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Prasart Nuangchalerm, Autthapon Intasena
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p63

Abstract:
The purposes of the current study were 1) to investigate problems in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing of Thai L1 young learners, and 2) to investigate needs in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing of Thai L1 young learners. There were 2 groups of participants including a group of 15 samples answering a questionnaire and a group of 10 samples taking part in an interview session. The instruments were 1) a questionnaire and 2) a structured interview to study problems in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing skills of Thai young learners and 3) a questionnaire and 4) a structured interview to study needs in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing skills of Thai young learners. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. Meanwhile, the results of the interview were analyzed by a qualitative analysis method. The results of the study show that 1) problems in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing skills of Thai L1 young learners are the learners’ knowledge in textual language systems in terms of spelling, meaning, and uses in both receptive and productive manners; 2) needs in instructing literacy and fluency of reading and writing skills of Thai L1 young learners rely on finding possible solutions to solve these problems considering the nature of young learners’ learning.
Aydın Balyer, Mehmet Emin Bakay
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p147

Abstract:
Academic inbreeding is a recruitment practice for universities of hiring their own graduates as future academicians. Despite its benefits, it may have damaging effects on the academy. From this point of view, this qualitative research investigated whether academic inbreeding brings benefits to universities or poses risks. It was also purposed to determine how academicians define academic inbreeding and experience it in their daily practices. To this end, twenty academicians were interviewed, and the data were analyzed with content analysis technique. Results revealed that while few academicians underlined its benefits, most academicians manifested its risks and negative experiences. Thus, it is recommended that mobility among academic staff should be encouraged.
Admasu Etefa Tucho
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p49

Abstract:
The 2020 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) data show that there are a total of 130,930 k-12 public schools in the United States of America (U.S.A), serving approximately 48.1 million students. The demographic breakdown of the student population includes 22 million (45.7%) Whites; 13. Million (32 %) Hispanic; 17.2 million (14%) African American; 2.6 million (5.4%) Asian, 2.2 million (4.6%) students two or more races; and 0.4 million (0.8%) American Indian/ Alaska Native students. Adding sex education to the public school curriculum was primarily to make elementary and secondary school students aware of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy. Although comprehensive sexuality education has been operational in all 50 states for decades, the program's quality and comprehensiveness vary considerably from state to state due to a series of obstacles. The author of this article proposes an alternative or at least supplemental approach to the current comprehensive sex education.
Awilda Hernandez
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p1

Abstract:
It has been shown that Culturally Relevant Pedagogy is beneficial in schools with a wide range of populations because of its emphasis on academic achievement for all students, cultural competency, and social justice issues. This study focused on teachers’ perceptions about how to use a Culturally Relevant Pedagogy model in the classroom. Interviews with 20 in-service teachers across eight states revealed the following themes: (a) teachers’ ideas about Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and the classroom environment, and (b) school and district support on Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and social community, resources, and teachers’ training to understand Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. This paper explores themes to reveal how in-service teachers perceived their preparedness to teach using CRP strategies in the classroom. In order to close the achievement gap, a paradigm change is required. It is necessary to employ CRP strategies to create this change and integrate students’ everyday life with classroom learning objectives so that achievement disparity in classrooms may be reduced. English Language Learners (ELLs), students with low socio-economic status, and racial/ethnic minorities were the focus of this study.
Amel AlAdwani, Anam AlFadley
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p132

Abstract:
Covid-19 pandemic made a sudden shift of all ages to online learning and distance learning instructions. However, there is a paucity of research to address the possible impacts of the pedagogical shift integrated into new online platforms on learning, interaction, and assessment, especially in higher education settings from the vantage point of EFL students. Framed in a descriptive quantitative study, the main objective of this study includes two folds: a) to identify the possible effects of online learning via Microsoft TEAMS platform during the COVID-19 pandemic on assessment, interaction, and learning English as a foreign language from EFL students’ perception and b) to reveal the possible significant correlation between learning, interaction and online assessment via Microsoft TEAMs. Data were collected using a developed questionnaire consisting of 30 items focusing on three dimensions: interaction, learning, and assessment among 440 EFL students whose major was English at the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. At the significance level of 0.01, the results revealed the effect of online learning via Microsoft TEAMS during the COVID-19 pandemic on learning of English skills, students’ interaction and achievement assessment as perceived by the EFL students in the English Language Department in the CBE was rather high, moderate and moderate and moderate respectively. There is a strong/high statistically significant correlation between Interaction and Assessing (r = 0.538), interaction and Learning (r = 0.747). There is a statistically significant moderate correlation between Assessing and Learning (r = 0.467). This study is of some pedagogical and assessment ramifications for EFL contexts in the pandemic era.
Eitan Simon
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p35

Abstract:
The Dovrat Committee (2004) in Israel, pointed up the need for radical change in teacher training programs and recommended introducing school reform programs, such as the New Horizons and the Courage to Change reforms, implemented in the Israeli education system over recent years. The article reviews future teachers’ needs that necessitate changes in the education provided by teacher training colleges. It describes research examining teachers’ professional identity development and desirable characteristics for the future teacher. Participants were 23 student-teachers studying in an M.Teach degree course. The research investigated their attitudes and perceptions concerning the image of the future teacher.
Paul A. Wagner
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p22

Abstract:
The demand for character development in many of the Western World’s public schools is increasing. Yet there are substantive steps being taken beyond manipulating student behavior in rigidly constructed contexts. Unfortunately manipulating behavior only develops self-interest as the measure of all good and might makes right the legitimation of authority. Yet as any anthropologist can explain it is role-modeling family and village elders that decides which of two instincts will dominate human development: self-interest or cooperation (Tomasello, 2019). As Aristotle famously observed, it makes no small difference what habits humans develop rather, it makes all the difference. But to be truly conducive to moral development those habits must reflect autonomous conviction to develop organizational well-being over the pandemonium self-interest leads towards. The Moral Self-assessment Protocol discussed herein creates the conditions for teacher and other leaders to track their own moral development to role model for those growing into organization membership, in schools, cities, states, countries and businesses.
Napatsawan Thanaphonganan, Phamornpun Yurayat, Thapanee Seechaliao
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p27

