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Journal Kyiv Historical Studies

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Kyiv Historical Studies; doi:10.28925/2524-0757

Volodymyr Komar, Adam Szymanowicz
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 17-26; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.2

Abstract:
During the civil war in Russia in 1918–1921, the liberation efforts of the Cossacks of Don, Kuban, and Terek were unsuccessful, and their lands were incorporated into the USSR. Their representatives emigrating from their homeland found themselves in difficult material conditions. While in exile, many of them cooperated with Polish and German authorities. Interwar Poland was interested in the use of the Cossacks in the fight against the USSR. The General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces showed particular interest in the Free Cossack movement, as Don, Kuban, and Terek areas were the main places where the Red Army cavalry was formed.The Cossacks who stayed in their homeland experienced tragic times. The introduction of Soviet power also brought with it the elimination of the Cossacks through hunger, repressions, and deportations. However, at the end of the 1930s, the Soviet authorities introduced a new course of policy towards the Cossacks, thereby recognizing the advantages of Cossack military formations in the Red Army. At the beginning of the German-Soviet War in August 1941, the Soviet authorities formed sixteen Cossack cavalry divisions, six of which were immediately sent to the front.During World War II tens of thousands of the Cossacks also fought in German formations on the territory of the USSR. They were used mainly for anti-partisan actions. Due to the support of the Germans, the so-called Cossack State consisting of tens of thousands of Cossacks was created for the refugees from Don. They fought against partisans in Belarus, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Italy. After the capitulation of the Third Reich, the Cossack State, as well as other Cossack formations, found itself on the territory of Austria, and the Cossacks were taken into British captivity. As a result of the British-Soviet agreement, they were turned over to the Soviet authorities, from whose hands death or at best deportation to the camps awaited them.In addition, Cossack military formations were formed in the Far East with the support of Japan, which used them to fight against the USSR.
Olexandr Utkin
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 60-66; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.8

Abstract:
The article gives a detailed analysis of the main reasons which allowed to create the Ukrainian Technical and Economic Institute of Distance Learning. It was formed by scientists, public figures of emigrants. The Institute carried out the work in Czechoslovakia and Germany in the 1930s-50s. It was being formed in the difficult conditions of the international economic crisis. In this way the socio-economic and cultural sphere of European countries, the nature and content of the activities of the diaspora scientific and educational structures were influenced on.The newly created Institute formed a system of correspondence training for agricultural workers in comparison with the Ukrainian Academy of Economics. There were found non-state independent ways of financing the educational and research process to write and publish a methodological literature, the textbooks. The students and lectures got opportunity to participate in scientific forums. Overcoming the difficulties of the occupation of Czechoslovakia during the Second World War when the activity of the Institute was meticulously controlled by the police, the Gestapo, a censorship. It braked and suspended the educational work. In spite of this fact it could not deprive Ukrainian students of the desire to study. As a result the student’s emigrant community of the High School was saved and replenished. After the end of World War II the Institute moved to the territory of Germany. The Ukrainian Technical and Economic Institute of Distance Learning was expanded. There were five high school departments, a network of technical schools, secondary and lower secondary schools and courses, training skilled personnel for agricultural and industrial production. In 1952 the Institute was relocated to the United States of America. There it functioned as a research institution.
Natalia Kurylchuk
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 51-59; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.7

Abstract:
At the current stage of historical heritage realization the problems of political and economic transformations in Zhytomyr region during the late 1920s mid–1930s require systematic review. The significance of the study is determined by the scope of numerous problems as well as immensely vast study material available. Hundreds of thousands of cases in state repositories and archives are still not introduced into scientific circulation due to the lack of national, regional and local research directions. That is why a detailed analysis of implementation methods and collectivization consequences in Olevsk district villages is of major importance for a comprehensive study of the region history and the country as a whole. To conduct our investigation we have used general scientific and special historical methods such as comparative-historical and critical, generalization and systematization, problem-chronological, biographical, archive heuristics, statistical and analytical methods, and others. The study presents the documentary material from the State Archives of Zhytomyr region and Sectoral State Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine. The article provides the analysis of some archival criminal investigations and focuses on the fates of some Olevsky district residents. Information capabilities of the specified number of documents for the study of collectivization, political repressions against the richest rural representatives and those who tried to resist the existing regime are highlighted.
Yana Grazhevska
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 50-53; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.6

Abstract:
The article highlights how the chancellery of zemsky and grodsky court function on the throws of Ukrainian voivodeships in the Sejm Constitutions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The author investigates the history of forming zemsky and grodsky courts as institntions on Ukrainian land, the process of formation of chancellery bodies and also underlines the regional peculiarities of vodeships. The article analyses the texts of the Sejm Constitutions of 1611–1632 as to the points devoted to functioning of the courts and their typical and unique features. The specificity of the studio lies in the investigation of zemsky and grodsky court bodies as a subject of work of Sejms of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The present survey can be used for the following reconnaissance on the history of judicial system on the principals of functioning of zemsky and grodsky chancelleries and the peculiarities of their work.
Yelyzaveta Piankova
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 43-49; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.5

