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Journal Journal of Applied and Natural Science

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C. Karpagam, T. Selvaraj, P. Mooventhan, V. Venkatasubramanian
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 581-586; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2102

Abstract:Bridging the yield gap in any crop cultivation should be the prime objective of any research efforts. By following the recommended production-cum-protection technologies, farmers can bridge the yield gap in any crop. As per sugarcane is concerned, the average cane yield in Tamil Nadu is 101 t/ha, which is lower than the potential yield of 203.7 t/ha resulting in yield gap of 50.42%. With this in mind, a study has been initiated to explore the social and technology dimensions and constraints involved in cane cultivation to addressing the issue of yield gap. Six blocks from Theni district under Rajshree Sugars & Chemicals Ltd were selected as study area. Information collected from sixty sugarcane farmers with semi structured interview schedule. The study revealed that majority (91.7%) of the respondents had more than 5 years of experience in sugarcane cultivation. Further, it revealed that the technologies, seed rate (83.3%), planting season (75.00%), primary tillage with mould board / disc plough (67%), gap filling, two split application of N and K (58.3%) and Organic fertilizer application (58.3%), stubble shaving, off baring (50.0%) had adoption rate of more than 50 percentage. Major constraints faced by cent per cent of the respondents were; non availability of labour and high labour cost, prolonged drought and water scarcity, low procuring cost per by sugar factory, yield reduction due to continuous cultivation of sugarcane. The novelty and importance of the study is that it mainly analysis all the sugarcane production and protection technologies from seed rate to harvest in three point continuum viz., fully adopted, partially adopted and not adopted.
Seema Tewari, Sandeep Bajpai, Madhu Tripathi
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 575-580; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2115

Abstract:Aquatic environment gets polluted by heavy metals because of their environmental persistence and ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Cadmium is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal, biologically non-essential element, it is not biodegradable and has a very long biological half-life. The aim of the present study was to assess the glycogen content in muscle, liver, gill and kidney of Channa punctatus exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride after 4, 7, 15 and 30 days of exposure. The results clearly showed significant decrease in the glycogen levels in the experimental fish C. punctatus. Decrease in muscle glycogen was found highly significant (P
V. Sridevi, M. Raghuram
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 486-491; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2094

Abstract:Sugar industrial effluents possess high amounts of toxic pollutants and contaminate the receiving sites. Treatment of contaminated sites by using microorganisms provides an alternate to conventional methods hence demands in the identification of metal tolerant microorganisms has been increasing day by day. Therefore in this study soil samples collected from Tanuku sugar factory residual effluent point (bank of Gosthani river), west Godavari district A.P were analyzed for the bacterial tolerance to Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Lead (Pb) in their chloride forms. Additionally, the study was carried out to identify the metal tolerant bacteria by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Four potential bacterial isolates were selected to analyze metal tolerance against CuCl2, ZnCl2, and PbCl2. The sequences were compared with those in NCBI and submitted in gene bank with accession numbers MK100333 (Paenibacillus cookie), MK100334 (Bacillus cereus), MK100335 (Aneurini bacillus sp) and MK100387 (Paenibacillus sp.). A Phylogenetic tree was constructed to Paenibacillus sp. the highly efficient bacterial strain among the four isolates using MEGA 7 soft ware. The results of this study showed that P. dentritiformis had multiple metal tolerances (Cu, Zn and Pb) up to 500mg/L after 72 hrs. The identified bacterial strain proved to be the strong heavy metal tolerant bacterial strain. Hence, its usage will be helpful in the treatment of heavy metals specifically Cu, Zn and Pb contaminated soils and further optimization of these cultures is required to improve its metal resistant capacity.
Pooja Devi, Anita Bhtnagar, Mohan P. George
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 361-371; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2044

