Journal Berkala Arkeologi-
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 33-52; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.334
Abstract:The field study that was organized by the committee of Premodern Java Summer Programme in 2016 targeted several museums in East Java, especially in Mojokerto-Penataran area. That field study was intended to provide an understanding about the development of cultural arts during the end of Hindu-Buddhist period of Majapahit Kingdom. This paper is discussing about one of the objects that was being observed during that Summer Programme. The object of discussion is the lion-headed figure, stored in Museum Penataran. During the Summer Programme, some participants have predicted that the statue is Lord Vishnu in his Narasimha form. That prediction was mainly based on the statue's head which resemble a lion's head. Through several studies, such as the description of the statue, the literature study of iconography, and analysis about the special iconographic character, this paper concluded that this figure is a manifestation of Ganesha, named Simha-Ganapati. The worship of Simha-Ganapati has a purpose not only to bring strength and courage, but also to provide confidence in facing problems by destroying all forms of negative thoughts.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 17-32; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.328
Abstract:Due to its location in Gilimanuk Bay and its findings, Gilimanuk site stated for having fishers as subsistence strategy. This research uses pathological condition called enthesopathies as the primary data to induce fishing techniques as part of their daily activities. Identification enthesopathies follows procedure proposed by Hawkey & Merbs and Mariotti. Result shows only two specific techniques which can be identified through pathological condition. Those techniques are fishing with stick and spearing methods. Based on pathological conditions, early fisher’s community from Gilimanuk only developed shallow water fishing techniques. Absence of other fishing techniques indicates by artefacts and induced from enthesopathies might lead to early assumption about natural resources are widely available and easy to procure in surrounds environment.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 53-72; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.332
Abstract:The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the efforts of the Kandang Kebo Community in handling new found inscriptions. The method used is descriptive-qualitative, combined with inductive reasoning. Structural analytic, especially Internal Criticism (transliteration, translation and interpretation) is also applied to analyse the new found inscription. Information for this study were collected from the members of Kandang Kebo community, stakeholders, and local community. Data collection were done by observation, literature study, interviews, and documentation. This study found that community which participate in maintaining cultural heritage objects is a provision in the Cultural Heritage Act no. 11 of 2010. Kandang Kebo as a society's community has been trying to apply this Act. The using of social media becomes one of the methods, with its quick and easy way; it makes new artifacts discovery easier to be known by others. Kandang Kebo then proceed this news to the office of BPCB. There are some inscriptions that are successfully saved and read by Kandang Kebo, followed by positive responses from the government.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 73-91; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.327
Abstract:The article describes the culinary imp lic ation of offerings and d hanyang in 5 (five) villages in Jepara in the form of traditional ceremonies of Jembul Tulakan, Hari Jadi Kota Jepara, Sedekah Laut, Perang Obor, and Pesta Baratan. Only three out of five ceremonies were present ing culinary offerings as a representation of the dhanyang presence. The objective of this study is to reveal the existence of culinary offerings and d hanyang both by their food types and the intended dh anyang. This study was using a qualitative method which includes the collection of primary and secondary sources through literature study, observation, participants, structured interviews, indepth interviews, and Focus Group Discussion. The approaches which were used are anthropological and hermeneutical approaches. The study reveals a symbolic meaning from the presence of various culinaries presented to dhanyang and wishes expressed implicitly or explicitly in the ceremony. The wishes include the requests of safety, kindness, protection, etc. Recently, these wishes have shifted which caused by better knowledge, belief, and social experience of the performers towards their religion. Public belief in the power of d hanyang still exists even though it is not dominant.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 1-16; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.337
Abstract:Gunungwingko is an archaeological site located in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Province. This site was used from 0 AD to 17th century. In 1978 excavation, there were 19 isolated teeth found in excavation box T.P. Geo. IV from 170 – 220 cm in depth. The objective of this research is to identify Minimum Number Individual (MNI), and also their influences to health status and cultural point of view. The method being used for this research is bioarchaeological method with macroscopic analysis. We concluded that the MNI is four individuals based on four third left maxillary molars. Dental diseases such as dental attrition, dental caries, enamel hypoplasia, chipped tooth, and buccal pit can be observed in some of the teeth. Moreover, cultural influences also can be found in some of the teeth in form of dental modification (pangur) and betel chewing. One of the teeth showed evidence of multiple dental modification which possibly happened because of adulthood ceremonial and matrimonial/death ceremonial.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 116-135; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.258
