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Tivapron Kombusadee, Jurairat Kurukodt
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p48

Abstract:
It is widely known that systematically developed training manuals can be used to improve knowledge and practical skills and promote positive attitude of trainees. This research thus aimed to develop a training manual to help reduce the use of pesticides by para rubber farmers in Nonkheng Sub-district, So Phisai District, Bueng Khan Province, Thailand. The research was divided in to 3 stages. The first stage investigated the scenarios in which pesticides were used of the para rubber famers while the second stage dealt with the development of a training manual for promoting the reduction of the use of pesticides and hazardous chemicals by the farmers. The final stage was the evaluation for the efficiency of the developed training manual by applying it with 48 volunteered para rubber famers for 2 days. The findings revealed that the training manual had an efficiency of index at 80.38/80.89. After training with the manual, the farmers’ levels of knowledge increased tal 67.40%, while the overall post-test scores on knowledge, attitude, and practice skills in reducing the use of pesticides were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the pre-test. It can be concluded that the developed training manual can be effectively used to improve the knowledge, attitude, and practical skills of the trainees.
Elizabeth A. Gilblom, Hilla I. Sang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p1

Abstract:
This study builds on previous research investigating management organizations (MOs), charter school locations, and closure by examining the effects of MO type (EMO, CMO and freestanding schools), racial enrollment, student achievement, and the community characteristics surrounding each charter school in Ohio’s eight largest counties with the largest urban school districts on the likelihood of closure between 2009 and 2018. We conducted a discrete-time survival analysis using life tables and binary logistic regression. Findings indicated that freestanding charter schools experience higher risks of closure than EMO and CMO managed charter schools in those counties. Although they are more likely to close, freestanding schools have higher student achievement in math and reading. Higher math proficiency reduces the likelihood of closure by 2.8%. However, community and enrollment characteristics are not statistically significant predictors of closure.
Miri Ben-Amram, Nitza Davidovitch
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p27

Abstract:
This study, which explores student attitudes to online learning, is based on a psychoanalytic theory (Existence-relatedness-growth, ERG) on relatedness and growth, developed by American psychologist Clayton Alderfer. The purpose of the study was to examine whether online learning is merely a short-term temporary solution necessitated by the COVID-19 crisis, or will it enable a transformation of teaching and learning patterns in educational systems in the post-COVID era? What is students’ personal preference regarding online learning after having inadvertently experienced it? What dimension of online teaching was meaningful for them: social presence, instructional-cognitive presence, emotional-personal presence? The research population consisted of 306 students, with a mean age of 15.5. Only 85% of the students who participated in the study had technological resources for online learning at home. About 41% of the students preferred lessons that combine online teaching with frontal teaching in the classroom. In addition, the dimensions of online teaching reported by students as meaningful were, in descending order, social presence (M = 3.54), emotional-personal presence (M = 2.96), and instructional-cognitive presence (M = 2.73). The research findings might have an effect on policy makers in education with regard to maintaining an “innovative pedagogy” aimed at shaping students’ image in order to prepare them for the new post-COVID era. In this period of global crisis, online learning afforded students innovative learning, where students enhanced their awareness of the significance of social presence, which was more meaningful than the dimension of instructional-cognitive presence. The significance of interpersonal interaction in teaching and learning received support, more so than ever before.
Charin Mangkhang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p17

Abstract:
The objectives of this study are: 1) to study problems and the needs in community-based transdisciplinary learning for social studies teachers in the diverse school contexts, Northern of Thailand 2) to develop and find the efficiency of handbook of community-based transdisciplinary learning for social studies teachers in the diverse school contexts, Northern of Thailand and 3) to examine the implementation results of the handbook. This research is based on the research foundation of a mixed method in education research. The population involved in this study included 1) educational connoisseurship of area-based who are selected by means of purposive sampling, from not less than 5 persons and 2) social studies teachers in the Northern-region provinces of Thailand who are selected by means of accidental sampling, from not less than 334 persons. The research instruments are: 1) a questionnaire on problems and the needs in community-based transdisciplinary learning 2) an appropriateness assessment form on the handbook and 3) an evaluation form of teacher professional competence in community-based transdisciplinary learning. The qualitative data are analyzed and shown on content analysis and descriptive analysis. The quantitative statistics employed for data analysis are mean and standard deviation through statistical program. The research findings revealed as follows; 1) Problems and the needs: teacher professional competence needs to be improved in community-based transdisciplinary learning through 7 skills, namely; Integrated learning Management, Technology Integrated Learning, Integrating Ethics Learning, Community Resource Management, Transdisciplinary Innovation Integrated Learning, Creative Educational Measurement Design, and Competency of Networking skill. 2) The result of handbook development: “SOCIAL Action Learning Model”, includes 6 steps, should be implemented in community-based transdisciplinary learning for social studies teachers. Due to the evaluation of the handbook, the result is at the highest level of appropriation (x = 4.58, S.D. = 0.57) 3) The result of handbook using: the handbook of community-based transdisciplinary learning for social studies teachers found the evaluation result at a high level (x = 3.96, S.D. = 0.89)
Andrew Lee Hock Cheong, Pravinjit Kaur Harter Lochan Singh, Natasya Saat, Jasmine Low Hong Hoon
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p39

Abstract:
Student retention is of key importance to many private higher education institutions in Malaysia. This paper discusses the factors influencing a selected group of former pre-university students’ decision to continue their undergraduate studies in the same university where they had completed their pre-university studies. In-depth interviews were conducted, and three major themes of student retention were identified namely, the educational quality at the institution, educational quality at pre-university level and the overall conducive study and support environment. The findings provide insights on retention related challenges and issues faced by this group of students. This study also suggests ways on how the university could successfully improve its student retention.
Grace Lin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p169

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2021
Didem Gülçin Kaya
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p159

