Journal PLOS ONE-
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222811
Abstract:Prevalence and motives for nipple shield use are not well studied in preterm infants and recommendations of nipple shield use in preterm infants are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nipple shield use, explore the motives for nipple shield use and elucidate the association with exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants. The study was part of a prospective survey of a Danish national cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires answered by the 1221 mothers of 1488 preterm infants with gestational age of 24–36 weeks. Data on nipple shield use was available for 1407 infants. Nipple shields were used by 54% of the mother-infant dyads for many different motives and was more often related to breastfeeding problems associated with the infant than with the mother. The most common motive for nipple shield use was “infant slipped the nipple” (52%). The lower the gestational age, the more frequently nipple shields were used for motives related to the infant. For those using a nipple shield, only the motive “infant fell asleep at the breast” was associated with a higher risk of not breastfeeding exclusively at discharge (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.15; 3.13), p = 0.012), and “breast too engorged” with a lower risk of not breastfeeding exclusively (OR 0.32 (0.16; 0.63), p = 0.001), but overall nipple shield use was associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding. The present study does not give justifiable motives for nipple shield use, except for “breast too engorged”. Nipple shields should not be recommended for infants falling asleep at the breast, instead, staff and mothers should be patient, allowing the dyad time skin-to-skin. The results indicate that the use of a nipple shield does not promote exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222337
Abstract:The presence of earthworm species in crop fields is as old as agriculture itself. The earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus (invasive) and Balanteodrilus pearsei (native) are associated with the emergence of agriculture and sedentism in the region Amazon and Maya, respectively. Both species have shifted their preference from their natural habitat to the cropland niche. They contrast in terms of intensification of agricultural land use (anthropic impact to the symbiotic soil microbiome). P. corethrurus inhabits conventional agroecosystems, while B. pearsei thrives in traditional agroecosystems, i.e., P. corethrurus has not yet been recorded in soils where B. pearsei dwells. The demographic behavior of these two earthworm species was assessed in the laboratory over 100 days, according to their origin (OE; P. corethrurus and B. pearsei) food quality (FQ; soil only, maize stubble, Mucuna pruriens), and soil moisture (SM; 25, 33, 42%). The results showed that OE, FQ, SM, and the OE x FQ interaction were highly significant for the survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms. P. corethrurus showed a lower survival rate (> mortality). P. corethrurus survivors fed a diet of low-to-intermediate nutritional quality (soil and stubble maize, respectively) showed a greater capacity to grow and reproduce; however, it was surpassed by the native earthworm when fed a high-quality diet (M. pruriens). Besides, P. corethrurus displayed a low cocoon hatching (emergence of juveniles). These results suggest that the presence of the invasive species was associated with a negative interaction with the soil microbiota where the native species dwells, and with the absence of natural mutualistic bacteria (gut, nephridia, and cocoons). These results are consistent with the absence of P. corethrurus in milpa and pasture-type agricultural niches managed by peasants (agroecologists) to grow food regularly through biological soil management. Results reported here suggest that P. corethrurus is an invasive species that is neither wild nor domesticated, that is, its eco-evolutionary phylogeny needs to be derived based on its symbionts.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222343
Abstract:Flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may occur during pregnancy and puerperium. We studied the prevalence and factors associated with SLE relapse during pregnancy and post-partum period in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort. Consecutive SLE patients who attended the outpatient clinic were reviewed for previous history of pregnancies in our institution. Patients who had a complete antenatal, delivery, and post-partum follow up were included. Their medical records were retrospectively analysed to assess the disease activity at pre-pregnancy/conception, during antenatal, and post-partum period. Presence of flare episodes during pregnancy and puerperium were recorded. The pregnancy outcomes recorded include live birth, foetal loss, prematurity and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with disease relapse and the pregnancy outcomes. A total of 120 patients with 196 pregnancies were included, with a live birth rate of 78.6%. Four (2.0%) were diagnosed to have SLE during pregnancy. The flare rate in pregnancy was 40.1% while post-partum 17.4%. Majority of the relapse in pregnancy occurred in haematological system (62.3%) followed by renal (53.2%), musculoskeletal (22.1%), and mucocutaneous (14.3%). In GEE analyses, active disease at conception was the independent predictor of SLE relapse during and after pregnancy, whereas older maternal age and Malay ethnicity were associated with higher flare during post-partum. HCQ use was significantly associated with reduced risk of flare in univariate analysis but it was no longer significant in the GEE analyses. Presence of disease flare in pregnancy was significantly associated with prematurity. In conclusion, pregnancy in SLE need to be planned during quiescent state as pre-pregnant active disease was associated with disease relapse in both during and after pregnancy. Malay patients had an increased risk of post-partum flare but further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between pregnancies in the different ancestral background.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222802
