Results in Journal Polymers: 8,179
(searched for: journal_id:(1048522))
Polymers, Volume 5, pp 1012-1040; doi:10.3390/polym5031012
This article reviews the successful development of two specially designed linking methodologies in conjunction with a living anionic polymerization system for the synthesis of novel multiblock polymers, composed of three or more blocks, difficult to be synthesized by sequential polymerization. The first methodology with the use of a new heterofunctional linking agent, 2-(4-chloromethylphenyl)ethyldimethylchlorosilane (1), was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blocks. This methodology is based on the selective reaction of the chain-end silanolate anion of living PDMS, with the silyl chloride function of 1, and subsequent linking reaction of the resulting ω-chain-end-benzyl chloride-functionalized polymer with either a living anionic polymer or living anionic block copolymer. With this methodology, various multiblock polymers containing PDMS blocks, up to the pentablock quintopolymer, were successfully synthesized. The second methodology using an α-phenylacrylate (PA) reaction site was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers composed of all-vinyl polymer blocks. In this methodology, an α-chain-end-PA-functionalized polymer or block copolymer, via the living anionic polymerization, was first prepared and, then, reacted with appropriate living anionic polymer or block copolymer to link the two polymer chains. As a result, ACB (BCA), BAC (CAB), (AB)n, (AC)n, ABA, ACA, BCB, and ABCA multiblock polymers, where A, B, and C were polystyrene, poly(2-vinylpyridine), and poly(methyl methacrylate) segments, could be successfully synthesized. The synthesis of triblock copolymers, BAB, CAC, and CBC, having molecular asymmetry in both side blocks, was also achieved. Furthermore, the use of living anionic polymers, derived from many other monomers, categorized as either of styrene, 2-vinylpyridine, or methyl methacrylate in monomer reactivity, in the linking methodology enabled the number of synthetically possible block polymers to be greatly increased. Once again, all of the block polymers synthesized by these methodologies are new and cannot be synthesized at all by sequential polymerization. They were well-defined in block architecture and precisely controlled in block segment.
Polymers, Volume 3, pp 2156-2171; doi:10.3390/polym3042156
Colloidal gels are intermediates in the production of highly porous particle systems. In the production process, the gels are fragmented after their creation. These gel fragments consolidate to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. A model of the consolidation process is proposed: The consolidation process of a gel fragment is simulated with the Molecular Dynamics (MD) method with the assumption of van der Waals forces in interplay with the thermal motion as driving forces for the consolidation. The simulation results are compared with experimental data and with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 1-19; doi:10.3390/polym4010001
In this mini-review we report on current developments of hybrid materials based on semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into polymer matrices for direct light conversion, their present limitations, as well as their high potential for future applications.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 134-149; doi:10.3390/polym4010134
Photonic materials (PMs) that are capable of manipulating and controlling light in systems have immense potential for the computing and communications industries. These materials are formed by assembling components of differing refractive indices in a periodic array. Light then interacts with this assembly, which results in constructive and destructive interference, and hence color. While many three-dimensional PMs have been reported, and have the most potential for the applications mentioned above, one-dimensional PMs have a multitude of potential uses, e.g., light filtration. In this review, we focus on one-dimensional PMs; specifically poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel based etalons. The etalons can be fabricated to exhibit a single bright color, and because the diameter of the microgels is dependent on temperature and pH, the mirror-mirror spacing can be dynamically tuned; therefore the etalon’s color is dynamically tunable.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 240-255; doi:10.3390/polym4010240
We report results from Brownian dynamics computer simulations of systems comprised by two terminally charged hyperbranched molecules preferentially branched in the periphery, with an oppositely charged linear chain of varying length. Comparison of the findings from the present study to stoichiometric counterparts and to analogous dendrimer-based complexes, reveal that the presence of the second hyperbranched molecule incurs significant changes in the conformational characteristics of both components of the complex. Instead of step-like changes in the average size and shape of the hyperbranched component that were noted in the previously studied stoichiometric systems, a rather smooth change is observed upon increase of the length of the linear component. In addition, a markedly different behavior is also noticed in the conformational characteristics of the linear chain when compared to that in similar dendrimer-based systems. The above findings are consistent with the higher degree of deformability of the peripherally branched molecules which allow appropriate rearrangements in shape in order to accommodate the favorable Coulombic interactions between the two components of the complex. This behavior offers new insight towards the design of more efficient hyperbranched-based systems which can take advantage of the multifunctionality and the structural properties of the highly branched polymer components.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 256-274; doi:10.3390/polym4010256