Abstract:
This study is aimed to examine the views of the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences on distance education with SWOT analysis and to evaluate the current circumstance. The phenomenology design was used in the study. The research group consisted of 62 students studying at Afyon Kocatepe University Faculty of Sport Sciences located in a town in the Aegean region in Turkey. In collecting the data, the personal information form created by the researchers and the semi-structured interview form was used, and the data obtained were analyzed by content analysis and descriptive analysis technique. As a result of the findings, it was seen that the views of the students studying in the field of sports sciences on the strengths of distance education provided the best conditions in the Covid-19 process, gained experience in synchronous-online courses and the online system, and to reinforce the knowledge by making use of projects and assignments. Views on the weaknesses of distance education were expressed as the inability of every student to benefit from the right to education under equal conditions, difficulties in accessing the internet, and lack of materials. Besides, the views on the opportunities of distance education were determined as good management of the process, planning the applied courses face-to-face, that is, choosing the hybrid system, motivating the students for the assignments and projects, and making up compensatory programs applied to solve the problems. Socialization of students, unsuitable working environment, anxiety, and negative views of the society towards the education system were recorded as threats and dangers.
Kadir Ulusoy
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p139

Abstract:
One of the most common concepts in the field of education in the 21st century is undoubtedly values education. In addition to the procedures related to values education in schools, the acquisitions and processes related to values education are constantly updated in each curriculum. In this process, history lesson curriculums have been one of the courses in which the procedures related to education of values have been started. As well as the explanations and information in the programs, how values education is handled in the lessons, teachers’ studies and observations are also important. In this study, teachers’ opinions were asked about the treatment of values education in history lessons. For this reason, a study was conducted with 30 history teachers using a semi-structured interview form in October-December 2019. In the findings obtained in the study; providing alternative activity examples instead of providing only definitions and knowledge in history curriculum and textbooks, processing case studies about Turkish culture in accordance with the level, ensuring accessibility of materials in schools and providing materials free of charge, conducting activities that can prevent peer bullying, activities and operations on women’s rights attention was drawn to issues such as increasing the cooperation between teacher-family and students.
Ahmet Yalçınkaya, Ziya Bahadır, Çağrı Hamdi Erdoğan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p152

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the self-handicapping levels of sports management department students. Furthermore, the study endeavors analyzing the sports management students’ self-handicapping level by gender, grade, grade point average, and exercise status. The study group analyzed with the survey method comprise 158 students enrolled in the Faculty of Sports Science for Sport Management Department at Erciyes University, Kayseri/Turkey during the 2018-2019 academic year. The study utilizes “Self-Handicapping Scale” developed by Jones and Rhodewalt (1982) and adapted to Turkish by Akın, Abacı and Akın (2010) as the data collection tool. The SPSS program was used for data analysis. The results indicate that the sports management students’ self-handicapping level in the study group was “moderate”. Moreover, the self-handicapping levels of the sports management students in the study group did not differ significantly by gender, grade, age and exercise status (p > 0.05). However, it was discovered that self-handicapping levels significantly differ by grade point average (p < 0.05).
Sumalee Sungsri
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p129

Abstract:
Thailand is becoming an elderly society like many countries in the world. The number of elderly people is increasing continuously every year. In order to enable the elderly to live with good quality of life in the rapidly changing society, knowledge and information related to their health and living factors are considered to be necessary for them. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to develop a model of knowledge provision for promoting quality of life of the elderly in rural areas of the country. The samples were drawn from every region of the country which included 480 elderly people, 480 elderly caretakers, and 160 people representing the community leaders, community committee members and staff of local government agencies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed for data collection. The study found that there were five areas of knowledge for promoting quality of life of the elderly: physical health, mental health, social relationship, economic, and learning. The model of knowledge provision to the elderly synthesized from the study could enable the elderly to gain necessary knowledge deemed useful for promoting their quality of life. The elderly, the elderly care caretakers and related people were found to be satisfied with the model.
Jwahir Alzamil
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p124

Abstract:
Teaching supervision is carried out by principals, and its purpose is to evaluate teachers’ teaching practices in the classroom. This study addresses a gap in the teaching supervision literature, which relates to the fact that studies in the teaching supervision literature have overlooked the obstacles principals face when supervising teachers in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted over 10 days. Using semi-structured interviews, the data was collected from seven female principals in secondary schools. The results showed that the obstacles faced by principals fall into the following two categories: (a) obstacles to supervision caused by some teachers’ unhappiness about being observed in the classroom; and because some of them fail to admit to having faults; and (b) obstacles that centre on the classroom environment itself, including noisy students, boring classes, a large number of students, small classrooms, the large number of teachers in a single school, and having to supervise all the subjects. These findings indicate that: (a) principals encounter certain obstacles to supervising teachers which affect the quality of the supervision itself; and (b) supervision planners may be motivated to consider the obstacles faced by principals in their supervision of teachers, so having this information can be crucial for improving principals’ performance of supervision in Saudi Arabia.
Tyrel C. Eskelson
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p109

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The purpose of the paper is to develop the theory that structural or procedural changes in institutions precede changes in education in a society. It examines the development of pre-modern institutions in Western Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries and the influences this had on growth in literacy rates within these states. Literacy rates in Western European countries during the Middle Ages were below twenty percent of the population. For most countries, literacy rates did not experience significant increases until the Enlightenment and industrialization. Two early exceptions to this broad trend were the Netherlands and England, which had achieved literacy rates above fifty percent of their populations by the mid-seventeenth century. The explanations for these divergent trends are the structural changes in formal institutions that embodied capital markets, protected private property, and overall established the initial steps in developing modern political institutions. This created incentives to invest more in schools per capita as well as incentives for a middle class to invest more in literacy and numeracy skills for a market-exchange economy that was becoming more specialized in division of labor.
Neslihan Köse, Firdevs Güneş
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p99

