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Results in Journal Jurnal ILMU DASAR: 179

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Joko Harianto, Titik Suparwati, Alfonsina Lisda Puspa Dewi
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 153-160; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.23991

Abstract:
This article describes the dynamics of local stability equilibrium point models of interaction between prey populations and their predators. The model involves response functions in the form of Holling type III and anti-predator behavior. The existence and stability of the equilibrium point of the model can be obtained by reviewing several cases. One of the factors that affect the existence and local stability of the model equilibrium point is the carrying capacity (k) parameter. If x3∗, y3∗ > 0 is a constant solution of the model and ∈ (0,x3∗), then there is a unique boundary equilibrium point Ek (k , 0). Whereas, if k ∈ (x4∗, y4∗], then Ek (k, 0) is unstable and E3 (x3∗, y3∗) is stable. Furthermore, if k ∈ ( x4∗, ∞), then Ek ( k, 0) remains stable and E4 (x4∗, y4∗) is unstable, but the stability of the equilibrium point E3 (x3∗, y3∗) is branching. The equilibrium point E3 (x3∗, y3∗) can be stable or unstable depending on all parameters involved in the model. Variations of k parameter values are given in numerical simulation to verify the results of the analysis. Numerical simulation indicates that if k = 0,92 then nontrivial equilibrium point Ek (0,92 ; 0) stable. If k = 0,93 then Ek (0,93 ; 0) unstable and E3∗(0,929; 0,00003) stable. If k = 23,94, then Ek (23,94 ; 0) and E3∗(0,929; 0,143) stable, but E4∗(23,93 ; 0,0005) unstable. If k = 38 then Ek(38,0) stable, but E3∗(0,929; 0,145) and E4∗(23,93 ; 0,739) unstable.Keywords: anti-predator behavior, carrying capacity, and holling type III.
Firdaus Firdaus, Sigit Nugroho, Haryo Widodo
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 147-152; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.13487

Abstract:
The use of factor analysis methods to reduce variable dimensions is generally known and has been used in various disciplines. The two famous extraction methods of factor analysis are principal component analysis and maximum likelihood. This study aimed to compare both, principal component analysis and maximum likelihood. By their constructed matrix correlation, applied to bank financial ratios. The study is developed from an initial set of 22 ratios of healthy indexed banks. The use of bank financial data aims to identify the structure of the financial ratio of healthy indexed banks. There are 10 variables satisfying the criteria of factor analysis techniques to be considered in the analysis. Both principal component analysis and maximum likelihood suggest three factors that can be used to represent 10 variables.Keywords: factor analysis; principal component analysis; maximum likelihood; financial ratios; bank health.
Wahyu Indra Duwi Fanata, Syafira Fatihatul Husna
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 111-118; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.12010

Abstract:
The pandan scent in aromatic rice has been known as the result of 8 bp deletions and 3 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPS) in BADH2 gene, which produce non-functional betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzyme. Several DNA markers for aromatic character based on mutation in BADH2 gene have been developed. In our experiment, we analysed the presence of aromatic character in four local rice variety such as Merah Wangi, Pendok, Genjah Arum, and Mentik Wangi Susu using KOH method and DNA molecular method using three DNA markers to detect mutation that responsible for the development of aromatic character. Phenotype analysis using KOH method showed that Merah Wangi, Genjah Arum, and Mentik Wangi Susu produce pandan scents. PCR analysis using Bradbury and Badex7-5, and RM223 markers showed the presence of BADH2 mutation in Merah Wangi and Mentik Wangi Susu, whereas Pendok and Genjah Arum did not show BADH2 mutation using those used three markers. Our results indicate that among four investigated local rice, only Merah Wangi and Mentik Wangi Susu are categorized as aromatic rice whereas Pendok and Genjah Arum are non-aromatic.Keywords: genetic analysis, aromatic rice, specific markers, genetic mutation.
Miftakhul Firdhaus, Ulya Farahdina, Vinda Zakiyatuz Zulfa, Endarko Endarko, Agus Rubiyanto, Nasori Nasori
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 127-136; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.19784

Abstract:
Blood cancer causes a significant increase in the concentration of Leukocytes, which can be broken down through dielectrophoresis and electrochemical procedures. Therefore, the electric field plays an important role in the migration of leukocytes to high voltage areas. This is because different electrode arrangements produce varying electric field distributions. Furthermore, this study applied finite element methods to generate electric fields when electrodes with an AC voltage were applied to blood placed in a chamber. Therefore, in this study, variations of mediums and electrode arrangements were investigated, which led to the recommendation of 3 models. The objective was to investigate electrode arrangements that produce optimal electric field distribution for the three models to exhibit a booster of electric field distribution. The maximum electric field is generated close to the electrode (Z=2 mm and Z=92 mm) for any material (i.e. normal blood, B lymphocyte, and T lymphocyte) with values of 22.6 V/m and 23.47 V/m, 22.85 V/m and 22.97 V/m, and 24.88 V/m and 25.01 V/m. Based on principle, lymphocytes in the blood result in positive dielectrophoresis, since they migrate to a higher electric field close to the electrode, with enough input voltage to turn the electrochemical process on the leukocytes into electric current. Furthermore, this study provides new perspectives and ideas, which have not been revealed in previous studies on blood cancer therapy using the electric field of Ag electrode in blood cancer distribution.Keywords: blood cancer, dielectrophoresis, electric field, voltage, electrochemical, and cancer therapy.
Fitriani Utina, Lailany Yahya, Nurwan Nurwan
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.16939

Abstract:
Nurse scheduling is one of the problems that often arise in hospital management systems. Head of ICU room and nurse to cooperate in making good nurse scheduling for the creation of optimal service. In this paper, we study a hospital nurse schedule design by considering the level of nurse education and the provision of holidays. Nurses with undergraduate education (S1) Nurses become leaders on every shift and are accompanied by nurses with diploma education (D3). The scheduling model in this study using the nonpreemptive goal programming method and LINGO 11.0 software. The preparation of the schedule of nurses assigned to this method can optimize the need for efficient nurses per shift based on education level. The data in the research was obtained by collecting administrative data at Aloei Saboe Gorontalo hospital. The data used are the published schedule by the head of the ICU room. In making a nurse schedule, there are limitations to consider such ashospital regulation. The results of the study obtained an optimal solution in the form of meeting all the desired obstacles. Computational results shows that nurse scheduling using the nonpreemptive goal programming method and LINGO 11.0 software better than the schedule created manually. Every shift is a maximum of one leader with an undergraduate education (S1) background and accompanied by a nurse with a diploma education (D3) background. Keywords: scheduling, goal programming, nonpreemptive goal programming.
Ali Wafa, Hari Purnomo, Saifuddin Hasjim, Nanang Triharyadi
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 93-100; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.18010

Abstract:
The entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (common name: Isaria fumosorosea) can utilize to control white fly population. Bemisia tabaci or white fly has become key pest in soybean cultivation. It reported became resistance due to chemical pesticide. Some of new strain has been emerge as chemical pesticide resultant However, to develop P. fumosoroseus as biopesticide hide a problem. The environmental drought factor (temperature and water stress) become major problem. This research aimed to determine effect of environmental factor like temperature and water stress to growth and effectivity of P. fumosoroseus, due to selection an isolat were persist to drought factor. In this research has been used two different isolat of P. fumosoroseus, that is Wirowongso 1 isolat and Mumbulsari 5 isolates. This research had been conducted with five different treatments. First is a growth test under temperature stress, in vitro germination test under temperature stress and in vitro germination test under water stress, and virulence test under temperature and under water stress. The result showed that the increase a temperature and of water stress, directly make decreased of growth, germination and effectively. That effect has made different effect to growth, germination and effectivity on both isolat. The results showed that the isolat WR 1 test result showed the isolat WR 1 more persist to each drought factor. It became more valuable to develop as biopesticide among other.Keywords: Bemicia tabaci, germination, isolat, Isaria fumosorosea, in-vivo.
Anggraeni Arum Sari, Ida Kinasih, Dian Anggria Sari, Ramadhani Eka Putra
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 137-146; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.24062

