Journal MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research)-
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.501-515
Abstract:Purpose: this article aims to determine key characteristics features of venture capital investments models in the context of the development of innovative enterprises. For this purpose the authors conducted analysis of the current state and key differences of venture capital investments models in Russia and in the USA, determined fields and ways for further improvement of domestic models of venture capital investments.Methods: to achieve the stated goal, theoretical research methods - abstraction, analysis and synthesis were used. Adoption of these methods, led to analysis of the theoretical basis of venture capital investments models and identification of key features having the greatest practical significance. The models of venture capital investments in Russia and the USA were studied, and a quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis of the elements characterizing the models of venture capital investments was carried out. The study was based on the data published by the national associations of venture investors and the information database of venture capital companies Pitchbook.Results: this article reveals the importance of venture capital investments as the main factor affecting the innovative development of the Russian economy. In modern conditions, venture capital investments are a key tool that helps bring financial resources to young innovatively active companies. This article summarizes results of the study of the theoretical base of venture capital investments models and the historical dynamics of venture capital investments in Russia and the USA. A comparative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the following elements, characterizing the models of venture capital investments in Russia and the USA: stages of development of venture capital companies, types of investors and sources of venture financing, distribution of venture investments by industry, exit strategies and organizational forms of venture capital investments. The paper as well summarizes fields and ways for further improvement of models of venture capital investments based on a comparative analysis.Conclusions and Relevance: based on the conducted research and comparative analysis of venture capital investment models in Russia and the United States, the proposals for further improvement of Russian venture capital investment models were developed and presented in the article.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.440-456
Abstract:Purpose: of the article is to prepare evidence-based proposals for the formation of document architecture, strategic planning, fundamental for modern needs and ensuring the integrity of the strategy for all levels of government and business, as well as to ensure the implementation of the principles of unity, integrity, continuity, continuity and delineation of powers in organizing and system functioning, strategic planning as part of a single management cycle. In the framework of the task of creating the architecture of documents, strategic planning also solves the important task of linking issues of socioeconomic development and ensuring national security, and as a result – improving the efficiency of public administration, ensuring coherence and coordination of the country's strategic priorities. Methods: the main method of work is the disclosure of the principles of strategic planning. The architecture of strategic planning documents under development is based on the disclosure of regulatory acts of the Federal Law dated 28.06.2014 N 172-FZ “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”. Results: the absence of normatively fixed principles and a system for ensuring strategic planning, as well as the procedure for implementing strategic planning, leads to inconsistency of the approved strategies and forecasting, the development of new documents and studies in the Federal Law “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation” and other violations of the systematic approach. In this regard, it is necessary to determine the architecture of the system of strategic planning documents developed as part of the target definition, forecasting, planning and programming.Conclusions and Relevance: the architecture of strategic planning documents proposed in the article is based on the creation of a three-level document system with a central place in it the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation as the main document of strategic goalsetting. In accordance with Federal Law N 172-FZ, the level of forecasting, target definition, planning and programming allows you to add a conceptual level that ensures the quality of the overall ideological superstructure, which should provide an idea of what kind of character for the state and its position in the world the strategic planning system should provide. Taking into account the task of minimizing amendments and clarifications to the Federal Law “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”, the proposed changes are more in the nature of clarifying the provisions of this law. The architecture of the documents built in this way will allow implementing and, if necessary, further detailing the principles of strategic planning defined by law 172-FZ and, above all, the principles of continuity, balance of the strategic planning system.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.543-560
Abstract:Purpose: the aim of the article is to develop a methodology and practical tools for effective digital transformation of high-tech enterprises. To achieve this goal, a concept of enterprise transformation by means of innovative modernization, affecting changes in products, technological operations and organizational and production structures, was developed. For this, a number of tasks were solved, including the development of original economic and mathematical models that describe the change in the functional business strategies of a high-tech enterprise; selection and formalization of model variables; development of organizational design methods for flexible robotic structures and models for determining the parameters of flexibility and productivity of a robotic structure; software development of digital transformation processes.Methods: in preparing the article, methods of systems theory, project management of an innovative focus, mathematical modeling and a number of