%, Magnesium 0.16-0.19%, Zinc 2.34-2.83%, Iron 0.32-0.56%, Copper 1.31-1.61%, Selenium 0.04-0.06%, Lead 0.00-0.14% and Cobalt 0.10-0.26%. Samples of fresh cow milk collected from Ogbomoso, Arolu and Ife-Odan had no traces of Salmonella and E. coli and thus contained low level of microbial count. Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that with the exceptions of the microbial counts, and lead contents there were no differences in all other parameters considered among the various locations in the zone.
Ninin Gusdini, Bernard Hasibuan,
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30183

Abstract:
Tourism has the potential to increase the economy and level of welfare of country in the international perspective. But the tourism sector also produce many problems such as waste management, local economic development, landscape change etc. Thus, to optimize the positive impact of the tourism sector, need focus and serious management of all influence aspects (holistic). The Kota Tua Tourism Area (KTTA) as the area which have heritage value of historical Jakarta. This value can explored for to promote Jakarta city, especiallyTo tourism sector. Precondition for reach this goal are management and sustainable development of tourism destination. Green tourism is good approach for comprehensive developtment of KTTA. The aim of this research are to identification and structuring contsrains and principles changing. Methods used in this researh is Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM). Elements of the study consisted of constraints and the expected changes. The result showed that good ​​governance is the principal element for significan changing of KTTA.
Abubakar Sani
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32382

Abstract:
This study investigates the relationship between students' learning strategies and their cognitive engagement in English class at International Islamic School in Gombak, Malaysia. Explicitly, the research intends to fathom the correlation between three learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive and social) and students' level of cognitive engagement that include deep and shallow engagement. This research was carried out with 191 students (male and female), who constitute the respondents of the study. Their ages vary from 13 to18 years. Data were collected using a questionnaire, employing a five (5) point Likert’s scale. However, correlations as statistical inference were employed in testing the relationships between learning strategies and cognitive engagement. The findings reveal that significant and positive correlations were found between three types of learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive and social) with cognitive engagement. Subsequently, a significant negative correlation was also found between deep and shallow engagement, portraying an inverse relationship. Thus, teachers at International Islamic school Gombak have to dedicate themselves in preparing classroom instructions or activities that exhibit elements of cognitive, meta-cognitive and social strategies. This however, in essence, could help the students to exert mental efforts, pay attention and become active during lessons, which all indicate signs of cognitive engagement.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32609

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to assess the global warming and climate change preconceptions and misconceptions of students. Descriptive survey method was used for the study. The participants of this study were 84 university students who were in the first and last year of their study. Results show that in survey-based conception test first-year geography students scored significantly higher than third-year geography students (mean score of 57.42 to 52.00 and standard deviation 7.10 to 8.50 respectively; MD=5.42, t (82) 3.13, P=0.002, α=0.05.). Analyses of gender effect reveals that male students scored slightly higher (M=55.26, SD=8.36) than their female counterparts (M=52.65, SD=8.07) on climate change conceptual knowledge; MD=2.60, t (82) 1.33, P=0.186, α=0.05. Findings further indicate that both education levels grip a lot of cause-related and evidence-related misconceptions about the climate change. The mismatch between educational level and environmental conceptual knowledge calls for among others reevaluation of current harmonized modular curricula that help students to acquire deep knowledge about climate change.
Nada Alaa, Walid S. El-Deeb, Adel Zaghloul
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32619

Abstract:
Aims: In this paper, a comparison between three different human head models with three different types of antennas is presented to show the effect of shielding technique on the reduction of SAR. The three human head models presented are SAM phantom, six-layer, and two-tissue models. The three different types of antennas that are studied in this research are monopole, dipole, and helix antenna. Studying the parameters that affect the SAR value such as ferrite shield dimensions and position are also taken into consideration in this study to end up with a recommendation for the best model that achieves the optimum SAR reduction value. Place of Study: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zagazig. Results: The results have been obtained using CST Microwave Studio for the 3D EM simulation of high frequency components.
, Podila Meghana, A. Sai Kumar, K. Kishore
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31981

