Journal Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi)-
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 177-182; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p177-182
Abstract:Background: Post-extraction complications can cause alveolar bone resorption. Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) is one potential bone graft material that can be synthesized from Anadara granosa shell. Another biomarine, Stichopus hermanni, contains hyaluronic acid which can accelerate bone formation on the fourteenth day. Purpose: This study aims to prove the effectiveness of Anadara granosa shell-Stichopus hermanni granules in weaving bone formation fourteen days after tooth extraction. Methods: Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Their lower left incisor was extracted with gelatin being administered to the control group (C) and granule scaffold derived from Anadara granosa (AG) shell and Anadara granosa shell-Stichopus hermanni at concentrations of 0.4%-0.8%-1.6% (AGSH1-AGSH2-AGSH3) to the treatment group. This study developed a HA-TCP synthesized from Anadara granosa combined with whole Stichopus hermanni to create granule scaffolds by means of a freeze-dried method. The jaw was removed on the fourteenth day post-tooth extraction. Observation of HPA involved the use of an Image Raster®. The resulting data was subjected to analysis by ANOVA and tukey-HSD tests (p
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 183-186; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p183-186
Abstract:Background: One purpose of operative dentistry is the maintenance of healthy pulp by reducing the need for root canal treatment and the possibility of undesirable scenarios such as tooth loss. Propolis is a plant-derived substance that contains a resin produced by honeybees belonging to the Apis mellifera species. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a combination of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and propolis extract on odontoblast-like cell proliferation in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: This research constituted a true experimental laboratory-based investigation with post-test control group design. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. The first molar pulp of each sample was perforated on occlusal surfaces using a low speed round bur. On day 3, the samples were divided into six groups (n=10): Group I: control; Group II: Ca(OH)2 + 11%; propolis extract; Group III: Ca(OH)2 + aquadest, and on day 7: Group IV: control; Group V: Ca(OH)2 + 11% propolis extract; Group VI: Ca(OH)2 + aquadest. All samples were filled with restorative material. They were subsequently sacrificed after 3 and 7 days post-pulp capping administration and the afflicted tooth extracted for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The resulting data was subjected to statistical analysis to ascertain the proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. The significance of differences between the groups was determined by a one-way ANOVA test followed by a post hoc Tuckey HSD. A p-value
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 168-171; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p168-171
Abstract:Background: Evaluation of dental arches is important for both diagnosis and treatment in the fields of orthodontics, prosthodontics, and forensics. The perimeter or circumference affects the gender-specific dimensions of the dental arch. Purpose: To identify the inter-gender difference between maxillary and mandibular intermolar width of the first molars in Indonesia. Methods: This retrospective and comparative analytical study involved a gender-based comparison of maxillary and mandibular intermolar width in the first molars. A purposive sampling technique was employed for data selection. Ninety dental cast models were selected according to the inclusion criteria of non-growing patients and perfect dental conditions, with any damaged dental models being rejected. After selection, the dental cast was marked at the maxillary and mandibular first molar central fossae before being measured three times with a digital vernier caliper. The data obtained was subsequently analyzed by means of a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, an F-test-Snedecor (with p>0.05) and Independent Sample t-test (with p
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 219-223; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p219-223
Abstract:Background: Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease affecting the global population. In Indonesia, the prevalence of periodontal disease has reached 57.6% across all age groups. The bacterium considered as the orginator factor of periodontitis is Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Herbal ingredients are currently being promoted as a form of treatment because of the minimal side effects they induce. Andrographis paniculata Nees (ApN) extract produces pharmacological effects, including ones immunomodulatory in character, rendering possible its application as a preparation for treating periodontitis. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to prove the potency of Andrographis paniculata Nees extract in increasing the viability of monocytes following exposure to P. gingivalis. Methods: The sample was divided into four groups, namely; Control negative (C-): monocytes in the medium, not exposed to P. gingivalis; Control positive (C+): monocytes in the medium, exposed to P. gingivalis; Treatment I (AP25): monocytes with 25% ApN extract, exposed to P. gingivalis; Treatment II (AP50): monocytes with 50% ApN extract, exposed with P. gingivalis. The monocytes were exposed to 100 uL P. gingivalis for 4.5 hours and stained with trypan blue. Observations were conducted using an inverted microscope at 200x magnification. The percentage of viable monocytes was calculated based on the ratio of the number of the cells which absorbed trypan blue staining to that which did not. Data was tested using a one-way ANOVA followed by an LSD test. Results: There were significant differences between the treatment groups in the number of viable monocytes (p=0.001) they contained. Monocyte viability was higher in the 25% ApN extract group than that exposed to 50% P. gingivalis. Conclusion: Andrographis paniculata Nees extract demonstrates the potency to increase monocyte viability following exposure to P. gingivalis.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 204-208; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p204-208