other methods were used.Results: a set of information systems for decision support in the areas of design and economic activities of a high-tech enterprise has been developed. The design of such systems was due to a number of circumstances. Firstly, the need to transform traditional information technologies used in the practice of a high-tech enterprise into digital information technologies. Secondly, the need for a high-tech enterprise in original applied software applications that provide solutions to innovative and economic problems, taking into account the specifics of the enterprise. To do this, an analysis was performed and models of data collection and storage were proposed for solving the problems of information support of the economic activity of a high-tech enterprise. The possibility of using a consistent data model in organizing the management of receivables and payables is shown. Cross-platform software was developed for the support system for decisions made by a high-tech enterprise, and a convenient user interface was implemented.Conclusions and Relevance: the study showed that it is advisable to create information systems as hierarchical structures covering the strategic, tactical and operational levels of management. In order to bring the automation level of the control and production subsystems into conformity, industrial robotics must be integrated into the created production links.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.487-500
Abstract:Purpose: the aim of the work is to study the risks of innovative development of regions and industries, develop systemic risk management models in the formation and implementation of innovative development programs in the region.Methods: the work used general scientific methods and approaches to research, such as analysis, comparison, generalization, optimization methods. Methodological approaches of risk management models include concepts, approaches aimed at the problems of risk management in the formation and implementation of regional innovative development programs, studied in domestic and foreign literature; mathematical apparatus of dichotomous and network programming.Results: the article provides a methodological justification and description of the criteria aspects of managing such tasks, risk analysis, develops a theory of project risks of a complex of innovative development programs for regions, presents models for assessing complex risk of a program, gives a statement of the problem of risk management and the formation of multi-purpose programs taking into account complex risks, as well as limitations for financing medium-risk and high-risk programs, algorithms for solving the risk management problem by dichotomous methods and networks are presented of programming. The transition from program-targeted management to integrated (joint system use of the project and scenario approaches) was completed, which allowed us to consider them holistically, form a complex of projects–programs, apply risk management mechanisms based on qualitative assessments and propose quantitative models for managing project and program risks of a program complex.Conclusions and Relevance: the proposed approach can be used in the formation and implementation of many program-targeted documents of the state and regional level with the transition to project management, as a tool for analysis and accounting of risks.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.516-529
Abstract:Purpose: this article includes the review of the Japanese policy on the national economy Digital Transformation, using the case of implementation of artificial intelligence for production and services, description and analysis of the current results, as well as identification of obstacles to achieve the expected results. Methods: the article is based on the analysis of scientific and analytical materials to the problem of research. The factual basis is the framework documents of the Cabinet of Japan, media, reports on research conducted by Japanese research institutes. Results: the article provides a brief review and analysis of the Japanese public policy of the development of AI technology, summarizes the interim results of the measures taken, identifies problematic factors that prevent the achievement of the expected results. The hypothesis is put forward about the insufficiency of government efforts to monitor and analyze the activities already implemented, the lack of practice of taking into account failures in the formation of new programs and projects. Recently, significant attention to the development of AI technology is paid in Russia. In 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin approved the "National strategy for the development of AI until 2030". It is expected that the using of digital technologies, will increase the competitiveness of the national economy, improve the welfare of society. In this regard, the study of Japan's experience as one of the technological leaders in the development and using of digital transformation, is especially important. Conclusions and Relevance: To solve the current socio-economic problems, Japan government relies on the development of the advanced technologies. At the same time, the government continues to develop measures to stimulate the cooperation of the academic and industrial sectors to conduct joint R&D on priority technologies. However, due to the "closed" nature of Japanese corporations and the relative independence of government plans in determining the technological priorities development, the corporate sector is reluctant to follow government recommendations on the using new technologies in management and production processes, as well as joint projects with the academic sector are not large-scale and are rather formal. This situation indicates the continuing unpreparedness of key NIS participants for the perception of the advanced technologies and digital transformation.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.457-469