Abstract:
Larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) has been widely applied as a biological agent for biodegradable wastes upcycling through bioconversion process. However, most of the biodegradable wastes produced from economic activities other than industrial is heterogenous. This may cause some physiological change which may alter the survivorship, growth, and efficiency of the bioconversion process. In this study, the substrate combination of macronutrients provided to black soldier fly larvae were observed to understand the larvae ability to degrade organic waste from economic activities. The substrat proportion consist of three major macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and lipid) and made of a mixture of decayed cabbage (Brassica oleracea) (source of carbohydrate), shark catfish (Pangasius sp.) (source of protein), and avocado (Persea americana) (source of lipid) which consisted of four types of substrate namely high fiber, high protein, high lipid, and balance. The feeding rate was 100 mg/larvae/day which provides every three days until 50% of larvae metamorphosed into prepupae. Mortality rate, the weight of larvae, and weight of residue (undigested substrate) were measured during substrate replacement and used to calculated survivorship rate, ECD (Efficiency of Conversion Digested-feed), AD (Approximate digestibility), and WRI (Waste Reduction Index). The proximate analysis also conducted on the harvested larvae biomass. The larvae group fed on high protein substrate showed best survivorship (64,75±2,60%), growth rate (2,97±0,166 mg/larvae/day), and AD (57,39±3,39) while the highest WRI recorded for larvae group fed on high fiber substrate and the highest ECD recorded for larvae group fed on high lipid substrate. The proximate analysis showed the best nutritional content of prepupae of larvae group fed on high protein substrate. It can be concluded that the proportion of macronutrients of substrate effect the growth and bioconversion performance of black soldier fly larvae. Some strategies related to the optimization of the bioconversion process for heterogeny substrate are discussed.Keywords: biodegradable wastes, black soldier fly, heterogeneity, growth, nutritional content, survivorship.
Nurhamidar Rahman, Hani Fitriani, N. Sri Hartati
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 119-126; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.9305

Abstract:
Kuning and Gajah genotypes are two collections of cassava in the Biotechnology Research Center for Germplasm, LIPI with the advantages of each genotype are high beta carotene and high production. The multiplication in in vitro culture can be done one of them through organogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using 2,4-D; NAA and Kinetin are used singly for the formation of organogenesis of cassava in the Kuning Cassava and Gajah genotypes. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Modification of Plant Biosynthetic Pathways, Biteknologi Research Center, LIPI, Bogor since January - February 2018. The source of explants were young leaves and petiols from cassava plant culture in vitro genotypes of Gajah and Kuning yam which were three months old. in culture. The basic media used as a planting medium were Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with the addition of growth regulators (ZPT) singly, 2,4-D, NAA and Kinetin with two concentrations of ZPT each, 8 and 10 mg L- 1 This research was arranged based on a completely randomized design factorial pattern consisting of 2 factors. All data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and if there is an influence then proceed with the DMRT test with an error rate of 5% using the SPSS program. The highest number of Kuning genotype cassava organogenic callus that developed into shoots on the medium added by ZPT was 2.4 D and kinetin with the same concentration of 8 mg L-1. Formation of the best organogenic callus in petiol explants in the media with the addition of a single 2,4-D and Kinetin with the same concentration of 8 mg L-1. Keywords: Cassava, growth regulators, organogenic.
Meilisha Putri Pertiwi, Dina Dyah Saputri
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.18508

Abstract:
The growth of golden apple snails is very rapid and causes losses of paddy production. Therefore snails are also called pest, especially agricultural pest. Control of golden apple snails can be done by physical hand sorting and then processed into animal feed. Based on research golden apple snails proven have good nutritional content. Efforts to use golden apples nails pets become useful things such as animal feed is a sustainable conservation. Therefore, this study aims to carry out secondary metabolites identification, proximate testing, and antioxidant content of golden apple snails as an initial reference for the basic ingredients of animal feed manufacturing. The method use is hand sorting of golden apple snails at the research location, then brought to the laboratory to carry out the process of secondary metabolites identification, proximate testing, and antioxidant analysis. The results showed a golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata L.) extract containing active compunds of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, steroids, and glycoside. Proximate analysis showed that golden apple snails extract had a high protein content of 40,83% compared to carbohydrates and fats. These findings suggested that golden apple snailsmeat extract has the potential to be further utilized as an alternative feed for Pangasius sp.Keywords: golden apple snails. Pangasius sp., proximate testing, secondary metabolites.
Tri Ratnasari, Daniar Alfi Ana, Hari Sulistiyowati, Dwi Setyati
Published: 8 July 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i2.9437

Abstract:
Kluwek seeds (Pangium edule Reinw.) have a low germination percentage caused by dormancy due to hard seed coat. Kluwek seed germination takes about 1 month. The purpose of this study was to obtain a combination of treatments that were effective in increasing the percentage of kluwek seed germination and reducing the intensity of kluwek seed dormancy. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) factorial design. The first factor was immersion time (H) consisting of five levels, namely H0: Control (0 hour), H1: 6 hours, H2: 12 hours, H3: 18 hours, and H4: 24 hours and the second factor was giberellin concentration (G) with five levels namely G0: 0 ppm, G1: 25 ppm, G2: 50 ppm, G3: 75 ppm and G4: 100 ppm. Data analysis used Analysis of Variance (Anava) and further tested with Duncans' Multiple Range test (DMRT) at a significant level of 5%. The results obtained showed that the percentage of seed germination without immersion is 6.67%. Soaking using aquades produces an average germination percentage of 28.33%. The most effective treatment was GA3 75 ppm for 24 hours with seed germination of 60%, while the value of dormant intensity is 40%.Keywords: dormancy, germination, gibberellin, kluwek.
Harun Al Azies, Gangga Anuraga
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.16928

Abstract:
The determination or classification of underdeveloped areas essentially consists of classifying several observations taking into account existing indicators. The classification method used is K-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the classification between SVM and k-NN algorithms in the classification of underdeveloped areas in Indonesia. The data source used in this study is secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS). The data used are 514 districs and municipalities of Indonesia. After analysis, the conclusion is that there are 122 districs and municipalities that are left behind out of a total of 514 districs and municipalities in Indonesia. The most underdeveloped areas are on the island of Papua, followed by the areas of the islands of Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and Sulawesi. Based on the results of the classification of underdeveloped areas using the method SVM with the kernel RBF has the best results with the parameters C = 1 and γ = 0.05 while the results of the classification of underdeveloped areas using the method k-NN obtains the best results with k = 15 Based on the results of classification of underdeveloped areas using the SVM and the k-NN method, including the level of classification is very good. The two methods compared have the same precision value of 92.2% and can be used to determine the classification of underdeveloped areas. Keywords: classification, machine learning, supervised learning, underdeveloped areas.
Siti Fat'Hiyatul Azkiyah, Kartika Senjarini, Rike Oktarianti, Hidayat Teguh Wiyono, Syubanul Wathon
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 59-68; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.13601

Abstract:
Bangsring village in Wongsorejo regency has been reported as malaria endemic area in Banyuwangi since 2011. Understanding the diversity and behavior of mosquito vector in this area will be very impotant in developing vector control program. The masquitoes were collected by landing collection outside and inside house by human bites, we also observed the area around cattle cage. During observation periods, a total 633 masquitos were collected consist of 44% malaria potential vector (Anopheles spp.) 19% Dengue fever (DF) potential vector (Aedes spp.) and 36% were not belong to both of them. Out of total collected Anopheles spp. mosquitoes about 65% were indentified as An. vagus, 25% were An. indevinitus, 8% were An. vagus (limosus), and only 2% as well as 0,04 % were An. supictus and An. kochi. Meanwhile we found 19% of Aedes sp. were Ae. aegypti and 81% were Ae. albopictus. This study showed that the dominan potential malaria’s vector is An. Vagus and the dominan DF vector is Ae. albopictus. Mostly colleted Anopheles sp. were exophagic and zoophilic with the highest activities between 06.00-08.00 pm. This was in contras to Aedes sp. where mosfly found endophilic and it has 2 hightime of activities Aedes sp. between 06.00- 07.00 AM and 05.00-06.00 PM. Keywords: Dengue, Malaria, diversity, Anopheles, Aedes.
Sri Milawati, Intan Syahbanu, Risya Sasri
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.14492