Abstract:Background: Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a rejuvenation of the reactive gingiva, usually occurring in the anterior maxillary gingiva. The condition is often clinically ambiguous when diagnosed on the basis of gingival hyperplastic lesions such as focal fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral giant cell granuloma, peripheral fibroma and pyogenic granuloma because peripheral ossifying fibroma has a tendency to recur with a ratio of around 20%. The literature on the subject predominantly classifies peripheral osifying fibroma as an epulis type, but it has also been identified as a peripheral mesenchymal tumor presenting similar clinical symptoms to ossified fibrous epulis. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explain the rare case of peripheral ossifying fibroma in the anterior maxillary gingiva which can be clinically misdiagnosed as reactive gingival hyperplastic lesions. Case: A case report of peripheral ossifying fibroma in the left lateral incisor and canine of the maxillary gingiva in a 26 year-old male. The patient chiefly complained of a painless, slow growing gingival enlargement on the upper left jaw during the previous five years. Clinical examination confirmed it to be a single, hard swelling in the 21-24 region, pale in color and with a rough surface. Case management: The procedure constituted a complete surgical excision of the lesion together with the underlying periosteum curettage intended to prevent recurrence. The histopathologic examination results indicated tissue with squamous epithelial lining, stroma consisting of fibroblasts, and immature trabecula with osteoblastic rimming between collagen tissue without signs of malignancy. Osteoblastic rimming has specific features in histopathologic examination of ossifying fibroma. Conclusion: Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a rare solitary enlargement in the oral cavity frequently misdiagnosed as ossified fibrous epulis. A definitive diagnosis is made by means of histopathologic examination. The condition has a low reccurance rate.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 172-176; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p172-176
Abstract:Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is the most common bacteria species in persistent endodontic infection of teeth undergoing root canal treatment at a prevalence of 38%. The virulence factor of this bacterium is Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) which can be recognized by Toll-like receptors-4 (TLR-4) that produce a stimulus and provoke an immune response. Inflammation results in bone defects that feature multiple cytokines and interactions between different cell types. Bone loss within a periapical tooth is characterized by osteoclast formation (osteoclastogenesis) in the bone. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β (RANK) which played a role in osteoclastogenesis at different time intervals. Methods: 36 upper molar teeth of the research subjects were induced with 106 CFU Enterococcus faecalis and subsequently observed for 7 and 21 days with the NFATc1 and RANK being counted microscopically at 1000X magnification across 20 viewing fields. Thereafter, the data was examined and analyzed by means of an independent T test using SPSS. Results: NFATc1 and RANK expression were higher in the group including E. faecalis on days 7 and 21 than in the control group. There were significant differences between the treatment group and control group with regard to NFATc1 and RANK expression (p
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 187-191; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p187-191
Abstract:Background: Cigarette smoke contains various carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines. These chemicals not only have the potential to damage DNA, but can also induce genetic mutations and activate genes that function during apoptosis. Thus, if the gene is dysregulated, it will cause cells to survive, proliferate and subsequently lead to the development of cancerous ones. Histologically, the carcinogenic process affecting the oral cavity starts with hyperplasia and dysplasia, followed by severe dysplasia then leading to invasive cancer and metastatic processes in other bodies. Purpose: This study aims to reveal the correlation between exposure to cigarette smoke and the degree of epithelial dysplasia evident in research subjects. Methods: This study used 27 samples of Rattus norvegicus tongue, divided into three groups, namely; a control group, a treatment group subjected to four weeks’ exposure to cigarette smoke, and a treatment group subjected to exposure lasting eight weeks. Each rat was placed in an individual chamber and exposed to smoke from 20 cigarettes introduced by a pump via a pipe for 7.5 minutes. The degree of epithelial dysplasia in each case was subsequently observed microscopically using HE staining technique. Results: Mild epithelial dysplasia increased by 0.82%, during the fourth week of exposure to cigarette smoke and by 2.99% during the eighth week. Similarly, moderate epithelial dysplasia rose by 5.29% during the fourth week of exposure and 5.99% during the eighth week. Severe epithelial dysplasia also increased by 2.2% during the fourth week of exposure and by 2.66% during the eighth week. Conclusion: The longer the exposure to cigarette smoke, the higher the degree of ensuing dysplasia.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 215-218; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p215-218