Abstract:
The situation of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is full of unpredictability, uncertainty about the severity of the disease, and incorrect information. Therefore, health literacy preparation is the key to preventing COVID-19 and having the correct health behaviors. The objectives of this study were 1) to study health literacy on COVID-19 and prevention behaviors of COVID-19 among undergraduate students at Mahasarakham University, and 2) to compare health literacy on COVID-19 and prevention behaviors of COVID-19 among undergraduate students at Mahasarakham University, classified by genders, academic years, grade point averages (GPAs), and faculty groups. The participants were 417 undergraduate students at Mahasarakham University chosen by stratified random sampling and simple random sampling. The research instruments were as follows: the questionnaire on health literacy on COVID-19 and the questionnaire on COVID-19 prevention’s behavior. The data were analyzed using percentage (%), mean (M), standard deviation (S.D.), independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA. The findings revealed that 1) undergraduate students were well versed in health literacy for the COVID-19 infection and their prevention behaviors of COVID-19 infection were at a good level (M = 90.06, S.D. = 9.54; M = 86.87, S.D. = 11.50) and 2) female undergraduate students had statistically higher mean scores on COVID-19 health literacy scores and COVID-19 prevention’s behaviors than males. Students from the health sciences faculty group had statistically significantly higher average health literacy scores on COVID-19 infection than those from the technology sciences faculty group.
Orathai Chaidam, Apantee Poonputta
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n2p43

Abstract:
The objectives of the research were: 1) to develop the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL based on the efficiency of the process and the overall result (E1/E2) at the established criteria of 75/75; 2) to compare the students’ learning achievement in “Weight and Measurement” of the 1st grade students before and after by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL; 3) to study the students’ satisfaction with Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL. The research samples were thirty-five 1st grade students of class 1 in the 1st semester of the academic year 2020 at Sanambin School in Khon Kaen Province. They were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments used in this study were lesson plans, an achievement test, and a questionnaire on students’ satisfaction. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, percentage, and gain score. The research results showed that 1) the average efficiency of the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL with exercises was 85.54/78.71, which was higher than theestablished criteria. 2) The mean score of the 1st grade students for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics after using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL was significantly higher than that of before using the Problem-Based Learning Model. 3) The overall satisfaction of the students with the Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL for “Weight and Measurement was at a high level.
Pongwat Fongkanta, Fisik Sean Buakanok, Ammaret Netasit, Suwannee Kruaphung
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p125

Abstract:
The educational policy will be developing strong human competency in which teachers’ research skill was one of most competency standards. This study introduces teachers’ research skill development through the Wlodkowski’s motivational approach and coaching and to study the teachers’ attitude toward action research. This study also examines the struggles and problem of doing action research. Participants included 12 teachers who are in the non-formal education center, Lampang, Thailand. The Wlodkowski’s motivational approach and coaching were used to develop teachers’ research skill. Data was collected by using the research skill inventory (RSI) and the research attitude toward inventory (RATI) which struggle and problems of doing action research questions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze teachers’ research skill and teachers’ attitude toward. Friedman test and Wilcoxon test were conducted to evaluate median differences among the reseach skills and created pairwise comparisons. Content analysis was used to analyze the struggles and problem of doing action research. Results revealed that in-service teachers’ research skills increased in all domains. Teachers’ research skill scores after received treatment were significantly greater than the teachers’ research skill scores before received treatment, z = -3.07, p = .002. The posttest score of teachers’ attitudes toward was significantly greater than pretest score, z = -3.08, p = .001. Teachers struggled with how to conduct research and who could help them.
Hacer Ozge Baydar Arican
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p112

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the computer anxiety levels of physical education teachers on distance education competencies during the Covid-19 pandemic process with a structural equation model. The study group consisted of a total of 141 physical education teachers, 60 of whom were female (42.6%) and 81 male (57.4%), who worked in private or public schools in Ankara, and who were selected with the convenient sampling method. In the study, the Distance Education Competencies Scale of Physical Education Teachers”, “Computer Anxiety Scale” and the Individual Information Form were utilized as the measurement tool. The “Distance Education Competencies Scale of Physical Education Teachers” that consisted of two sub-dimensions of “Planning and Technology Use” and “Implementation and Evaluation” consisting of 18 items in a 5-point Likert structure. In addition, the “Computer Anxiety Scale” that consisted of 10 items, 5 positive and 5 negative, as well as the Individual Information Form, which was prepared by the researcher to collect data in the study. Frequency Analysis, Kolmogorov Smirnov Test, Independent Groups t-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance were used in the analysis of the data, regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the effects of computer anxiety on distance education competencies. Also, Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficients were obtained to determine the reliability levels of the scale and its sub-dimensions; and it was found that the reliability of the scale and its sub-dimensions was at a sufficient level. Analyzes were performed by using the SPSS 20.0 and Amos 16.00 Software at a 95% Confidence Interval level. When the study findings were evaluated, no significant differences were detected between computer anxiety levels and distance education competencies in different age groups, education levels and institution types. According to the gender variable, the computer anxiety levels of male teachers were found to be at significant levels higher than those of female teachers. When the comparisons according to the branches were examined, the computer anxiety levels differed at significant levels according to the branch types (p<0.05) and the sub-dimensions of the distance education competency scale did not differ at significant levels according to the branch types (p>0.05). When the other variables were examined, the sub-dimensions of the distance education competency scale differed at significant levels according to school levels and professional seniority years (p<0.05) and the computer anxiety scale scores did not differ at significant levels according to school levels and professional seniority years (p>0.05). According to the regression model that was created to determine the effects of computer anxiety levels on distance education qualifications, it was found that computer anxiety did not have any significant impacts on planning and technology use, implementation and evaluation sub-dimensions (p>0.05).
Grace Lin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p132

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2021
Erica L. Allen
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p101

