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Farai Chigora, Promise Zvavahera
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i2.8545

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Farai Chigora, Promise Zvavahera
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i2.8548

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i2.8544

Abstract:
The study analysed the value chain model that was used to analyse the sustainable competitive advantage of manufacturing businesses by Porter in 1985. The processes of the model which are both primary and secondary variables were matched and compared to the tourism destination processes. This was done in order to design a specific value chain model that can be used by a tourism destination so as to improve brand equity. The study therefore analysed Zimbabwe as a tourism destination which needs to improve its brand equity through an effective tourism value chain. The study used a sequential mixed method in order to establish data from respondents. It started with a qualitative design whereby by Zimbabwe tourism destination processes were established through in-depth interviews from various experts in the industry. The identified variables were local people, natural resources and destination marketers. Also the respondents agreed that the secondary factors for a Zimbabwe tourism destination value chain include finance, skilled human resources, infrastructure, sustainable practices and global partnerships. The relationship of Zimbabwe tourism destination variables to Porter’s primary value chain activities were identified through a quantitative design using survey questionnaires. The results of the study showed that the inbound logistics is related to local people, operations to natural resources and outbound logistics to destination marketers. The study recommended a value chain model specifically for tourism destinations that comprise of local people, natural resources and destination marketers as the primary activities. An effective mix of the tourism primary factors and secondary factors (finance, infrastructure, skilled human resources, sustainable practices and global partners) will lead to improved brand equity for the Zimbabwe tourism destination.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i2.8547

Abstract:
The study investigated the supremacy of raising tourism destination awareness in improving brand loyalty. This was based on the fact that Zimbabwe as a tourism destination has received global awareness through various campaigns but still failing to improve its tourism destination brand loyalty. Therefore the study applied both a positivists and interpretivist’s paradigm using quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively. Sequentially the research design started with a qualitative approach whereby senior managers in the tourism industry were interviewed and agreed that the most common sources of brand loyalty are brand awareness, brand image and perceived brand quality. These variables were then investigated on their relationship to brand loyalty using survey questionnaires that were distributed to the three main sectors of the tourism industry namely accommodation, travel and resorts. The results of the study showed that brand image is the most dominant variable which needs to be uplifted in order to improve Zimbabwe tourism destination’s brand loyalty. This is then followed by brand awareness and perceived brand quality. It is when there is an acceptable image of the Zimbabwe’s tourism brand that positive brand awareness will be created and perceived quality will be enhanced in moment of truth experiences. The study recommended an intensive media campaign to change the current negative perception on Zimbabwe as a tourism destination and sponsored familarisation tours. Also the study recommended an effective evaluation of the tourism products and services in order to see if they are of required quality and an intensive stakeholder involvement in brand formulation.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v4i2.10275

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the analysis of comparative models bankruptcy in selected EU countries and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the insolvency proceedings. These models are quite similar in the countries concerned; also they give the opportunity to the many variants of the bankruptcy procedure. The main thesis of the article is—so far developed and applied models of bankruptcy are still insufficient and need to be improved and reorientation to a greater extent, particularly concerning the taking into account of weak signals from the business environment. The authors analyzed the relevant theories of the firm and its reference to bankruptcy, presented various models of insolvency procedures in selected EU member states, analyzed the so-called European Company for bankruptcy. Complementing the paper detailed research on the effectiveness of insolvency proceedings in many countries. Included in the text of the conclusions show the shortage of both in theory and in practice, a comprehensive solution to the problem of insolvency proceedings.
Promise Zvavahera
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7416

Abstract:
This paper seeks to critique the elements of the complex model of motivation which was developed with the aim of applying it in organisations with the view of motivating, retaining and improving on productivity and service delivery. The model is premised on the internal and external factors that impact on employees’ performance. The Complex Model of Motivation is deemed to be comprehensive in its application. It is noted that employees are plagued with various problems which negate on their performance. It is therefore, recommended that if this Model is applied it could go a long way in addressing most of the problems raised by employees at the workplace. This Model suggests a holistic approach involving internal and external factors that impact on the total work environment. The model is significant in that it identifies promising areas in which organisations can improve so as to provide conducive working environments.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7670

