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Journal Journal of Applied and Natural Science

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Sciprofile linkSomanth Sardar, Manasi Patra, Bappa Mandal, B. C. Patra
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 59-65; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2217

Abstract:
Transplanting is the technique of moving of a plant from one location to another. This strategy is commonly practiced to establish crops when conditions are less favourable for direct seeding. Birds and squirrels damage to seedlings of maize is a serious problem resulting in poor crop stand and low yield. Delayed germination and plant growth receives a major setback due to late sowing of maize which reduces grain yield; however, reduction of yield can be compensated by transplantation technique. Transplanting of maize is a strategy that can be used to achieve optimum plant densities, better crop stand and obviously to get optimum yield. It reduces the nutrient requirement and also shortens the growth period of crop that helps farmers to harvest a third crop in intensive cropping system. Transplanted crop produces about 15.44% higher grain yield and can be harvested 10-12 days earlier that of direct seeding crop, so, late maturity high yielding cultivars can be fitted in to available growing season. Though, there are several advantages of transplanted maize, it is not popular in India due to lack of awareness, lacking in proper rational scientific technology and very little information about age of seedling and optimum dose of nutrient. Farmers can be benefitted if proper technology regarding age of seedling, process of transplanting and other cultivation techniques of raising transplanted maize is supplied to them.
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 25-29; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2207

Abstract:
Cymbopogon species from the Poaceae family are widely distributed in the Himalayan region of India and commonly used as flavors, fragrances, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. It is known to contain compound citral, which give the lemon scent to many of the plants of the cymbopogon genera. The essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus has high polyphenolic content which is responsible for antioxidant properties. Beside citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin B and Ionones. The bioactive potential of Lemongrass and constituent are rapidly increasing which is reflected from growing number of reports being published. The present study was to know the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of C. flexuosus from Uttarakhand. The essential oils of Cymbopogon collected in the region of Uttarakhand were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves and analyzed for chemical composition by GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of essential oils at different concentrations was determined against DPPH radical activity and vitamin C as the standard antioxidant compound. The IC50 value and percentage of DPPH inhibition were recorded. Twenty-five compounds were identified in essential oil extracted from leaves representing 93.15% of the oil composition. The yield of essential oil of Cymbopogon was 0.6 + 0.1 %and the major compound in the essential oil was citral (a racemic mixture of two isoforms geranial and nearl) followed by heptenone(1.98%) , linalool(1.65%), geraniol (1.47%), ?-caryophyllene (1.14% ) , limonene (0.92%), nearl acetate (0.82%), citronellal(0.44 %) and citronellol (0.22%). Radical scavenging capacity (Inhibition, %) of the C. flexuosus essential oil was high (78.19+1.11) at the concentration level of 150 ?g/ml and IC50 value of the essential oil was 43.67?g/ml. The data of this study encourages to consider the essential oil of C. flexuosus as a source of bioactive compounds which may add great industrial value to this crop.
Sciprofile linkArjun G. Koppad, Syeda Sarfin, Anup Kumar Das
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 9-12; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2209

Abstract:
The study has been conducted for land use and land cover classification by using SAR data. The study included examining of ALOS 2 PALSAR L- band quad pol (HH, HV, VH and VV) SAR data for LULC classification. The SAR data was pre-processed first which included multilook, radiometric calibration, geometric correction, speckle filtering, SAR Polarimetry and decomposition. For land use land cover classification of ALOS-2-PALSAR data sets, the supervised Random forest classifier was used. Training samples were selected with the help of ground truth data. The area was classified under 7 different classes such as dense forest, moderate dense forest, scrub/sparse forest, plantation, agriculture, water body, and settlements. Among them the highest area was covered by dense forest (108647ha) followed by horticulture plantation (57822 ha) and scrub/Sparse forest (49238 ha) and lowest area was covered by moderate dense forest (11589 ha). Accuracy assessment was performed after classification. The overall accuracy of SAR data was 80.36% and Kappa Coefficient was 0.76. Based on SAR backscatter reflectance such as single, double, and volumetric scattering mechanism different land use classes were identified.
Sciprofile linkNisha Agarwal, Gurmukh Singh, B. K. Kumbhar
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 42-52; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2234

