Journal Journal of Environmental Protection-
Published: 20 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 65-81; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112006
Abstract:This study determined the adsorption ability of modified sponge gourd fibre in adsorbing crude oil from simulated oil-water mixture. Modification was done on the adsorbent by treating with hot water and sodium hydroxide. The dependence of the adsorption process on particle size of the fibre was determined using mesh sizes of 4.75, 2.36, 1.18 and 0.85 mm. The hot water treatment significantly increased the adsorbing ability of the sponge gourd, removing 83.3% of the crude oil from the mixture, alkaline treated sample removed 45.1% and the raw sample removed 22.9%. The result of the SEM images shows that hot water treated sample has more pores on the surface which influenced the better performance. The FTIR results obtained after the adsorption show the successful adsorption of crude oil on to the surface of the sponge gourd due to the presence of functional groups characteristics of groups found in crude oil. An optimum particle size for the sponge gourd was found to exist at the value of 1.18 mm, above and below which the crude oil removed was reduced. The modification of sponge gourd promoted the adsorption capacity for crude oil.
Published: 2 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 48-63; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111005
Abstract:Provision of quality drinking water is paramount for sustaining good public health in urban residents. Packaged water produced and consumed across cities in Nigeria lacks integrity in protecting Health. Water safety plan based on hazard identification and risk assessment in each component of the water production system is essential in providing quality water by packaged water producing companies in Nigeria. This study aims at developing water safety plan for selected packaged water manufacturing companies in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Hazard identification and risk assessment were carried out based on site inspection studies, key informant interview, questionnaire survey and water sample analysis, and risk analysis using semi-quantitative risk matrix approach. The results revealed a total of 26 possible hazardous events which may compromise water quality such as on-site septic tanks and effluents discharged at source water and improper maintenance and hygiene practices within the system. Based on these, appropriate mitigation and monitoring plans were drawn for action. The research found that water safety plan is feasible for the packaged water systems, and therefore calls on the relevant stakeholders for urgent implementation towards ensuring clean drinking water and protecting public health as more and more people are opting for packaged waters due to uncertain public water safety.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111001
Abstract:The mushrooms are highly regarded as one of the most nutritious foods across the globe but also recognized bio-accumulators of heavy metals. The nature and level of industrial activities are continually changing and affecting the environment adversely. The mushrooms are not an exception and may inevitably have heavy metal contaminations. In this vein, this study aimed to determine heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Pb, and Cd) uptake levels in wild edible mushrooms from the sites with different economic activities. The wild mushrooms considered for this study included Tente (Amanita Zambiana), Ichikolowa (Termitomyces Titaniscus), and Kabansa (Lactarius Tataniscus). The analysis of heavy metal concentration was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). For the selected mushrooms, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1 total dry weight (dw)) of 46.90 - 141.80 for Cu, 0.10 - 6.60 for Cd, 1.10 - 2.00 for Pb, 19.00 - 38.90 for Zn, 1.00 - 3.40 for Ni, and 44.80 - 79.70 for Co were obtained. However, for the respective soil samples, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1·dw) of 51.00 - 279.40 for Cu, 1.00 - 99.50 for Cd, 8.00 - 10.00 for Pb, 22.80 - 209.10 for Zn, 9.00 - 33.70 for Ni, and 60.00 - 111.90 for Co were obtained. To a certain degree, the concentrations reflected the impact of diversity in the surrounding activities. This study discovered that for the selected mushrooms, the contamination level of cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and copper exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)/FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) recommended limits. Although some minor aberrations from the prescribed limits were also observed in the case of copper and nickel. Further, the data established that the heavy metal concentrations in respective soils are not the sole determinant of concentrations in mushrooms. Thus, these findings merit attention as, in some cases, the extent of contamination has exceeded the WHO permissible limit, and it may pose a health risk to consumers.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 13-21; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111002