Abstract:
Refineries typically gather a set of activities that are complex and dynamic. Adding to the complexity of the refining process, there is also great freedom in refinery operations, multiple possible arrangements to convert certain oils in derivatives. In this context, this paper focuses on the decision-making processes that lead refiners of an integrated oil company in their day to day. As decision making, the text refers to a process that always brings a kind of conflict resolution, in which conflicting goals have to be negotiated and reconciled. The object of analysis is inserted in hierarchical decision-making processes, e.g. a breakdown process, which begins with a comprehensive evaluation and then divides the decision into ever smaller and more defined elements so that they are interdependent. The output at an aggregated level is then input in the next detailed level. In each of the hierarchical levels, the decision-making is the result of a problem presented in a certain context to a decision maker. This decision maker will be responsible for the direction of the refinery production in which he/she is allocated. The programmer of each refinery have general guidelines that should be considered, albeit non-explicitly or non-definable way, these take the form of criteria in some cases of technical origin and in other situations derived from the business. Given these aspects, this article presents a critical and analytical view in the face of dilemmas that emerge before the search of the decision makers to converge scheduling production considering both set of criteria.
, Jatinder Kumar, George Jergeas
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7704

Abstract:
This case study is an example to demonstrate the application and potential strength of benchmarking and its application on non-industrial projects. The paper provides a review of the benchmarking system, benchmarking process, benefit of benchmarking, benchmarking types and barrier of benchmarking. It also describes the use of benchmarking in different knowledge areas. The research shows example of planned contingency and schedule growth results from oil and gas projects executed in Alberta phases 1 & 2 in CII/COAA database. The CII/COAA benchmarking approach was used to improve performance in projects executed in Alberta. The use of the benchmarking system can contribute to a better project performance on non-industrial projects. It is concluded that this approach can be used to benchmark other kinds of projects on non-industrial projects.
Mehdi Pedram, Maryam Ebrahimi
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7675

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Promise Zvavahera, Farai Chigora
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7800

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 3; doi:10.5296/bmh.v3i1.7897

Abstract:
Globalization has been evolving through the growing trend of multinational enterprises (MNE) for a prolonged period. In this fierce competitive market, corporations are trying to spread out their operations in different geographic locations in order to gain different advantages. Based on past literatures, the goal of this paper is to explain the relevant theories of multinational enterprise through proven theories and scholars viewpoint. With the theoretical ground of ‘Uppsala model’—that explains the internationalization process and, ‘Eclectic Paradigm’—that explore the factual reasons behind internationalization, this paper would focus on the rationale and process of becoming MNE. Additionally, with many critics’ viewpoint, real life examples of successful MNEs, this paper found the foundations that embolden the new generation firms to spread its production and head office in different part of the world successfully as a process of turning into MNE.
Titik Inayati, Bambang Subroto, Achmad Fachan, Atim Djazuli
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i2.6103

Abstract:
Analyzing Islamic Micro Finance Performance with Economic Value Added (EVA). EVA analysis is used for deciding the regulations of investment of BMT. Monetary report is analyzed with EVA, Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT), Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), and Invested Capital. The result of performance using EVA shows that BMT can create value. NOPAT underwent a significant increase compare with the capital fund. The profit that is created is higher than accounting profit which shows that BMT has a very good performance. The capital which is consists of debt and equity has been used efficiently and effectively so that it can increase the profit. The BMT officer should pay attention to the financial performance in order to decide the regulation and investment that will be done. Investment and activity which is done by BMT should be resulted more value so that it can give the real profit for the development of BMT.
Richard Whittle, , Matthew Gobey,
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i2.6262

Abstract:
This paper investigates previous research, to examine ways in which behavioural economics helps us to understand how house prices are determined. In several respects, behavioural economics seems to be an improvement over neoclassical economics, regarding variations and trends in house prices. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical evidence – investigating topics such as loss aversion, house price bubbles, and herd behaviour. Historical perspectives (including the 2007/8 global financial crisis) are included, as well as differences between countries.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i2.5792