Abstract:
The present work investigated the effect of salt solutions of sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate on the water uptake by kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60 0C). Thirty-five soaking solutions were prepared using NaCl and NaHCO3 to find the optimum soaking treatment and time to maximise the hydration. Hydration kinetics of kidney beans was studied in different concentrations of the salt solutions and at different temperatures by the method of weight gain until equilibrium conditions were attained. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments and to optimize the levels for minimum soaking time and to maximize the hydration. The soaking solutions affected the mass transfer in both seed coat and cotyledon, demonstrating changes on both proteins and polysaccharides. Increasing the temperature from 30 to 60 0 C in sodium chloride solution and sodium bicarbonate solution (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% concentration) decreased the soaking time from >225min and 225 min to 82.5 min and 73.5 min respectively to achieve around 80% hydration. Beans soaked in sodium bicarbonate solution exhibited higher hydration rates than in distilled water followed by sodium chloride solution at the same salt concentration. Soaking for about three hours at 300C resulted in maximum hydration. The optimum soaking treatment was found to be in a salt solution containing 1.10% NaCl and 0.92% NaHCO3 at 300C which resulted in a soaking time of 193.45 min. This work demonstrated a simple and non-tedious approach for enhancing the hydration process of grains.
Ekta Hooda, Urmil Verma, B. K. Hooda
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 53-58; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2229

Abstract:
Advance estimates of significant cereal and commercial crops are given by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics and the central Ministry of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers’ Welfare. However, the final estimates are released a few months after the actual harvest of the crops. In this study, ARIMA and State-Space models have been developed for sugarcane yield forecasting in Ambala and Karnal districts of Haryana. The above-mentioned models have been developed using yield data of sugarcane crop for the time period 1966-67 to 2009-10 of Ambala and Karnal districts. The validity of fitted models has been tested over the years 2010-11 to 2016-17. The forecasting performance of the developed models has been studied using percent deviations of sugarcane yield forecasts in relation to the actual yield, and root means squared errors. It has been observed that state-space models outperform the popular ARIMA models for forecasting of sugarcane yield in Northern Agro-climatic Zone of Haryana.
Shashank Shekhar Tiwari, Francis Tambo, Rakhi Agarwal
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 36-41; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2227

Abstract:
Due to anthropogenic activities and natural abundance, lead exposure is a common phenomenon. Neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead are widely known. Recent studies have suggested that lead exposure can affect young generation and transfer to the progeny thus posing a great threat for future generation. The present study was focused on lead toxicity in terms of locomotion and growth of Caenorhabditis elegans (N2 wild type) at three sub-lethal doses (3µM, 15 µM and 30 µM) of Pb (NO3)2 for 24 hours (sub-chronic exposure). Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode with an established eco- toxicity marker model organism, due to its short life cycle and ease to monitor. After lead exposure, significant toxic manifestations were observed in locomotion of the nematode in terms of omega bends (+350% for 30 µM exposure dose, p
Victor Joly Dzokou, Soufo Laurentine, Tamesse Joseph Lebel
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 30-35; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2220

Abstract:
Eucalyptus spp belong to the family of Myrtaceae and grow all over the world and are adapted to different climates and soils. In Cameroon, these plants are very important for their medicinal and ecological virtues. Eucalyptus globulus has economically and ornamentally values. Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Psylloidea: Aphalaridae) is one of the insects feeding on this plant and its causes severe damages to their host plants. Significant damage occurred in nurseries and in a very young plantations of Eucalyptus spp. The biology of B. occidentalis was studied from July 2010 to June 2011 at Yaounde. The parameters mating process, choice of the egg-laying site by the females, fecundity of the females, longevity of the adults, embryonic and larval development, life cycle and sex ratio were studied. The results showed that males emerged before females, and the mating process lasted about 42 minutes. The longevity of adults was 11 days on average and egg-laying began 8 days after emergence. The average fertility was 38 eggs per female. The eggs were laid on the buds, bracts, young leaves and twigs of its host plant. The life cycle, from egg to egg, required 32 days on average. The sex ratio was close to 1.03. This species fed and developed on Eucalyptus spp. has never been observed on other plants species in the study area, suggesting a specificity of this psyllid to its host plant. These results can be considered as an important step for the establishment of integrated pest control against Eucalyptus psyllid pest species in Cameroon.
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 66-70; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2223

