Journal Journal of Applied and Natural Science

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N. Kannadasan, Dharshini, S. Eabinezer, Nirmala Natarajan, R. Krishnamoorthy, R. Sri Sakthi Priyadarshini
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 768-777; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2112

Abstract:Vermifiltration of wastewater using waste eater earthworms is a newly conceived novel technology. The present study evaluated BOD, COD and TS showing significant variation in decrease by 95%, 90% and 80% respectively through vermifiltration of distillery effluents. The nutrient contents (TN, TP, TK, TCa and TMg) in the vermicasts had increase (1.82 % in TN, 0.24% in TP, 2.15% in TK, 2.07% in TCa and 2.86 % in TMg) in the range of fold than the control level. The morphology of the control and experimental vermicast samples were analyzed with SEM and the image showed significant variation. The FT-IR spectrum analysis showed reduction of aliphatic/aromatic (C=C and OH) compounds in the vermicompost. Thus, the present study significantly highlights the vermifiltration technology in treating distillery effluent.
Himani Verma, Anita Rani, Manisha Gahlot, Alka Goel, Anil Kumar Sharma
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 796-801; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2179

Abstract:Natural dyes had been used by human being since ancient times for colouring of various materials including textiles. These were replaced completely by synthetic dyes, continuous use of which created the problem of pollution and environmental degradation. With the development of green technology and increased awareness of sustainability, the use of non-allergic, non-toxic and eco-friendly natural dyes on textiles has become a matter of significant importance. Among the natural sources of colourants, microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi have gained interest in the field of textile coloration. In the present study, the pigment solution yielded from growth of Talaromyces purpurogenus sp. on organic waste was used for dyeing of wool fabric. Under the dyeing conditions i.e. 1:30 M:L ratio, pH 5, 80º C temperature and 45 minutes dyeing time, the percent absorption could reach 57 %, 32%, 36% and 49% respectively. The wool fabric samples dyed with the fungal dye exhibited very good to excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties. The colour pigment obtained from fungal thus offered an opportunity to reduce impact on plant resources for dye source exploration. So it can be concluded from the study that a natural fungal dye could help to sustain the environment and to minimize the over exploitation of natural resources.
A.K. Singh, A.K. Mall, P.K. Singh
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 755-761; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2173

Abstract:The study subjected to estimate gene effects and inheritance of quantitative traits of rice with Generation Mean Analysis (GMA). Segregation analysis and estimation of genetic parameters under epistatic model indicated partial dominance and importance of additive effects in the inheritance of drought tolerance, respectively. In present study, absence of epistasis by scaling tests was recorded only for plant height in cross NDR-359 x P0 1564, grains per panicle in cross DSL- 63-8 x NDR- 359, test weight in cross Sarjoo-52 x P0 359, harvest-index in cross NDR-359 x P0 1564 and spikelets per panicle in cross Sarjoo-52 x P0 359 and NDR-359 x P0 1564 in irrigated condition and days to 50 per cent flowering in cross P0 359 x Sonam and harvest-index in cross NDR-359 x P0 1564 in drought condition. In remaining cases, existence of epistasis was observed in either one or both conditions by one or both types of scaling tests. The presence of complementary epistasis in cross P0 359 x Sonam and P0 1564 x Sarjoo-52 would make progress through selection procedures exploiting additive gene actions faster while existence of duplicate epistasis in cross NDR-359 x P0 1564 would have reverse impact. The non-additive gene effects in NDR-359 x P0 1564 for grain yield plant-1may also be utilized for facilitating development of pureline cultivars by involving population improvement methods. Our study concluded that for a large number of traits in six crosses, dominance gene effects and epistatic interactions were significant under drought and irrigated conditions implying that utilization of heterosis through hybrid varieties will act as a budding choice.
B. C. Greeshma, M. Mahesh
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 810-815; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2188

Abstract:Selenium nanoparticles have been widely used in the various areas especially in medical field for its anticancer and immune modulatory properties. To reduce the toxic chemicals released by chemical process, the present work was aimed at synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by microbes. In this study, microbes were isolated from soil samples from different areas of Bangalore and screened for the antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The organism with highest antioxidant activity (IC50 value = 11.6µg/mL) was identified as Bacillus species. Under experimental conditions, this microbe along with sodium selenite synthesised selenium nanoparticle indicated by the colour change of the medium to reddish orange. The synthesised selenium nanoparticles were further characterised. From UV-Vis spectrophotometry, the maximum peak was obtained at 266.5nm. The FT-IR analysis showed peaks at different wavelengths with the maximum of 3200cm-1 showing the presence of alcoholic group. The shape and size of the selenium nanoparticles was also calibrated by SEM analysis as oval and 209nm-748nm respectively. The nanoparticles were further analysed for antimicrobial assays by well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, St. mutans and antifungal assay against the strains of C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed against E.coli (1.7 cm) at a concentration of 400µg and maximum for C. albicans (2.5cm) at a concentration of 400µg. Microbial synthesized nanoparticles emerges as a promising medicine in curing different disorders because of its potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.
Pardeep Panghal, Manoj Kumar, Sarita Rani
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 778-784; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2175