Abstract:Recent studies have begun to elucidate a role for E3 ubiquitin ligases as important mediators of the innate immune response. Our previous work defined a role for the ubiquitin ligase natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM/RNF19b) in mouse and human innate immunity. Here, we present novel data describing a role for NKLAM in regulating the immune response to Sendai virus (SeV), a murine model of paramyxoviral pneumonia. NKLAM expression was significantly upregulated by SeV infection. SeV-infected mice that are deficient in NKLAM demonstrated significantly less weight loss than wild type mice. In vivo, Sendai virus replication was attenuated in NKLAM-/- mice. Autophagic flux and the expression of autophagy markers LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 were also less in NKLAM-/- mice. Using flow cytometry, we observed less neutrophils and macrophages in the lungs of NKLAM-/- mice during SeV infection. Additionally, phosphorylation of STAT1 and NFκB p65 was lower in NKLAM-/- than wild type mice. The dysregulated phosphorylation profile of STAT1 and NFκB in NKLAM-/- mice correlated with decreased expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines that are regulated by STAT1 and/or NFκB. The lack of NKLAM and the resulting attenuated immune response is favorable to NKLAM-/- mice receiving a low dose of SeV; however, at a high dose of virus, NKLAM-/- mice succumbed to the infection faster than wild type mice. In conclusion, our novel results indicate that NKLAM plays a role in regulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines during viral infection.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222639
Abstract:The adverse effects of heat on plant yield strongly depend on its duration and the phenological stage of the crops when the heat occurs. To clarify the effects of these two aspects of heat stress, systematic research was conducted under controlled conditions on 101 wheat cultivars of various geographic origin. Different durations of heat stress (5, 10 and 15 days) were applied starting from three developmental stages (ZD49: booting stage, ZD59: heading, ZD72: 6th day after heading). Various morphological, yield-related traits and physiological parameters were measured to determine the stress response patterns of the wheat genotypes under combinations of the duration and the timing of heat stress. Phenological timing significantly influenced the thousand-kernel weight and reproductive tiller number. The duration of heat stress was the most significant component in determining both seed number and seed weight, as well as the grain yield consequently, explaining 51.6% of its phenotypic variance. Irrespective of the developmental phase, the yield-related traits gradually deteriorated over time, and even a 5-day heat stress was sufficient to cause significant reductions. ZD59 was significantly more sensitive to heat than either ZD49 or ZD72. The photosynthetic activity of the flag leaf was mostly determined by heat stress duration. No significant associations were noted between physiological parameters and heat stress response as measured by grain yield. Significant differences were observed between the wheat genotypes in heat stress responses, which varied greatly with developmental phase. Based on the grain yield across developmental phases and heat stress treatments, eight major response groups of wheat genotypes could be identified, and among them, three clusters were the most heat-tolerant. These cultivars are currently included in crossing schemes, partially for the identification of the genetic determinants of heat stress response and partially for the development of new wheat varieties with better heat tolerance.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216975
Abstract:Alpine sand dunes restoration is extremely difficult but important in the ecosystem restoration. Sand dunes are known as harsh soil and poor seed bank which freed from advantages on plants growth naturally. Effective restoration measures are required to guide the sand dune restoration. Here, indigenous grass (Elymus nutans) was sown in sand dune on the Zoige Plateau and treated with no sand barrier (CK) and environmental friendly materials including wicker sand barrier (wicker) and sandbag sand barrier (sandbag). The soil conditions were assessed by measuring the soil moisture and nutrients of the topsoil, and interspecific relationship and population niche were utilized to analyze the plant community structure variances among different restoration measures. Results showed that the soil and vegetation in the sand barriers measures were better than that in the CK. The soil moisture in the sandbag measure was 16.67% higher than that in the wicker measure. The nutrients content and microbial biomass were also the best in the sandbag measures. The ratio of strong association was the highest in the sandbag measure and the lowest in the CK, whereas the plants had the highest none association ratio in the CK. In addition, the average population niche overlap ranked by sandbag (0.39)>wicker (0.32)>CK (0.26). Thus, incorporation of sand barriers and indigenous grass seeding in alpine sand dunes could promote the sand dune restoration. And the sandbag measure showed a stronger improvement effect on the sand dune soil and vegetation conditions than the wicker measure.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222539