Abstract:
The main focus of this project is to understand the nature of these laminated composites when subjected to specific damage cases like loads. In order to understand the progression of the failure modes in a laminated composite, models were designed and analyzed using ANSYS 14.5. In this work composite cylinder is designed which can withstand an external pressure of 5 bar. Stress analysis of the structure is done using classical laminate theory theoretically and the result obtained is validated using finite element analysis procedure using ANSYS and the error is very less. The behavior of the composite cylinder is checked by exploring the stresses and strains. The present work includes determination of optimum design parameters like fiber orientation. Finally, utilizing the finite element modeling of a cylindrical shell specimen, a relative comparison is made between the results of the finite element and the analytical method. The results thus obtained were found to be in good agreement in terms of damage size. To check the health of the composite cylindrical shell, failure criteria’s like Tsai-wu and Maximum stress criteria were also calculated in this paper.
O. O. Afolabi, , E. Dosumu, C. Okonofua, F. V.Agbaje-Daniels, E. O Lateef
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32281

Abstract:
The experiment was carried out to identify bacteria pathogens that causes fish spoilage and consequently reduces their shelf-life in the environment and invariably found out basis for controlling and preventing their activity. Thirty fish samples comprising of fifteen Titus (Scomber scombrus) and fifteen Kote (Trachurus trachurus) were collected from five major markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Samples were cultured and processed using the pour plate and streak plate technique. Samples from the skin scrapings were cultured in five media consisting of four selective media and a basal media; Maconkey agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, Mannitol Salt agar, Salmonella Shigella agar and Nutrient agar. Differentiation and isolation of various isolates were based on gram-staining technique and biochemical reactions using OXOID MICROBACTTM identification kits. On examination, in vitro assay showed the presence of six bacteria species in the surface biofilms namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus stuartii. Prevalence of the various isolates in the culture were found to be 25.2%, 20.6%,18.7%, 14.9%, 11.2% and 9.3% respectively. The highest colony count (140) was obtained from samples obtained from Ijebu-Ode while the lowest colony count was obtained from Sagamu. The mean bacteria load of the isolates was 7x106 CFU ml-1. The high microbial load in biofilms of the samples obtained from the market especially those of enteric bacteria showed the need for enforcement of high hygiene standards for food handlers and food storage companies.
, R. I. Nuruddeen, Abdelilah Kamal H. Sedeeg
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32380

Abstract:
Abdelilah Kamal and Mohand Mahgoub recently introduced new integral transforms separately by the names the “Kamal transform” and “Mahgoub transform” to facilitate the solution of differential and integral equations. However, in this paper, these newly introduced integral transforms will closely be studied in relation to the some existing famous integral transforms defined in the time domain. The study will also try to establish the duality relations existing between these new integral transforms and in particular, the Laplace, Sumudu, Elzaki and Aboodh integral transforms. Further, supporting illustrations obtained from some test functions as examples are will be presented.
E. Ukhurebor Kingsley, S. Maor Moses, E. Aigbe Efosa
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33048

Abstract:
One of the major problems in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) Radio Access Network (RAN) is interference; which reduces the signal quality of a cellular network system. Most cellular network service providers use either frequency planning or code planning techniques to analyze the interference and assign frequencies and codes based on measurement reports from network statistics. This research presents a bright analysis of one of the main method for reducing interference in WCDMA technology using some Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of a functional cellular network service provider in Nigeria. From the analysis and results it was visible that using the Power Control Approach (PCA) the interference on uplink transmission in cellular networks will certainly be reduced. Hence, the signal quality would be improved and optimization of the network services could be actualized. Consequently, a better Quality of Service (QoS) would be guaranteed for the generality of the subscribers.
, Sheikh Mohammad Feroze, Ram Singh, Lala I. P. Ray
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 20, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/33216

