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Journal Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin

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O. V. Kutovaya, A. K. Tkhakakhova, M. V. Semenov, T. I. Chernov, N. A. Ksenofontova, A. D. Zhelezova, R. G. Gadzhiumarov, R. S. Stukalov, E. A. Ivanova, D. A. Nikitin
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-159-189

Abstract:С помощью метода посева на элективные питательные среды оценена численность и активность таксономических (бактерии, актиномицеты, микромицеты) и функциональных (азотфиксаторы, аммонификаторы, денитрификаторы амилолитики, целлюлолитики) групп микроорганизмов в агрочерноземах Ставропольского края под влиянием различных систем обработки почвы – прямого посева (no-till) и вспашки с оборотом пласта (традиционная обработка). Анализы проводили для вариантов с озимой пшеницей, кукурузой, подсолнечником и соей при внесении/отсутствии минеральных удобрений. Традиционная обработка почвы для большинства сельскохозяйственных культур приводит к росту активности аэробных аммонификаторов, целлюлолитиков, денитрификаторов, актиномицетов и микромицетов. Технология no-till, в свою очередь, повышает интенсивность анаэробных целлюлолитиков и азотфиксаторов, аэробных диазотрофов и амилолитиков. Наиболее отзывчивой культурой, под которой увеличивалась биологическая активность практически всех групп микроорганизмов на полях no-till, стала кукуруза, тогда как озимая пшеница повышала численность микроорганизмов при вспашке. Применение минеральных удобрений повышало биологическую активность почвы под подсолнечником при прямом посеве, в то время как при традиционной обработке значения данного параметра увеличивались на фоне отсутствия минеральных удобрений.
S. Papaiordanidis, Sciprofile linkIoannis Gitas, Sciprofile linkThomas Katagis
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-36-52

Abstract:High-quality soils are an important resource affecting the quality of life of human societies, as well as terrestrial ecosystems in general. Thus, soil erosion and soil loss are a serious issue that should be managed, in order to conserve both artificial and natural ecosystems. Predicting soil erosion has been a challenge for many years. Traditional field measurements are accurate, but they cannot be applied to large areas easily because of their high cost in time and resources. The last decade, satellite remote sensing and predictive models have been widely used by scientists to predict soil erosion in large areas with cost-efficient methods and techniques. One of those techniques is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). RUSLE uses satellite imagery, as well as precipitation and soil data from other sources to predict the soil erosion per hectare in tons, in a given instant of time. Data acquisition for these data-demanding methods has always been a problem, especially for scientists working with large and diverse datasets. Newly emerged online technologies like Google Earth Engine (GEE) have given access to petabytes of data on demand, alongside high processing power to process them. In this paper we investigated seasonal spatiotemporal changes of soil erosion with the use of RUSLE implemented within GEE, for Pindos mountain range in Greece. In addition, we estimated the correlation between the seasonal components of RUSLE (precipitation and vegetation) and mean RUSLE values.
Sciprofile linkOxana Plotnikova, Marina Lebedeva, E. B. Varlamov, Yu. D. Nukhimovskaya, E. V. Shuyskaya
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-83-116

Abstract:The aim of the study was to research the relationship of chemical and micromorphological properties of soils with the growth of Kochia prostrata. The objects of study were the soils on natural pastures of the North-Western part of the Caspian lowland. It was laid 4 soil pits (soils – light solonetz, solonetzic chestnut) with the maximum penetration depth of the main mass of roots of the studied plants. K. prostratais a very plastic forage species that can grow on soils with a wide range of morphological properties, different salt content and their chemical composition. It is revealed that on the background of almost the same content of humus and high content of exchangeable magnesium micromorphological features represent the different degree of manifestation of primary pedogenic processes – humus accumulation, leaching of soluble salts, gypsum accumulation, carbonate enrichment, solonetzization. Despite the different content of exchangeable sodium, in all soils there are fresh clay or humus-clay illuvial coatings, indicating the manifestation of the modern eluvial-illuvial redistribution of fine matter (lessivage or illimerization).
N. I. Sanzharova, Sciprofile linkA. N. Ratnikov, S. V. Fesenko, D. G. Sviridenko
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-117-132