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to identify the importance of SMEs in Malaysian and Pakistani economies. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in the development and growth of the Malaysian and Pakistani economies. However, their contribution to the national economies of both countries is still relatively small. Malaysian and Pakistani governments have made various fundamental steps to improve the growth of SMEs. In spite of this, SMEs are still facing heaps of challenges and obstacles that deter them from further expanding their businesses and sustainable growth. This study provides the review of the importance of SMEs in Malaysia and Pakistan.
, Chun Kit Chan
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i2.6546

Abstract:
ISO14000 is an international environmental standard that acts as a guideline for companies to improve its performance in environmental aspects. Researches related to ISO14000 shows that the implementation has not only improved companies’ environmental performance, but this has also enhanced companies’ corporate performance. In this research, a project is carried out to determine the benefits and costs of ISO14000, which necessitates the inspections of companies’ performance in corporate and environmental aspects. A questionnaire survey was carried out to achieve this and s the results from the survey shows that ISO14000 had an excellent performance in environmental aspects such as reducing waste and usage of materials and energy. In the business aspects, however, the performances were average due to high time expense for this system maintenance and cost of certification and surveillance.
Kofi Poku, Martin Owusu Ansah
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.5281

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Asantael Williams Melita
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.5860

Abstract:
Tourism Industry by its nature in the World, it is the trait that cannot be separated from the social life of the communities as it is practised on their territorial lands that they depend for their socio-economic aspects. That strong relationship has caused rapid growth of tourism activities to developing countries and led to new national and international expectations for tourism as an agent of socio-economic development. The World GDP contributions from tourism by 2013 grew to 3.1% and contribute to 101 million jobs, and in Tanzania total contribution to GDP was 12.7% where by contributed 4.9% direct and total employment contribution were 11.2% and 3.8% direct of the total employment. In Ngorongoro Conservation Area with a population of about 87,851 residents from Maasai, Datoga and Hadzabe tourism contributed to 92% of the total economy of the area where by 8% was from other sources and 48% total community economy and 29.2% direct to people and 9.7% of total employment. The findings revealed that major relationship of the tourism and socio-economic based on economic activities contributions (livestock services), Social services (education, healthy, culture and life style), resources ownerships and infrastructure developments. The paper considered community survey of 120 local residents from 4 wards of the NCA, examines whether tourism has direct relationship to the Socio-economic aspects of the residents of the area and the levels of the contributions to their development. I found that regardless a claimed little contribution to their economy; many people appreciated the social and economic changes related to the tourism of the area.
, Georgios Talampekos
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.5466

Abstract:
For many years, the provision of WLB/FPW was offered as an incentive from HR departments to their workforce. However, in the last decade, certain demographic trends and changes in the needs and the nature of the workforce upgraded the WLB/FPW concept to a more significant factor of business growth and competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the need for WLB/FPW in the equation of recruitment and retention of “generation Y” employees as a vital factor of the staffing policies and strategies in the forthcoming years.
Omar Taouab
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.5317

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship and business creation is a key factor to enhance the vitality and development of the Moroccan economy especially when undertaken in areas of high economic impact including the textile sector.To delineate the main determinants of entrepreneurial activity factors, we mobilized the theoretical model of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1991), and the model of Shapero (1993) who consider the desirability of the act of undertake as a dependent variable of demographic variables and personality traits. Our results have directed us to the proposal of some actions to be taken to increase the likelihood of undertaking in this area. Each proposed action is accompanied by an approximation of the expected positive effects on endogenous variable due to a variation of a factor
Chikashi Tsuji
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.5866

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ariful Islam, Mahmudul Hasan Siddiqui, Kh. Fahim Hossain, Rayhan Islam
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 2; doi:10.5296/bmh.v2i1.4853