Abstract:
The objective of the present study was to estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change incurred by the rice growers in Eastern Himalaya (EH) in India. A sample total of 120 cereal farmers were surveyed in Senapati district of Manipur and East Sikkim district of Sikkim in EH. Two main adaptation strategies i.e., changing the transplanting time of rice (Strategy 1) and changing the transplanting and harvesting time (Strategy 2) of rice were widely adopted by the farmers. The cost and benefit of these adaptation strategies were estimated using partial budgeting technique. The cost of rice cultivation has increased by 8505.63/ha and 6374.29/ha in case of the adopters of Strategy 1 and Strategy 2 and the cost was mainly incurred on farm labour. The net benefit realized by the adopters of both the strategies was 1329.30/ha and 1568.67/ha, only, respectively. The strategies adopted were in response to the change in timing of rainfall. Hence, the study recommended the planned interventions of the State Governments through farm mechanization, construction of water harvesting and minor irrigation facilities are the urgent need in the study area.
, Simone Zulpo, Stéfane O. Lira
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31336

Abstract:
Adsorption process has been proven to be one of the best water treatment technologies globally and activated carbon is undoubtedly considered a universal adsorbent for the removal of a variety of pollutants from water. However, widespread use of commercial activated carbon is often times restricted due to its higher costs. Attempts have been made to develop inexpensive adsorbents utilizing numerous agro-industrial and municipal waste materials. Use of waste materials as low-cost adsorbents is attractive due to their contribution in the reduction of costs or waste disposal, therefore, contributing to environmental protection. In this article was investigated the adsorption behavior of coffee waste when exposed to both single and binary metal component solutions under varying initial concentrations (1000, 500, and 250 ppm) and contact time (3 and 24 hrs.) It is evident from the literature that various low-cost adsorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various pollutants. However, there are few issues and drawbacks on the use of low-cost adsorbents in water treatment that have been discussed in this paper. Additionally, more research is needed to find the practical utility of low-cost adsorbents such as waste coffee on a commercial scale. After the exposure times, the residual concentrations of each heavy metal was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), using EPA Method 6010. Results suggest that the percentage of adsorption of Cu and Zn decreases as the initial metal concentration increases. The coffee waste also has a higher affinity for Cu than Zn ion. The percentages for metal ion removal from the single metal solution are 250 ppm(73.47%), 500 ppm (46.45%), 1000 ppm (27.69%) for copper and 250 ppm (55.08%), 500 ppm (32.78%), and 1000 ppm (21.22%) for zinc. For the competitive metal removal from the binary Cu-Zn solutions, the percentages are 125 ppm (85.67%), 250 ppm (68.93%), and 500 ppm (46.62%) for copper and 125 ppm (49.67%), 250 ppm (7.73%), and 500 ppm (4.59%) for zinc, respectively.
, Fatih Yiğit
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31516

Abstract:
In Turkey, road traffic has been increasing rapidly in province centers with the increase of the number of vehicles. The number of motor vehicles has shown an increase of 70 % within the last decade in Turkey. Inner-city traffic control is regulated by traffic lights and traffic control units. Electronic control systems have been developed to enable the control of the largest area by using the least human resource throughout all time periods. Electronic control systems and their areas of use are discussed in this study. The characteristics and advantages of electronic control systems are presented. The present speed warning systems on Ankara-Eskişehir highway and the speed lane system in Konya province are examined. The system was set up at 5 points as 10 speed lanes round in both ways. The ten lanes with lengths ranging from 1000 meters to 3500 meters were selected from areas where accidents intensified due to high speed and where the traffic did not stop considering the last three years. The communication of the lanes was maintained through fiber optic cable network and wireless network infrastructure. The entire road was monitored by using 2 license plate reading cameras for the three lanes. The detection of the number of vehicles that pass through the zones with respect to time, the speeds of all the vehicles, and the detection of the wanted vehicles (stolen, seized, restrained) is possible through the system. The numbers of speed violations before and after the installation of the system was examined. It was seen that speed violations decreased from around 90% to around 1% considering the number of the passing vehicles. The decrease in speed violations was found to be parallel to the decrease in accidents. As the result of the assessment of the traffic regulation information in addition to traffic control enabled the solution of a large number of security-related cases.
T. A. O. Salau,
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32388