Abstract:Proper names in general use as the individual differentiator within the community as well as the identity. Parent in giving name on their newly born baby is often based on some motivation. Proper names can be analyzed linguistically because it contains elements of the sign that serves referential as well as vocative. The proper names is a part of the human being itself, so that in every interaction within society, someone always conscious of his own identity for his own interests, the other person and society as his place of life and interaction. Diachronically the development of language, including the use of the name itself can be traced back its presence through written inscriptions in the form of inscriptions. The writing of the proper name in Poh inscription is explicitly only as a list of attendees (witnesses) who attended the inauguration ceremony. Starting from this point can be found the use of the name of the old Javanese period. This study aims to understand the construction and meaning in the proper name found in the Poh Inscription using an identity perspective. The method used in this study is descriptive qualitative which begins with observing and analyzing proper names using Sanskrit language elements.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 154-171; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.282
Abstract:One of the sugar industries in Java is PG Purworejo, which was built in 1910. Near the PG Purworejo emplacement, there are settlements for factory employees. Although there have been many archeological studies about sugar mills, but deeper study of the existence of employee settlements still few. This study aims to reconstruct the PG Purworejo emplacement settlement from 1910 to 1930. The data used in this research is in the form of all material objects or physical data left from PG Purworejo and other related data such as old archives and photos. Data that has been collected and selected, then will be decrypted, processed to be identified and then interpreted based on the theoretical framework. Altough the remains of PG Purworejo's emplacement settlements is low, but the settlement layout can still be traced based on old photo data. The results of this study show that the emplacement settlement of PG Purworejo uses the concept of industrial settlements, where employee settlements are built near industrial sites. In addition to the concept of industrial cities, the concept of colonial settlements was also applied which was marked by the separation between European workers' settlement blocks and indigenous workers.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 136-153; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.253
Abstract:Klaten is a region in Surakarta residency in 18-20th century during Colonial era. It held an important role in the economy of Surakarta region during that period. Klaten became area with the highest plantation productivity in Surakarta. Several plantation companies were established in Klaten, including sugar industries, indigo plantations, and tobacco plantations. Today, several plantation infrastructures can be observed, and its historical background can be traced well, but researches about Klaten Colonial industries are seldom. There are operating tobacco plantations in Klaten Regency, located in Kebonarum and Gayamprit. Plantation area in Kebonarum and Gayamprit is used as research material. Survey and historical approach are used in this research. This project aims to explore the important role of Colonial plantations in rural societies, through archaeological environment phenomenon and its history. The existence of plantations in Klaten rural areas was able to offer social change to the societies in Colonial era.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 100-115; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.267
Abstract:The development of archaeology paradigm from processual to postprocessual, influence the archaeologists thought about landscape. Sometimes, the landscape in archaeology is arduous understood because overlapping with other studies. Actually, this problem can be solved if we analyze the development of archaeology paradigm which associated with landscape study. This article attempts to discuss the ambiguity of landscape in archaeology with case study on the megalithic complex in Jambi Highland. Based on the data, it is known that: landscape in procesual study just explain the association between megalithic with burial-jars, mountains, settlements, and natural resources around it. The result which obtained in this perspective, was an explanation of megalithic function based on the relationship between sites and environment. Conversely in post-processual, attempts to interpret about megalithic complex in Jambi Higland based on individual (including researcher perception) or community perceptions. The result obtained in postprocessual, can answer questions about the unevenness of megalithic orientation and the difference of megalithic locations.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 172-191; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.238
Abstract:Metal salvage and theft activities have eliminated most shipwrecks at Nusa Island, and exposed shipwrecks in Gosong Gili, Bawean Island. In order to give recommendations for its conservation efforts, this study aims to identify the remaining shipwrecks or exposed shipwrecks at Nusa Island and Gosong Gili, and the types of corals and fishes in it. This study aims to prove that shipwrecks or exposed shipwrecks is not only having historical and economical value, but also ecological value for the survival of coral reef ecosystem. This is a descriptive-explorative research, data were gathered by underwater survey using GPS Map Sounder, and SCUBA diving. Shipwrecks at Nusa Island is only 30% left in fragmented form of mast, machine, boiler, propeller, ivory vessel, and bricks in the bow area. While the exposed shipwrecks at Gosong Gili is only 20% left in fragmented form boilers, machine, and ivory vessel that might be a cultural heritage according to the UU RI Number 11 of 2010 on Cultural Heritage. At Nusa Island, the corals are consisted of Poritidae and Acroporidae families, and various species reef fishes. While at Gosong Gili, there are more coral families including Merulinidae, Poritidae and Acroporidae, but their reef fishes species are fewer than Nusa island.