Abstract:
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a transition metal oxide material which has been researched extensively and can be used for various applications. In this research, synthesis of TiO2 -SiO2 using TTIP and TEOS precursor. Research aims to determine the characteristics of composite materials generated based on the influence of hydrothermal time and precursor composition. Synthesis is done by variation of hydrothermal time (4 hours, 8 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours and without hydrothermal) and TEOS precursor composition variation (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1). Synthesis is made by dissolving the two precursors through the sol-gel-hydrothermal method and continued with the calcination process. Characterization using FT-IR showed a bonding Ti-O-Si at a wavelength of 950 cm-1 . This bond is formed from the interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 which indicates the success of the synthesis. The XRD characterization results show formed of a peak at 2θ° the range 25° for all composites. The results of the dr-uv characterization on the TiO2 -SiO2 composite comparison of 2:1 showed absorption at 387 nm and obtained band gap energy of 3,20 eV. Based on the data obtained it can be concluded that synthesis of TiO2-SiO2 hydrothermally obtained the optimum time 24 hours and the best comparison is contained in the composition 2:1, which produces an anatase structure with a crystal size of 15,899 nm, so that the resulting composite can be used as a photocatalyst. Keywords: Hydrothermal, Sol-gel, TiO2 -SiO2.
Hari Sulistiyowati, Emitria Rahmawati, Retno Wimbaningrum
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.9247

Abstract:
Bandealit is one of the resorts in Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP). This area has many endemic floras and faunas affected by the presence of invasive alien spesies plants. These plants tend to give negative impacts on savana ecosystem among them is, Lantana camara L. The distribution of this invasive alien spesies in the savana can be used to provide information about the characteristic of the environment. This study was conducted to investigate the patterns of spatial distribution of invasive alien L. camara population in the Pringtali Resort Bandealit savana region. The characters of plant species morphology was recorded for species name identification and validation. Percent cover of the individual L. camara species was collected within 50 plots (5x5 m2), while each of coordinate species found in the plots was recorded by using GPS (Global Positioning System). Abiotic factors such as temperature, pH, light intensity, and soil moisture were measured within the plots. The location of the data collection is 5,000 m2. The distribution pattern of invasive alien L. camara population was analyzed using ArcGIS and Dispersion Morisita’s Index (Ip). The result showed that 51.7% of L. camara population grew spasially close together (clumped) or overlapped one another based on the ArcGIS. This means that L. camara individuals distributein clumped pattern. While the other individuals (48.3%) grew apart randomly from each other. This distribution pattern showed by Ip value, 0.51 was also clumped or clustered. It can be concluded that the distribution pattern ofinvasive alien species L. camara is clumped because the reproduction of plant was by seeds dispersal or vegetative buds that lived around parental individuals.Keywords: ArcGIS, Lantana camara L., Invasive Foreign Plants, Morisita index, Distribution Pattern.
Zarfa Izra Egharitya Chipta Triacha, Meilisha Putri Pertiwi, Teti Rostikawati
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.18899

Abstract:
The research about Echinoderms diversity in Cibuaya Beach Ujung Genteng, West Java has been conducted from February to July 2019. It aimed to know diversity index of Echinoderms. It used belt transect method with three stations in the intertidal zone. Sampling technique used purposive sampling. The observation data are included primary data (the number of phylum Echinoderm’s species in the transect) and environmental data (pH, salinity, temperature, depth, current strength, and substrate). The population in this study was all species of Echinoderms found in the intertidal zone. The sample in this study was the species of Echinoderms found in the area of the station. Based on the result, the study obtained 8 species of Echinoderms, consisted of 3 classesand classified into 5 orders, 5 families, and 6 genera. The diversity index is classified as low with the average value of 0.62. The evenness index is classified as low with the average value of 0.37. The dominance index is classified as moderate with the average value of 0.67. Keywords: diversity, echinoderms, cibuaya beach, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea.
Fajrin Nurul Hikmah, Tri Mulyono, Zulfikar Zulfikar
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 69-74; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.17767

Abstract:
This study aims to develop a multi-commutation flow system method for simultaneous determination of ammonium ion and nitrate ion using two detectors, namely ammonium ion selective electrode and nitrate ion selective electrode. The multi-commutation flow system method uses two three way selenoide valves to adjust the sample flow and ISA solution. The selenoid valve alternately flows the sample and ISA solution to the ion selective electrode. Flow control by three way selenoid valves is controlled by LabView which is programmed in the computer. The computer is connected with Arduino and a relay that functions as an on-off switch on the three way valve selenoid. This method is then applied to measure the levels of ammonium ions and nitrate ions in well water samples. The performance of the multi-commutation flow system determined includes linearity, limit detection, sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery test. Ammonium analysis results show good performance with several criteria. Ammonium linearity value is 0,9991, ammonium detection limit value is 2,23 × 10-5 M, sensitivity of ion selective electrode ammonium is 45,39 mV per decade, the repeability value is less than 2% and the recovery percentage of ammonium is 115%. While the results of the nitrate analysis showed a linearity value of 0,9937, a nitrate detection limit value of 1,31 × 10-5 M, sensitivity of the ion selective electrode nitrate of -110,58 mV per decade, a repeatability value of less than 2% and a recovery percentage of 87% nitrate. Keywords: Flow Analysis, multi-commutation, ammonium, nitrat, simultaneous.
Nova Hariani, Imilia Simanjuntak
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.11092

Abstract:
One of the diseases often threatens the health of free-range chickens and egg-laying chickens are worm parasites (endoparasites). Parasites can be transmitted through food, drinks and the cage environment. Sanitation is one of the preventive steps carry out by farmers to protect livestock against infection from the environment. The objective of study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic worm eggs that infect the digestive tracts of free-range chickens and egg- laying hens in Muara Badak District. Research was done by observing worm eggs in fecal samples. A total of 60 samples consisting of 30 samples of egg-laying hens in Tanjung Village and 30 samples of free-range chickens in Badak Baru Village, Muara Badak. For the sample analysis technique used 2 methods are namely the floating method and the sedimentation method. The results has showed the type of worm eggs are infected the digestive tract found in free-range chickens and egg-laying chickens had consisted of Echinostoma revolutum, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Davainea proglotina, Amoebotaenia sphenoides, Ascaridia galli, Capillaria annulata and Trichostrongylus tenuis. The highest prevalence in free- range chickens and egg-laying chickens were found in Ascaridia galli was 53.33% and 40%. While the lowest prevalence in free-range chickens against Raillietina echinobothrida and Amoebotaenia sphenoides 3.33%. egg-laying chickens are against Echinostoma revolutum, Raillietina tetragona and Trichostrongylus tenuis 6.67%. The highest intensity in free-range chickens and against Ascaridia galli was 141 eggs/individual and in egg-laying chickens was 139 eggs/individuals. The lowest intensity in this research was found in free-range chickens against Amoebotaenia sphenoides and Raillietina echinobothrida 3 eggs/individuals and egg-laying chickens against Echinostoma revolutum 5 eggs/individuals. Keywords: Endoparasites, Prevalence, Intensity, Chicken, hen.
Yunita Armiyanti, Adiz Dwiputra Rahmadhan, Bagus Hermansyah, Dina Helianti, Yudha Nurdian
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.15921

Abstract:
Ascaris lumbricoides is nematode which often infest human in the world. The infestation of A. lumbricoides in the human will trigger the formation of Th2 immune responses through increased interleukin-4 released by innate immune cells. Th2 immune response generates B lymphocyte cells to produce IgE antibodies to eliminate A. lumbricoides. Therefore, IL-4 is a marker of Th2 immune response. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ascariasis and an increase of IL-4 in planters infested with A. lumbricoides as a marker of Th2 immune response. Our study was observational analytic with cross sectional design. 230 planters who were willing to be involved in the study gave stool samples for the diagnosis of ascariasis. 20 people who were positive for ascariasis and 20 people who were negative selected randomly for blood plasma samples. IL-4 levels in blood plasma were measured using ELISA. Differences in IL4 levels between positive and negative ascariasis were analyzed by the Mann Whitney statistical test with p value ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of ascariasis among planters in rural area of Jember was 16,52% which was included low prevalence. Univariate analysis showed that the mean and median levels of IL-4 ascariasis were greater than those of healthy planters. Mann Whitney test results showed that there were differences in levels of IL-4 between ascariasis and healthy planters (p≤0.05). Increased levels of IL-4 in planters with ascariasis indicate that A. lumbricoides infection triggers the formation of Th2 immune response as a mechanism for eliminating A. lumbricoides. Keywords: Interleukin-4, A. lumbricoides, Th2 immune response.
Florensius Joko Arbi, Ari Hepi Yanti, Riyandi Riyandi
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.17041