Abstract:Amongst the various anthropogenic activities, mass bathing and other religious rituals also affect the water quality of aquatic ecosystem. The present research has been conducted to evaluate the impact of mass bathing and other religious activities on the eight famous religious water bodies of Haryana (Kapalmochan tirth, Kulotarn tirth, Ban-Ganga tirth, Brahmsarovar, Jyotisar, Saraswati tirth, Phalgu tirth and Pandu-Pindara tirth). The water samples were collected from three sampling stations (A, B and C) at each of the eight selected sites (S1 to S8) before and after the religious rituals and also seasonally. The samples were analyzed for Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ammonia and heavy metals . The study highlighted the seasonal variations of physicochemical characteristics and also the effects of mass bathing and religious activities on water quality of the religious sites. Although the water was reported as safe in terms of DO content, total ammonia, BOD and the values of COD before the religious rituals but the values exceeded the maximum permissible limit {DO (0.8±0.1, 0.76±0.11), BOD (25.07±0.13, 18.13±0.13),COD (131.9±2.08), Ammonia (2.31±.23, 6.57±0.02) Iron (5890 µg L-1) and Zinc (200 µg L-1)} after mass bathing and religious rituals indicating that the water was not suitable for drinking as well as bathing purposes after the rituals/mass bathing. So, bathing during/after such rituals may become a health hazards to the bathers or users of the water and also may affect the aquatic biota, further depleting it. There is thus a need of regular monitoring and regular application of suitable remedial measures to prevent the depletion of the quality of lentic waters.
Deepti Kothari, V.L.V. Kameswari
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 352-360; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2059

Abstract:Knowledge and information is the key ingredient for driving the engine socio-economic progress of an economy in the present century. Therefore, development in 21st century is driven by the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for collection, storage, processing, retrieval and dissemination of the agriculture information to farmers. ICTs offer means of facilitating two-way interaction in an easy, fast and reliable way between research-extension-farmer systems. In order to reap the potential benefits of ICTs in agriculture, development functionaries must be well competent in using all means of information and communications technologies for extension. Extension personnel’s competence in using ICTs for agriculture and allied activities benefit’s the individual, organizations and nation. Accordingly, the thrust of training for extensionists’ should be aligned towards designing competency-based ICT trainings. The preliminary step for planning a competency-based ICT training programme is assessment of the training gap i.e. difference between existing and required ICT competencies of extension personnel. Studies done earlier in this context are very diverse and focus on specific ICTs, rather than whole. This paper presents a set of standardized 45 statements for measuring the ICT competence of the extension personnel. A total of 118 statements were sent to 154 experts for relevancy testing through online Google form. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software and MS Excel. With the use of outlier analysis, factor analysis and reliability analysis, ICT competence tool for extension personnel were finalized. The competency tool will contribute towards effective human resource development interventions for the extension personnel.
Sunil Kumar, D. S. Malik, Prachi Rathi
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 462-467; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2080

Abstract:Depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is resulting into increase in solar UV-B on earth surface. Ultra violet radiation is well known to cause many detrimental effects in aquatic organisms. The present study was performed to study the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation on fish fingerlings of Tor tor and Schizothorax richardsonii as a model system on laboratory scale. The effect of different intensities of natural solar and artificial UV-B radiation on fish larvae of T. tor and S. richardsonii in a presence of retene was investigated. Solar ultraviolet intensity showed seasonal and altitudinal variations in Garhwal region. Solar UV radiation level was lower (0.390 mw/cm2) in the month of January- February at lower altitude and highest (1.192 mw/cm2) in the month of July-August 2018 at higher altitude. Fish larvae exposed to artificial UV-B (average wavelength 312 nm and intensity of 750 mw/cm2) with retene (50µg/l) showed increase in gills malandialdehyde level and caused larvae mortality as indicating that enhanced solar UV-B exposure could be lethal to fish fauna in aquatic ecosystem. Artificial UV-B had a stronger damaging effect on fish larvae than solar radiation exhibited highly toxic in presence of retene. The larvae of S. richardsonii was found more sensitive than T. tor as indicated by high mortality rate (30%) and high pigmented characteristics on dorsal side. The solar and ultraviolet radiation showed a positive effect on high pigmentation. These results suggest that on a short time scale, UV-B radiation causing developmental stress on fish larvae may contribute to assess the phototoxic behaviour of cold water fishes.
Prachi Singh, Jyoti Singh, Rahul Singh Rajput, Anukool Vaishnav, Shatrupa Ray, R. K. Singh, H. B. Singh
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 503-510; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2111