Abstract:
The role of an educational leader is complex, challenging and, at times, fraught with adversity. Overcoming the many challenges and hardships, and flourishing as an educational leader, requires resilience and an instinct for survival. According to Maulding, Leonard, Peters, Roberts and Sparkman (2012), understanding how to prevail in the face of difficult conditions, by employing one’s emotional strengths as well as vulnerabilities and how to increase one’s ability to remain resilient, is valuable for an educational leader to succeed in the face of adversity. The purpose of this study was to research Montana educational leaders to discern whether emotional intelligence (EI) is necessary to remain resilient and successful in a leadership role despite adversity. This quantitative research was undertaken as a non-experimental, ex post facto, or after-the-fact research. Participants for this study included sixty-one superintendents, principals, and assistant principals, from a population of 935 educational leaders, who held a leadership position in the State of Montana during the 2017-2018 school year. A linear regression was used to examine the proportion of variance in years in a leadership position that can be explained by emotional intelligence and resilience. This analysis demonstrated that some EI competencies appear to have an effect on the longevity of an educational leader in a position. However, the effects vary between assistant principals, principals, and superintendents, not all competencies were equal. The coefficient of determination showed assistant principals and principals’ years of service is more strongly influenced by all emotional intelligence competencies than is that of the superintendent.
Gina C. Lemos, Ana Cristina Saraiva
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p73

Abstract:
Little is known about the emotional experience of children and young people during lockdown, their coping strategies on COVID-19 pandemic context and their influence on the emotional state when dealing with the challenges associated with lockdown. In this study, 1031 children and young people (865 aged 8-15 years old and 166 aged 16-25 years old) answered an online self-report survey, specifically designed to assess the perceived potential contribution of SES learned/developed in the Gulbenkian Academies for Knowledge—a national initiative—in coping with the consequences of the context of the COVID-19 pandemic during the Portugal first lockdown. There are three main findings. First, the prevalent emotional pattern was predominantly negative (53.7%) for the younger participants (most frequent emotions: boredom 66.9%; worry 47.8%) and predominantly positive (52.0%) for the older participants (most frequent emotions: boredom 70.1% and tranquillity 52.6%). Second, school activities (25.2%, 8-15 subsample; 32.7%, 16-25 subsample) and self-knowledge and self-regulation activities/strategies (24.8%, 8-15 subsample; 20.0%, 16-25 subsample) were the most frequently reported by participants from both subsamples and that this has significantly interfered with their emotional state: among 8-15 subsample, they reported feeling more excited, more calm, more optimistic and more hopeful; among 16-25 subsample, they reported feeling more cheered up, more optimistic, more quiet and more hopeful. Culinary and horticultural activities predict about 4% the possibility of feeling hope, sadness, optimism, irritation, and worry (8-15 years old) and school activities contribute about 17% to the explanation of the emotional states of sadness and optimism (16-25 years old). Third, both the younger and the older participants showed a medium-superior level of socio-emotional skills and those SES predict about 20% the possibility of feeling optimistic, irritation, sad, hopeful, and bored (8-15 years old) and about 12% the possibility of feeling sadness (16-25 years old). The potential of social and emotional skills in exceptional circumstances and vulnerabilities are discussed.
Rutthaphak Huttayavilaiphan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p87

Abstract:
During this COVID-19 pandemic, no one can deny the value of online communication. It has saved our lives by preventing us from going outdoors and becoming infected, while also facilitating achievement of various personal and professional goals. Online communication can also assist us with our academic goals, whether it is used to communicate with supervisors or with people from other lingua-cultural backgrounds to practice the language. This form of communication is emphasized in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) framework, which is one of the most significant guidelines for language teaching and learning throughout the world. The present research has two aims: first, to determine the extent to which CEFR-based online intercultural communication can improve Thai students’ communicative language competence, and second, to investigate Thai students’ attitudes toward CEFR-based online intercultural communication and international volunteers. The results received from 15 fifth-year dual B.A. (Chinese) and B.CM. (Traditional Chinese Medicine) students and international volunteers using various research instruments revealed that Thai students could increase their communicative language competence after participating in CEFR-based intercultural communication activities. This encompassed linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic abilities that correspond to the CEFR (2001) scales. In terms of attitudes, the study indicated that, because they were more confident in their communicative language ability, they had a positive attitude toward the CEFR-based online intercultural communication activities and their international volunteers. Finally, further research on this topic should include a proper design of online communication activities as well as methods for assessing students’ competency both before and after participation.
Salwa M. Khusheim
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p54

Abstract:
Social integration of special need students is viewed as a necessary phenomenon for the skills’ development which adds quality to their lives and provides them with satisfaction. This study explores the perception and attitude of the teachers towards social integration as a general school policy. A total of 150 individuals were selected from the integrated primary schools in KSA. Survey approach was employed to collect data using a close-ended questionnaire which was then statistically analysed. The results revealed that there is a positive impact of the social integration upon the special needs students. A statistically significant difference was found among participants based on their experience, education, and age. Moreover, there was significant difference in the attitudes of participants with Diploma in Education qualifications and Bachelor in Education qualifications towards integration. The study concluded that the implementation of the integrated school as general policy should be considered and an effective teacher training curriculum with special needs courses should be introduced.
Sakorn Atthachakara
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p126

Abstract:
The research aimed at: 1) studying practical skills of student teachers majoring in Social Studies at Mahasarakham University through blended learning management using creativity-based learning model that enhances their creative thinking; 2) comparing the students’ creative thinking abilities before and after learning; 3) investigating the students’ satisfaction towards blended learning management through creativity-based learning model. The participants of the study were 30 fourth-year students majoring in Social Studies who were enrolled in Social Study Instructional Media Production course offered in Semester 2 of Academic Year 2020. The purposive sampling technique was employed to obtain the participants. The instruments used in the study include 1) five lesson plans of blended learning management based on creativity-based learning model as to enhance students’ creative thinking; 2) creative thinking test; and 3) the 12-item students’ satisfaction evaluation form towards blended learning and creativity-based learning model as to enhance creative thinking. The statistics used to analyze the collected data were mean, percentage, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent Samples). The findings of the study are as follows: 1) After the use of creativity-based learning, it was found that the student teachers majoring in Social Studies at Mahasarakham University obtained 510.20 for the mean score of the post-study activities, 3.28 standard deviation, and 85.10 percent. 2) The comparison of creative thinking before and after learning showed that the students’ creative thinking after learning was statistically significantly higher than that before learning at 0.5 level. 3) The students’ satisfaction towards blended learning management in the form of creativity-based learning model that promotes creative thinking ability was at high level.
Chun Hei Cheung
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p65