Abstract:
Information about the character of softshell turtle’s habitat (Amyda cartilaginea) is needed as conservation effort and to prevent softshell turtle’s extinction. The research on habitat, morphometric holes, and environmental factors that suitable for softshell turtle is needed to be approved. The research was conducted in Engkelitau River, Sekadau, West Borneo. Sampling area was divided into 3 stations based on the type of cover between primary dryland forest, farming land and open field. Data on the softshell turtle’s number, holes and scratch marks were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The highest river slope at Station I is 60o and the lowest river slope at Station III is 42o. Substrate’s type that found in Engkelitau River consist of sandy, dusty, and muddy substrates. The number of softshell turtle’s hole in the Engkelitau River is 45 holes, consisting one hole with softshell turtle, 15 holes with scratch marks, and 29 holes not including both of them. The highest height, width and distance between holes are in Station I and both hole’s length and height from the surface as well as highest river are in Station II. The environmental factors that affected A. cartilaginea in the Engkelitau River consisted of river velocity and river’s slope with loading factors of 4.08135 and 3.94019 respectively. The characteristics of A. cartilaginea’s hole in the Engkelitau River including a pond in the hole, an air hole, and located in the middle of a riverbank. Keywords: habitat characteristics, Amyda cartilaginea, softshell turtle, Engkelitau river.
Siti Aisyah, Aditya Prayugo Hariyanto, Endarko Endarko, Agus Rubiyanto, Nasori Nasori, Mohammad Haekal, Andreas Nainggolan
Published: 11 January 2021
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 22, pp 75-84; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v22i1.19732

Abstract:
The delivery of radiation therapy to patients requires prior planning made by medical physicists to achieve radiotherapy goals. Radiotherapy has a plan to eradicate the growth of cancer cells by giving high doses and minimizing the radiation dose to normal tissue. Evaluation of planning is generally done based on dosimetric parameters, such as minimum dose, maximum dose, and means dose obtained from the DVHs data. Based on the same DVHs, data were evaluate dinterms of biological effects to determine the highest possible toxicity in normal tissue after the tumor had been treated with radiation using the NTCP model. The evaluation was conducted by selecting three DICOM-RT data of post-mastectomy right breast cancer patients who had been prescribed a dose of 50 Gy obtained from the Hospital MRCCC Siloam Semanggi database. All data were processed using open-source software DICOManTX to get the DVH and isodose information. Matlab-based CERR software was used to calculate the NTCP model. The results show that the three patients' DVH and isodose treatment planning result in a homogeneous dose distribution result because the PTV area obtains adose limit of ≥ 95%. Moreover, normalt issue still gets adose below the tolerance limit based on the standard from RTOG 1005 and ICRU 83. Analysis of NTCP shows a complication probability below 1% for each organ, suggesting that any organ which has been irradiated has a low likelihood of complications. Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment planning which has been made in the three patients using the IMRT technique has achieved the objectives of radiotherapy, which is to minimize toxicity to healthy organs. |Keywords: DVH, isodose, NTCP, radiotherapy.
Hartati Hartati, Nur Ayu Ramadanti, Dwi Hilda Putri, N. Sri Hartati
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 87-96; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.9396

Abstract:
Cassava is one of the most important food commodities besides rice and corn. Carvita 25 is a somaclonal variation that was induced from Adira IV cassava variety. Our study aimed to analyze the genetic differences of Carvita 25 compared to Adira IV by using SSR markers. Two cassava varieties, Carvita 25 and Adira IV, were used as plant materials and eleven SSRY primers were used to amplifythe fragments of cassava DNA. The results showed that SSRY 151 primer produced the highest polymorphic band (85.71%) where 6 out of 7 alels were polymoprphics with the length size from 120 to 600 bp. Of the total 56 of polymorphic bands, 26 alels were previously present in Adira IV but then it can not be found in Carvita 25, while 30 other bands were new fragments that were previously not present in Adira IV but then were present in Carvita 25. These genetic differencesof both Adira IV and Carvita 25 were also strengthened by the Jacard similarity value. The Jaccard similarity between Carvita 25 and Adira IV were 0.40-0.50, while the similarity between plants of Carvita 25 were 0.79-0.87, and in plants of Adira IV were 0.98- 1.These values showed thewide genetic difference between Adira IV and a somaclonal variation of Carvita 25.Keywords: cassava, Carvita 25, polymorphic, somaclonal variation, SSR Marker.
Bagus Wicaksono Arianto, Gangga Anuraga
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 149-154; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.17112

Abstract:
PT Ruang Raya Indonesia ("Ruangguru") is the largest and most comprehensive technology company in Indonesia that focuses on education-based services. In 2019 there were 15 million Ruangguru users and 300.00 teachers who had joined and were present in 32 provinces in Indonesia. It prepared a number of expansion strategies to become a company valued at more than US $ 1 billion in the next year or two. The purpose of this research is to classify the opinions of Ruangguru users about the services provided so that it can be an evaluation material in improving their services using the latent direchlet allocation method. The data used comes from a collection of tweets of Twitter users in Indonesia using the Twitter API. The Twitter account used in this study is @ruangguru. The results of the analysis showed that the public perception of Twitter users by using latent dirichlet allocation was formed into 28 topics.Keywords: latent dirichlet allocation, ruangguru, twitter.
Vina Nurul Istighfarini, Ervina Dwi Inggarwati, Anton Prasetyo
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 81-86; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.13674

Abstract:
Composite Bi4Ti3O12/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst has been prepared by sonication methods. The heterojunction material Bi4Ti3O12/TiO2 was synthesized using an ultrasonic cleaning bath for 4 hours, by mixing Bi4Ti3O12 and TiO2 with variations in the comparison of mol 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6. Characterization with XRD showed heterojunction material consisting of Bi4Ti3O12, anatase, rutile, and Bi12TiO20. The surface was observed by SEM which showed the morphology of Bi4Ti3O12/TiO2 were spherical TiO2 and plate-like Bi4Ti3O12. The band gap energy of heterojunction material with a variation in mol Bi4Ti3O12: TiO2 of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6 are 3.09; 3.10; 3.15; and 3.16 eV respectively. The all of band gap energy is lower than the band gap energy of TiO2 anatase and higher than the band gap energy of Bi4Ti3O12.Keywords: composite photocatalyst, heterojunction, sonochemical, Bi4Ti3O12, TiO2.
Fifteen Aprila Fajrin, Fina Rahmayanti, Dwi Koko Pratoko
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 133-138; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.15501

Abstract:
Ginger was reported to have a suppressive effect on pain in patients with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN). Our latest study revealed that 6-shogaol, one of the ginger components, had the best affinity in the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a key receptor in PDN). Paradol, which obtained from gingerol and shogaol metabolism, also had potent activities in several diseases, compared to the other derivatives of gingerol and shogaol. However, shogaol and paradol is very similar in chemical structure with only different in one double bond in 4-5 position. Until now there is no explanation about paradol mechanism in TRPV1. Based on this, our study was designed to predict the activity of 6-paradol and its derivatives to TRPV1 as target receptor in PDN using in-silico model. 2-paradol, 4-paradol, 6-paradol, 8-paradol and 10-paradol were used as ligands. Capsaisin, the agonist of TRPV1, was used as a native ligand in this study. TRPV1 was obtained from protein data bank (PDB). Ligand bond prediction and affinity was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker. The results showed 2-paradol, 4-paradol, 6-paradol, 8-paradol and 10- paradol had good affinity against TRPV1. These result indicated that 6-paradol and the derivatives had potential as a drug compound for PDN therapy.Keywords: ginger, 6-paradol, painful diabetic neuropathy, trpv1.
Fadhilatul Nida Aryani, Sri Sulistijowati Handajani, Etik Zukhronah
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 97-104; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.17226