Abstract:
Time management without integrity compromise is an integral part of good engineering practice. The present study investigated for the required computation time in nonlinear and harmonically excited oscillators (Pendulum and Duffing). Adaptive time steps simulation of their governing equations with personal computer were performed by Runge-Kutta methods (RK2, RK3, RK4, RK5, RK5M) and one blend (RKB) comprising unsteady and steady solutions. The respective Pendulum and Duffing Poincare result at damp quality (4, 0.168), excitation amplitude (1.5, 0.21) and excitation frequency (2/3, 1.0) were used to validate the codes developed in FORTRAN environment. Actual simulation time was monitored at three different lengths of excitation periods (40000, 80000 and 120000) using the current time subroutine call command. Except for RK2, the validation Poincaré results compare well with the counterpart available in the literature for the oscillators. The actual computation time decrease rapidly with increasing order of Runge-Kutta method, but suffered relative increase for the blended method. The difference in computation time required between RK5 and RK5M is negligible for all studied cases. The Pendulum required longer actual computation time (4-115 seconds) than Duffing (3-52 seconds). The respective normalized range of time step for Pendulum and Duffing formed a simple average ratios {(1.0): (7.5): (13.3): (26.0): (24.0): (29.7)} and {(1.0): (3.7): (5.1): (9.1): (8.0): (11.2)} for RK2, RK3, RK4, RK5, RK5M and RKB. It is concluded that substantial time management can be achieved by the Runge-Kutta methods except RK2 that permitted strictly shorter simulation time steps leading to longer actual simulation time and consequently simulated largely an unacceptable Poincare result.
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32795

Abstract:
This study features an assessment of multiple density functionals in calculating the molecular structures and inherent properties in simple carbohydrates participating in nonenzymatic glycation involving amino acids and proteins in Maillard reactions. Calculations of chemical reactivity descriptors is attained in each molecular system using Conceptual DFT. A cross-sectional comparison of results obtained through ∆SCF procedure is attained to check for accuracy and validity of the density functional in “Koopmans in DFT" (KID) procedure. The Fukui function indices and condensed dual descriptor ∆f(r) are used to examine the active sites where nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks occur. The assessment identifies several relationships involving glycating power and reactivity descriptors. The latter are found capable for predicting glycating behavior in complex carbohydrates.
, Gowher N. Parrey, T. A. Rather, Hilal A. Bhat
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 21, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31829

Abstract:
Assessment of carbon stock in trees is generally based on allometric equations relating either volume, or biomass, or carbon to DBH. The carbon density of different tree parts is not often measured directly, but generally assumed to be 50% of dry weight. In this study we try to analyze those assumptions and determined the effect different regression equations on carbon sequestration for Tectona grandis, Vachellia nilotica, Madhuca indica, Dalbergia sissoo. The present study aims to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon sequestration in 18 sampling plots of 30 × 30 m2 size, at different sites in northern plains (Uttar Pradesh) India. Two regression models were used for each species; one using DBH only (Method 1) and the other using DBH and height (Method 2). The best fit models were chosen on the basis of highest R2. The DBH, AGB and carbon density yielded a positive relationship for all the species. Apart from Model D1h, all R2 values for models developed with our data (both DBH and height) were above 99%. The R2 values for models developed with DBH only were below 90%, least for model M1 (77.6%) The co-efficient for DBH was not significant in Model D1h and M1h, but the co-efficient for DBH and height was significant at the 5% level of significance for all other coefficients in all other models. The estimated stem AGB was maximum for Tectona grandis with 376.2 and 355.63 t/tree with carbon sequestration of 621.25 and 587.50 kg/ha for the equation T1 and T2H respectively; whereas minimum AGB was recorded for Dalbergia sisoo with 221.55 and 211.58 t/ha and carbon sequestration of 362.93 and 349.65 kg/ha. The AGB and carbon sequestration estimation obtained in this study represents a more realistic picture of biomass of region.
, Ajayi Ezekiel
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32166