Abstract:The problems of radioactive contamination of biosphere with the 238U in recent years have attracted a large number of experts in various fields of knowledge. Natural radionuclides are an integral part of the biosphere. They are concentrated everywhere: in rocks, in soil, water, air and food. Various types of phosphorus fertilizers and other natural ameliorants used in agriculture are also an additional source of heavy natural radionuclides. The review describes the behaviour and migration of 238U in biosphere, which depend on various factors acting simultaneously. It is noted that the behaviour of 238U in the soil depends on the forms of its presence in it and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The processes of sorption and desorption of 238U by different soil types are significant indicators.
Sciprofile linkA. F. Smetannikov, A. I. Kosolapova, K. N. Korlyakov, Sciprofile linkДмитрий Оносов, D. S. Fomin, V. R. Yamaltdinova, D. G. Shishkov, Sciprofile linkЕкатерина Оносова
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-133-158

Abstract:В Пермском федеральном исследовательском центре разрабатывается технология получения и применения новых комплексных удобрений пролонгированного действия из глинисто-солевых отходов переработки K-Mg руд после получения калийных удобрений. Основными процессами в технологии являются обогащение отходов и высокотемпературный обжиг концентрата обогащения. В результате формируется продукт, получивший название огарок, имеющий свойства комплексных удобрений пролонгированного действия, мелиоранта и микроудобрения. Проведены лабораторные и полевые опыты по применению огарка в качестве калийного удобрения. Изучаемые культуры – яровая пшеница, ячмень, картофель. Схема опытов включала варианты: контроль (без удобрений), NP – фон; NP + KCl и NP + огарок. Для зерновых культур (пшеница, ячмень) применение огарка на фоне NP повысило урожайность на 1.7–1.9 т/га по отношению к контролю, применение стандартных удобрений NPK – на 1.8–2.0 т/га, разница – в пределах ошибки опыта (НСР05 = 0.21; 0.38 т/га). Содержание азота, фосфора и калия в зерне и соломе обеих культур в вариантах с применением огарка было на уровне варианта с применением стандартного удобрения и достоверно выше по сравнению с контролем. Различия между вариантами с применением огарка были несущественными. Внесение N90P90 и полного минерального удобрения (N90P90K90) способствовало повышению урожайности клубней картофеля на 1.43–4.51 т/га соответственно. Применение удобрений-огарков на фоне NP не уступало по эффективности использованию хлористого калия. Показатели качества урожая картофеля (содержание сухого вещества и крахмала в клубнях, содержание тяжелых металлов) также не уступали...
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-53-82

Abstract:The geochemically conjugate series of soils (Albic Podzol – Albic Podzol Gleyc – Hystosol) formed on an undulating glaciolacustrine plain in the middle taiga of Karelia was investigated. Surveys for redox conditions showed them to vary from oxidizing in automorphic soils to reducing in soils occupying accumulation-favoring locations. The geochemical coefficients descriptive of the features of accumulation and directions of migration in the studied soils were calculated and analyzed. The distribution of silicic acid and a majority of sesquioxides inside the profile of the studied soils is typical of podzols. The podzolic horizons of the soils occupying interstitial positions have a faster outmigration of elements than in automorphic soils, while their Al-Fe-humic horizons accumulate aluminum, iron, titanium and phosphorus. All the soils are deficient in a majority of microelements as compared to their background levels; very low concentrations were determined for nickel, cobalt and manganese. The content of copper and sometimes zinc is at the background level. The distribution of the studied elements across the soil profile follows the accumulation-eluviation-illuviation pattern, but the scope of variation in the migration of elements varies among topographic positions. In well-drained locations microelements are quite monotonously distributed through the lower part of the soil profile, while soils in transitional landscapes have a higher differentiation of microelements. The differentiation of the catena through lateral migration is of the transient eluviation type, i.e. soils in lower-lying positions are poorer in the studied elements than soils in automorphic positions. This pattern is due to the natural characteristics of the area: low surface slope, homogeneous sandy parent material, low humus content in soil.
Sciprofile linkDaniil Kozlov, A. P. Zhidkin, Nikolay Igorevich Lozbenev
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-100-5-35