Abstract:
All Micro-credit institutions of Bangladesh claim that they bring the poor women from dead end situation to a promising position by providing a very small size of loan, which is given in cash. This paper attempts to critically examine the impacts of micro credit program of micro credit institution on the empowerment of the rural poor women. In this study some major indicators of women empowerment have been specified so as to make a judgment whether or not micro credit institution could actually reach the poor women. The details of the impact analysis in this sphere have been made by using both the qualitative and quantitative tools on the basis of secondary data. The estimates show hardly any significant relationship between micro credit institute operations and a strong position of the rural women in question.However the gloomy findings of this paper are expected to create awareness of the policy makers about the long run impact of micro credit programs of micro credit institution and followers on the rural poor women.
, Osuagwu Linus
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4162

Abstract:
The work is an evaluation of consumerism activities in Nigeria with specific interest in the food and drink industries. It considered the growth and challenges to consumerism, the impact of the non-active nature of consumerism on the health and environmental standard of the country. Data generated based on the use of sets questionnaire were analyzed using analysis of variance statistical tool. Findings include that the inactive nature of consumerism in Nigeria contributes significantly to the exploitative attitude of manufacturers, explicitly through high price of products and implicitly by the debasement of the environment through improper management of residues (waste), resulting to poor health and environmental standard. Solution among others is that firms by suasion should be encouraged to adopt marketing concept philosophies, principles, policies and strategies for the maximization of corporate goal, consumer welfare (satisfaction) and macro economic development of the society.
Chen Tsun Yung,
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4233

Abstract:
Followership is the mirror image of leadership. After all, an underlying truth is that leaders would be nonexistent without the support of their followers. To some extent, the relationship between leaders and followers resembles a miniature democracy. Thus, followership should be credited as leadership. The purpose of this article was to review related literature concerning followership and to draw attention to this area because it is argued that good followership serves as an important resource for organizational development. First, the definition of followership is reviewed. Next, the qualities of good followers are examined. Then a path to effective followership is suggested.
, Onuoha A. Onuoha
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4516

Abstract:
Even well designed, defect-free products can fail if they do not fit consumers’ perceptions of high quality or if appropriate follow-up service is unavailable. Poor however is that some products that command high customer favourable perception with high turnover do not always turn out to be profitable. The objective of the study, therefore, is to ascertain the impact of after-sales services on consumers’ perception of quality and corporate turnover and profitability. One hundred and twenty (120) consumer and vendor (manufacturers) respondents from each of the major commercial cities of the five (5) states of South East Nigeria were conveniently selected for study. Data generated from the respondents using a set of questionnaire, were analyzed using statistical tools. The results showed, among others, that after-sales services impact positively on consumers’ perception of quality loyalty, however little on turnover and corporate profitability. Based on the findings of the study, the research concludes that there is still room for growth in after sales services and customer loyalty management as many marketers and product managers, especially in household appliances market, have not fully grasped and made use of the whole potential of after-sales service and the strategic importance of the management of customer loyalty for corporate profitability given the inputs of after sales services. The research thus, recommends, among others, that firms should ensure that customer service is an integral part of the product offering, to be subjected to the same quality standards as the production process, adopt good pricing strategy and monitor customer behaviour for profit maximization among others.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4663

Abstract:
August 2005 and the ensuing months saw a natural disaster, Hurricane Katrina, and a leadership disaster surrounding governmental and institutional response to the storm’s aftermath. An event of such monumental proportions would predictably offer numerous challenges; however, the extent of the weaknesses in preparedness and response revealed by Katrina was nothing short of astounding. Lessons learned from this experience were quickly incorporated into many organizations’ planning, readiness, and response activities. This manuscript discusses salient aspects of less-than-optimal responses to Katrina’s effects and explores changes in and different programs for coordinating subsequent disaster response. Interestingly, many such changes were undertaken by units not directly impacted by or involved in Katrina’s aftermath. The authors propose the term “vicarious leadership learning” to describe this phenomenon. Examples from a variety of organizations are presented, and the benefits of vicarious leadership learning are discussed.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4733