Abstract:The food contamination is a critical public health concern at the global level. The aflatoxins are considerable food contaminants and health menace to a sizable world population. Aflatoxins originate from fungi as their toxic secondary metabolites. This study aimed to probe the contamination level of aflatoxins in smoked-dried fish and the extent of the threat it might pose on human health. The study considered five of the regularly consumed species of smoked-dried fish. The study also considered two species of fresh fish. The investigation was carried out using VICAM Series-4EX Fluorometer. The Buka fish sample had the lowest concentration of 1.3 ppb for total aflatoxins, and Bream fish was analyzed to have the highest as 3.84 ppb. As such, the total aflatoxin concentration in this study was found to be between 1.3 and 3.84 ppb. These concentrations can be considered to be a matter of concern. Prolonged intake of the aflatoxins in this range may result in a health hazard to humans. As expected, there was no trace of aflatoxins detected in fresh fish samples.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 22-33; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111003
Abstract:The research work was carried out in Igabi Local Government of Kaduna State. Thirty water samples from boreholes were randomly collected within the major towns in November to April (Dry), and May to October (Rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters and to observe any changes in the groundwater quality of the area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson Correlation were performed on the data obtained using SPSS 10.0 for a window for significant variations and inter-element relationship. High mean turbidity was recorded in boreholes in Danfili (12.2 NTU), Kwarau (6.2 NTU). Mean turbidity of 4.3 NTU was recorded in Dry season for wells with Rigachikun having 5.1 NTU. It was observed that a negative correlation exists between well depth and heavy metal concentration. There was also a linear relationship of 0.686 between well distance and nitrate (faecal contaminant). Mean value for Fluoride (0.22 mg/l), Sodium (20.78 mg/l), Calcium (15.7 mg/l), Iron (0.013 mg/l), Nitrate (3.69 mg/l), Cadmium (0.00102 mg/l) Chloride (22.107 mg/l) recorded for sampled wells were all within WHO standard. A high value of 24 mg/l and 25 mg/l for Nitrate was recorded in Saminaka Road and Danfili. An indication of contamination during the rainy season indicates surface-groundwater intrusion (influx). The results of the bacteriological analysis indicated that most wells sampled have a range of 1 cfu/100 ml to 7 cfu/100 ml with Danfili Mani having the highest value (7 cfu/100 ml) which make it unsaved (not Potable).
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 34-47; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111004
Abstract:The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the annual mean range of water was: temperature (21.91°C - 29.22°C), pH (7.64 - 7.78), salinity (38.71‰ - 42.74‰), dissolved oxygen (6.09 - 8.78 mgO2/l,) oxidizable organic matter (1.4 - 5.4 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1.14 - 3.94 mgO2/l), total suspended solids (18.56 - 37.69 mg/l), ammonia (13.51 - 494.41 μg/l), nitrite (1.261 - 151.76 μg/l), nitrate (7.11 - 487.85), dissolved inorganic phosphate (2.22 - 53.26) and silicate (19.83 - 347.61 μg/l). The N:P ratio fluctuated between 4.21 and 1214.61 with the main value of 81.16 indicating that the different sites in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez are P-limited. Based on the Principal Component Analysis Data, the stations locating in the Northern and Southern side of the Gulf of Suez are relatively good water quality; meanwhile, water quality of the other stations locating in the northern side of the Gulf of Suez is found slightly polluted to a different degree co-incided with an increase in the human activities in each of these locations.
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 82-109; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112007
Abstract:In recent years, the Sponge City program (SCP) of China, as a sustainable stormwater management approach, has been strengthened as a national strategic level program. The Green Infrastructure (GI), due to its multi-objective and multi-benefits, has been adopted as an important measure of this new nationwide initiative. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive quantitative evaluation system for neighbourhood scale SCP. Hence, in the process of GI plan optimization, selection of implementation methods to balance its multi-benefits has become one of the key obstacles in the practice of SCP. To support robust decision making on multi-objective GI planning and comprehensive assessment, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used as a structural and systematic technique. In addition, a set of sustainability key performance indicators (KPIs) including requisite dimensions is the foundation for neighbourhood scale sustainability. Hence, AHP-based evaluation system including selection, weighting and ranking of the KPIs, is defined as a key performance indicator framework (KPIF), which is still in need for further development. Taking the GI planning for the Liangnong, Siming Lake sponge node restoration as an example, this paper develops KPIF with a comprehensive evaluation system for high-quality “Sponge Node” transitional construction. This KPIF consists of three basic criteria: “Environmental Performance”, “Economic and Adaptability Performance”, and “Social-cultural Performance and Wellbeing Performance”. In addition, 15 weighted KPIs are concluded and amongst them, the followings were relatively high: weight of the ATRCR, the promotion of biodiversity, the construction cost saving, the maintenance cost saving, and the level of recreational and wellbeing improvements for all people. In addition, the developed KPIF provides a reference for similar program’s decision-making, not only for the Jiangnan area of China, but also for quantitatively comprehensive evaluations of SCP in other regions.