The adsorption of polymethylmethacrylate polymer of different molecular weight at the aerosil/ethyleneglycol- or 1,3 butanediol-dimethacrylate interfaces was determined to provide microstructured networks. Their structural characteristics were determined to be controlled by the amount of polymer initially supplied to the system. The sediment (the settled phase) characteristics, determined as a function of the polymer concentration and the rate of the polymerization shrinkage determined for composite resins, obtained by extrusion of the sediment after centrifugation, were found to be correlated. The specific role of the adsorbed polymer was found to be differently perturbed with the supplementary supply of dimethacrylate based monomer additives. Particularly, the bisphenol A dimethacrylate that generated crystals within the sediment was found to impede the shrinkage along the crystal lateral faces and strongly limit the shrinkage along its basal faces. Addition of ethyleneglycol- or polyethylene-glycoldimethacrylate monomers was determined to modify the sedimentation characteristics of the aerosil suspension and the shrinkage properties of the composites. Finally, the effects of stepwise light curing methods with prolonged lighting-off periods were investigated and found to modify the development and the final values of the composite shrinkage.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 296-315; doi:10.3390/polym4010296
A novel strategy to graft functional groups at the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is discussed. Aiming at grafting nitrogen containing groups, and more specifically primary amine covalent functionalization, CNTs were exposed under atomic nitrogen flow arising from an Ar + N2 microwave plasma. The primary amine functions were identified and quantified through chemical derivatization with 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde and characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The increase of the selectivity in the primary amines grafting onto CNTs, up to 66.7% for treatment of CNT powder, was performed via the reduction of post-treatment oxygen contamination and the addition of hydrogen in the experimental set-up, more particularly in the plasma post-discharge chamber. The analyses of nitrogenated and primary amine functions grafting on the CNT surface suggest that atomic nitrogen (N•) and reduced nitrogen species (NH• and NH2•) react preferentially with defect sites of CNTs and, then, only atomic nitrogen continues to react on the CNT surface, creating defects.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 316-340; doi:10.3390/polym4010316
Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) exhibit a number of remarkable physical effects, including a uniquely high-stroke reversible mechanical actuation triggered by external stimuli. Fundamentally, all such stimuli affect the degree of liquid crystalline order in the polymer chains cross-linked into an elastic network. Heat and the resulting thermal actuation act by promoting entropic disorder, as does the addition of solvents. Photo-isomerization is another mechanism of actuation, reducing the orientational order by diminishing the fraction of active rod-like mesogenic units, mostly studied for azobenzene derivatives incorporated into the LCE composition. Embedding nanoparticles provides a new, promising strategy to add functionality to LCEs and ultimately enhance their performance as sensors and actuators. The motivation for the combination of nanoparticles with LCEs is to provide better-controlled actuation stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields, and broad-spectrum light, by selecting and configuring the appropriate nanoparticles in the LCE matrix. Here we give an overview of recent advances in this area with a focus on preparation, physical properties and actuation performance of the resultant nanocomposites.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 408-447; doi:10.3390/polym4010408
The synthesis, structure and electronic properties of polysilane dendrimers, a relatively new class of highly branched and silicon-rich molecular architectures is reviewed. After a detailed discussion of main synthetic strategies to well-defined single-core and double-core polysilane dendrimers, important structural and conformational features determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography and 29Si-NMR spectroscopy are presented. The last part highlights the most interesting photochemical properties of polysilane dendrimers such as UV absorption and emission behavior, which are compared with those of linear and branched polysilanes.
Polymers, Volume 4, pp 486-500; doi:10.3390/polym4010486
Methyl epoxyricinoleate was prepared in high yield by the lipase-catalyzed epoxidation of methyl ricinoleate with H2O2. A high molecular weight polyepoxyricinoleate (PER) with a maximum weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 272,000 was enzymatically prepared by the polycondensation of methyl epoxyricinoleate using immobilized lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS-IM) in bulk at 80 °C for 5 d. PER showed good low temperature fluidability. PER was readily cured by maleic anhydride (MA) at 80 °C to produce a chloroform-insoluble PER-MA film. Both the glass transition temperature and Young’s modulus increased with increasing MA content and PER Mw. In contrast, the elongation at break decreased with increasing MA content and PER Mw. Methyl epoxyricinoleate, PER and PER-MA showed biodegradability by activated sludge, and that of the PER-MA film decreased with increasing MA content.