Abstract:
The unprecedented abundance of choice and retail outlets creates a massive array of choice for consumers most especially students. Innovative consumers are an important market segment. This paper seeks to investigate whether consumers’ innate innovativeness is associated with their shopping styles. Specifically, it aims to explore the relationship between two types of innovativeness (sensory innovativeness and cognitive innovativeness and consumer shopping styles). Indeed, the unprecedented abundance of choice and retail outlets creates a massive array of choice for consumers. Despite these significant changes in the commercial environment, very little is known about the decision making processes of consumers in developing countries, most especially in Botswana. Ostensibly, the paucity of research in this area hinders our understanding of consumer decision making processes. The paper integrates the consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles literature. A structural equation model was used to test the relationship between cognitive and sensory innovativeness and various shopping styles. Cognitive innovators are inclined to show shopping styles such as quality consciousness, price consciousness, and confusion by overchoice, while sensory innovators are inclined to have shopping styles such as brand consciousness, fashion consciousness, recreational orientation, impulsive shopping, and brand loyalty/habitual shopping. The research is based on a convenience sample of young consumers in Botswana. The findings of this research would hopefully help managers to develop a deeper insight into product development and marketing. Furthermore, since the youth market in Botswana represents an enormous opportunity for marketers, the paper provides valuable insights into this key market segment. It thus provides new insights into the shopping patterns of consumers who belong to different innovativeness types. It also makes a new contribution to the shopping styles literature by explicating potential antecedents to the various shopping styles among the largest private tertiary institution students in Botswana.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4779

Abstract:
Middle level managers are expected to play a critical role in translating organizational policies and strategies into practice and action. They have an important role in providing information/input to strategy formulation, and in motivating and energizing employees at lower levels but studies in some large Indian organization in both the public and the private sector show that these managers themselves feel like “victims” and experience a sense of powerlessness in their organizations; they are the ones who express the most negative emotions about any organizational change effort; they feel a sense of stagnation in terms of real personal and professional growth in spite of receiving promotions at fairly predictable intervals; they assume a ‘spectator’ rather than an ‘actor’ stance in the organization; and they do not see themselves as a part of the “real” management. As a result, the middle and senior management performance remains far below the potential. Taking into consideration the importance of middle managers in the organization and a critical review of literature which revealed that the study on work motivation, burnout and intention to leave has not been conducted so far on the middle level managers of garment industry of Delhi and NCR (India), the researcher found a gap to be filled by conducting an investigation on this sample for the variables in question. So the sample of the present study consists of the middle level managers of garment industry of Delhi and NCR (India).Thus, a convenient sampling method was used for drawing the sample from 60 garment export houses of Delhi and 40 of NCR (India).This paper gives a deep insight of work motivation, burnout and intention to leave for the middle level managers of the garment industry of Delhi/NCR (India). In this paper the researcher has checked the relationship of all dimensions of work motivation with the dimensions of burnout and intention to leave and have observed that all dimensions of work motivation have some more or less relationship with each dimension of burnout and intention to leave.
Nkem Jacobs, , Olutayo Otubanjo
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.3735

Abstract:
The Internet as an innovative platform housing multiple channels of communication is largely responsible for the presence of businesses on the web space. As a result, businesses soon find themselves in a position, not only to feed Internet channels with content but also to manage the content vis-à-vis content on other platforms. In the context of the Nigerian financial services industry, this calls the attention of public relations (PR) practitioners who are positioned in the corporate affairs department to manage the image of the financial institutions they represent. The objective of this study, therefore, was to gain an understanding of the contributions in the literature with respect to the Internet as a communicative tool for businesses. Although the literature has little or no evidence from Nigerian markets, theoretical arguments indicate many uses of the Internet for business communication by PR practitioners resulting in a new communication model proposed by Hoffman & Novak (1996). An attempt to situate these theoretical positions within a local context led the researchers to carry out a pilot study which revealed that there is a gap between internet channels initiated by business and the business objective of opening up such channels. As a result, there is a tendency of such channels to target the wrong audience – calling for the need for further research with empirical evidence.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i2.4596