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Background: Lately in national and international reports, there has been an increasing interest on the significance of the development of reading skills. Countries are facing the problem of a decrease in reading habits (Niemann, 2016; Iyengar, 2007). Method: This study examines the perceived use of metacognitive strategies among undergraduate students during reading, which encompasses the use of metacognitive strategies before, during and after reading. The sample group comprised 236 students at Primary Education (PE) and Social Studies Teaching (SST), Language & Literature (LL) and Sociology departments during 2014–2015 academic year. The data were collected using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) and reading comprehension achievement tests (informative and narrative). Results: Overall strategy use among the sample group was “high”. Whether there was a significant difference among students’ perceived use of strategies in reading based on gender, grade, faculty and department was investigated. The results indicated a significant difference based on gender and grade level. Finally, it was found that as the reading comprehension increased in narrative texts, so did the strategy use in overall scale as well as in Global Reading Strategies and Problem Solving Strategies sub-scales. Conclusion: The findings indicated gender differences in the use of reading strategies. It can be suggested that students be provided with reading strategies training that considers the gender differences in the use of metacognitive strategies in reading. In addition, based on the grade difference between freshmen and senior students, in favor of senior students and arising from including strategy use training in the curriculum, reading and learning strategies training could be provided for students during undergraduate education.
Rui Li, Mogana Dhamotharan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p61

Abstract:
The main aim of this study was to find out the perceptions of the parents about the rural school climate. This study was set in a selected rural primary school located in Hebei Province, in China. Data were collected using questionnaires and a semi-structured interview protocol. 103 parents participated in the questionnaire and 10 parents were invited to take part in the focus group interview. The findings in the questionnaires had revealed that parents had positive perceptions of the rural school climate. Inferential statistics further showed that there was no significant difference in parents’ perceptions based on education level, and the male parents’ perceptions of school administrators, teachers, and students were higher than the female parents. The focus group interview further revealed that parents felt that the rural schools were unable to establish a complete school curriculum, lacked a sufficient number of teachers, had a shortfall of adequate infrastructure, had school violence, inadequate extracurricular activities, and programs.
Cüneyt Taşkın, Tolga Kaan Bahadır
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p91

Abstract:
In this study, the Audience Response System was investigated as an additional tool for interaction, and its effects on the educational environment were examined. The system was implemented at the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Trakya University in the fall semester of the 2019-2020 academic year. A pre-test of 20 questions, which was asked in the educational sciences section of the public personnel selection examination and had a similar item difficulty index, was applied to the experimental and control groups prior to the implementation of the ARS. Then, the experimental group was asked to solve the educational sciences questions with the help of the ARS-supported lectures, which were delivered 4 h a week for a total of 16 h. The same implementation was imposed on the control group without the ARS support and with the classical recitation method. A post-test of 20 questions with a similar item difficulty index was administered to both groups after this test. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 25.0 package program. A t-test was used to determine the differences between the arithmetic mean of the pre-test and post-test scores of the students. Because the unequaled control group method was used in the experiment design, the “ANOVA for Repeated Measurements” was used for intragroup and intergroup comparisons. In conclusion, it was determined that the implementation of interactive interaction technologies in the educational environment will capture the interest of students and amplify their motivation levels. The results of the study support the conclusion that the ARS system stimulates the sensory organs in terms of understanding the subject, thereby increasing the level of learning.
Lin Li, Shanshan Yang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p84

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of teacher-student interaction on undergraduate students’ self-efficacy in a Chinese university setting. Students came from natural science, management, economics, medicine, engineering and humanities. The empirical results demonstrate that teacher-student interaction has positive impact on students’ self-efficacy and their preference of the flipped classroom. Furthermore, the positive relationship between teacher-student interaction and students’ self-efficacy is partially mediated by students’ preference of the flipped classroom. Educators should focus on student-centered learning and motivate students’ preference of the flipped classroom. Students should be encouraged to actively participate in the flipped learning as well. It contributes to the reform of the flipped classroom and improvement of teaching quality in the universities.
Serap Idikut, Mahmut Oğuz Kutlu, Pınar Akman
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p71

Abstract:
The role of motivation in foreign language teaching has been a debated issue for long years. One of the problematic issues is the motivation problem encountered in foreign language courses. Because, the most important factor affecting academic success is motivation. Most researchers argued that as the motivation level increases, the level of foreign language learning will increase and students will learn foreign languages more easily. In this research, motivation attitudes of state and private elementary school students in foreign language courses in Turkey were examined. At the same time, the relationship between foreign language and motivation attitude of state and private elementary school students was tried to be determined. The sample of the research is 747 students in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades selected by random sampling from a Private Elementary School and a State Elementary School in Adana Province, Turkey, in 2018-2019 academic year. In the research, the participants were applied the Academic Motivation Scale-AMS and there was a significant effect on the motivation of different school type (state and private), gender, school and primary school was not examined. The difference between motivation levels of the students in state and private schools was tried to be determined. In the study, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficiency and Independent Sample t-test Analysis were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences—SPSS 22 Programme. According to the results, it was found that the motivation level differed according to the gender and school type.
Cüneyt Taşkın, Tolga Kaan Bahadır
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p53

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The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediating and regulatory role of current classroom levels in the relationship between the school climate as perceived by prospective physical education and sports course teachers and their feelings of burnout. The participants in this study included 303 teaching students, 144 women, and 159 men. The school climate scale and the school burnout scale were used to collect data. Hypotheses were tested using correlation and regression-based path analysis. The results showed that there is a negative significant relationship between perceived school climate at 1st, 2nd and 4th grade levels and school burnout, and a positive significant relationship between perceived school climate at the 3rd grade level and school burnout. In the relationship between the perceived school climate and feelings of burnout, class level has a mediating and regulatory effect. In addition, it has been determined that higher class level strengthens the feeling of burnout, while a low level weakens this feeling. By comparing the obtained results with the findings in the literature, suggestions were made to sports education researchers.
Jerell B. Hill
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p37