Abstract:Little is known about the impact of different types of chronic diseases on older adults’ out-of-pocket healthcare spending and whether certain diseases trigger higher spending needs than others. We use data from the 2014 Health and Retirement Study representing a weighted population of 35,939,270 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+. Generalized linear models are applied to estimate the effect of different chronic diseases on total out-of-pocket expenditure, adjusted for demographics, socio-economic status, physical health, and other factors. We also decompose total spending by expenditure categories (inpatient, non-inpatient, and prescription drug spending). Sensitivity analysis is performed using a younger sample of older adults aged 50–64. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer, induce significantly higher adjusted out-of-pocket spending among older adults than other conditions. These results hold regardless how the spending differences are assessed (absolute or percentage terms). For Medicare beneficiaries, cardiovascular disease is associated with an excess out-of-pocket spending of $317 per year, followed by diabetes ($237), hypertension ($150), and cancer ($144). Prescription drug spending is singularly the most important driver of additional expenses for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension, while non-inpatient services spending accounts for the bulk of increased spending among those with cancer. Our finding that major noncommunicable diseases impact individuals’ out-of-pocket medical spending differentially–and that service drivers of increased spending may be heterogeneous across disease types–suggest that health professionals and policymakers should recognize that certain chronic diseases exert greater financial toll on the elderly. Interventions to promote more cost efficient healthcare services and consumer choices can help older adults better cope with these expensive long-lasting conditions and reduce the overall burden of noncommunicable diseases.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222592
Abstract:The association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activation has not been fully understood from results of previous studies using hormonal assessments. We aimed to investigate the relationship between adrenal size, a potential marker reflecting HPA axis activity, and sleep parameters related to OSA. We retrospectively reviewed data on 284 consecutive adult patients aged 20 to 80 y who had undergone polysomnography and abdominal computed tomography (CT). OSA was defined as none/mild (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] <15, n = 75), moderate (AHI 15 to 30, n = 80), and severe OSA (AHI ≥30, n = 129). Widths of adrenal body and limbs were measured by abdominal CT. Adrenal size was greater in participants with severe OSA than in those with none/mild or moderate OSA (adrenal body width: 6.03 mm, none/mild OSA; 6.09 mm, moderate OSA; 6.78 mm, severe OSA; p <0.001; adrenal limb width: 3.75 mm, none/mild OSA; 3.95 mm, moderate OSA; 4.26 mm, severe OSA, p <0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that not the 3% oxygen desaturation index and time of SpO2 <90% but a higher arousal index was the only determinant factor for increased adrenal limb width (β = 0.27, p <0.001) after adjusting for other variables that could affect adrenal size. Neither the arousal index nor hypoxic parameters were associated with adrenal body width. Results indicated that adrenal glands may enlarge in response to longstanding sleep fragmentation, suggesting the involvement of OSA in HPA axis augmentation.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0223018
Abstract:In studying the causative mechanisms behind migration and life history, the salmonids–salmon, trout, and charr–are an exemplary taxonomic group, as life history development is known to have a strong genetic component. A double inversion located on chromosome 5 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is associated with life history development in multiple populations, but the importance of this inversion has not been thoroughly tested in conjunction with other polymorphisms in the genome. To that end, we used a high-density SNP chip to genotype 192 F1 migratory and resident rainbow trout and focused our analyses to determine whether this inversion is important in life history development in a well-studied population of rainbow trout from Southeast Alaska. We identified 4,994 and 436 SNPs–predominantly outside of the inversion region–associated with life history development in the migrant and resident familial lines, respectively. Although F1 samples showed genomic patterns consistent with the double inversion on chromosome 5 (reduced observed and expected heterozygosity and an increase in linkage disequilibrium), we found no statistical association between the inversion and life history development. Progeny produced by crossing resident trout and progeny produced by crossing migrant trout both consisted of a mix of migrant and resident individuals, irrespective of the individuals’ inversion haplotype on chromosome 5. This suggests that although the inversion is present at a low frequency, it is not strongly associated with migration as it is in populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss from lower latitudes.
PLOS ONE, Volume 14; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222943
Abstract:Pigs are anatomically, genetically and physiologically comparable to humans and represent a natural host for influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Thus, pigs may represent a relevant biomedical model for human IAV infections. We set out to investigate the systemic as well as the local immune response in pigs upon two subsequent intranasal infections with IAV H1N1pdm09. We detected decreasing numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes after the first infection. The simultaneous increase in the frequencies of proliferating cells correlated with an increase in infiltrating leukocytes in the lung. Enhanced perforin expression in αβ and γδ T cells in the respiratory tract indicated a cytotoxic T cell response restricted to the route of virus entry such as the nose, the lung and the bronchoalveolar lavage. Simultaneously, increasing frequencies of CD8αα expressing αβ T cells were observed rapidly after the first infection, which may have inhibited uncontrolled inflammation in the respiratory tract. Taking together, the results of this study demonstrate that experimental IAV infection in pigs mimics major characteristics of human seasonal IAV infections.