Abstract:
De-motivation of the public sector employees is a key aspect in Public Administration as far as human resources management is concerned. It is argued that people are without a doubt the most valuable resource to any organization. It is upon this ground that this study sought to assess the factors that de-motivated staff in the public sector of Uganda, specifically Arua District Local Government. In this study, 15 district staff (Heads of departments and office assistants), 30 sub county staff (Community Development Officers, Sub County Chiefs, Accounts Assistants and Extension staff) were used as the research subjects. Self-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. The priority de-motivators were lack of autonomy and variety, low salary, organizational politics, unending clients’ demands and ineffective communication. The study recommends that, the government should initiate low cost housing schemes including soft loans for the public sector employees. In addition, official residences should be built for the staff at their work stations, this specifically would apply to the Sub County staff who would need to endure residing near their work places and this scheme would most likely contribute to the conduciveness of work environment.
Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Noman Arshed, Muhammad Haseeb
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3374

Abstract:
In pursuit to sketch the Pakistan USA Exchange Rate patterns for the duration of 1991M3 to 2010M5 using the CHEERS model, the role of Goods Market and Financial Market is implied through the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and Uncovered Interest Parity (UIP) respectively. The results using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) revealed that both Parities work in combination with near unity elasticities to explain the motion of Exchange Rate in Long Run, but it showed very slow degree of convergence (around 3 and half years) to this equilibrium path after any shock.
Syed Shah Alam, Vijayesvaran Arumugam, Noor Gani Mohd Nor, Pushpa Kaliappan, Lee Sze Fang
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3415

Abstract:
Innovation is one of the basic component use by the corporate as a stretegy to improve productive manufacturing processes, to be able to compete in the market and to establish good reputation to gain positive status in customers’s perception. This paper has been designed to review the existing literature available on firm innovation capabilities and its influence on performance (i.e. business, marketing and financial performance). After reviewing the existing literature on firm innovation capabilities, the researchers have found that firm innovation capabilities have greater influence on business performance, marketing performance and ultimately influence on financial performance. Theoretical framework has been develop on the basis of the reviewed literiture, showing the relationship between firm innovation capabilities and performance.
Azahari Jamaludin, Fais Ahmad
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3253

Abstract:
Nowadays, the usage of Internet has grown rapidly over the past years and it has become a common medium for delivering and trading of goods, services and information at global marketplace. Even though this method of business transaction or exchange has started to win the hearts of Malaysian buyers, the element influencing the willingness to purchase online is still unknown. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to examine the element that influence buyer’s intention to purchase online (dependent variable). The independent component is trust to visit the website. A total number of 78 (100 percent) returned questionnaires were accepted, coded and were subject to further analysis. The finding support the hypothesis stated in the current study. The results indicates that website trust contributed 16.1 percent (R2 = 0.161) to the variance in intention to purchase online.
Ali M. Al-Khouri
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3463

Abstract:
The subject of connected government is coming once again to the forefront of national development priorities around the world. This stems from the need to address various local and global necessities in light of the changing landscape of the new digital world we live in today. In a connected government context, public service agencies are needed to act as a single enterprise so that citizens feel they are being served by one organization rather than a number of different public authorities. Identity management is considered here a fundamental pillar to enable such operating models and support single sign-on (SSO) and online identity validation capabilities for e-government and e-commerce environments. This article explores and describes the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government integration strategy with relation to keeping its national identity management infrastructure (population register) updated as life events take place. The integration strategy also aims to support federal and local government entities to verify citizen and resident information using their own applications in a secure, reliable, and integrated manner. Another expected contribution of the integration platform is to support decision-making and strategic planning dimensions of government work.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3942