Abstract:
Since per capita availability of land is shrinking day by day and there is little scope for horizontal growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and thus vertical growth via intercropping can be a viable alternative to reduce the wide gap between the demand and supply of edible oils. Intercropping is an intensive land use system and a profitable venture especially for the small land holders as it fulfills the diversified demands at the farm level itself. Suitable planting pattern for greater light interception and transmission throughout the crop profile is pre-requisite for getting higher productivity. This paper reviews the information regarding role of planting patterns of oilseed rape on various aspects like growth, yield, competitiveness as well as productivity and profitability of intercropping systems. Different oilseed rape cultivars when intercropped with different crops viz., cereals, legumes, fodders or other oilseed crops prove to be more productive and remunerative as compared to their monoculture at different row proportions or spacings, which also varies with locations.
Adeola. Folashade Ehigie, Sciprofile linkGbadebo Emmanuel Adeleke, Fiyinfoluwa. D. Ojeniyi, Leonard Ona Ehigie
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 13-18; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2215

Abstract:
Chromolaena odorata is an invasive plant which is acclaimed to have cyanide remediation potential from contaminated sites. This examination means to decide the impact of ethanol concentrates of C. odorata (ECO), sodium thiosulphate and a mix of both on hematological parameters and blood lipid profile of rodents presented to potassium cyanide. (KCN). A sum of thirty five male Wistar rats partitioned into seven groups of five units were used. KCN Group rats were administered with KCN alone. Rats in 100ECO, 150ECO, 200ECO groups were administered with 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight of ECO respectively. Rats under Na2sS2O3 and Na2S2O3+ECO groups were administered 200 mg/kg sodium thiosulphate and sodium thiosulphate with ECO at 200 mg/kg respectively. The trial was done in about a month. Toward the finish of the investigation, the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin level (Hb), Red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) were resolved utilizing known biochemical methodology. The outcomes demonstrated a noteworthy increment (p ? 0.05) in PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC level of remedial groups when contrasted with the cyanide group. Total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were altogether lower while HDL-cholesterol was fundamentally expanded in all the treated groups when contrasted and the untreated group given cyanide alone. However, no significant difference in LDL-cholesterol was indicated in all therapeutic groups compared with the cyanide group. The study revealed that C. odorata at the tested doses was able to improve the hematological parameters and lipid profile in cyanide exposed rats.
Manoj Mandal, Sanjib Kumar Das
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 12, pp 1-8; doi:10.31018/jans.v12i1.2204

Abstract:
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most popular tuber crop in West Bengal, India. Seed tuber is the single most important factor in potato cultivation and if the seed is not of good quality, then optimum production could not be achieved. Unavailability of good quality seed, high price and untimely supply of seed at the village level are the main limiting factors in potato production. Field experiments were conducted during rabi season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, West Bengal to determine the effects of intra row spacing, dates of haulm cutting and fertilizer dose on disease free quality seed grade tuber production of potato. The experiment was laid out in a split split plot design with three replications having twelve treatment combinations. The results revealed that with the decrease in intra row spacing from 20cm to 15cm seed grade size (< 75g) tuber yield and numbers and total tuber numbers were significantly increased but marketable grade (> 75 g) tuber yield and numbers were significantly reduced. Haulm cutting at 65 DAP increased the seed grade size tuber yield and numbers over 75 DAP. With the decrease in fertility levels from 100% RDF of NPK to 50% RDF of NPK the seed grade tuber production and number were significantly increased at 5% level of significance. Disease incidence and intensity of Phoma leaf spot decreased and early blight increased with decreasing doses of fertilizers. No viral disease was observed. Dehaulming at 65 DAP was found safer so far as infestation and chances of viral disease transmission by the sucking pests were concerned. From the present study it may be concluded that, for quality seed tuber production of potato and to get highest net return under New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, use of 50cm X 15cm spacing along with haulm cutting at 65 DAP, when planting is done on first week of November and grown with 50% RDF of NPK was found best.
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