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Journal Current Developments in Nutrition

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Dipayan Sarkar, Jacob Walker-Swaney, Kalidas Shetty
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz099

Abstract:Improving food and nutritional diversity based on the diversity of traditional plant-based foods is an important dietary strategy to address rapidly emerging diet and lifestyle-linked non-communicable chronic disease (NCDs) challenges of indigenous communities worldwide. Restoration of native ecosystem, revival of traditional food crop cultivation, and revival of traditional knowledge on food preparation, processing, and preservation are important steps to build dietary support strategies against NCD epidemic of contemporary indigenous communities. Recent studies have indicated that many traditional plant-based foods of Native Americans are rich source of human health relevant bioactive profiles with diverse health benefits. Based on this rationale of health benefits of traditional plant-based foods, the objective of this review is to present a state-of-the-art comprehensive framework on ecologically and culturally relevant sustainable strategies to restore and integrate traditional plant food diversity of Native Americans for addressing NCD challenges of indigenous and wider non-indigenous communities worldwide.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz103

Abstract:Corrigendum to Sossamon et al. Observed Gender Differences in Intrinsic Motivation but not Perceived Competence to Prepare Healthy Foods in Adolescents. Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3, Issue Supplement_1, June 2019, nzz051. P04–019–19,
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz098

Abstract:Corrigendum for Yakoob et al. (Dietary Sodium (salt) Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review (P05-039-19). Current Developments in Nutrition, 2019; nzz030.P05-039-19. There was an error in an author name. Mohammad Yakoob should have been listed as Mohammad Yawar Yakoob.
M Isabel Ordiz, Richard D Semba, Ruin Moaddel, Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk, Martin Von Bergen, Gunda Herberth, Mohammed Khadeer, Stefan Röder, Mark J Manary
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz100

Abstract:Serum amino acid (AA) concentrations are correlated with childhood stunting, but their relationship to linear growth velocity has not been explored. This was a secondary analysis of a clinical trial where Malawian infants 6–12 mo. of age were given a legume supplement providing 8.2 g/d of protein; anthropometry was measured at multiple intervals, and fasted serum AAs concentrations were measured at 12 mo. of age. Lysine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine concentrations were higher in infants with linear growth velocity z-score > 0 than those
Susan B Sisson, Kaysha Sleet, Rachel Rickman, Charlotte Love, Alexandria Bledsoe, Mary Williams, Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz094

Abstract:Background Native American (NA) children have a high prevalence of obesity contributing to lifespan health disparities. Dietary intake is important to promote healthy weight gain, growth, and development. In 2017, the United States Department of Agriculture enforced changes to the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). The CACFP provides reimbursement to qualifying Early Care and Education (ECE) programs who serve food that uphold the program's nutrition requirements. Objective 1) Describe a novel index to evaluate ECE menus based on revised CACFP requirements (accounting for food substitutions) and best practices for 3-to-5 year old children, and 2) analyze CACFP requirement and best practice compliance and nutrient changes in nine NA ECE programs before and after enforcement of the revised CACFP requirements. Methods This longitudinal study is within a larger community-based participatory research study. Menus and meals served were evaluated for one week at each of nine programs before and after enforcement of the revised meal patterns. Nutrient analysis, CACFP requirement and best practice compliance, and substitution quality were evaluated. Differences were determined using a paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched test. Trial registry: NCT03251950 Results Total grams of fiber (5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 5.9 ± 0.8, p = 0.04) and total grams of sugar (53.8 ± 12.6 vs. 48.4 ± 7.9, p = 0.024) improved, although room for further improvement exists. Although total grams of fat remained unchanged, grams of saturated fat significantly increased (7.8 ± 1.4 vs. 10.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.041). Other nutrients remained unchanged. Overall CACFP requirement and best practice compliance scores improved, although this was not statistically significant. No significant changes in substitution quality occurred. Conclusions This study provides early evidence to support the beneficial impact of the revised CACFP requirements. Understanding barriers to compliance within rural NA communities would be an important next step in enhancing the health of vulnerable children.
Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Visith Thongboonkerd
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz101

Abstract:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common public health problem worldwide characterized by gradual decline of renal function over months/years accompanied by renal fibrosis and failure in tissue wound healing after sustained injury. Patients with CKD frequently present with profound signs/symptoms that require medical treatment, mostly culminating in hemodialysis and renal transplantation. To prevent CKD more efficiently, there is an urgent need for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and molecular pathways of the disease pathogenesis and progression, and for developing novel therapeutic targets. Recently, several lines of evidence have shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an abundant phytochemical polyphenol derived from Camellia sinensis, might be a promising bioactive compound for prevention of CKD development/progression. This review summarizes current knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying renoprotective roles of EGCG in CKD based on available preclinical evidence (from both in vitro and in vivo animal studies), particularly its antioxidant property through preservation of mitochondrial function and activation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2)/HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) signaling, anti-inflammatory activity, and protective effect against epithelial mesenchymal transition. Finally, future perspectives, challenges, and concerns regarding its clinical use in CKD and renal fibrosis are discussed.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz088

Abstract:Corrigendum to: nzz037.P15–023-19, Alterations in Cholesterol Metabolism and Genetics as Key Players in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz092

Abstract:Corrigendum to: Impact of Dietary Protein Source on Muscle Performance: An in-vivo Behav-ioral Assay (OR26-05-19) doi:
Zach Conrad, LuAnn K Johnson, Lisa Jahns, James N Roemmich
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz096

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John C Wallingford, Cynthia Barber
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz095

Abstract:Growth of infants fed isocaloric infant formulas differing in nutritional content was studied. Twenty-three of 109 randomized clinical trials reported some difference in weight, length or head circumference between formula groups. Logistic regression demonstrated no relationship between finding a significant difference in a growth outcome with enrollment prior to 15 d or observation of 15 wk, parameters specified in regulation. Sample size and year of publication also were not correlated with report of a significant growth difference, though reporting separate data by sex was (p = 0.012). The difference in mean weight gain between control and test formula groups was comparable to that between formula-fed and breast-fed infants (1 g/d) and smaller than that between male and female infants (4 g/d). Encouraging alternate study designs with flexible enrollment ages and infants who transition from breastfeeding to formula would gain information on physiologic outcomes and common feeding behaviors, as well as growth.
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