Abstract:
The Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision was a significant change in social justice and human rights. There is ongoing debate about public education not as a private commodity but as a public good that must be made available on equal terms. Recently, schools are entering an era of second-generation segregation. Poor outcomes, language acquisition programs preventing access to college-readiness courses, and teacher quality are causes for concern. Research on second-generation segregation found that African-American children experience lower rates of academic achievement than their White peers. This was a case study analysis to investigate the impact of teacher preparation and culturally relevant practices related to educational opportunities. The results hold implications on misconceptions of educational improvements for Black children and identify the need to increase cultural responsiveness and an intentional focus on students’ assets and needs.
Lennie Scott-Webber
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p9

Abstract:
We are 21 years into the 21st century, and educational practices across North America were woefully unprepared to ‘flip the switch’ to online learning; at times no education occurred at all, not online or onsite. The COVID-19 pandemic disruptor storm peeled off the layers of blindfolds time accrued in an instant. Issues included three areas. Area one—unpreparedness: digital illiteracy relative to online learning and corresponding teaching models, equity issues pertaining to internet access and computer access, platforms that varied and were unreliable. Area two—inconsistent: (if any) guidelines on how to teach onsite, or those from a disease control group dictating a six-foot distancing, masks, plexiglass, and row-by-column with eyes facing forward (back to a 19th century teaching didactic model), and smaller class sizes. Area three-time/space continuum: the combining of online and onsite, teaching loads, and maintenance. This ‘alpha’ research study tried to capture a historic moment in time. A Human-centered Research Design (HcRD) protocol with three techniques to mitigate bias was used: (1) online survey, (2) focused interviews, and (3) crowd-sourced photographic content across two countries—USA and Canada as a convenience sample. The findings will reveal a ‘just-in-time’ snap shot of the tactics used pre- and current-, as well as ideas for post-pandemic—this research’s differentiator. The storm of COVID-19 played unprecedented havoc on schools across North America, but there are important learnings and these, along with some insights will be shared.
Muna Kashoob, Rais Attamimi
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p28

Abstract:
Due to the rapid advancement of the relevant technology and the COVID-19 health pandemic, educational institutions have had to adapt to ongoing and ever-changing circumstances at a very rapid rate. Thus, the Moodle and Microsoft Teams platforms are being used by teachers to more directly teach students, as well as fulfilling its initial role in providing a supplementary tool to maintain, the convention of independent learning. The current study explores the perceptions of a group of Omani students who are currently enrolled in the English Language Center of the University of Sciences and Applied Technology, Salalah campus, (hereafter referred to as UTAS) regarding the new online learning platforms, i.e. Moodle and Microsoft Teams. To this end, a questionnaire was adopted from Rojabi’s (2020) study to measure the perceptions of the students towards both Moodle and Microsoft Teams platforms. A sample of 100 students was randomly selected from the population. The findings of the study have offered some important suggestions on how to improve the existing online platforms and pave the way for further research to be conducted in the same area.
Grace Lin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p118

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2021
Emrah Özbuğutu
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p104

Abstract:
This study was conducted with a total of 158 students from 6th, 7th and 8th grades in two different secondary schools located in Siirt in the academic year of 2020-2021 to examine students’ anxiety about the science lesson in terms of various variables and to determine the reasons for science anxiety. The study was conducted on the basis of a mixed design. While quantitative data were collected using the “Science Anxiety Scale (SAS)” and qualitative data were collected using the “Anxiety Form”. Through the SAS, the anxiety levels of the students were determined and the relationship between the scale anxiety score and gender, grade levels, income levels and type of school was examined. The data collected by the SAS were analysed using the SPSS 26 package program. The content analysis of the data collected with the anxiety form was carried out. It was determined in the quantitative part of the research that there is no significant relationship between science anxiety and gender, 6th-grade students have higher science anxiety in the environmental sub-dimension compared to 7th and 8th-grades, and there is a significant relationship between family income level and type of school and anxiety scores, science anxiety decreased as the income level increased, and students studying at private school had less science anxiety. Based on the qualitative data of the study, anxieties of the study are mainly related to the science lesson, notably related to the exam, rote learning, hardness of lessons, the anxiety of falling behind in the class, and the homework. However, while some students have anxiety about the attitude and questions of teachers, others are instinctively anxious about giving wrong or no answers arising from attitudes and morale. While 3% of the students are anxious about everything, 14.9% are anxious about nothing. Their responses to the items of the questionnaire and the anxiety form are close in proportion, so it has been concluded that the quantitative and qualitative data of the study support each other.
Mona Al Zahrani
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p94

Abstract:
The article discusses how young females navigate and develop a solid sense of two worlds in order to be perceived a ‘good girl’ that can be positioned within the society and maintain the female gender identity that is expected of them in the future. One world is where they are expected to show all the attributes of femininity and beauty and the other world is where they are required to develop a strong sense of ‘self-control’, to be ‘a good girl’ who complies with societal confinements and restrictions on their female body and mobility. This article has emerged from a doctorate research entitled: The Making of a Good Woman: Analysing children’s narratives on female gender identity and role in pre-school Saudi Arabia. It was a study into how female gender identity is constructed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by analysing children’s (young girls 4-6 years) perspectives within pre-school, exploring their perceptions of female identity and role in the KSA. Exploring the ways in which gender identities were interpreted and manifested; studying the influences, apparent ideologies and discourses that affect female gender construction. Through the analysis of the data, interesting results emerged that exposed the consideration of gender roles, permissible and non-permissible behaviour and attitudes, and the realisation that female gender is often constructed, in the KSA, through fear and restrictions.
Erol Süzük, Tuncay Akınci
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p82

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate and compare pre-service teachers’ self-confidence in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) concerning their gender, department, and owned digital technologies. To achieve this goal, the survey method was conducted as part of a quantitative method design. Participants of the study consisted of 252 pre-service teachers from four different concentrations: physics, chemistry, biology, and german language teaching. TPACK Self Confidence Scale (TPACK-SCS), which was constructed by Graham, Burgoyne, Cantrell, Smith, and Harris (2009) and adapted to Turkish by Timur and Taşar (2011), was used as the data collection tool. TPACK-SCS is a scale with 4 sub-dimensions as Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), Technological Knowledge (TK), and Technological Content Knowledge (TCK). The Cronbach’s Alpha internal reliability coefficients of the scale were calculated between .78 and .94. Since the data obtained did not show normal distribution it was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis - H tests. According to the results, significant differences were found in the level of self-confidence and sub-dimensions of students’ TPACK according to gender, department, and owned digital technologies for education.
Li Li, Jingya Zhang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p74