Abstract:
The agricultural sector has a big role in the development of the Gross Regional Domestic Product (GDP). Therefore the agricultural sector is very important. Besides the agricultural sector, the farmer's welfare also needs to be considered because the agricultural sector will be good if the welfare of farmers is good also. In measuring the level of farmers' welfare, the method used is the farmer's exchange rate. The farmer's exchange rate has a location relationship and a previous time relationship. The Generalized Space-Time Autoregressive (GSTAR) model is a good method of forecasting data that contains time series and location relationships by assuming that the data has heterogeneous characteristics. The purpose of this study is to model the farmer exchange rate data with GSTAR using normalization of cross-correlations weighting and inverse distance in three provinces namely West Sumatra, Bengkulu and Jambi Provinces. Based on data analysis, the best GSTAR model obtained by using the best weighting with the model is GSTAR (11) − I(1) using normalization of cross-correlations because the assumption of normal white noise and multivariate are fulfilled with an RMSE value of 1.097775. The best GSTAR model explains that the exchange rate of West Sumatra farmers is only the previous time, Bengkulu farmers' exchange rate is the previous time and is the exchange rates of farmers of West Sumatra and Jambi, whereas for the exchange rate of farmers of Jambi is the exchange rates of farmers of Bengkulu and West Sumatra and influenced by previous times.Keywords: GSTAR, RMSE, farmers exchange rate, normalization of cross-correlations, inverse distance.
Sogandi Sogandi, Amelia Amelia
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 105-114; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.11568

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal infection is a common infection in Indonesia. Many bacteria could cause gastrointestinal disorder, including Shigella dysenteriae and Bacillus subtilis. Currently, they are treated using chemical and traditional drugs. One of the common pants in Indonesia is Kluwih (Artocarpus camansi). The objective our study to determine antibacterial activity and inhibitory mechanism of Kluwih leaf extract against pathogenic bacteria which cause gastrointestinal infection, i.e. Shigella dysenteriae and Bacillus subtilis. The extraction process used maceration technique using 96% ethanol solvent and the antibacterial activity was studied using agar diffusion method. The research result showed that Kluwih leaf extract had inhibitory power with KHM (minimum inhibitory concentration) value of 25% against S. dysenteriae and 6.25% against B. subtilis. The present study also revealed that Kluwih leaf was suspected to have inhibitory activity against bacteria by making holes in the membrane of bacterial cell, leading to the release of nucleic acid and protein and cell death.Keywords: antibacterial, Artocarpus camansi, kluwih, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus subtilis.
Bayu Buwana, Nurul Priyantari, Supriyadi Supriyadi
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 123-132; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.13159

Abstract:
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Jember located in Sumbersari District with lithological conditions in the form of volcanic rocks, lithosol soils, and regosol soils that are capable of absorbing water and potentially as aquifers. In point of fact, in the campus zona of the University of Jember including in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, there is always a shortage of freshwater for various academic and non-academic activities. Therefore, research needs to be conducted to assess the lithology of subsurface structures in the FMIPA zone so that the depth of groundwater layers and aquifer layers can be determined. The study was conducted using the Schlumberger array geoelectric resistivity method at 5 VES points. The results obtained in the form of resistivity log curves can be seen that at the five points VES has lithology in the form of clay, gravel, sandstone, and groundwater layer. Each VES point was identified the groundwater layer and some of them were identified as aquifers. The aquifer with the greatest thickness is found at point VES 2, which is to the west of the Baitul Ilmi Mosque, so it is recommended as the location of a new well.Keywords: lithology, aquifers, geoelectric resistivity method, groundwater.
Evarista Ristin Pujiindiyati, Bungkus Pratikno
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 139-148; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.11940

Abstract:
Aquifer in river bank area is mostly susceptive toward pollution occurring in river. One of parameters to determine the interaction process between groundwater and river is a natural isotope of 222Rn. The significant difference of radon concentration in groundwater and river water can be utilized as a scientific basis for investigating groundwater infiltration in river bank. Those studied parameters are residence time and infiltration rate. The research using 222Rn had been conducted in shallow groundwater of Ciliwung river bank - South Jakarta during rainy and dry season. The range of 222Rn concentration in shallow groundwater monitored in dry season was between 666 - 2590 Bq/m3 which was higher than that of rainy season ranging at 440 to 1546 Bq/m3. Otherwise, concentration of 222Rn in river water could not be detected (its 222Rn concentration = 0 Bq/m3) due to its much lower concentration either rainy or dry season. During dry season monitoring, equilibration between groundwater and river water was reached at the distance approximately 98 - 140 m away from river side. Estimating residence time based on 222Rn concentration at nearest site from the river and at equlibration area was 4.2 days such that the infiltration rate from river water into aquifer might be 7.8 m/day.Keywords: 222Rn, groundwater, residence time, infiltration rate.
Nurhamidar Rahman, Supatmi Supatmi, Hani Fitriani, N Sri Hartati
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.9307

Abstract:
In line with the increase in cassava production and the development of nutrient-rich cassava in order to support national food diversification and biofortification programs, the selection of selected varieties of cassava varieties, which are superior in nutrients especially rich in beta carotene is very necessary. Beta carotene is an important source of antioxidants to scavange free radicals and is a provitamin A precusor to form vitamin A. The development of superior cassava riching in beta carotene can be done through the mutation approach with gamma irradiation. The observation of changes in morphological characters and levels of beta carotene from irradiated cassava need to be done to get the superior beta carotene cassava clone candidates, which could be developed in the future. This experiment was conducted at the Biotechnology Research Center, LIPI. The sample used in this study originated from in vitro shoots from several Ubi Kuning clones resulting from 10 Gy radiation, which were then transferred to the field. Observations of morphological characters and levels of beta carotene of Ubi Kuning were carried out in the third generation, which was harvested at the age of 10 months. The morphological analysis of irradiated Ubi Kuning showed that there was a difference in the intensity of tuber color between some of irradiated Ubi Kuning clones compared to the control. The determination of beta carotene levels based on the standard beta carotene curve found that the highest content of beta carotene was found in the UK Rad 3.4 clone with beta carotene content of 0.252 μg / mL compared to the control (0.219 μg / mL). The lowest beta carotene content was obtained in UK Rad 3.3 (0.048 μg / mL), followed by UK Rad 3.2 (0.221 μg / mL) and UK Rad 4.1 (0.120 μg / mL). This shows that the irradiated Ubi Kuning at dosage of 10 Gy caused variations in the intensity of tuber colors and the content of beta carotene from the cassava.Keywords: Ubi Kuning, beta carotene, Gamma light irradiation
, Mohammad Sulton Hakim, Parawita Dewanti, Sri Hartatik, Slameto Slameto
Published: 3 July 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 115-122; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i2.12813

Abstract:
The critical phase of rice plants on water availability includes the vegetative phase when tillering stage, generative phase 1 at panicle initiation stage and generative phase 2 when booting stage. The lack of water in the vegetative phase and in the generative phase will disturb the growth of rice plants. However, if the water needs are fulfilled immediately, the plants will recover and able to grow normally. The ability of plants to do recovery can be improved through the application of potassium fertilizer. This research aimed to determine the optimum dosage of potassium fertilizer when drought occurs in several critical phases to improve the recovery capability of the rice plant. This experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 2 factors where the first factor was the dosage of potassium fertilizer using KCl fertilizer which was 50 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha and 125 kg/ha. The second factor was the difference in the phase of stress, namely the vegetative phase at the time of tillering, the generative phase 1 at panicle initiation and the generative phase 2 when booting. Each treatment combination was repeated 3 times. Observation variables included Rice grain weight per clump, Proline content, Root Dry Weight, Relative Water Content (RWC) leaves, and Height of plants. The results of the study proved that the best dosage of KCl fertilizer to improve rice recovery ability is 100 kg/ha. Rice plants gripped in the vegetative phase have better recovery capabilities than those gripped in the generative phase.Keywords: Recovery, rice, drought stress and potassium.
, Dhony Hermanto
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 43-48; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.8793