Abstract:В работе представлены оригинальные разработки по применению эрозионной модели WaTEM/SEDEM для крупномасштабного картографирования эрозионных структур почвенного покрова Среднерусской возвышенности. Оценка участия смытых почв в составе почвенных комбинаций распаханных склонов проведена на основе сопоставления расчетных темпов смыва с результатами почвенно-морфологической диагностики степени эродированности черноземов в 859 точках. При заданных входных параметрах эрозионной модели качественные изменения в структуре почвенного покрова (доля слабосмытых почв более 10%) начинаются с порогового значения водной эрозии 8 т·га-1·год-1. При среднегодовой эрозии 30 т·га-1·год-1 доля смытых почв превышает 50%. Полученные отношения между встречаемостью почв эрозионно-аккумулятивного ряда и интенсивностью смыва использованы для построения карты типизированных комбинаций почв разной эродированности. Сравнение с материалами детальной почвенной съемки показало, что карта отражает пространственное разнообразие и конфигурацию эрозионных почвенных комбинаций. Разработанный подход представляется перспективным для решения фундаментальных и прикладных задач, связанных с изучением структурно-функциональной организации почвенного покрова склонов и проектированием противоэрозионных мероприятий в адаптивно-ландшафтном земледелии.
V. N. Vekshina
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-21-46

Abstract:The methods of digital mapping are promising for creating soil maps on difficultly accessible territories. This study was aimed at searching of optimal approaches for digital mapping of the soil cover in poorly studied western part of the Bol’shezemel’skaya tundra on different scales. Medium-scale (1 : 200 000) and small-scale (1 : 1 M) soil maps served as the source of initial information about soils of this region; actual information of the state of the territory was obtained from remote sensing data (Landsat 8 scenes, Aug. 14, 2013) and digital elevation model ASTER GDEM v.2. After extraction of information and the choice of predictors, the analysis of digital soil cover models obtained with the use of different algorithms – Random Forest (RF), Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) – was performed. The coefficient of agreement between the newly developed digital models and the initial paper-based soil maps (kappa) was calculated. This test demonstrated that the RF algorithm ensures the best results, so the final digital maps were obtained using it. Averaged kappa values for the compared small- and medium-scale models were as follows: RF – 0.39 and 0.36; MLR – 0.31 and 0.31; and LDA – 0.28 and 0.18, respectively. After the preliminary correction of the initial medium-scale map, the kappa values somewhat increased (RF – 0.39, MLR – 0.35, LDA – 0.30). At the stage of evaluation of digital soil maps obtained with the use of RF algorithm, these maps and the initial soil maps were compared with independent point-size terrain data. The degree of agreement between these data and the new digital soil maps proved to be no less than that for the initial maps. For the initial and digital small-scale maps, it reached 24 and 26 %, respectively; for the initial and digital medium-scale maps, 54 and 43 %, respectively. After the preliminary correction of the initial medium-scale map, the degree of agreement between the digital model and terrain data improved considerably and reached 61 %. This method of digital soil mapping on the basis of analogous data seems to be optimal.
E. I. Kravchenko
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-47-61

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Sciprofile linkAlena Zhelezova, D. I. Passova, D. A. Nikitin, M. A. Yashin, S. V. Zhelezova
Dokuchaev Soil Bulletin; doi:10.19047/0136-1694-2019-99-117-144

Abstract:In this study we examined the effects of conventional agricultural treatment with plowing and no-till treatment on the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of agro-transformed sod-podzolic loamy soil. Soil was sampled in eightfold spatial replication from the arable layers (0–10, 10– 20, 20–30 cm) of field No. 2 of the long-term field experiment of the Center for Precision Agriculture of the Russian State Agrarian University in June, 2018. The crop type on the field No. 2 was vetch and oat mix. Moisture content, water holding capacity, pH, percentage of carbon and nitrogen were determined. The NDVI vegetation index was measured using GreenSeeker HandHeld and used to estimate the plant development intensity. Microbiological properties were assessed by selective plate counts. The abundance and activity were estimated for the next ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms: heterotrophic ammonifiers, aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing agents, denitrifiers, oligotrophs, cellulolytics. The vegetation index NDVI was higher for plants growing on the plowed part of the field. The differences in microbiological properties when comparing soil samples under no-till and under plowing were insignificant (by t-test for the independent groups comparison). In no-till samples a greater number of micromycetes, including cellulolytic and phytopathogenic, was observed compared to conventional treatment. Profile distributions of bacterial and fungal gene abundances were similar for both treatments according to the paired comparison of samples from different layers. The similarity in microbiological properties was found in the condition of a higher moisture content of the arable layer of the soil and a higher percentage of nitrogen were revealed in the soil under no-till compared with the soil treated by plowing.
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