Journal Corporate Ownership and Control-
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 27-33; doi:10.22495/cocv17i3art2
We investigate the case of Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Italy trying to understand if key performance indicators obtained from the financial statement are able to predict possible distress in a company with enough time to take some corrective actions. In order to test the hypotheses, a nonparametric supervised classification algorithm has been applied to a random sample of 100 non-listed SMEs, considering 50 companies that filed for bankruptcy during the period 2000-2011 and 50 companies still active on the market at the end of 2011. Results describe the Italian picture for SMEs during an economic crisis period. They show that, for the Italian case, it is possible to predict with enough time (4-5 years prior to failure) a distress situation in a firm through classification methods. Anyway, these methods are not predicting the health of a company but the possibility of the firm to access the credit system. The results are limited to the Italian SMEs context which is quite particular if compared with other countries in Europe. The dataset is limited in size but has been chosen to be representative of non-listed Italian companies.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 8-26; doi:10.22495/cocv17i3art1
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 4-6; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2_editorial
This volume of the journal “Corporate Ownership and Control” is focused on corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, earnings and performance management, ownership concentration, institutional ownership, audit fees, audit quality and independence, cross-cultural management and cultural dimensions, financial instruments risk disclosure, equity incentives, firm performance, shareholder composition and monitoring effects, etc. The topics addressed in this issue highlight the continuing need for knowledge present in academic and non-academic research. The papers published in this issue offer an additional point of view with regard to the most important corporate governance issues.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 183-193; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art15
Numerous mergers and acquisitions, and the rise of MNCs with global customer bases have exposed the German board of directors to a variety of cultures. Despite the obvious relevance for corporate governance, the effect that cultural diversity of boards exerts on firm performance, Germany has been a blank spot in this literature. Using a sample of 101 German publicly listed companies, this empirical study answers if the level of cultural variety and cultural distance in boards of directors have an influence on firm performance. The results of this study indicate that cultural variety in boards of directors has a linear, negative influence on operational firm performance (as measured by ROI and ROE). This reinforces the fundamental assertion that executives’ cultural values shape their mindsets and orientations, and thus influence their decision-making. The results of this study, therefore, indicate that cultural diversity is an important diversity dimension that further on should be given careful consideration in research. Based on the findings, we argue against the blindfold implementation of (political) regulations in the area of board diversity.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 165-182; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art14
The main goal of the paper is to understand if the shareholder composition must be considered as a part of the corporate governance framework or as a monitoring factor, only. A related goal of the paper is to investigate if the shareholder composition is part of the loop connecting corporate governance and corporate performance. We analyze a sample made of 10,520 firms over the years 2006-2015, in 8 European countries having very differentiated governance frameworks, shareholder composition and corporate performance. The paper gives new insights to the current debate on the relations between governance and performance as well as the one on the components of the corporate governance framework. According to our evidence, governance contributes to corporate value by reducing agency in funding, rather than having an impact over returns. Moreover, we give evidence that corporate governance should be considered as a tool contributing to the efficacy of monitoring capabilities of the shareholder composition of equity, but no clear evidence is about the composition of equity to be considered as part of the corporate governance framework.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 157-164; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art13
The unobservable nature of the national culture is one of the main limits of research studying the impact of values systems’ in management sciences. This is why we aim in this study to identify a measure to three cultural dimensions namely, individualism (IND), masculinity (MASC) and long-term orientation (LTO). Our methodology is based on structural equation modeling (SEM) under LISREL approach, where latent variables are economic and demographic characteristics. Findings for the cross-national study over a period of 7 years including Tunisia, France, and Canada show that ecological indicators are able to determine studied cultural dimensions. However, due to the dynamic character of culture, some studied indicators are no longer the same as identified in prior studies.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 142-156; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art12
The aim of this study is to examine the perceived level of importance with respect to each pre-suggested determinant of audit fees in Egypt. In particular, the perceptions about auditor related attributes and client-related attributes according to external auditors and client’s representatives (auditee). This study is based on the results of a survey conducted in Egypt. A questionnaire is designed to request the opinions of external auditors and client representatives about 28 audit fees determinant. The questionnaire was sent to 150 participants out of whom 63 responses are found usable. Data is analyzed using SPSS program and Mann-Whitney U test is performed. The results reveal that the perception of all attributes is greater than 3, implying that all pre-suggested determinants are perceived as relatively important, important or highly important. The most three important attributes are: the good reputation of the audit firm, the fact of being one of the Big Four and the level of complexity of the auditee. Furthermore, the results show that there is no significant difference in perceptions of both group of participants regarding the importance of each audit fees determinant. It is also evident that auditor-related attributes are perceived to be of higher importance than client-related attributes. This is the first study conducted in Egypt examining the determinants of audit fees, knowing that audit fees figures are neither available nor publically disclosed. Moreover, the study takes into account the Egyptian revolution which started in 2011 by adding two new determinants to the questionnaire; economic and political stability. This is in order to cope with the country’s situation and to check the extent of such environmental attributes’ effect on audit pricing.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 124-141; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art11
Auditor independence and the quality of audit report is of growing concern to regulators, institutional investors and stakeholders as a series of accounting scandals have undermined the professionalism of auditors. The findings from this study produced an insight of how auditor’s independence improve audit quality and that abnormal audit fees is as a result of additional effort for auditor to carry out rigorous audit engagement as a result of wider audit scope; that mandatory audit firm rotation will enhance auditor independence, and that audit committee with nonexecutive independence will promote audit quality. The study also finds that in terms of auditor size, smaller audit firms that belong to professional bodies will provide higher audit quality. The main conclusion of this research is that where an auditor is fully independent in carrying out audit engagement with strong resistance to fees pressure will enhance audit quality. This research provides insight into the impact of IFRS adoption on audit fees.
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 104-123; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art10
Using a UK panel data set drawn from 1675 Chief Executive Officer (CEO) year observations and 1540 Chief Financial Officer (CFO) year observations, we examine the relationship between CEO and CFO equity incentives and earnings management. In addition, we examine the moderation effect of corporate governance mechanisms on the relationship between executives’ equity incentives and earnings management. We use multivariate regression models to test our hypotheses. We find that CEO equity incentives are related to higher absolute and income increasing earnings management. These results support the managerial power theory argument that CEOs exploit equity-linked compensation to obtain more personal benefits without causing public anger. Contrary to CEO equity incentives, we could not find any significant relationship between CFO equity incentives and any of the earnings management proxies. In addition, we find that corporate governance quality (measured by individual mechanisms and overall index) has no effect on the relationship between executives’ equity incentives and earnings management. This result indicates that whereas some corporate governance mechanisms can reduce earnings management in general, they do not affect wealth driven incentives to manipulate accruals. In total, results question the effectiveness of the corporate governance system in mitigating opportunistic behavior motivated by executives’ compensation structures
Corporate Ownership and Control, Volume 17, pp 97-103; doi:10.22495/cocv17i2art9
Indonesia’s financial sector is highly dominated by the banking industry than the non-bank. It controlled almost 74% of Indonesia’s financial assets in 2014. After post-crisis restructuration, the banking sector has become stronger, with a higher capital adequacy ratio and profitability. While, the non-bank financial industry is expected to solve the problems in the Indonesian economy, as well as becoming one of the long-term economic instruments. The purpose of this study is to test and analyse the effect of financial performance and the implementation of corporate governance on the non-bank financial industry stock prices on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012-1016. The research population includes the non-bank financial industry listed in IDX, as many as 37 companies. This study found the probability, managerial ownership, institutional ownership and the composition of the independent commissioner partially and simultaneously does not significantly influence the stock price of the non-bank financial industry.