Abstract:
Forest ecosystems occupied substantial vacuum in the balance of atmospheric carbon and thereby control global carbon cycle as well as climate change effect. Assessment of forest biomass value determines the role of forest as carbon offset entity. The selection of appropriate biomass assessment method and/or the use of reliable allometry are prime factors to carbon calculation of a forest. This study developed and compared biomass models as well as produced acceptable allometry equation for the study area and forest similar characteristics. It was revealed that forest biomass could be assessed with the use spatial image with spectral bands, and indices calculated. Different spectral indices correlated with one another as well as correlated with biomass observed data. Though, correlation level differs across the various indices considered but Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) gave the best fit based on the criteria set for this study ( Ln AGTB = 7.981+10.799 (EVI)). Two forms of biomass equation including the observed Above-ground Tree Biomass (AGTB) value were compared and the result shows that there were no significant differences amongst the different estimation methods. Carbon spatial distribution pattern was generated with the chosen spectral index model.
Mohamed B. El-Mashade,
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31911

Abstract:
In optical fiber communication systems, the non-perfectly transparent material of the fiber causes the visible-light or infrared beams to be attenuated as they travel through it. This necessitates the use of optical amplifier in order to remedy this signal attenuation. In this regard, the fiber amplifier is a key enabling technology for high speed optical communications. The EDFA is a successful optical amplifier that represents a significant factor in the rapid deployment of optical fiber networks. It uses proven erbium-doped fiber (EDF) technology to allow amplification of an optical signal without the need of costly regenerative repeater stations. Its large gain bandwidth, which allows simultaneous amplification of a numerous number of channels at different wavelengths within the spectrum of nearly constant gain, is very attractive in many practical applications. This property is very useful in WDM which is widely used in optical fiber data links owing to its dominant role that it plays in the next generation of high speed networks. Additionally, it may be positioned as a booster, pre-amp or in-line position to allow the amplification of the signal along any point of the optical network. Moreover, it can efficiently amplify light in the 1.5 μm wavelength region, where telecom fibers have their minimum loss. This paper is intended to the evaluation of multi-stage EDFA performance for different EDF lengths, the two commonly used pumping wavelengths (980 nm & 1480 nm), and the distinct configurations of pumping mechanism. The gain and noise characteristics of different number of stages are computed and compared through simulation. Our attention is specially paid towards the optimum values of the system parameters that will give highest gain and lowest noise figure as well as minimum bit error rate in order to achieve the longest propagation length without signal degradation.
Tunde Isaac Ogedengbe,
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30505

Abstract:
This study evaluated existing computer workstations, which includes computer workstation tables and chairs for computer users’, and developed new one for secondary school students in Owo metropolis. Questionnaire was developed and administered to support investigation of existing computer workstation in some selected secondary schools within the metropolis. Also, essential human body measurements (i.e. anthropometric measurement) that are necessary for estimating the design parameters of computer workstation were identified from literatures. Subsequently, the essential anthropometric data were collected by taking the measurements of the relevant body dimensions of boys and girls randomly selected from JSS1-SSS3 classes of the selected secondary schools in Owo metropolis. The measurements were conducted using standard anthropometer and anthropometric tape. A conceptual design of computer workstation to be developed was determined and appropriate design principle (i.e. design for extreme, design for adjustable range or design for average) was employed to determine the values of the design parameters in respect of the anthropometric data collected. The determination of the values of design parameters were done in due consideration of the various features associated with each parameter and appropriate clearance, where necessary. Thereafter, a full scale prototype of the designed workstation was built. Evaluation of the workstation built was conducted by having representatives of small, average and large size users from within the targeted population walk through representative task on the workstation and then assessing their comfortability in doing the task using the developed questionnaire. The responses collected from the questionnaire administered were analyzed using average rating. Also, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to examine the effect of age, sex and height on the comfort of the users using their responses. The evaluation result revealed an average respondents rating of “4.30” and “3.99” for the Table and Chair respectively in comparison with the existing ones whose average rating is“1.79” and “1.38” respectively. This shows that the comfort experienced by the users while using the developed workstation is very high compared to the existing ones. Also, the ANOVA result revealed that age, sex and height have no effect on the comfort users perceived while using the workstation. Hence, the developed workstation would provide comfort for secondary school students in Owo metropolis and south western Nigeria thereby enhancing their performance and productivity.
Shaikh Abdullah Al Mamun Hossain, Wang Lixue, A. K. M. Adham, Umme Kulsum Navera, Mir Mohammad Ali
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/32073