Abstract:Background: Root canal treatment constitutes a treatment sequence for infected pulp to eliminate the etiological factors of pulp necrosis and periapical lesion. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is an organism commonly found in a high proportion of root canal failure because of its ability to form biofilm. Degradation of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) by oxidizing agents such as sodium hypochlorite is the first step in removing biofilm. However, the toxicity of sodium hypochlorite constitutes the main concern and, therefore, the safest alternative irrigants possible are required. The use of fruits, herbs and plants is widespread, especially in the fields of medicine and dentistry. Food crops are known to be rich in bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, which have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Cocoa pod husk extract can, therefore, represent an alternative irrigant. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of cocoa pod husk extract in relation to the thickness of E. faecalis EPS biofilm. Methods: Four groups of E. faecalis cultured biofilm samples were analysed: group one contained E. faecalis without cocoa pod husk as a positive control; group two contained E. faecalis with 1.56% cocoa pod husk extract; group 3 contained E. faecalis with 3.125% cocoa pod husk extract; and group 4 contained E. faecalis with 6.25% cocoa pod husk extract. The biofilm thickness of all groups was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy with statistical analysis subsequently undertaken by means of a post hoc test and Tukey HSD. Results: The average values of EPS biofilm thickness were as follows: group 1: 9500 nm; group 2: 8125 nm; group 3: 8000 nm; and group 4: 6375 nm. A post hoc Tukey HSD test indicated a significant difference between group 1 and group 4, while in group 2 and group 3 compared to group 1, there were no significant differences with the values of each being p = 0.340 and p = 0.267 (p>0.05). Conclusion: 6.25% cocoa pod husk extract reduces E. faecalis EPS biofilm thickness.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 197-203; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p197-203
Abstract:Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases vulnerability to opportunistic viral infection, including Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, that has been detected in saliva. The HCMV envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is highly immunogenic and has been associated with HCMV-related diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of HCMV and gB-1 genotype in the saliva of HIV/AIDS patients and to analyse their relationship with xerostomia and salivary flow rate (SFR). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 34 HIV/AIDS patients. Saliva was tested for the presence of HCMV DNA using PCR microarrays, and nested PCR for gB-1 genotype detection. Xerostomia was measured using a Fox’s questionnaire. Unstimulated whole saliva flow rate was measured by means of the spitting method. Results: The composition of the research population consisting of 73.5% males and 26.5% females with HIV/AIDS. HCMV was found in 64.7% of HIV/AIDS patients, while gB-1 genotype was detected in 59.1%. Xerostomia was closely associated with the presence of HCMV in saliva (p 0.05). Conclusion: The presence of xerostomia-associated HCMV in saliva was elevated among HIV/AIDS patients. Further investigation is required to identify other gB genotypes that may be responsible for xerostomia and SFR changes in HIV/AIDS patients.
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), Volume 52, pp 192-196; doi:10.20473/j.djmkg.v52.i4.p192-196
Abstract:Background: Bulk fill packable composite that can be applied to a depth of 4mm in cavities is widely used in posterior teeth restoration. Unfortunately, this composite is subject to potential microleakage which occurs due to erosion resulting from the consumption of carbonated drinks containing carbonic acid. Nevertheless, microleakage can be reduced by bonding applications the etch technique of which is divided into two forms; self-etch bonding and total-etch bonding. Purpose: This study aims to determine the difference in microleakage between total-etch and self-etch bonding in bulk fill packable composite following carbonic acid immersion. Methods: This study constitutes experimental laboratory research utilizing 28 incisors bovine teeth which were cleaned, immersed in 0.01% NaCl, and randomly divided into four groups. The cervical area of the teeth of all groups were prepared through the creation of cylindrical shapes 2mm in diameter and 3 mm deep. Groups I and III used total-etch bonding, while groups II and IV used self-etch bonding. Groups III and IV were control groups, whereas groups I and II were treatment groups (immersed in carbonic acid) for 24 hours. Thermocycling was carried out in all groups which were subsequently immersed in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours after which the teeth were cut in a buccolingual direction using a diamond disc wheel. Microleakage was subsequently evaluated by calculating the amount of methylene blue passing between the restoration wall and cavity using a Stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was then analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Results: There was a significant difference between the control groups and treatment groups (p