Abstract:
This study explores perceptions of Chinese undergraduate students taking online courses amid the Covid-19 pandemic. Using semi-structured interviews after students’ completion of the online courses, the study yields certain findings. First, university administrators are expected to communicate more with students to hear their concerns and offer assistance accordingly. Second, instructors should incorporate more interactive activities to promote learning, create a relaxing learning environment, and provide a timely feedback to students. Third, undergraduate students should employ appropriate learning strategies that include: being an independent learner, making a self-regulated learning plan, managing time, and practicing self-motivation. Implications for online learning practices are discussed.
Glen Miller, Gary Blau, Deborah Campbell
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n2p1

Abstract:
Helping military veterans successfully transition to civilian life is an important issue. Education can help with this transition. No prior studies were found on the general type of undergraduate major United States (US) Chapter 31 veterans enroll in. Chapter 31 provides tuition benefits to help entitled transitioning military veterans, with service-connected disabilities, go to college to obtain a degree. Self-determination theory (SDT) suggests two general categories of majors, intrinsic (I) versus extrinsic (E). Intrinsic motivation emphasizes doing a task for its inherent satisfaction, while extrinsic motivation targets doing the same task to achieve external rewards, such as compensation. Archival data was analyzed using small samples of undergraduate Chapter 31 military veterans in 2016, 2018 and 2020. Overall, the results supported the research question, i.e., Chapter 31 veterans will be more likely to choose intrinsically motivating versus extrinsically motivating college majors. Results, including limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Emmerline Shelda Siaw, George Tan Geok Shim, Farah Liyana Azizan, Norhunaini Mohd Shaipullah
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p47

Abstract:
For many students, mathematics is regarded as a challenging subject to learn and master in class. One of the significant factors contributing to the students’ difficulties in learning mathematics is caused by a phenomenon called mathematics anxiety. Mathematics anxiety is a feeling of unease and anxiety toward mathematics and it can be different from person-to-person. Understanding the effects of mathematics anxiety levels on students’ mathematics performances in class can be the key to help students’ mastery of mathematics. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety levels and students’ mathematics performances at the foundation level. A sample of 545 students from a local foundation centre was chosen for this study. Data collection via questionnaire was used where quantitative data were analysed using correlation, t-test, and descriptive analyses. The results showed that there was a weak positive correlation between students’ anxiety levels and the students’ mathematics performance in their final examination. Recommendations and future potential for this study were further discussed in this paper.
David C. Coker
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p22

Abstract:
COVID-19 mitigation efforts resulted in many schools making the transition to online and remote instruction. Juvenile delinquents, as a group, attained lower academic achievement before the pandemic, and little was known how juvenile delinquents’ education fared after schools ceased face-to-face instruction. Using a mixed methods approach, three steps were conducted to analyze the education of juvenile delinquents in the United States: a qualitative literature review, a grounded theory study of teachers’ concerns in traditional schools, and an instrumental case study of juvenile delinquents’ enrollment during COVID-19. Researchers and experts recommended the development of a community online and in remote instruction, but most teachers felt overwhelmed and unable to rise to the challenge. Juvenile delinquents responded by most students disappearing from school attendance rolls. A grand theme, to shift the nature of online learning, is offered based upon the convergence of the research findings. A theory of humanistic schooling online, centered on a community of learners with the dimensions of academics, physical health, social, and attention to the individual, offers to radically transform practices and past recommendations.
Erez Nahmias, Mina Teicher
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p55

Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the importance of building instructional units that incorporate metacognition intent processes that contribute to the development of geometric thinking. We show that the implementation of metacognition processes in the initial stages of constructing tailored instructional units will improve students’ geometric ability. The study was performed on middle school mathematics teachers of the ninth grade. The experiment we conducted shows that building instructional units that incorporate metacognition intent benefit learning processes on two levels: First, in the subject matter. Second, they contribute to a deeper understanding that improves student’s ability to connect related subjects to mathematical geometry. moreover, we will present a practical model that incorporates different aspects that could operate a guideline for middle school mathematics teachers.
Goachagorn Thipatdee
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p39

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The purposes of this research were to study needs of high school students and teachers on competency-based curriculum integrated with local community for high school students, develop a curriculum based on the needs, implement the developed curriculum, and evaluate the developed curriculum. The samples of the needs study stage consisted of 244 high school students, and 82 teachers in schools located in Ubon Ratchathani, and Warinchamrab Municipalities, gained by quota sampling, and those for the curriculum implementation consisted of 34 high school students studying at Luekamhan Warinchamrab School, in the second semester of academic year 2018, gained by cluster sampling. The research instruments were the developed curriculum, questionnaires for the students and the teachers, a test of English expression, a test of writing, and an attitude evaluation form. The findings revealed the students and the teachers rated their needs on competency-based curriculum at a higher level, the developed curriculum consisted of vision, mission to achieve the students’ competency through the aims, contents, and instructional procedures concentrated on practicing and the evaluation focused on performances, the students had significantly higher learning achievement and writing skills after the curriculum implementation than those before the implementation at the level .01. The developed curriculum was evaluated by the students at medium level of its feasibility.
Mustafa Kayıhan Erbaş
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p61

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This study aimed to determine the relationship between the teaching efficacy of physical education teacher candidates and their teaching-learning conceptions and to determine the validity of the level of teaching efficacy predicting teaching-learning conceptions. The study group consisted of 433 teacher candidates studying in physical education and sport teaching departments. The study revealed that teacher candidates’ teaching efficacy levels and their adoption of constructivist conceptions were high and that teacher efficacy levels were important predictors of teaching-learning conceptions.
Xiaoyao Yue, Yongjun Feng
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p7