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 1144-1154; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.109068
Abstract:The increase in industrial activities and vehicular movement along the northern industrial area of Windhoek has vastly increased the amount of traffic noise and other noise pollution in the area. Noise pollution has an adverse health effect to human population, when exposed for a long period. Residence in proximate communities along the north industrial area and those working in the various industries located in the area may be affected, when the noise pollution level exceed the permissible standard for human exposure. A sound level meter was used to measure the amount of noise pollution at the streets of the northern industrial area. The measurements were done during the daytime, at a time interval of 2 hours, from 08:00 am - 06:00 pm. The amount of noise pollution obtained from the study ranges from (64 - 72) dB (A), with a maximum of 72 dB (A) in Bonsmara Street, (67.4 - 75.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 75.3 dB (A) in New Castle Street, (60.5 - 81.0) dB (A), with a maximum of 72.3 dB (A) in Braham Street. (62.5 - 72.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 82.3 dB (A) in Hosea Kutako Street, (66.0 - 82.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 76.8 dB (A) in Simmentaler Street and (65.1 - 76.8) dB (A), with a maximum of 76.8 dB (A) in Dortmund Street. The variation of noise level index L10, L50, L90 and Leq, Noise Climate (NC) and Traffic Noise index (TNI) were calculated. The maximum noise pollution values obtained from the study were higher than the WHO recommended limit of 70 dB (A).
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 1213-1223; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.1010072
Abstract:Soil degradation is a major problem in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. To maintain or improve soil productivity levels and limit Water losses, especially with rainfall variability, adaptation strategies have been developed that focus on water and Soil Conservation techniques (WSC). Although their agronomic benefits have been proven, adoption rates for these techniques are generally low, particularly among cotton farmers in Bam province. The main objective of this study is to identify the socioeconomic and institutional determinants of the adoption of WSC among cotton farmers in Bam. The data used for our study were collected as part of the Semi-Arid Resilience Promotion Project (SARP) from cotton producers in the province. A probit model was used to analyze the factors that determine the adoption of WSC in Bam cotton producers. The results show that variables such as early warning, group membership, smartphone ownership, and cotton income positively influence the likelihood of producers adopting WSC techniques. On the other hand, technical assistance and access to the pesticide have a negative influence on the adoption of WSC by Bam cotton producers.
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 1119-1130; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.109066
Abstract:Industrialization is a major strategy of Vietnam for the development of the countryside. One such program is the promotion of craft villages that have been successful in increasing income levels that are 5 times more than those villages mainly engaged in agricultural production. However, while such programs have brought prosperity to these villages, they have ignored the adverse effects on the environment brought about by the wastewaters from the processing plants. Would these households involved in agro-food processing be willing to pay for the establishment of a wastewater plant to address the environmental problems? What factors would influence their willingness to pay? The results of the study among the selected households in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam involved in agro-processing showed that the major factors affecting their willingness to pay for the establishment of a wastewater treatment plant are their level of education, quantity of households’ untreated wastewater, presence of young children who are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of pollution, experience of family members getting sick, households’ awareness of benefits from treated wastewater, capacity to pay, access to credit and membership in craft village’s Association. The study recommended that decisions on addressing environmental issues should be participatory to be able to take into consideration the socio-economic conditions of the stakeholders.