Abstract:
The Study of Au(III) ions adsorption by humic acid in batch system has been done. Humic acid was isolated from Batujai Dam Lombok Tengah 0.1 M NaOH and continued with 0.1 M HCl/0.3 M HF washing to dissolve silica. Functional groups of isolated humic acid was investigated by FTIR Spectroscopy and the adsorption process was studied by XRD and SEM analyses. It has been found that humic acid contained carboxylic, phenols, alcoholic, ether, amines functional groups, aliphatic hydrocarbon and aromatic ring. XRD and SEM data showed that humic acid did not only adsorp Au(III) ions but also reduce them to gold particles. Therefore, humic acid has the potential as reductive-biosorbent for Au(III) in batch system. Keywords: humic acid, reductive-biosorbent, Au(III) ions.
, Usmadi Usmadi, Galang Rizki Ramadhan
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 61-66; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.9144

Abstract:
The fertilization management is one strategy to optimize the quantity and quality of rice production. Our study was aimedto investigate the effect of potassium fertilization several agronomical parameters andthe rate of head rice after milling process. The study was conducted from March 2018 to July 2018 in the Agrotechnopark experimental field University of Jember in District of Sukorambi, Jember. Randomized Block Design (RBD) was used with the frequency of potassium chlorice (KCl) fertilization asthe single factor. The conducted potassium treatments were as follows: without KCl fertilization (control), one-time KCl fertilization, two times KCl fertilization, three times KCl fertilization and each fertilization level was conducted by sixrepetitions. The agronomic parameters such as plant height, tiller number, flowering time, rate of productive tillers, grain number per panicle, weight of 1000 grains, and percentage of filled grain were analyzed and percentage of head rice rate was determined as quality parameter. Our results showed that different treatment of potassium did not significantly affect the plant height, tillernumber, flowering time, rate of productive tillers, total grains per panicle, and weight of 1000 grains. On the other hands, the percentage of filled grainand the rate of head rice after milling were significantly increased by potassium fertilization. Compare to the control treatment, three times potassium fertilization resulted 9.24% and 13.83% increase of filled grain and head rice after two times milling, respectively. Our result suggest that potassium fertilization is important for grainquality of Merah Wangi rice variety. Keywords: Merah Wangi, potassium fertilization, growth, physical quality.
Diah Chaerani, Muttaqien Rodhiya Robbi, Elis Hertini, Endang Rusyaman, Erick Paulus
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.10780

Abstract:
Flooding is a natural disaster that often occurs, it is not surprising that floods are one of the problems that must be resolved in various countries, one of which is Indonesia. Flood is very detrimental to the public because the impact could be the loss of material and non-material. A flood protection system is needed and must be managed properly. This aims in management of flood protection systems often requires efficient cost control strategies that are the lowest possible long-term costs, but still meets the flood protection standards imposed by regulators in all plans. In this paper a flood protection strategy is modeled using Adjustable Robust Optimization. In this approach, there are two kinds of variables that must be decided, i.e., adjustable and non-adjustable variables. A numerical simulation is presented using Scilab Software. Keywords: Flood Protection Strategy, Uncertainty, Adjustable Robust Optimization, Scilab Software.
, Tri Rima Setyawati, Ari Hepi Yanti
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.8703

Abstract:
Seluang batu (Paracrossochilus vittatus) is one of the Borneo endemic fish from Cyprinidae Family that live in high stream water. The aim of this study was to know the food habit and niche breadth of seluang batu in Mentuka River. This study was conducted 3 months from November 2016 to January 2017. The sampling method used in this research was purposive random sampling. Seluang batu was taken from three stations in the Mentuka River using trap nets. The fish was measured in length and weight, then dissected to find out the type of food in the stomach. Food analysis was determined using index of preponderance and the niche breadth using Smith’s index. The results showed that seluang batu in Mentuka River including herbivore because they eat microalgae, namely Synedra was main food. Nice breadth of seluang batu for peryphiton was 0.71 meanwhile plankton was 0.20. Most of peryphiton and plankton in Mentuka River are Bacillariophyceae. The Mentuka River environtment supported the life of seluang batu and their natural food, namely the temperature about 26-28 ̊C, current speed was about 1-2,6 m/s, pH was about 6,8-7,3, dissolved oxygen was about 6,1-7 mg/L and free CO2 was 3,9-5,0 mg/L. Keywords: food habit, Paracrossochilus vittatus, periphyton, plankton.
, N. Sri Hartati, Hartati Hartati, Enny Sudarmonowati
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.9197

Abstract:
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a carbohydrate sources containing a limited amount of micronutrients, but some genotypes contain β-carotene as the precursor of vitamin A in the storage roots and leaves. Improvement of β-caroteneand minerals such as Fe / Zn content of cassava’s nutrition is mostly through by biofortification program. The storage root of β-carotene recognized by a yellow or yellowish color while the apical shoots with red to purplish. β-carotenein carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is an expression of the phytoene synthase (PSY) gene. The MePSY2 gene, one of the three MePSY family is the key gene to characterize carotenoids related gene in cassava. In this study, sequencing of the two cassava fulllenght PSY genomic DNA was carried out in conserved areas in the PSY gene region (PSY1 and PSY2) from the DNA of the cassava leaves. Adira1, Carvita25 and Ubi Kuning are yellow root storage genotypes (K1, K2 and K3) while Adira4 and Menti are white root storage genotypes (P1 and P2). Carvita25 is induced somaclonal variant of the Adira4 genotype. Contiq and consensus of nucleotide base sequences from the five cassava genotypes and CM3306-4 cultivars (acc GU111715.1) as references were analysed using the lasergene DNASTAR sequence analysis program. The results of the alignment of the base sequence constituent of the MePSY2 gene showed that the PSY2 gene with amplified genome length was 2,380 base pairs (bp) consisting of 1,140 bp exon region and 1,240 bp intron region. In the conserved coding region, there was a difference of one nucleotide base, that is, base C in two white tuber cassava genotypes replaced with A in three yellow tuber cassava genotypes in the 1.485 base (C1.485A). The SNP converts the amino acid (aa) alanine (A) to aspartic acid (D) at the 191th (A191D). Single Nucleotide polymorphism in conserved coding region can be used further as carotenoid marker for plant breeding of yellow root cassava. Keywords: β carotene, PSY gene, polymorphic gene SNP, yellow root cassava.
, Deska Lismawenning Puspitarum, Dana Laksono
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.10922

Abstract:
Along with the development of nanotechnology, the development of solar cells entered a significant stage with the emergence of the newest generation, namely DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell). The utilization of dragon fruit skin which has been extracted as dye in dye sensitized solar cells and solar cell development to realize sustainable energy supply is the main target in this study. The method carried out begins with the synthesis of nanoparticles from organic material (TiO2), to obtain good TiO2 material as an anti-reflection, where anti-reflection is selected on DSSC technology to reduce light reflection in the visible light region. The crystal size of TiO2 was analyzed as an oxide layer material in DSSC. DSSC synthesis was carried out and the parameters of organic solar cell devices (DSSC) were optimized to obtain solar cells with good conversion efficiency. The results showed that the size of TiO2 obtained was an average of 0.211 nm and the maximum wavelength value of the extract of the dragon fruit dye solution was 530 nm. Keywords: dye, solar cell, DSSC, TiO2.
Fathul Hidayatul Hasanah, , Widhi Dyah Sawitri
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.10494

Abstract:
The binding of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a major pathological mechanism in severe malaria including cerebral malaria. The binding is mediated by PfEMP1-DBL2β domain. The study aimed to explore there combinant protein of PfEMP1-DBL2β domain of P. falciparum isolated from Indonesia. DNA was isolated from a severe malaria patient. The DBL2β domain was amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with specific primer and cloned into the pJET1 cloning vector. The DBL2β recombinant protein was constructed from DBL2β-pJET1 clone using pET-30a expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-DE3. PCR colony and digestion of plasmid clones using restriction enzymes were conducted to confirm cloning result, and the expression of recombinant protein was analyzed using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The expression of DBL2β-PfEMP1 domain is higher in pellet than in supernatant fraction. In conclusion, the DBL2β-PfEMP1 domain recombinant protein of P. falciparum isolated from Indonesia expressed as a ~66 kDa protein in full length. Keywords: DBL2β domain, Indonesia, PfEMP1, Plasmodium falciparum, recombinant protein.
Indriawati Indriawati, Slamet Diah Volkandari, Endang Tri Margawati
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 55-60; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.9333