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Teacher leadership continues to be a growing educational reform initiative across the world. With the rapid development of Chinese language education, the role of teacher leadership in education reform is becoming more and more prominent. Based on the survey data of 104 teachers in a secondary vocational school in Yuxi City, this study investigated the level of teacher leadership capacity and discussed their promotion strategies. Based on Lambert’s (2003a) theory of teacher leadership capacity, the author developed a research questionnaire that including four structures of teacher leadership capacity, which focus on the vision, reflection and innovation, shared governance, supervision, and response to student achievement. This study adopted the five-likert point scale. Data analysis shows that the average scores of 17 items does not exceed 4.00 points, while the highest and lowest score are from “focus on the vision.” To improve the teacher leadership capacity, the study suggests that leaders should concentrate on the school’s vision as well as establish collaborative culture and atmosphere among teachers.
Gary Blau, Corinne Snell, Daniel Goldberg
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n1p1

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has created many challenges for universities around the world, including how to keep students engaged in their professional development, despite the challenges of remote learning and virtual student services. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the continued importance of Career Professional Development Center (CPDC) support (pre-pandemic to early stages of the pandemic) for business-related internships influencing student professional development engagement (PDE) and anticipated employment upon graduation. PDE encompasses typical CPDC resources (e.g., internship search support; involvement in student professional organizations (SPOs); professional development coaching; and job search assistance). A survey, the Senior Student Satisfaction Survey (SSSS) was deployed prior to graduation to business students. Using the SSSS, two separate samples of graduating business undergraduates at a Mid-Atlantic University in the United States were surveyed, in late Spring 2019 (pre-pandemic) and late Spring 2020 (early pandemic). Pre-pandemic survey results showed that students having at least one internship experience (versus none) were more likely to: join an SPO sooner; attend more SPO meetings/semester; complete their professional development sooner; and anticipate “by graduation” full-time employment. Despite the drop in survey participation due to the pandemic onset, results consistent with this were found with the early pandemic survey. Like other academic-related and campus services in the face of the pandemic, the business school CPDC is adapting to the new remote ways of operating and successfully transitioned their delivery mode to a 100% virtual model to meet the resource challenge of supporting student PDE. It is hoped that the ideas discussed will be useful to a wider audience.
Şule Kırbaş
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p196

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the views of academicians regarding “The Views of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Instructors on Education in the Covid-19 Period”. The study used the phenomenological design, which is among qualitative research designs. The study group comprised 63 academicians carrying out duty in 21 different universities in Turkey during the 2019-2020 academic year. In line with the goal, the study was carried out with academicians who could contribute on voluntary basis. In order to determine the views of the academicians, a structured interview form was used. The interview form comprises four questions aiming to determine the necessity of distance education in the physical education area, which courses in the area can be given within the scope of distance education, possibility of teaching applied courses via distance education and problems they face in courses in the distance education process which has been put into effect compulsorily due to pandemic. The interview form was presented to the opinion of two instructors in the educational sciences area who have carried out qualitative research and then expert opinion was received. The application was conducted by primarily reaching the aforementioned academicians via telephone interview between 1 June-27 July 2020 and conveying the questions via e-mail. The descriptive analysis technique was used in analysis of the data. In the study 79% of the academicians stressed that applied courses should not be taught via distance education, while 52% stated that all theoretical courses could be taught via distance education. Examining the views of the academicians on the problems they faced in courses in the distance education process; 55% stated that the problems were associated with the system, 36% efficiency of the course, 30% inadequate student participation in the course, 21% inadequate student feedback, 21% evaluation, 19% inexperience about distance education and 17% lack of internet and computer opportunities in hometowns of students. Considering the findings of the study integratedly; it is believed that teaching applied courses via distance education is inadequate and inefficient. Also it is possible to state that it may not be appropriate to teach theoretical courses via distance education, except when necessary.
Grace Lin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p206

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2020
Irene Rämä, Elina Kontu, Raija Pirttimaa
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p163

Abstract:
Many children may need the help of another person to attend school. It is common for children with disabilities to receive help from a teaching assistant at school. Assistants are provided in many countries as a legal right and are often publicly funded. It is also widely assumed that having teaching assistants in the class is an effective and cost-efficient way to support students with disabilities. In this study, the research task was to monitor and document the development process carried out by the teacher, with the aim of making visible the development of a more dynamic classroom interaction. The focus in this development process was the teacher’s idea of minimizing the contacts between students and assistants to increase students’ opportunities to optimize interaction and learning. This was to happen by strengthening commitment to their activities and taking responsibility. The data include video excerpts, which originate from video recordings from a special education class, and transcripts of three stimulated recall-type interviews with the teacher of this class. In this article, the experimental development process is described as presenting an unorthodox approach to teaching assistants and their position in special education.
Muhammet Ü. Öztabak, Duygu Yalman Polatlar
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p183

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The aim of the current study was to review some of the administration issues at preschools from preschool teachers’ perspectives by employing a holistic, multiple-case design. Ten preschool teachers working in state-funded preschools in the Anatolian Side of Istanbul during Fall 2019 and Spring 2020 made up the sample of the study. The data collected from the participants through face-to-face interviews were divided into three themes, which are physical structure, staff and administration. Descriptive statistics were performed. The results revealed that architectural deficiencies in the physical structure, ineffective leadership in the workplace, problems with joint planning and consultation, inexperienced support staff, fees, interfering parents or guardians, double shift schooling and superficial approach to supervision were among the outstanding problems reported by the preschool teachers.
Zhen Zeng
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p173