Abstract:
The Paper is the research findings on the role of strategic planning and competitive advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Literature suggests that the contemporary business environment in which organisations operate is increasingly becoming uncertain and unpredictable. Significant changes are mostly driven by technological changes, globalisation and trade liberalisation. As a result, like large enterprises, SMEs are facing new and unexpected challenges that threaten their competitiveness. While most countries acknowledge the critical role that SMEs contribute to their economies, both as an engine of growth and sustainable development, many questions still remain unanswered as to the determination of the critical challenges facing SMEs and how these challenges could be addressed to improve their competitiveness. These challenges have increased the need for empirical information which is essential for decision making in addressing issues that are likely to enhance SMEs survival and growth. It is noted that there has been no adequate research studies on the role of strategic planning and competitive advantage of SMEs. This study contributes to the need to address the research gaps and thus explored the role of strategic planning and competitive advange of SMEs in Kenya. The study population consisted of 238 ICT SMEs from Nairobi and its environs. A sample size of 146 firms constituting 61 per cent of the total population was selected through stratified sampling. The study aimed to collect data from 438 respondents from top, middle and lower management teams. Structured questionnaires with closed and open ended questions was used for data collection, 239 responses were received from 123 ICT firms a response rate of 55 per cent and 84.2 per cent respectively. Key characteristics of strategic planning including formality, environmental analysis processes both internal and external orientations, strategies adopted, and implementation and control were recorded. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, correlation matrixes and regression analysis. The key findings revealed that strategic planning has significant and positive influence in performance of SME’s. The test of hypothesis revealed that strategic planning has positive and significant influence on competitive advantage. The study demonstrated strategic planning as a learning tool and a strategic resource which is consistent with the underlying assumptions of resource based theory, systems theory, chaos theory and balanced score card model assumptions. It is envisaged that, this kind of research is likely to generate useful discussions on the role of strategic planning and performance, of SMEs. It is apparent that entrepreneurs of SMEs cannot ignore strategic planning as significant changes in competitive advantage is the result of change or effective application of strategic planning. Policy makers and academicians...
S. M. Towhidur Rahman, Khasrul Alam, Shanta Kar
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3924

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Wee Yu Ghee
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3205

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to determine the influence of faculty workload on job satisfaction among lecturers in four public universities in Kelantan. Sample was randomly selected through systematic procedure. There were 320 samples responded the self-administered questionnaires. The data was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and the result indicated that there was negative significant relationship between daily faculty workload and job satisfaction. Organization should consider this variable in promoting satisfaction among employees in order to enhance organizational citizenship.
Liliek Soeprijadi, Endang Yuli, Edi Susilo, Rudianto Rudianto
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3485

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of public capital fishing, fish processing business and micro-business skills to the programs and activities of the agency joint venture (KUB) coastal fishing town of Cirebon: to analyze the effect of public capital fishing, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills through the agency the joint venture (KUB) fisherman exchange coastal fishing town of Cirebon: to analyze the effect of public capital fishing, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills through a joint venture group institutions (KUB) and exchange fishing to conservation of fish resources in the coastal city of Cirebon , and to formulate a model of the joint venture (KUB) knowledge as a strategy of empowerment of fishing communities in the city of Cirebon. Analysis of regression weights measurement models with business groups (KUB) based knowledge as a fishing community empowerment strategy was as follows: capital fishing communities and micro-enterprise skills significantly influence the institutional joint venture (KUB) Cirebon fishermen. While the fish processing business variables didn’t significantly influence the institutional joint venture (KUB) Cirebon fishermen; stock fishing communities, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills together through the institution of the joint venture (KUB) fisherman significant effect on the value of rate of coastal fishing town of Cirebon. While the partial correlation between public capital fishing, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills exchange coastal fishing town of Cirebon was not significant; stock fishing communities, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills together through the institution of the joint venture (KUB) and exchange rates have a significant effect fishing conservation of coastal fish resources Cirebon. While the partial correlation between public capital fishing, fish processing business and micro-business skills for the preservation of coastal fishery resources Cirebon was not significant, and KUB institutional model based knowledge capital in the form of fishing communities, fish processing business and micro-enterprise skills through a strategy of empowerment fishing communities significantly influence conservation of fish resources in coastal city of Cirebon.
Massoud Kassaee, Mojtaba Farrokh, Hassan Hosseini Nia
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3623