Abstract:
Aims: The focus of this study was to know usefulness of river training structures, controlling hydro-morphological characteristics, socio-economic benefits of inhabitants and current situation of these structures in Patuakhali District. Study Design: Evaluations were measured on hydro-morphological features of rivers, protection safety based on utility of structures, environmental and social benefits by spot visit, face to face interview and focus group discussion methods. Place and Duration of Study: Ten different river side location of Patuakhali District during July-Sep in 2015. Methodology: Established five groups including eight persons/group in each location to carry out the questioner and evaluations were accomplished based on specific key point issue. Results: Three categories of river training structure were found at different location of the study area. Revetment with cement concrete (CC) block including 1.75 km bank protection measure from erosion due to high velocity tidal current at Lebukhali point (0.715 km), Patuakhali town protection point 2 (0.62 km) and Khepupara Bandar & town protection (0.42 km). Among them Lebukhali point was found more offensive comparing with others point. The level of risk of all structures was averages under low to medium except Lebukhali point. Conclusion: The training structures were found moderately stable due to maintenance and effectively acting as qualitative benefit for inhabitants in socio-economic aspect.
, E. Obiukwu Charles
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30404

Abstract:
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. This paper was borne from the fact that some medical laboratories and related fields have failed to implement Bioinformatics tools as they relate to Genomic Biomedical experiments. The paper therefore seeks to study the extent of this involvement and in addition provide methods and resource reports that can provide novel information on technological tools that will be of interest to a broad readership in the area of Bioinformatics and Genomic research. The paper discusses the Computer as an Instrument in Bioinformatics research, basic Bioinformatics tools for Genomic research such as Genomic Databases, Genome browsers, tools for sequence alignment, software in Bioinformatics etc.
T. J. Ikyumbur, M. Y. Onimisi, S. G. Abdu, E. C. Hemba, Z. J. Kirji
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31374

Abstract:
The Debye relaxation equation and its derivatives were used to analyze dielectric constant and loss factor of pure methanol in megahertz and gigahertz over the temperature range of 10°C to 50°C. This was done in order to ascertain which of the frequency ranges has the highest dielectric constant and least loss factor. The graphs of dielectric constant and loss factor were plotted against the frequency. The results were also used to plot Cole-Cole diagrams. The results revealed that the dielectric constant of methanol is higher at frequency 0.05 GHz and decrease as both frequency and temperature increases. However, as the frequency increases beyond 1.0 GHz the dielectric constant increase as the temperature increases. The results also showed that methanol actually formed a semi-circle which suggested that the solvent indeed exhibits Debye relaxation model. There were some discrepancies observed in the Cole-Cole plots which may just be attributed to the distribution of the relaxation times in the methanol. The researchers conclude that dielectric constant of methanol is higher in megahertz than those in gigahertz. The loss factor on the other hand was small at lower frequencies but as the frequency increases the loss factor also increases to a maximum value. The loss factor however decreased when the frequency increases after attaining its maximum.
Kehinde Ojeh Isaac, , J. O. Odihi
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/29669