Abstract:
The paper looked into concepts claimed to be essence of Chinese residential college, an on-going institution presumed to be a solution towards undergraduates’ issues in some pioneer universities in China. It’s analyzed that Chinese residential college today in China is not a Shuyuan that was ever striving as a unique education mode in ancient China, even if it’s named after Shuyuan in Chinese, concerning on its nature, function and goal, while it’s not a conventional residential college in English speaking countries neither. By investigation and comparison of its origin, function and features among Shuyuan and Chinese residential college, the spirit of development of a human with goodness and well-being through pursuit of knowledge and culture inherited and transmitted in Shuyuan is unearthed, which is supposed to be the resource of inspiration when the pioneer universities and educators designed and operate residential college on Chinese campus, though the effects couldn’t be accounted as appealing as what Shuyuan produced in ancient China. The research aims to depict a real Shuyuan, an education legacy every being alive in Chinese history, which were featured with paramount concepts and values that should be correctly recognized and implemented when there is great concern around undergraduates.
Berna Coşkun Onan, Mert Ünlüsoy
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p133

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Based on the learning outcomes, values, skills/proficiency and job safety for grades 6, 7 and 8 from the 2017 Visual Arts Course Curriculum (MEB, 2017), outcomes related to three-dimensional work have been associated with care, love, responsibility and inquiry and activities “My Money”, “Abstract Sculpture” and “Talking Emojis” have been planned. They have been completed with visually rich presentations and step by step implementation phases and presented to the subject teachers intended for practices. In the data collection process, the activities were observed by the researcher, audio and video recording made and right after the activities interviews with the students and teachers were made and student work was collected to examine documentation. Data obtained during the data collection process have been analyzed with thematic analysis method and taking into consideration the basic characteristic of multiple case study and the themes obtained have been evaluated with the theme titles; “Connections”, “Internalization” and “Realization”. Among the outcomes of the results of the research are the facts that the bases of skill/proficiency, value and job safety are important at activity planning and that rich presentations and step by step applications can transfer the relevant outcomes of the students into behavior. It is also attention-grabbing that students, who gain the values of respect, love and care for their environment through three-dimensional work, can transfer mathematical, digital, social skills and those related to citizenship to their lives.
Yahya Yıldırım, Ali Kızılet
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p146

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different learning methods on learning tennis stroke skills, retention of learned skills and mobility time compared to traditional learning methods. Twenty-four (12 boys, 12 girls) high school students who have just started tennis education in a high school in Istanbul participated in this study voluntarily (Age: 15.00 ± 0.00 years, weight: 63.46 ± 10.64 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m, and body mass index 23.26 ± 2.91 kg/m2). Subjects were divided into two homogeneous groups of 12, each with equal numbers of boys (6 girls, 6 boys) according to the pre-test results. One of the groups was named control group, and the other group was named differential learning group. The training sessions were held 3 days a week for 10 weeks and each training lasted 90 minutes. The International Tennis Number (ITN) test was applied to determine the tennis ground stroke accuracy and mobility time. A modified version of the ITN mobility test was applied using the Fitlight TrainerTM device. Repeated Measures Anova test was used to examine the difference between pre-test, post-test and retention test of the same group. One Way Anova was used for the interaction between groups, measurement (pre-test, post-test, retention test) means. p < 0.05 was accepted for the significance level in the interpretation of statistical procedures. As a consequence; It can be said that the differential learning method is more effective than traditional training methods in the accuracy of tennis ground hits, but there is no significant difference between the two groups in retention of learning. Moreover, no significant difference was found in mean differences between groups and from pre-test to post-test and retention test within groups.
Mahmut Oğuz Kutlu
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p155

Abstract:
The main aim of this study is to comparatively examine the “Studying and Learning Strategies” used by the students of Science and Anatolian High Schools, which are the general secondary instruction level in the Turkish Educational System, at Adana province example in Turkey. The study is a descriptive study, a relational survey model. The population of the study is 9th and 12th grade students who are studying in Anatolian and Science High Schools in the city center of Adana. This study group of this research is consisted of 393 students in 9th and 12th grades who were studying at Adana Science High School and Seyhan İMKB Anatolian High School in the spring term of the 2019-2020 academic year. As a data collection tool, the “Study and Learning Strategies Scale for High School Students” developed by Kutlu, Yapıcı and Korkmaz (2015), consisting of 46 items and five sub-dimensions, was used. As a result of the study, when the “Study and Learning Strategies” of the students are examined according to school types; It has been determined that there is a significant difference in the sub-dimensions of “Repetition” and “Enjoying Learning”. It has been observed that there is a significant difference between male and female students in “Repetition” and “Self-Confidence” sub-dimensions according to the gender of the students. There is no significant difference between the levels of 9th and 12th grade students studying at Science and Anatolian High Schools according to their grade levels.
Eyal Eckhaus, Nitza Davidovitch
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p121

Abstract:
Purpose. This study deals with the research and teaching achievements of faculty members as affected by demographics. The topic of age of employment, as well as age of retirement, is one that occupies modern society, both in research and with regard to the significance of age for the labor world in practice. Gender-related differences regarding this issue have occupied the academic literature as well. In the current study we examined the impact of age and gender on research output (by number of citations) and satisfaction with teaching (by student survey scores). Method. Empirical data on article citations and teaching surveys were gathered for 315 senior faculty members at Ariel University, Israel. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model’s goodness-of-fit. Findings indicate that the higher the age of the faculty members the greater their output. The opposite is true of teaching surveys. Age appears to contribute to the number of article citations and less so to students’ satisfaction with the teaching of senior faculty members. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. Men were found to have a higher number of citations than women. Results and discussion. The research findings have practical meaning. The achievements of academic faculty members are undoubtedly age-dependent: seniority and experience contribute to research (number of citations) and do not contribute to teaching as measured by student satisfaction. The question is whether in the modern era, when quality of life and life expectancy are on the rise, there is room to breach the employment age limitations in academia, particularly for high academic producers, in light of their achievements.
Abdullah Ali Asiri
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p112