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the members of the Chodecki family who were involved into the political life of the Polish Kingdom by representing Ruthenian voivodeships on the sejms at the end of the 15th — first third of the 16th centuries. It is also illustrated brother’s participation in the parliamentary activity, through the presence of Stanisław of Chodecz, who was the Grand Marshal of the Crown and attended at least thirteen sejms through the period of 1493–1533. For him, as one of the crown deputies, it was a chance to proceed with his experience of parliamentary activity and simultaneously vindicate his political ideas and personal family needs. Through the strong protection by the King sides another brother from the family, Otton of Chodcza, created an outstanding official career and as a senator from the Ruthenian Voivodeship participated four times on the sejms of the Crown. His success was extremely enlisted by other members of the family who have not done any advance neither at official careers nor at the parliamentary practices but were trying to use families position through the sejm sessions in order to solve their own deals. I have also found out that two brothers of the noble kin were attending twenty-eight of the Crown sejms hearing which is accounting for sixty-three per cent of parliamentary action of the whole Kingdom at that time.
Yurii Ladnyi
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 27-35; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.3

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the ethnopolitics of the White Movement on the territory of Ukraine in 1919–1920. The White Movement was formed in the South of the former Russian Empire and was forced to take into account the diverse composition of the alien population of the country. The author examines the stages of the birth of the White Movement, its position towards national minorities and national movements that were activated during the revolution and the overthrow of autocracy. The leaders of the White Movement failed to elaborate a single model of relations with “aliens”, except for to return to the shameful practice of tsarist times. Basing on significant sources, it is proved that the “White project” considered national movements as enemies of the “single and indivisible Russia”, as separatist and anti-state. The article presents various documents and facts of the actions of the Denikin regime directed against Ukrainian society. The ideology of the White Guard was filled with Ukrainophobia and anti-Semitism. The publication presents numerous facts of Jewish pogroms and persecution of Ukrainians exclusively on national grounds. The author carries out a content analysis of various publications of Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish authors who addressed this problem. Historical contexts are supported by materials from various sources from archives and memoirs of the direct participants of events. The article convincingly proves the futility of the ethnopolitics of the “Whites” in Ukraine, which was denied by the majority of the Ukrainian society, regardless of their political preferences.From the very beginning and to the inglorious historical finale, the White Guard was based on violence and great-power chauvinism. The policy of “restoration” proposed by the leaders of the White Movement was unrealistic and did not meet the challenges of time and public expectations.
Maryna Mudrak
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 36-42; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.4

Abstract:
The interest in Serbian history, its language and culture have risen significantly in Ukraine in the last two decades. Ukrainian scientists begin to actively research Serbian history, compare Serbian traditions and customs with Ukrainian and study the influence that one nation has on another. Most of the studies, published in universities presented by Ukrainian philologists that study Serbian language and literature. However, historical works during the years of Ukrainian independence also diversified the limits of their searches. The main scientific research in Serbistics, gathered in works, such as “Comparative Research of Slavic Languages and Works of Literature”, “In memory of Academician Leonid Bulakhovsky”, “Herald of Taras Shevchenko National University”, “Actual Problems of National and World History”. Diversity and versatility of these journals, give scientists an opportunity to look into more actual, and less researched topics. Serbian studies in Ukraine, study such questions as the history of Serbian immigrants in Ukraine, Ukrainian diaspora in Serbia, cooperation of Ukrainians and Serbs during 17–21 centuries, modern tendencies of Serbian development. At the same time, there are more problems that require further development. That is why Serbian studies have a great perspective of development in Ukraine.
Anna Hedo, Anastasia Kaluzhyna
Kyiv Historical Studies, Volume 3, pp 101-109; doi:10.28925/2524-0757.2019.1.15

Abstract:
In scientific research on the basis of analytical and synthetic criticism of the memoirs of Ukrainian scientists S. Yefremov, M. Hrushevskyi, K. Kharlampovych, A. Krymskyi, N. Polonska-Vasylenko is made an attempt to analyze the daily life of the scientific elite in the conditions of the establishment of Soviet power and to trace the influence of cultural transformations and the scientific atmosphere of Kyiv of 20–30s of the 20th century on the socio-legal status of scientists and their further destiny.In the brutal conditions of the Soviet system writing letters and memoirs, it was the only way of expressing a person of intellectual work that could not accept the loss of a sovereign right on free labor.Soviet propaganda had created an attractive image of Kyiv as an All-Union scientific center, attracting more and more attention to VUAN as the only institution capable of meeting the intellectual requirements of scholars. Dozens of emigre scholars had believed in the demagogy of the Bolsheviks, made a fateful step in their lives back to their homeland, because crossed the Soviet border was difficult to remain a rebellious person with preserved principles and views on morality, without losing their own lives. However, in such conditions there were people who, despite all the obstacles, tried to serve the Ukrainian people as long as possible in the bosom of science, to preserve its identity and historical heritage at the cost of their own lives. With the establishment of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks tried to "re-educate" and conquer the scientific elite as the main generator of democratic and national ideas for a totalitarian system. On the way to this goal, the Soviet authorities used any methods, starting with material domestic pressure, and ending with open repressions against the scientific elite of Kyiv, in order to destroying its authority as a sociocultural phenomenon. The result of this policy was a sharp decline in living standards and productivity of Ukrainian scientists, numerous repressions against so-called "bourgeois nationalists" as a symbol of the impoverishment of the Ukrainian idea. Thus, the transformation of the cultural and scientific atmosphere of Kyiv under the influence of the Soviet ideology turned it from the All-Union scientific center into the city of thousands of ruined fates.
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