Abstract:
An investigation involving large number of animals is often resulting incomplete or in accurate information such as animal parentage, or misidentify on sex due to unlabeled sex samples. A PCR method by applying Y chromosome markers (UTY and SRY) facilitates in determination of unknown sex problem. This study was intended to determine sex from unlabelled sex of blood samples by applying PCR method using a pooled-DNA template. Twenty five of unknown sex blood samples from Nusa Penida, Bali were used in this study. The samples were plotted into 5 pooled-DNA whith each pool DNA consisted of 5 individuals DNA. Two pairs of sex primers, UTY (58oC) and SRY (60oC) with 35 cycles were applied to amplify the samples. The result showed there was only one pooled-DNA (P4) amplified by UTY (484bp). Whereas re-PCR of the positive pooled-DNA (P4) using SRY primer, only one out of 25 samples determined as male Bali cattle (325bp). This finding suggests that UTY and SRY primers are suitable for sex determination and the pooled-DNA could be used as an efficient PCR method both in consumables and PCR process for sex determination. Keywords: Determination, sex, unknown sample, pooled DNA, Bali cattle.
, Widji Soeratri, Mahrus Naufal Nuruddin, Diajeng Putri Paramita, Bambang Widjaja
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.10220

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binder and disintegrant excipients toward tablet properties of levofloxacin as the latter tends to suffer brittle fracture upon compression. The excipients used were povidone K-30 as the binder and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as the disintegrant which the tablets were formulated according to factorial design 22 with two factors and two levels on each factor. Four formulas were prepared by wet granulation method using 2 and 4% of each povidone K-30 and sodium starch glycolate in various compositions. Tablet properties were evaluated for its hardness, friability, and disintegration time as well as dissolution profile. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using Minitab® 17 software to optimize the formulation and resulted in different impacts caused by each excipient. Povidone K-30 exhibited an increment in hardness, friability, disintegration time but a decrease indissolution profile of levofloxacin tablet. SSG decreased hardnessand disintegration time, but increased friability and dissolution profile of levofloxacin tablet. Overlaid contour plot showed that the optimal formula regarding tablet properties of friability, disintegration time, and dissolution profile is in composition of 2.01% povidone K-30 and 2.01% sodium starch glycolate. Keywords: levofloxacin tablet, povidone K-30, sodium starch glycolate, factorial design.
, Alma Ayalla, Mohamad Nurzaman, Valentina A. Kusumaningtyas, Ichsan Bari
Published: 21 January 2020
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 21, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v21i1.8665

Abstract:
The chrysanthemum plant (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) contains many secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and various volatile compounds that can be utilized as drugs. Tissue culture can be an alternative to enhance the production of certain secondary metabolite. The study aimed to determine the types of secondary metabolites that contained in shoot culture, callus and field plants of C. morifolium. The research method was exploration in the laboratory to analyze and compare the content of secondary metabolite from shoot culture, callus and field plants of C. morifolium. Callus was induced by explants of C. morifolium plantlet stems and leaves respectively on MS medium with an addition of 3 ppm 2,4-D + 2 ppm kinetin and 4 ppm 2,4-D. For shoot culture, single nodule explants with one leaf were planted on MS media with the addition of 1 ppm BAP. The secondary metabolite compouds were analized and identified by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that various types of secondary metabolites contained in shoot culture, callus and field plants of C. morifolium. In callus culture from leaf explants, four compounds from groups of alcohol, acetic acid and organosilicon were identified, whereas in callus culture from stem explants were identified eight compounds from aldehydes, esters, alkanes, and carboxylic acids group. In the shoot culture, nine compounds of alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, cycloalkane and organosilicon group were identified, while in the field plants five compounds were identified from the cycloalkanes, ketones, organoborones and organosilicon group. Some detected compounds have a potential as precursors of alkaloid, phenolic, and flavonoid.Keywords: chrysanthemum, culture, shoots, callus, secondary metabolites.
Hani Fitriani, N. Sri Hartati, Enny Sudarmonowati
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.7449

Abstract:
Along with the increasing the of the land-use change of the fertile agricultural land in Java, the better awareness has been subjected to the importance of function peat land for agricultural development. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tuber plant that potentially developed as important carbohydrate source. The objective of this research was to identify superior cassava variety candidate of selected cassava developed by of Research Centre Biotechnology, LIPI which has high adaptation capability and yield in Central Kalimantan peat land area. This research was conducted from July 2010 through May 2011 in Central Kalimantan Province (Kalampangan dan Pulang Pisau in total of area 1.5 and 2.25 ha respectively). There were three genotypes of cassava tested, i.e. Iding (high amylose), Gebang (low amylose), and Menti (high starch) compared to Adira 4 (35 ton/ha) and Darul Hidayah (102.1 ton/ha). The variables observed were plant height (cm) and tuber weight (grams). Observations were conducted at the age of 10 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. The results showed that the plant height and yield were higher in Pulang Pisau than Kalampangan even though the difference is not significant (P ≤ 0,05). Darul Hidayah has highest plant height and yield, 229.8 cm and 2271 g respectively among other genotypes/varieties grown at Pulang Pisau even though the value was not significant, whereas in Kalampangan, Darul Hidayah showed the lowest yield (670 g). Based on the data obtained, the Darul Hidayah variety can be cultivated by farmers in Pulang Pisau peat land to fulfill the availability of superior cassava seedlings for food, feed and industry. Keywords: Peat, tuber yield, plant height, liquid organic fertilizer, yam wood.
Wahyu Hidayati, Meta Apriaji, Almawati Situmorang, Ifany Agustian, Miftahul Janah
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.9062

Abstract:
Halal foods are important for Moslems and there is a Moslem’s duty to eat only Halal foods which is stated in Holly Qur’an. Moreover, government already made some regulations related to Halal certification which should be obeyed by food industries, including home industries. This research aimed to detect a porcine component in meatballs sold in Pasar Tradisional Tambun, Bekasi, West Java by using SDS-PAGE Here, we combined mechanical and chemistry methods to extract the proteins and compared the protein profiles on an acrylamide gel. We got specific bands of bovine and porcine proteins according to proteins bands that showed on the gel and after comparing with the samples we found that one sample had combining profiles in the extract. We concluded that three samples used in this research were halal, meanwhile, another sample containing porcine substances. Keywords: Halal, Proteins, Bovine, Porcine, Meatballs, SDS-PAGE.
Dian Winda Setyawati, Mochammad Reza Habibi, Komar Baihaqi
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.10297

Abstract:
Near-ring is an extension of ring without having to fulfill a commutative of the addition operations and left distributive of the addition and multiplication operations It has been found that some theorems related to a prime near-rings are commutative rings involving the derivation of the Lie products and the derivation of the Jordan product. The contribution of this paper is developing the previous theorem by inserting derivations to the Lie products and the Jordan product. Keywords: Derivation, Prime Near-Ring, Lie Products and Jordan Products.
M. Misto, Tri Mulyono, Bowo Eko Cahyono
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.8497

Abstract:
In the sugar industry, it is important to measure the sucrose content of sugar cane so that an electronic system is needed for measurement. The system was employed an array photodiode as a sensor, red and green laser, operational amplifiers (opamp), an analog to digital converter from Arduino, and a computer. The main operation of the measurement system was conducted by the sensor and controller system in the computer. The controller was programmed with Basic program, a program that suitable for the device. The signal from array photodiode sensor is send to signal processing unit (opamp) and converted to digital signal by ADC. Then the digital code is countered by controller and displayed by monitor computer. Keywords: sugar content, array photodiode, Arduino.
Abdul Rajak, Tri Siswandi Syahputra, Muhammad Miftahul Munir, K. Khairurrijal
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.9658