Abstract:
This paper investigates the perceptions of teachers in Saudi Arabia About educational administers’ support of inclusive education. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline of information for the ministry of education to enhance their professional development plan for administers and teachers to adopting inclusive education for the purpose of increasing the number of students with disabilities in general education settings. The results in this study were almost converged between agreement and disagree with slightly more respondents agreeing that administrator support of inclusive education was present. The inferential results indicated a statistically significant difference between respondent degree area and recognition of administrator support of inclusive education. Significant differences occurred for both school and district administrators. Also, another statistical difference was found between respondent teaching grade and their recognition of administers’ support of inclusive education.
Muhterem Akgün, Ismail Hakan Akgün
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p71

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of digital stories on academic achievement. In order to achieve this purpose, meta analysis method was used in the study. Within the scope of the study, ERIC, Google Academic, YÖK Thesis Center, ProQuest, Science Direct and ULAKBİM databases were scanned and 23 studies (10 theses, 13 articles) were included in the meta-analysis using the criteria determined by the researchers. Cochran’s X2 (Q = 285,155, p < .05) test was conducted to test whether the studies included in the study were heterogeneous. Random effects model was used to calculate effect size since heterogeneity was determined between studies. At the end of the study, it was seen that the general effect size (Hedge’s g = 1.081) regarding the effect of digital stories on academic achievement was strong, that there was a positive effect in all areas according to the lessons which was higher for Science. It was also observed that the effect was positive in all dimensions according to the education level, there was a difference between the education levels and the highest effect occurred at university and middle school levels.
, Glen Miller
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p31

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Military veterans (n = 153) completed an on-line survey and were broken down into combat (n = 92) versus non-combat (n = 61) veterans. The combat veterans had higher life satisfaction, perceived occupational alternatives, and education level versus the non-combat veterans. Looking at correlates to life satisfaction, for both samples number of prior traumatic events (negative) and personal accomplishment (positive) were significantly related. In addition, for the combat veterans, highest education level and perceived occupational alternatives were significantly related to life satisfaction. A high percentage of both combat and non-combat veterans were currently going to school to further their education. Working with employed combat and non-combat veterans, those currently going to school to further their education had higher perceived occupational alternatives than veterans not going back. Working with a smaller group of combat versus non-combat respondents who did volunteer work, the non-combat veterans were higher on perceived meaningfulness of volunteer work than the combat veterans. Returning to school can be one way to help military veterans find rewarding meaningful work, through perceived occupational alternatives, which can help to increase their life satisfaction. If increased education is not an option, volunteer work may also lead to higher perceived meaningful work. As veterans transition from military to civilian life, military out-processing should continue to counsel/prepare transitioning veterans for: finding/interviewing for jobs as well as realistic new careers; identifying meaningful voluntary work opportunities; or finding resources for furthering one’s education.
, Chuanling Zhang, Feng Peng, Xuezhong Sun, Xiayu Tian, Xiaorui Ma, Ruihua Pang, Yanfang Sun, Wei Zhou, Quanxiu Wang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p84

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It has always been one of the hot spots of the whole society to improve teachers’ quality and ability. With the progress of the era and the rapid development of biology, it puts forward higher requirements for the cultivation of biology teachers of middle school. How to cultivate a large number of high-quality biology teachers of middle school with good ethics and outstanding abilities is a focus problem worth exploring. There are some problems in the traditional training mode of biology normal students, such as backward teaching idea, unreasonable teaching arrangement and uneven teaching level. In view of these problems, normal universities should take a series of reform measures to promote the professional development of middle school biology teachers. Therefore, this paper summarizes the reform necessity, current situation and existing problems of the talent training mode. It also puts forward a series of reform measures on the talent training mode in the aspects of learning, innovation and reflection. Thus, this paper will provide important reference for the reform of talent training mode of middle school biology teachers in the future.
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p102

Abstract:
This study aimed to develop a scale to determine students’ perceptions of teacher involvement in mathematics homework assignments. An item pool (n = 30) was generated based on a literature review. Based on expert feedback, the number of items was reduced to 21 scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. A draft named the “Scale of Teacher Involvement in Mathematics Homework Assignments (STIMHA)” was developed after the items were reviewed by a linguist. A pilot study was conducted with six middle school students to check for comprehensibility. The items were revised and finalized based on their feedback. The main study sample consisted of 751 middle school students from four schools in Demirci/Manisa in Turkey during the 2017-2018 academic year. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 24.0) and Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS 21.0). Validity and reliability were established.
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p59

Abstract:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) considers education a top priority, and more emphasis has been placed on this following the 2016 announcement of Saudi Vision 2030. Since then, the country has witnessed several economic and social changes. As a result, the Kingdom has initiated a plan to invest in human capital through education to diversify its economy and increase employment. This includes educational reform with regard to primary and secondary education geared toward preparing students for higher education and the workplace. However, several factors may hinder the successful execution of this plan. This report will provide insights into factors such as cultural dimensions, learning profiles, the English language proficiency gap, and information on borrowing educational models from the West. It will also include some suggestions and recommendations to enhance teacher education programmes so that positive educational reform may be achieved effectively.
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/jel.v9n6p94

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the lifelong learning trends of physical education and sports teachers with regard to various variables and to compare them with the literature. Method: 113 physical education teachers working in secondary schools and high schools in Tokat province and its districts during the 2019-2020 academic year participated in the study. In order to obtain the research data, the “Lifelong Learning Scale” adapted to Turkish by Engin, Kör and Erbay (2016) and the demographic information questionnaire created by the researchers were used. This research is a descriptive study in scanning model. The research data were subjected to normality test and the research data were analyzed according to the results. In the analysis of the data, 0.05 significance level was taken as the criterion. In order to determine the level of lifelong learning competence of physical education and sports teachers, the variables with 2 level were analyzed by using t test statistics, and the variables with 3 or more levels were analyzed by the ANOVA F test statistic. Conclusion: According to the results of this study which was conducted on different variables, physical education teachers’ lifelong learning tendency scores are high. At the same time; gender, professional seniority and and the lvel of the institution (primary school, high school etc.) are not effective factors on lifelong learning motivations og physical education and sports teachers.
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