Abstract:
There are numerous scholarly articles that focus on Chinese Students’ decisions to go overseas and challenges they face in American High Schools. These research generates a holistic view on the subject., with many of them agreeing each other. Yet, despite many scholarly articles discussing this topic, I find few of these studies originate from students who have lived through the experience of having left China to study abroad in the US themselves. This essay will explore and investigate the experience of Chinese students in US high schools through a combination of personal experience and scholarly articles. Some of the results go in accordance with the scholarly articles, while some deviate away from the findings.
Naime Güneş Özler, Gönül Akçamete
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p40

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether video modeling is effective in teaching computer skills to students with intellectual disabilities. The study was designed with the multiple probe design across subjects, one of the single-subject research designs. The study was conducted with three female students with intellectual disabilities, who were 17–19 years old. Graphical analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show that video modeling was effective for them to acquire and retain skills for preparing a résumé, printing it out, and emailing it. However, the students had difficulties generalizing some of the skills on different computers and printers. It can be said that the reason for this originates from different designs of technological tools. In line with this, it is thought that removing the accessibility barrier in technological equipment will increase availability. The video modeling motivated students to learn computer skills. The participants reported that they could use these skills to do homework, apply for a job, and communicate with friends.
Einat Heled, Nitza Davidovitch
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p28

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This study focuses on the role of school counselors during the COVID-19 crisis. Previous studies indicated that school counselling lacks a robust professional identity and an unequivocal role definition. Therefore, this study seeks to explore how the school counselors operated during the pandemic and to what extent the school counselor was a significant figure in coping with the challenges of schools, teachers, students, and parents during the crisis. The study focuses on school counselors in Israel, the structure of their work before and during the COVID crisis, and conclusions for the profession’s future. Based on eleven school counselors’ interviews, the research findings raised the need to hold a significant discussion and reexamination of the essence of school counseling role. They emphasize that, due to the sense of chaos and uncertainty among the school staff and students, the work of school counselors in Israel during the pandemic became limited mainly to systemic work and guidance and support of the teachers. The findings attempt to reach conclusions regarding school counselor’s future work structure, clarify their role, and highlight deficiencies that afflict this role.
Charin Mangkhang, Korravit Jitviboon
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p112

Abstract:
This research article deals with two objectives. The first objective was to develop the professional competence of social studies teacher in the education sandbox. The second objective was to propose social studies classroom-based action learning management innovation to develop professional competence of social studies teacher in the education sandbox and to assess satisfaction levels of students in developing professional competence of social studies teacher in the education sandbox. The conducted research in this article was classroom-based action research whereby the assessment form of area-based competence perception of educational students in Chiang Mai education sandbox, Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University (pre- and post-assessment). The sample group used in the research consisted of senior educational students in the field of social studies of the second semester of the academic year 2020 accounting for 30 people. For the analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results of statistical data analysis were shown as mean and standard deviation. From the research results, it was found that the level of perceived competence of becoming a professional teacher in Thailand education sandbox consisted of 3 aspects. 1) For the aspect of self-efficacy regarding knowledge and understanding in becoming a professional teacher, the average summation of the 4 competencies was as follows: the perception was at a high level. 2) For the aspect of skills and capacity in becoming a professional teacher in the Chiang Mai education sandbox, the average summation of 4 competencies was as follows: the perception was at a high level. 3) For the aspect of attitudes on becoming a professional teacher in the Chiang Mai education sandbox, the average summation of 4 competencies was as follows: the perception was at a high level.
Sudarat Phaniew, Putcharee Junpeng, Keow Ngang Tang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p103

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This study intends to design and verify the quality of a model that measures mathematical proficiency and aims to set the standards in measuring levels of proficiency in the subjects of measurement and geometry. Construct modeling was employed to design a mathematical proficiency measurement model which consists of the mathematical process and the dimensions of a conceptual structure. A total of 517 Secondary Year 1 students were selected from the big data to participate as test-takers. Design-based research encompassing four phases was used to verify the quality of the mathematical proficiency measurement model. A Multidimensional Random Coefficient Multinomial Logit model was used to examine the standards-setting of the mathematical proficiency measurement model. The results indicated that the two dimensions of mathematical proficiency can be further divided into five levels, from non-response/irrelevance to strategic/extended thinking and extended abstract structure for mathematical process and conceptual structural dimensions, respectively. The assessment tool covers 18 items with 15 multiple-choice items and three subjective items in measurement and geometry. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that the validity evidence associated with the internal structure of the multidimensional model is fit. Besides, reliability evidence, as well as item fit, is compliance with the quality of the mathematical proficiency measurement model as illustrated in analysis of the standard error of measurement and infit and outfit of the items. Finally, the researchers managed to set standards for the mathematical proficiency measurement model based on the assessment criterion results from the Wright Map. In conclusion, the standards-setting of the mathematical proficiency measurement model provides substantial information, particularly for measuring those students who are above the lowest level of mathematical proficiency because the error for estimating proficiency was low.
Ezgi Pelin Yildiz
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p92

Abstract:
In today’s world, where people live together with technology, digitalisation is increasingly taking its place as an indispensable part of our lives. However, rapid developments and changes in technology have led to compulsory digitalisation processes in all sectors. In addition to the pandemic process, digital transformation has now become a necessity. The pandemic threat faced by countries has affected many sectors, especially the education sector. In this context, it has become a necessity to take the necessary measures in the education sector, which affects a large audience. The first of these measures is the emergency distance education plan. Undoubtedly, it is clear that every stakeholder of education is affected by the emergency distance education plan that has come with the pandemic process. The most important of these stakeholders are undoubtedly teachers. In light of all this information, this study aimed to determine the views of teachers on the transition to digital transformation in education during the pandemic process. The research is an example of a qualitative case study. A semi-structured interview form was prepared by the researcher to determine the teachers’ views on the subject. Data were collected using the semi-structured interview form. As a result, the teachers emphasised that they see the transition to digital transformation in education as a necessity, especially during the pandemic process, but they need more in-service training to keep up with this transformation.
Nataly Revelo Morales, Álvaro Guzmán Rodríguez, Julio Oleas Rueda, Vinicio Velásquez Zambrano, Felipe Castillo Mafla, Ramiro Rosón Mesa
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p11