Abstract:Purpose: the purpose of this article is to study the challenges of higher education in the digitalization of the economy and ways to overcome them. Achieving the goal is provided by identifying the system attributes of the digital economy, the gaps between the needs of the digital economy and the possibilities of providing them with the current education system, the problems that arise and the possible directions for solving them in connection with the tasks of innovative development of Russia. Methods: the study is based on a systematic approach, including a functional-structural method, multi-level and hierarchical in combination with the historical-dialectical method. These methods make possible to identify the occurrence of qualitative transformations of the system from reaching quantitative boundaries, a change in the main opposing forces and the nature of their interaction in the system, the direction of negation of the previous stage of the system and the fundamental characteristic of its new state. The combination of these approaches predetermined the choice of specific research methods: phenomenological, comparative, inductive. Results: the fundamental difference between the digital economy as the fifth technological paradigm and all previous ones have been formulated in the context of biological and socio-cultural evolution. The connections of digitalization with innovative development, technological and social singularity were shown. The system challenge of digital economy to the education, that includes the functional-structural, psychological, pedagogical and institutional ones, has been revealed and disclosed. Directions of interdisciplinary research are proposed that allow answering these challenges, as well as some methodological innovations that allow to accelerate and to increase the efficiency of the learning process, in particular, programmable learning applications that self-adjust using individual dynamic cognitive profiles of students formed in the learning process. Conclusions and Relevance: the functional and structural challenge to the education system creates significantly complicated requirements for the qualitative characteristics of human capital. They are manifested in an increase in the volume of relevant competencies and the speed of their obsolescence, shift of emphasis from standard unidisciplinary to inter- and multidisciplinary problem tasks, in new relations between the depth of professional knowledge and the breadth of general cultural orientation. The incomplete readiness of cognitive psychology and pedagogy to bridge the gap between the explosive growth in the volume of relevant knowledge and the limited speed of its development forms the content of the psychological and pedagogical challenge, and the organizational and economic disconnection of education and business exacerbates the challenge with the institutional component. An adequate response to challenges is possible through the own efforts of...
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.530-542
Abstract:Purpose of the article is to consider the features of the integration development of the Eurasian economic Union and identify possible priority strategic directions.Methods: the presented study is based on a systematic approach. Such universal methods of scientific knowledge as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction are applied. The elements of comparative, strategic, functional and economic analysis are used. Analytical documents of the Eurasian economic Commission, EAEU statistics, profile and thematic reports were used as materials for the work.Results: the study reveals the goals set by the participating countries of modern world integration associations. The motives that induce different states to form economic unions are considered. Negative trends in the development of modern integration processes in countries with developing economies are revealed. The reasons impeding the expected efficiency of their integration are highlighted. The existing models for the implementation of economic strategies that are used today in most integration communities are analyzed. These models make it possible to make the best use of existing competitive advantages and unlock the potential of the participating countries. Special attention is paid to the study of the features of the integration processes of the Eurasian economic Union, which directly affect the possibilities of its development. The approach of the governing body of the EAEU, the Eurasian Economic Commission, to the development of the development strategy of the association is considered. Priority directions on the basis of perspective industries are recommended. Their joint development will allow the most effective disclosure of the competitive potential of the Eurasian economic Union in the framework of the chosen strategy.Conclusions and Relevance: for the successful development of the EAEU, it is necessary to refer to the experience of existing models for the implementation of integration potential. Today for the union it is advisable to use elements of practically all variants of strategies in various combinations and apply them to the selected list of priority industries. Currently, the main task of the leadership of the EAEU states is a joint compromise definition of strategic development directions. At the same time, it is important that all participating countries in the process of implementing the strategy contribute to the removal of barriers that impede the effective development of the identified strategic directions.
Published: 30 December 2019
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.4.470-486
Abstract:Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to systematize scientific approaches in the field of innovation research, as well as to identify the leading trends and directions of development of innovation theory.Methods: a wide range of research methods was used during the preparation of the article, in particular: system, logical and conceptual-methodological methods.Results: this article contains a detailed review of the leading scientific approaches to the innovation study formed in the last century. The analysis of these scientific theories is carried out. The periodization of the innovation theory development formed by V.Y. Yakovets in 2004 is also updated and supplemented. The author proposes to conduct the process of development of this theory, including the periodization and chronology of stages, starting from the period of origin of the innovation doctrine to the present day.Conclusions and Relevance: the analysis of the leading concepts and theories suggests that scientific ideas about the role of innovation in the economic process have undergone a significant evolution in the 100-year period of their development. From the technical and technological perception of their role, these scientific ideas have progressed to the present time in the direction of the socio-humanitarian paradigm of innovation.