Abstract:
Vendor selection is an important issue in most company based on many criteria that includes ambiguous or uncertain data. Therefore in the study, it is essential that fuzzy approach is employed for coping with the uncertainty and achieving more accurate results. In other hand, the relationships between criteria and sub-criteria are complex; for encompassing the complexity, most conventional decision models cannot help us explain the interrelationships among the criteria. In this paper, a hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique is proposed to determine the structural relationships and the interrelationships among all the evaluation’s dimensions based the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method determining appropriate weightings to each sub-criterion. Then alternatives priority should be determined which can aid the decision making. For the purpose, The TOPSIS (technique for order performance by similarity to idea solution) is used to rank all competing alternatives in terms of their overall performances. In MCDM studies and research, applying TOPSIS in ranking alternatives has recently been customary because of its advantages. In the end, a case study of an Iranian company, in automotive industry, is demonstrated to illustrate the proposed model can improve solving of vendor selection problem.
Tahseen Arshi, Gargi Chugh
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3573

Abstract:
Innovation is a key competence that most firms wish to acquire as it has been established that innovation can provide the necessary competitive advantage. However, firms struggle to develop appropriate strategic direction that may provide the necessary competitive advantage through innovation. Strategizing for innovation becomes even more challenging as innovation comes in different forms and sizes. This study attempts to unravel the complexities associated with innovation and strategizing. The findings provide clear directions to firms as the critical dimensions of strategy are prescribed for both radical and incremental innovation. Value/ originality Theoretical insights from both strategy and innovation literature informs this study to develop empirical guidelines for strategy design. This is one of the first studies that associate different strategic orientations for both radical and incremental innovation. This study fills a critical gap in the literature as earlier studies have focused on strategy and innovation in a very generic context. Rationale The role strategy in promoting innovation in organizations has found considerable amount of acceptance in the literature. However, the richness of extant literature on strategic orientation gets limited when strategy is studied in the context of innovation, especially innovation scale and frequency. Clear strategic directions are not available to firms based on their innovation focus. It is therefore quite observable that many of the innovation efforts fail and unable to provide these firms with requisite competitive advantage. The limited clarity on the concept of innovation itself makes it difficult to analyze strategy within a prescribed and valid framework. Since this study focuses on strategic orientation within the context of radical and incremental innovation, academic and practitioners will have a better understanding of strategic decision making for each type of innovation. Specific strategies can be designed depending on the innovation type and objectives.
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3401

Abstract:
Nutrition information enables consumers to make informed decisions when purchasing and consuming food products. Despite this, the issue of consumer awareness and usage of nutrition information has attracted little research attention in developing countries. This study presents findings of an empirical investigation of nutrition information awareness and usage in Botswana. The study is descriptive and data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 150 consumers in Gaborone, the Capital City of Botswana. A mall-intercept technique was used in the selection of the respondents. The main findings of the study indicate that the level of awareness of nutrition information among the sampled consumers is relatively high, and that the majority of them use nutrition information to inform food purchases. The study further finds that whereas nutrition information awareness does not significantly differ across the demographic segments, usage differs. Lack of knowledge and interest are the main factors that prevent consumers from using nutrition information. Nutrition information is mostly used when comparing products or when buying food products for the first time. These findings highlight the need to improve nutrition education in Botswana. The findings also suggest that food producers in Botswana need to use nutrition information to differentiate their products from competitors’. Similarly, the findings highlight the need for the food industry in Botswana to establish more effective nutrition information labeling standards. However, these findings need to be interpreted with caution as they are based on consumers’ self-report of nutrition information use, which is highly subjective.
Nugi Nkwe
Business and Management Horizons, Volume 1; doi:10.5296/bmh.v1i1.3486

Abstract:
In the framework of this study, an attempt to identify the level of taxpayers’ attitudes and tax compliance behaviour towards tax systems, to identify factors which influence taxpayers’ attitudes, to establish relationship between attitudes and tax compliance behaviour and to recommend ways that may contribute to development of enhanced taxpayers’ attitudes and compliance behaviour among Small Medium Enterprises in Botswana. This research was a survey whose data is collected from two hundred taxpayers in Small Medium Enterprises. After the data was collected, it was analyzed using descriptive statistics then summarized and presented using statistical tools. From the findings, the conclusionis that taxpayer’ attitudes do affect their compliance behaviour and recommendations weremade to try andhelp these SMEs.
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