Abstract:
In the School of Architecture at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, we are continuously reflecting on the teaching-learning process in order to offer the best education. The COVID-19 pandemic brings different changes in social, health, work and educative practices, which people have had to adapt to. These new conditions have shifted the perception of life and society, so it has demanded a new perspective to solve problems and meet the challenges that have arisen. It has happened with education, in which all stakeholders have been working to face and manage the educational practice in a virtual modality. Based on teaching experience, the present research is focused on the teaching-learning process in Architecture, considering design workshops during the first years of the major. The purpose of this paper, which uses an action research methodology, is to explore those changes that come about from this process in virtual environments. In this way, understanding architecture’s teaching and practice through virtual environments can generate an important impact that can transform the perspective on education in this field in the present and in the future.
Chatchawan Nongna, Putcharee Junpeng, JongRak Hong-Ngam, Chalunda Podjana, Keow Ngang Tang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p82

Abstract:
This research aims to create and validate the quality of performance assessment using functional analysis. The researchers employed a design-based research method to create core competencies and their workload-based key outcome indicators as a preliminary study encompassing two phases, before formulating a standards-setting appraisal model to assess university lecturers in a public university, Thailand. The researchers began with documentary research to identify core competencies of university lecturers from three clusters of educational programs, namely science and technology, health science, and humanities and social sciences. An innovative prototype of university lecturers’ core competencies was developed based on the obtained results from the first phase. A total of five experts and 17 users participated to validate the quality of the innovative prototype. The preliminary results reveal that there are four core competencies of university lecturers, namely teaching, research, academic service, and preserving arts and culture. Moreover, there are 13 workload-based key outcome indicators and 27 elements that resulted from the four core competencies related to the specific research university in the Thai context. Moreover, the quantitative results of the content validity index from the rating scales of the five experts indicate that the conformity index is 0.78 or higher. However, the qualitative interview results regarding the 17 users from four focus groups imply that there is a gap regarding the accuracy of current performance appraisal between lecturers’ core competencies and their actual workload. Therefore, the dean should make the necessary adjustments based on the context.
Gary Blau, Glen Miller
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v11n1p1

Abstract:
This study collected complete data traumatic event-related information, positive coping styles, and post traumatic growth variables from two different United States (US) military veteran samples: non-combat military veterans (n = 54) and combat military veterans (n = 84). Although both samples represent military veterans, only one sample experienced actual combat, i.e., active fighting in a war against an enemy. All data were collected via online survey. Demographically, both samples were predominately White male, with a four-year college degree being the highest education level frequency. The average participant age was 29 years and there was no significant mean age difference between the samples. In addition, there were no significant sample differences in the total number of traumatic events experienced or time since the most powerful traumatic event was experienced. The purposes of this study were to: (1) test if four positive coping strategies were related to Post Traumatic Growh (PTG), and (2) to determine if there were differences in the use of these four coping strategies or experienced PTG for non-combat versus combat military veterans. The four positive coping styles were measured, instrumental support, emotional support, religion, and acceptance. For the combined sample, two coping styles, instrumental support and religion were each significant positively related to post traumatic growth (PTG). Significant sample differences were found on instrumental support and religion such that the non-combat veterans perceived higher mean levels on both coping styles versus the combat veterans. No sample difference was found for PTG. Future research directions and study limitations are discussed.
Jinglei Wang, Sheng Yu
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p68

Abstract:
With the continuous development of technology and people’s dependence on the Internet, more and more teachers’ professional development is carried out on the Internet. Since no one has studied the professional development of online middle school teachers, we did this study based on this research gap. This article is a research on the professional development of chemistry teachers based on the Internet. It uses content analysis methods to identify research questions and select keywords related to the topic, such as online teacher professional development, chemistry teacher professional development, secondary school teacher professional development and so on and codes the data. From this, we found that the strategies for the professional development of online teachers in middle school chemistry subjects includes chemical content, practice, guidance, exploratory experiment, online communication community, self-reflection, sustainability, continuity and action these eight parts. And online chemical TPD for student outcomes in middle school contains: gain knowledge, skills and confidence, determined their goals and plans, participate in scientific inquiry teaching and improve student performance, promote the transformation of students’ scientific knowledge concepts, and have a positive influence on students’ attitudes towards science.
Hong Zhou, Yufang Feng
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p54

Abstract:
This study explores the status quo of speaking strategies used by Chinese High School Students of International Department by using both questionnaire and interview. The participants were 90 second-year Chinese High School Students of International Department, and then the data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0. The study yields certain results. First, Chinese High School Students of International Department employ English speaking strategies at a medium level in general. Second, there are differences between higher achievers and lower achievers in the use of speaking strategies. Third, students’ use of speaking strategies is significantly correlated with students’ English proficiency. Pedagogical implications for teachers and students are discussed in the end.
Wittaya Worapun
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p62

Abstract:
The purposes of the current study are to develop research-based learning management in the Curriculum Design and Development course for student teachers and to study the effectiveness of the research-based learning management in the Curriculum Design and Development course for student teachers. The instruments were a structured interview form, a learning management quality assessment, learning management, a learning achievement test, and a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, t-test, and content analysis. The results of the study indicate that there were 6 components including ground theories, objectives, instruction processes, social system, principles in responses and supportive system, and learning management in the research-based learning management. In detail, there were 5 stages in learning management including ideas and information analysis, planning and creative design, action-taking, presentation and reflection, and evaluation and improvement. The result of the study shows that there was a significant difference between the students’ learning achievement before and after learning with the developed learning management. The students’ attitudes toward learning management were found at a high level in every aspect.
Mansour Hamed Al-Talhouni
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p23

Abstract:
This study aimed at identifying the perceptions of Islamic education teachers in Jordan concerning the use and the challenges of Darsak platform. The study sample consisted of (112) teachers of Islamic education at Marka Directorate of Education, Amman, during the academic year 2020/2021. The study sample, comprised of (30%) of the study population, was chosen using the stratified random sampling method. Questionnaire was used as a tool to gather data from the targeted group; after verifying the validity and reliability of the collected data. Appropriate statistical methods were used to analyze collected data. The study found that the perceptions of the teachers of Islamic education concerning Darsak platform lessons were generally average, whereas their perceptions concerning the platform challenges were of a high degree. The results of the study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences at the level of (α = 0.05) in the perceptions of the teachers of Islamic education concerning Darsak platform lessons and challenges attributed to the variables of gender, qualifications, and years of experience. Among the most prominent recommendations of the study were that the Ministry of Education should conduct a comprehensive review of the Islamic education lessons on Darsak platform to rectify the errors that were mentioned in some lessons. It should also reupload the modified versions of the lessons of Islamic education on the platform. Further, the Ministry of Education should employ variety of methods and strategies in presenting Islamic education lessons.
Elif Akay
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p44