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.3.340-368
Abstract:If the general purpose of all work is to study problems of development and implementation of strategic programs of STD in regions of the Russian Federation with different level of modernization, at the first stage the question of organization of work in regions with external, infocommunicative side was raised, and at the second stage from subjective position, on the basis of assessment of the situation from the social and organizational side. Hence the similarities and differences in methodology, methods and outcomes at each stage. Each of them is of interest in assessing the work in this direction, but the comparison of the data obtained is of particular importance. If the first phase involved work to inform the public and potential participants about the forthcoming work on the STD and, Accordingly, on the readiness of the authorities and management to implement it on the materials of remote analysis of official sites of the regions, The second phase focused on finding out: How it is perceived by specialists in terms of creating a favourable social and organizational environment in the regions for the implementation of the adopted strategies.Purpose: obtaining an assessment of the readiness of regional authorities to create favorable social and organizational conditions for successful activities according to certain criteria and elements of innovative and technological systems.Methods: the methodology of the study takes into account the logic and content of the elements of the first stage of the program, but it is markedly different from them. General is the setting of the problem, the presence of related elements of the program (problem, object, subject, hypotheses, goal and tasks, nevertheless there is a difference in methods and procedures), in terms of using empirical scales and interpreting the results. However, if at the first stage the main method was remote (in this sense anonymous) scanning and analysis of data from official sites of authorities and administrations in the selected regions according to the criterion of the level of their sociocultural modernization, at the second stage the main method was personal remote interviews of qualified specialists about the real situation and potential to solve the outstanding issues in the social and organizational plan.Results: the tasks set by the Decrees will be difficult to solve positively without the organization of systematic sociological support for the implementation of the innovation policy of the SSTD of the Russian Federation in the regions as a link of feedback and corresponding organizational outputs on the materials of such studies.Conclusions and Relevance: at the first stage we concluded that the implementation of the Strategic Documents on the Implementation of Innovation Policy of the SSTD of the Russian Federation requires taking into account the state of affairs in regions with different levels of sociocultural modernization and proved this situation on the materials...
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 10; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2019.10.3.408-428
Abstract:Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to improve forecast-oriented management of the segmentation of regional labour markets for the professions that are in greatest demand in the main groups of the All-Russian Classifier of Occupations. The following tasks should be addressed towards this goal: 1) to group Subjects of the Russian Federation and identify, on forecast basis, the influence factors behind the dynamics of the vacanciesposted; 2) todevelopatoolkitandprioritisetheinfluencefactorsestablishedandtheirinter-relationshiplevel; 3) to preparegroupingsof the regions with the maximum number of vacancies posted in the All-Russian Database of Vacancies for the most needed professions, specialities, and occupations as per the ОК 010-2014 All-Russian Classifier of Occupations using the results of two waves of longitudinal investigation; 4) to justify the methodology and toolkit for calculating the integral ratings of Subjects of the Russian Federation; 5) to find out, on an expert basis, the level of high technology employers’ interaction with job centres; and 6) to summarise the instrumental and methodologicalaspects developed and the proposed measures for qualification-based management of the segmentation of regional labour markets.Methods: this article is based on the introduction of elements of a forecast-oriented approach to employment support using the results of regular monitoring efforts by the Russian Ministry of Labour in this area.Results: the article shows that the increase in the number of the vacancies posted by employers in the “Work in Russia” All-Russian Database of Vacancies results from their active engagement with job centres, raises the level of the realisation of businesses’ needs for skilled and professional employees and relieves tensions in regional labour markets. Support of employment is closely related to labour productivity growth, particularly in high technology sectors.Conclusions and Relevance: the materials discussed in the article present elements of forecast-oriented management of job centres aimed at regional labour markets’ segments for the professions and skilled levels required by them. The studies presented develop labour market economics with a view to better regulation of demand for and supply of employees with the required qualifications in the light of the current challenges, including the digitalisation of the economy. The practical use of the results of this article will help update the practice of management of the employment authorities at the federal, inter-regional and regional levels in the light of the results of the “Labour Productivity and Support of Employment” national project that is being implemented.