Abstract:
Since a nanofiber medium on itself is soft and fragile and cannot be used alone as air filters. Coating nanofiber on a rigid substrate to form a composite that can be handled readily is necessary. Beside can improve the filtration efficiency, adding the substrate will also save the use of nanofibers mat itself. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of substrate thickness on the performance of nanofibers mat in aerosol filtration in order to find the optimum thickness of substrate that can increase the quality of nanofiber filter. The substrate used was a low cost microfiber non-woven fabric made from polypropylene (PP). The nanofibers mat was composed of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with concentration of 9 wt.% which dissolved at N,N dimethylformamide (DMF). Five variations of PP different in thickness was used as substrate. From the SEM image, it was found that there is increasing fiber diameter of PAN after electrospun into PP substrate. From the porosity estimation of each nanofiber, it was found that the porosity decreased with increasing the substrate thickness. For test the performance of nanofiber filter, the particles of polystyrene latex (PSL) which generated by atomizer was used as the aerosol particle. In addition, to evaluate the performance filter in PM2.5 filtration, the experiment was carried out with generate the smoke from burning incense. Air filtration performance of all variations is obtained by comparison the results of measurement including: pressure drop, efficiency and quality factor. From the results, there is limitation on the substrates thickness based on the value of the quality factor obtained. Overall, PP nonwoven as the substrates gives the great contribution on the efficiency of PAN nanofiber. Keywords: substrate, polypropylene, thickness, nanofiber, air filtration.
Ika Oktavianawati, Nanda Letisya, Priscillia Citra, Dwi Purwita Utari, I Nyoman Adi Winata, Wuryanti Handayani,
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.8995

Abstract:
Karangpring is one tourist destination villages in Jember district which is popular with beautiful large rose field areas. Therefore, this area grows to be a leading producer of rose flowers in Jember district. However, the bulky presence of these flowers made its price becomes lower in regular days. Local community only uses and sells these fresh flowers as the flower for funeral. The rose flower has a great potency to be explored as a source of rose essential oil production. To date, there is no previous research on studying rose flowers from Karangpring village for its potency on the essential oil production. In this research, rose flowers were subjected to be extracted of its essential oil using two extraction methods, distillation, and enfleurage. Hydrodistillation resulted two phases of distillates, above part formed a cloudy white phase as a normal essential oil extracted from plants, and the lower phase was an aqueous phase containing rose hydrosols. Both phases of these condensates were analyzed using GCMS. Data explained that above phase, with a yield oil of 0.07%, only contains long-chain hydrocarbons such as n-nonadecane, n-heptadecane, 9-nonadecene, and eicosane, while the lower phase only contains 2-phenylethyl alcohol. On the other hand, enfleurage of fresh rose flowers resulted in 0.06% oil yield. GCMS analysis of this oil shows that 2-phenylethyl alcohol, eugenol, and phenylacetic acid are three major compounds which take more than 85% of total rose absolute. The results show that enfleurage is a better method for extracting rose oil in better quality than using the distillation method, in term of the variety of volatile components. Meanwhile, hydrodistillation is still benefiting from producing rose water that is qualified as an industrial additive agent for food and cosmetic productions or even a new potent of agromedicine products. Keywords: rose, rose oil, rose water, rose absolute, distillation, enfleurage.
Hendro Juwono, M. Arif Tri Sujadmiko, Laily Fauziah, Ismi Qurrota Ayyun
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.8829

Abstract:
Liquid fuels from polypropylene plastic waste have been successfully performed by catalytic cracking method. The catalyst used is Al-MCM-41- Ceramics. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, Pyridine-FTIR, N2-Adsorption-Desorption, and the product of catalytic cracking were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The catalyst was using three times at sample notify A,B and C. The results showed liquid fuels have the largest percentage of gasoline (C8-C12) are 92.76; 91.92 and 90.58 percent fraction produced. The performance of catalyst showed that reuseability number were decrease, but the charactersitic of liquid fuel produced were also be agreeable to commercial gasoline standard. Keywords: olypropylene waste plastics, liquid fuels, catalytic conversion, Al-MCM-41-Cer catalyst, reuseability number.
Fefi Eka Wardiani, Retno Wimbaningrum, Rendy Setiawan
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.8939

Abstract:
The river is one of the important water sources and at this time the river water quality has decreased.The type of land use around the river is thought to have a significant contribution to river water quality. This research was conducted to determine of correlation between the type of land use and water quality in Rembangan River, Jember Regency.The study was carried out at four stations that passed through secondary forests, coffee plantations, rice fields and residential housing. The data of biodiversity and density of plants and physical-chemical parameters of river water were noted, and benthic macroinvertebratessamples were collected at each station. Data of biodiversity and density plants were used to determine of environmental services index (ESI) values. Benthic macroinvertebrates samples were identifiedat the family level, and after that the tolerance score and the abundance of each family was determined. The last two data were analyzed to determine of Family Biotic Index (FBI) values.The value of ESI, physico-chemical parameters of river waterand FBI were analyzedto determine the relationship between these variables by using Pearson correlation analysis (α < 0.05).The research result revealed that the type of land use (ESI) was significantly related to the biological quality of river water (FBI) as indicated by the p value > 0.05. The correlation characteristic is negative and very strong (R = 0.886). High ESI values indicate that the diversity and carbon sequestration of plant community around the river are in good condition and vice versa. Low HBI values indicate good river water quality and vice versa. Based on this research, each land use type must provide space for the natural growth of the plant communityto maintain the quality of river water to remain good. Keywords: river, benthic macroinvertebrates, land use, water quality, ESI, HBI.
Vika Ichsania Ninditya, Endah Purwati, Ajeng Tyas Utami, Aprillyani Sofa Marwaningtyaz, Nadia Khairunnisa Fairuz, Penny Humaidah Hamid
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.8174

Abstract:
Aedes aegypti is the vector of various arthropod-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya and currently, zika. This study aimed to evaluate Artemisia vulgarisas other adulticides for controlling Ae. aegypti. Indonesian ministry of health hasbeen reported that more than 70.000 dengue fever human cases have occurred in 2015 covering 34 provinces which mean that dengue fever has spread now into all national territories. Eradication of Aedes still largely depends on insecticides, which is the most cost-effective strategy, and often inefficient due to resistance development in exposed Aedes population This study was designed to use of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bioassay standard. CDC bottles were coated with the ethanolic solution of extract with a concentration of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000, 50000, and 100000 g per bottle. F0 mosquitoes were used for all experiments. Death and surviving mosquitoes were evaluated based on CDC standard assay. The test was performed with 10-25 adult mosquitoes every bottle and each concentration was repeated in triplicates. The results showed that LC50 and LC90 were 5790 g and 52110 g respectively after 120 minutes exposure to the extract. There was no mortality in ethanol control group. A. vulgaris significantly (P < 0.05) have adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti. However, A. vulgaris have been reported to have larvacidal activity against Ae. Aegypti. These results indicated clearly that A. Vulgaris might act as the candidate of bioinsecticides for controlling Ae. aegypti. Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Artemisia vulgaris, adulticide,bio insecticide.
Fikriana Nur Istiqomah, Made Tirta, Dian Anggareni
Published: 16 July 2019
Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.19184/jid.v20i2.9862

Abstract:
Cluster validation is a procedure to evaluate the results of cluster analysis quantitively and objectively on a data. The validation process is very important to get the results of a good and appropriate grouping. In the validation process, the author uses internal validation, stability, and discriminant analysis test. This study aims to obtain validation results from the hierarchy and kmeans method. This data grouping uses “iris” simulation data, which results from the grouping method used can be applied to the original data to see which vaidation method is used for all data and produce an optimal grouping. The result of the study show that in the “iris” data, a single linkage link is an appropriate grouping method because the result of the grouping are optimal for all validations and classification of group members whose groups are significant. In District poverty data in Jember Regency with a single linkage link optimal grouping was obtained and complete linkage links were also used as a method that resulted in optimal groupig for all validation. Cluster validation discriminant analysis test is appropriate for various types of data in general annd shows that single linkage methods are better than other methods for grouping and validation methods for “iris” data and District data in Jember Regency based on variabels of poverty status. Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Diskriminant Analysis, Multivariate Analysis, Validation Cluster.
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