Abstract:
Educational settings adopt an active participatory learning process in which students with and without hearing loss are guided towards knowledge through questions. Questions are believed to improve critical, creative and high-level thinking skills. This research is a case study aimed at identifying and suggesting some solutions to the problems that students with hearing loss experience in understanding and answering the types of questions asked in a Social Studies course. Eight students with hearing loss participated in the study. Data were collected through observations, interviews, documents, research logs and process products. Analysis of the data suggests that students with hearing loss are able to answer some cognitive memory questions as well as those that call for convergent thinking, divergent thinking and evaluative thinking skills in the Social Studies Course while requiring the instructor to simplify and materialize the question and encourage the students to interact with the group for some others.
Titiworada Polyiem
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p18

Abstract:
The major objectives of the research were to evaluate and compare expected and actual learning outcomes of teacher students based on National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Thailand. The key informants were one hundred and eighteen 1st and 2nd year of teacher students from one university in 2020. The research instrument was a questionnaire on five domains of the national qualifications framework for higher education in Thailand. The data were analyzed by a statistical procedure: percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Paired-samples t-test and content analysis were employed for the study. The research findings indicated that the overall expected learning outcomes and actual learning outcomes regarding the five domains of the national qualifications frameworks were at a high level. The expected learning outcomes and actual learning outcomes regarding the comparison of the expected learning outcomes and actual learning outcomes with the national qualifications framework were not different.
Apantee Poonputta
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p38

Abstract:
The purposes of this research were: 1) to develop lesson plans for STEM education for undergraduate students with the efficiency of the processing performances and the performance results (E1/E2) at the determining criteria as 75/75, 2) to compare emotional, attitude towards research, and classroom action research competency of undergraduate students before and after implementing STEM education. The sample was one class of the teaching profession program in Chemistry. The experimental group was selected by simple random sampling. The research instrument was lesson plans for STEM education management and practical skill development, a test of research knowledge, a research skill assessment form, an observation form, and a questionnaire. The statistics used were the percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Multivariate Paired Hotelling’s T-Square. The research results showed that 1) the efficiency of the STEM lesson plans for undergraduate students’ processing performances was 87.12 percent, and the performance results were 74.17 percent (87.12/74.17), meeting the set criteria of 75/75, 2) students had emotional, attitude towards research and classroom action research competency conduction after implementing the lesson plans of STEM education was significantly higher than before at the .05 level of statistics.
Nadire Gulcin Yildiz
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p7

Abstract:
School systems are increasingly diverse communities, with a broadening diversity of students and staff alike. School counselors play a critical role in creating a welcoming school climate within the school community. As a catalyst for change within the school system, school counselors can create an effective community partnership culture for schools and families that is collaborative and welcoming for all. This article will discuss the importance of creating a collaborative school climate for linguistically diverse students (LDS) in order to promote their overall well-being and school achievement. With this objective in mind, a review of the literature on school counselor’s leadership role within the school community will be discussed, before embarking on an investigation into the effectiveness of counselors as agents of systemic change in facilitating engagement. A discussion of school counselors’ role in creating a welcoming school climate towards LDS within the school and school community could pave the way for a more positive organizational culture. Using a systemic approach, which aims to generate greater understanding and awareness, school counselors have the power to play a critical role in the transformation of the school system, especially for students from diverse backgrounds (Aydin, 2011; McCall-Perez, 2000; Schwallie-Giddis, Anstrom, Sanchez, Sardi, & Granato, 2004).
Yanlin Li
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n6p1

Abstract:
This study is mainly designed to evaluate a popular learning method: previewing material before classes and to answer two research questions on the learning method. The research questions are “Does previewing have benefits in promoting future learning?” and “Do people have correct metacognitive judgements on the effects of previewing?” The hypothesis states that previewing is beneficial in ways other than directly pre-stating answers (e.g., providing context information or keywords) and that, in general, individuals’ judgements on the effects of previewing are correct. This experiment found that participants who read preview materials before watching a brief lecture do not perform significantly better on post-tests than participants who have not read the preview. At the same time, most people who read preview materials see the preview as beneficial to their understanding of the topic, which is an incorrect metacognitive judgement. This study indicates that the importance of preview for learning performance may be a myth and reveals how people misjudge the benefits of previewing. These findings can lead to an improved understanding of better ways to conduct self-cognitive study.
Grace Lin
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p211

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2021
Montha Chumsukon
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p197

Abstract:
The current study explored the effect of a developed Geography curriculum framework towards promoting pre-service teachers’ creative thinking (CT) across its 4 components namely: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration through instructional media production. A research and development (R&D) model were employed which consisted of 3 phases: Phase 1 involved target group survey using a requirement survey form and administered to participants before the study implementation; Phase 2 involved the creation of curriculum and application of the curriculum contents; Phase 3 was the implementation of the curriculum and a mixed-method type of research was employed. 56 participants, organized into 7 groups with 8 members, have participated in 4 sessions of instructional media production. Data were collected from the participants’ created instructional media task performance aimed at enhancing their creative thinking. Thereafter, a questionnaire on participants’ satisfaction level towards the training as well as interview were conducted after the training was provided. Results revealed that the participants made noteworthy gains as they yielded “high” level on their task performance indicative of an improvement on their CT skills. “Flexibility” and “elaboration” were described as the most and least improved CT components, respectively. Moreover, the participants were most satisfied on the training as most of them revealed that it encouraged them towards effective learning. Additionally, qualitative results reveal participants’ positive experiences towards instructional media production which helped foster their CT skills. Finally, the findings have provided substantial support for the instructional media production to be included in the Geography curriculum as an instructional pedagogical support to enhance students’ creative thinking skills.
Burcu Akkaya
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p109