Abstract:
The basis of this study is to analyze the terrain of Kachia LGA (the home of military institutions in Nigeria) for military operations. ArcGIS 10.0, in complimentary with Google Earth Pro and Suffer 10 were integrated with remotely sensed data such as SRTM Digital Elevation Models data, satellite imageries in conjunction with secondary data such as topographical and thematic map to analyze the terrain of kachia LGA. Relevant existing data were also acquired and processed to generate DEM, slope, contours, 3D-view and flow accumulations which were used for general reconnaissance and the analysis of the terrain, that is, the topography, landuse and landcover, drainage and some cultural features such as roads and settlements of the LGA. Viewshed analysis, Lines of Sight and 3D view were used to model the best avenue of approach by the military into the LGA. Moreover, the most suitable site for “release point” during military advance which were based on some criteria were also modeled and determined using geospatial techniques. Other military operations such as axis of advance and obstacle crossing were all demonstrated, while the scenario of the real battle ground were modeled and analyzed. The study revealed that only four out of the ten routes into Kachia LGA are suitable for advance, while the best release point was found to be located in the southern part of Kaja settlement with area coverage of 18.09km2. Bonds such as villages like Atara, Akwana, Ungwan Kanrara, Bika and Adage as well as Rivers Katera, Awon and Bika which all lie along the axis of advance between the Release Point and Kachia were also detected geospatially as the Report Lines. Rivers Atara, Akwana and Bika were discovered to be possible obstacles along the axis of advance. Nigeria military should as a matter of priority establish units for geospatial analysis in all the military institutions.
, Ogbonna Chidi Enyinnaya, Lamidi Souleman
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/29378

Abstract:
This study aimed at spatial assessment of flood vulnerability in Anambra East and environs. In carrying out this work, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were employed. Data from Google image and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) of 2012 was used. ArcGIS 10.1 and other GIS softwares were employed in image processing. The procedure consists of mapping of flood prone area and modeling of digital elevation. Analysis of land use and land cover indicated that agricultural land used or farmland was highest (41.7%), followed by forest 27.26% and built up area 22.75%. Flood vulnerability assessment showed that 71% of the study area was liable to flooding. This calls for immediate interventions and initiatives to discourage inhabitants from occupying the flood prone areas, relocate and avoid liable areas particularly river banks. In this regard land use planning should be followed appropriately and where necessary.
Kumari Mamta, Raj Kumar Singh
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/31798

Abstract:
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is of great concern in the present time of modern electronic systems. EMI measurement requires using a sensor to receive the radiation from the equipment in a suitable test environment. Antenna Factor decides the performance of the sensor. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical method has been used to predict the performance of antenna used as EMI sensor.
Triantafyllia Natsiopoulou, Michael Vitoulis, Μaria Bletsou
British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, Volume 19, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjast/2017/30744

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the active participation of preschool children during reading comparing their reaction between the traditional book and e-book. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in Greece, during 2015-2016. Methodology: The sample consisted of 69 children, aged 3-5 years, who read a traditional book and an e-book. They also participated 5 early childhood educators. At the end of the story the children were asked about their preference in the way of reading the story. Then the interaction of children was analyzed through the approach of “spontaneous insertions” of children based on a system of categories established by previous researches. Results: It was found that in both reading practices, children made insertions regarding the content of the story, most of which were of low abstraction. In the traditional book reading children made significantly more insertions than in reading an e-book, to low abstraction categories (clarification, questions for clarification, names) and to high abstraction categories (relating to real life, recalling). It is noted that most children stated their preference to the electronic reading. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it could be claimed that reading an e-book may be accompanied by behaviors that characterize the traditional book reading such as comments on the story and children’s active participation to reading. Since neither of the two types of books does seem to prevail overall, it is deduced that the combined use of e-book with the traditional book, under early childhood education, could contribute both in children's language development and also familiarize them with digital learning environment.
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