Abstract:Fusarium wilt is one of the major diseases of tomato causing extensive loss of production. Exploration of agriculturally important microbes (AIMs) for management of the tomato wilt is an ecofriendly and cost effective approach. In the present study, a total 30 Trichoderma and 30 bacterial isolates were screened in the laboratory for their biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL). Out of all the isolates tested, Trichoderma asperellum BHU P-1 and Ochrobactrum sp. BHU PB-1 were found to show maximum inhibition of FOL in dual culture assay. Both the microbes also exhibited plant growth promoting activities such as phosphate solubilisation, production of siderophore, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), indole acetic acid (IAA) and protease activity. These microbes could be evaluated further in greenhouse and field studies for their potential use in management of Fusarium wilt of tomato.
Sheikh M Sultan, Narender Negi, Susheel Kumar Raina
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 398-403; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2070

Abstract:Systematic exploration and germplasm collection trips were conducted across Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir state covering Chatroo valley, Padder valley and Kishtwar main including areas of Dachan, Surror, Sarthal, Bhonjwa and Drabshala during 2013, 2015 and 2018. A total of 113 germplasm accessions belonging to 29 species of crops and wild relatives from as many as 40 collection sites were collected at altitudes ranging from 1340-2670 m. Several areas in Sarthal, Bhonjwa, Dachan and Gulabgarh Padder were first time explored. Crop group wise accessions collected are pulses (39) mostly common beans, cereals (30) mostly maize, vegetables and spices (25), pseudocereals and millets (16), besides one accession each of Glycine max, Solanum pseudocapsicum and Nicotiana tabacum. The germplasm has been conserved in National Gene Bank (NGB), New Delhi. This study highlights information on the germplasm collected/observed and threats leading to biodiversity loss/genetic erosion in the highly fragile region of Kishtwar.
Jyoti Singh, S. K. Bhatnagar, Akash Tomar
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 333-337; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2053

Abstract:Providing food security to devastatingly increasing population with limited natural resources along with destruction caused by pre- and post-harvest pathogens are the foremost concerns for the developing countries. Numerous pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers are being applied by the farmers to deal with the existing situation but leave very disastrous and undesirable after effects on ecosystem as non-degradable molecules.. Botanicals can be utilized as an ecofriendly and effective alternative against chemical as they are of natural origin. In this context, two chemical/synthetic fungicides namely Manzate and Nystanin in three different concentrations namely 500ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm were evaluated against Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium monilifrome, Rhizoctonia solani and Aspergillus niger in vitro to compare them with ethanolic botanical extracts of spices (clove, cinnamon, thyme) and weeds (parthenium and calotropis) at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Results revealed the high efficacy of botanicals i.e. clove extracts showed maximum inhibition (100%), followed by reduced inhibition in cinnamon, thyme, Parthenium and Calotropis treated plates against all five pathogens even at 5% concentration in comparison to chemical of 500 ppm concentration i.e. 100% in case of S.rolfsii only. Hence the herbal products can be further analyzed and applied as a potent, ecofriendly and economical substitute to chemicals.
Navitha P., Sujatha K., Beaulah A.
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 394-397; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i2.2046

Abstract:An experiment was carried out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during 2018 to find out the effect of fruit size on physiological seed quality of cucumber. Variation in fruit size of cucumber results in poor quality seeds. In order to overcome this obstacle fruit grading was done based on weight of fruit to obtain good quality seeds. Harvested fruits of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were categorized based on the weight into three different groups viz., Big (2.41kg), medium (1.66kg) and small (1.28kg). Observations on fruit and seed quality parameters were recorded. The results revealed that medium sized fruits recorded higher values compared to big and small sized fruits. The number of seeds/fruit recorded higher in medium sized fruit (935 numbers) followed by small (896 numbers) and big (876 numbers) sized fruits. The big, medium and small fruits were recovered to 1.52 %, 1.06% and 0.58% seeds respectively. The physiological quality characters measured in terms of seed germination revealed that seeds of medium sized fruits were recorded higher (80%) followed by seeds of big (82%) and small (65%). The seedling vigour measured through root (17.08cm) and shoot length (14.45cm), dry matter production (0.85g 10 seedlings-1) and vigour index (2522) also proved the superiority in medium sized fruits.
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