Abstract:
This research aimed to determine the metaphorical perceptions of class teachers and reveal whether these perceptions are affected by the teaching approaches they adopt. Because teachers’ opinions were collected in written form, this study is a descriptive survey model study. The participants of the study consisted of 64 class teachers chosen through the maximum variety sampling method. A data collection tool consisting of two open-ended questions was developed to determine the metaphors and educational approaches teachers adopt. According to research results, teacher metaphors are highlighted in two categories as “metaphors giving active roles to the teacher” and “metaphors giving passive roles to the teacher”. Generally, teachers adopted one of the behaviouristic, cognitive, and constructivist approaches. This study revealed that participants who adopted behavioural and cognitive educational approaches produced metaphors giving active roles to the teacher. Participants who adopted the constructivist educational approach produced metaphors giving passive roles to the teacher. It was determined that there is a strong significant relationship between the metaphors that teachers produce and the educational approach they adopt.
Patrice R. Morgan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p160

Abstract:
Prospective college students have many options to choose from when deciding which type of higher education institution to attend. What compels potential students to enroll in a community college as opposed to other higher education institutions is unknown. The purpose of the study was to explore the academic motivation of students currently enrolled in a New York City community college using the Academic Motivation Scale College Version. In addition, the study examined the relations between academic motivation and student gender, age at time of enrollment, and familial level of educational attainment. Results from the present study may provide justification for incorporating dimensions of motivation into community college campus life for future students as well as benefit community college recruitment, retention, and completion efforts.
Kittipak Choowong, Wittaya Worapun
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p152

Abstract:
The purposes of this research were 1) to develop student’s scientific reasoning ability on the concept of light and image at a criterion of 70 using inquiry-based learning 5E with prediction observation and explanation strategy and 2) to compare students’ scientific learning achievement on the concept of light and image after using inquiry-based learning 5E with prediction observation and explanation strategy. The target groups were 22 students of grade 9 selected by a purposive sampling method. The research instruments were lesson plans, achievement test, scientific reasoning ability test, scientific reasoning ability observation form, and scientific reasoning ability interview form the statistics used in data analysis were mean, percentage, and t-test. The results showed that 1) the scientific reasoning ability in cycles 1, 2, and 3. There were 6, 13, and 21 students who passed their criteria of 70% of the full score in each learning cycle, respectively. 2) Students’ learning achievement after learning with the learning management was significantly higher than the establishment at a criterion of 70 at a statistical level of .05.
Sengdavnah Jularlark, Pinanta Chatwattana, Pallop Piriyasurawong
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p91

Abstract:
The objectives of this research were as follows: 1) To study, analyze, synthesize documents and researches related to the architecture of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of information, 2) Design the architecture of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of information, 3) Develop the architecture of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of information, and 4) Study the results of evaluating the suitability of the architecture of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of information. The samples used in the research were 20 experts in information system development from various institutions in higher education. The assessment results found the following: 1) The developed system architecture has four components: stakeholders, user experience process, output and feedback, 2) The results of the evaluation of the suitability of the developed system architecture found that (2.1) the assessment results of the suitability of the developed system architecture (aspect of integrated components) was appropriated at a high level (Mean=4.43, S.D.=0.67) (2.2) the assessment results of the suitability of the developed system architecture (issue by separated components) were appropriated at a high level (Mean=4.37, S.D.=0.80), and 3) The assessment results of the suitability in implementing the developed system architecture were appropriated at a high level (Mean=4.17, S.D.=0.74), respectively.
Xiaoyao Yue, Yan Ye, Xu Zheng, Yanan Yang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p122

Abstract:
Academic leadership is considered a key factor in university and research institute development. In a competitive environment, the role of academic leadership has become increasingly important. At present, China is committed to building world-class universities and advanced research institutes, while academic leadership is one of the key factors. Thus, what is the ideal academic leadership in China’s institutional environment? What professional qualities should principal investigators have? This study investigates these issues with in-depth interviews of six principal investigators. The finding shows that the definition of academic leadership by principal investigators refers to academic expertise, assigning the team member, setting a direction, academic social skills, managing team member relationships, boosting team morale, and teamwork skills. Furthermore, academic expertise is often supposed to be more important than other abilities. In terms of competence, the definitions of leadership by Chinese principal investigators and the literature on Western academic leadership are similar.
Satoshi Kusaka
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p76

Abstract:
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education has been actively implemented around the world recently. ICT curriculum in schools is intended to improve students’ programming-oriented thinking rather than to train them as programmers. The core of ICT education is ‘computational thinking’. Computational thinking is taking an approach to solving problems, designing systems and understanding human behaviour that draws on concepts. Various countries try to develop ICT curriculum based on this concept. However, unlike traditional subjects, the ICT curriculum has yet to create a unified structure. This research sheds light on the characteristics of ICT education curricula by comparing and contrasting curricula in the United Kingdom (UK), the United States and Australia. Finally, a common framework is proposed on the basis of the discussion. Furthermore, while ICT education is often addressed solely from the standpoint of science and technology, a social science perspective is needed. Therefore, the importance of social science in ICT education will also be clarified.
Erez Nahmias, Mina Teicher
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p102

Abstract:
Thinking development processes among high-school students is an important and significant issue that has been widely investigated (Leviathan, 2012; Ball, 1996; De Risi, 2015). A few studies discuss the development of mathematical thinking as this field contains additional difficulties to the traditional factors, teachers, students, and parents, and is one of the most important areas taught in school, according to De Risi (2015). Due to the importance of this subject, the challenge facing researchers, mathematicians, and educators is how to improve students’ abilities and achievements in mathematics. In recent years, researchers have found that in order to improve students’ achievements and abilities in mathematics, one can use self-direction. Self-direction is a strategy by which the learner acquires the ability to cope with learning from several aspects and contributes to inking development. In this study, we showed that self-directed learning with an emphasis on metacognition would improve students’ understanding of the subject in question. Using the metacognitive guidance model, the students acquire and develop learning skills that contribute to developing their geometric thinking. In this study, there is the added value of using a learning model based on metacognitive guidance and its significant contribution to combining multiple subjects into one problem.
Venessa Sualog Casanova
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p170

Abstract:
This descriptive study determined the predictors of research performance of the graduate students in Occidental Mindoro State College, San Jose, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. This research specifically looked into the graduate students’ level of research performance, attitude towards research, challenges encountered, and the strategies employed to cope with the research challenges. A total of 41 completely enumerated students enrolled in Methods of Research and Thesis Writing during the second semester of Academic Year 2018-2019 served as respondents of the study. The study found that the graduate students’ level of research performance is high, specifically in writing the statement of the problem, hypothesis, significance of the study, and definition of terms. They have a positive attitude towards research in terms of usefulness and predispositions. They have negative research anxiety. Challenges encountered include insufficient funds, developing interest, inability to select researchable topics, and limited related literature. Coping strategies employed were frequent consultations with the adviser, seeking help from other competent faculty and students, using technology, and giving material appreciation. Attitude and challenges encountered were found to be predictors of the graduate student’s research performance. A positive attitude towards research and the moderate challenges encountered could affect the graduate student’s research performance.
Xiaoyao Yue, Yan Ye, Xu Zheng, Yongjun Feng, Yanan Yang
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p187

Abstract:
The improvement of teacher leadership is the key to promote the quality of kindergarten education. As a kind of teacher leadership, authentic leadership is related to the teacher’s personality traits. This paper collects data on the authentic leadership and personality of 157 teachers in three private kindergartens in Kunming, Yunnan Province of China, and validates the research hypothesis that teacher personality can affect teachers’ authentic leadership through SPSS analysis. Based on the descriptive analysis and linear regression analysis, it can be seen that the authentic leadership of private kindergarten teachers in Yunnan Province needs to be further improved, and personality as an inseparable part of predicting leadership needs to be re-emphasized. Results also indicate that when testing personality traits, future researchers must use complete questionnaires instead of short questionnaires.
Hande Baba Kaya, Öznur Kara, Pelin Ustaoğlu Hoşver
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p133

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to examine the ideal physical education profile from the perspective of physical education teacher educators, that is, academicians working in the physical education and sports teaching department of the faculties of sports sciences. Within the scope of this purpose, the views of the academicians about the pre-graduate education, the undergraduate education period and their own teaching were compared with their views on the ideal physical education teacher. In order to express the comparisons more clearly, metaphor was used. The academicians were asked to match the physical education teachers who influenced them the most from their past to the future, their own teaching and their views on the ideal physical education teacher, with the nature metaphor presented to them by the researchers. In the study, which was based on the qualitative research method, the “interview” approach and the “interview form method” were used as the data collection method. According to the stratified sampling method, the participants of the study; taking into account the academic titles of the participants; 3 professors, 3 associate professors, 3 assistant professor and 3 lecturers A total of 12 physical education teacher educators (academics) were determined. As a result of the research, it was observed that while the participants defined their pre-graduate teachers closer to the ideal teacher in terms of their physical characteristics, they defined their undergraduate physical education teachers and themselves as closer to the ideal physical education teacher in the main themes of personality traits, teacher leadership styles and teaching methods.
Charin Mangkhang, Nitikorn Kaewpanya, Tongsukh Sombun, Watchara Pangchan
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p177

Abstract:
The objective of this research is to 1) explore historical background through a participatory workshop on the legend of Phra Nang Malika of Wiang Malika in Lanna, and 2) create indigenous history learning resources through mural painting and picture book, the legend of Phra Nang Malika, in Mae Ai Luang Temple Chiang Mai Province. The samples included the following: 1) 22 community leaders, monks, school administrators, teachers, village philosophers, and youth representatives; 2) 8 indigenous technologists; and 3) 5 learning management specialists. Purposive sampling was used to choose a total of 35 individuals. The instruments used in the research were an unstructured interview, a knowledge synthesis form to create murals, and a validity assessment form and 4) a performance evaluation form for a picture book regarding indigenous history. Quantitative data were examined using statistical software to determine the mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and presented in a descriptive format. The findings indicated that; 1) In Mae Ai district, the legend of Wiang Malika and Phra Nang Malika is a legacy of Chiang Mai Province, which is related to the history of Fang, and Phra Nang Sam Pew, which is connected to the Lanna Kingdom’s historical growth. In terms of trade, politics, governance, and religion, for example, is considered the role of women as rulers or kings, which exemplifies the notion of feminism throughout history and influencing the development of the Lanna Kingdom’s later age and 2) The outcome of the development of learning resources on indigenous history through murals and picture book at Phra Nang Malika in Mae Ai Luang Temple, Chiang Mai Province, through “the Mahabowon Model of Social Studies Learning Network or CMUR Model” resulting in educational materials on indigenous history that integrate the cooperation of universities, communities, temples, and schools, resulting in high-quality knowledge of indigenous historical record. A summary of the indigenous history picture book is also included. The appropriate sampling value is most suitable (x = 4.57, SD = 0.37).
Seyed Mousa Sheikholeslami
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p84

Abstract:
The factors that affect Human Development Index have been investigated extensively in previous researches. These studies consider education as an important factor and focus on the quality of education such as teachers’ skills, educational facilities and student conditions. Democracy has also been established as an important factor in HDI. In this study, we examined two variables, the democracy index and the land language index as fundamental variables of the Human Development Index (HDI). The land language index is a new variable created to signify the importance of the medium of instruction in higher education institutes, particularly in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. We performed a multiple-correlation analysis with the available data to find the correlation of these two indices on HDI. We found that together, the democracy index and land language index had a strong correlation to HDI. The results of this study can have a significant impact on social scientists and policymakers and should be considered for further research.
Ioanna K. Tsiriotakis, Valia Spiliotopoulos, Matthias Grünke, Costas Kokolakis
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v10n5p63

Abstract:
In the present study, a quasi-experimental pre-post test design was used to assess the effects of an argumentative writing strategy (POW+TREE) on the performance of grade five and six students of Greek origin who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in a Greek setting. The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) cognitive apprenticeship model was utilized to improve the text composition skills of the students. In the experimental group (N=77), participants received instruction on general and genre-specific strategy use for planning and writing argumentative essays, on procedures to apply self-regulation (goal setting, self-monitoring, self- reinforcement, and self-instructions), and on establishing additional skills (vocabulary, grammar-drill instruction, good word choice, interesting openings etc.). The control group (N=100) was supported through a traditional curriculum in writing (focusing on spelling and grammar). Findings of the study showed that strategy instructed students wrote argumentative essays that were schematically stronger, qualitatively better, and longer than those produced by their counterparts in the control group.
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