Abstract:Computation of growth rates plays an important role in agricultural and economic research to study growth pattern of a various commodities. Many of the research workers used the parametric approach for computation of annual growth rate but not use the concept of non-linear model. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study growth rates of guava for three districts (Hisar, and Kurukshetra) and Haryana state as a whole using different non-linear models. The time series data on annual area and production of guava (Psidium guajava L.) in different districts of Haryana from 1990-91 to 2015-16 were collected to fit non linear models. Growth rates were computed through best fitted non-linear models. It was found that Logistic model could be best fit for computation of growth rates of area for guava fruit in Hisar and Kurukshetra district and Haryana state as a whole whereas Gompertz model was best fit for Yamunanagar district based on high R2 and least MSE and RMSE values. It was also observed that monomolecular model was best fit for production of guava fruits in Hisar and Yamunanagar district whereas Logistic model was best fit for production of guava fruit in Kurukshetra and Haryana state as a whole because of high R2 and least MSE and RMSE values. R and excel software have been used for fitting the non linear model and computation of growth rates for area and production of guava fruit for the year 1990-91 to 2015-16. None has been used the non linear model growth model for computation of annual growth rate of guava fruit for area and production of Haryana state. But in this work non linear growth model has been used for computation of growth rate instead of parametric approaches.
P.Z. Muradov, G.F. Shirinova, L.X. Asgerli, E.I. Allahverdiyev, C.F. Gasimov
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 785-790; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2168

Abstract:The purpose of the presented work was dedicated to assess the spread of fungal diseases and the species composition of its creators on the plants used for food purposes in the agraraian sector of Azerbaijan. In the research conducted for this purpose, we studied mycobiota of 20 sorts belonging to the 10 species of plants and it was indicated that in the formation of mycobiota of those plants, there was involvement of 57 species of fungi and fungi -like organisms. It was determined that the frequency of occurrence of registered fungi, as well as the prevalence of diseases caused by fungi depending on the plants, are characterized by the different quantitative indicators. Thus, the total frequency of occurrence fungi varies between 0.02 - 21.2%. Phytosanitary status was assessed according to the degree of spread of diseases caused by fungi. It became clear that the situation today is potentially dangerous. This is also made as a necessary task to develop serious prophylactic measures.
Sandeep Gupta
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 816-822; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2174

Abstract:The prolonged disposal of municipal waste influences the soil productivity factors. Therefore, the present study was carried out at dumping site near Chandi bridge Hardwar (Uttarakhand) to determine the effect of physico-chemical parameters of the solid waste on soil productivity factors of soil at different sites- Site-A: It was near to slump area. Site-B (500 meter far from site-A: It was used for dumping and partially submerged with water and had a swampy condition, Site-C (500 meter far from site-B): It was near to Chandi devi ropeway and contained fresh as well as partially decomposed waste. Site- D and Site-E (500 meter far from site-C): It was used for dumping and had putrefied odour due to decomposition of fresh waste. The control site- X (Bilkeshwar mountain region): 10 Km far from experimental sites in N-W direction of Chandi bridge municipal waste dumping area at Hardwar (Uttarakhand), India during the year 2006-2009 at present these sites have been closed for dumping of waste. The soil productivity factors viz. available nitrogen (0.32 ppm), organic matter (0.89%) were found maximum at site-A, temperature (24.610C) at site-C and electrical conductivity (1.05 dSM-1) available phosphorus (33.16ppm), available potash (260.17ppm) at site-E of dumping area in comparison to the soil of control site-X (Bilkeshwar mountain range). At control site, bulk density (1.37 g/cc) and pH (7.65) were maximum while the bulk density (1.08 ± 0.22) g/cc at site-D and pH (7.02) at site-E were observed minimum. The results were statistically analyzed to indicate that the dumping of municipal waste influenced the pH and bulk density of soil and increased the acidity and porosity of soil through which pollutants leach to ground water. But higher amount of organic matter, N, P, K makes it fit for the raw material that may be used in fertilizing industries by using appropriate technologies. The study would be helpful for utilization of municipal wastes in compost formation and to indicate the influence of municipal waste on soil quality of the dumping sites of other places.
Vinayak Patil, B. S. Reddy, S. S. Patil, G. M. Hiremath
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 762-767; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.1902

Abstract:Cost of milk production is an important economic indicator in assessing the farm household efficiency in milk production as well as basis for price fixation. The study was undertaken to analyse the cost and returns of milk production in rural and periurban dairy farms of Kalaburagi district of Karnataka. The per day maintenance cost in periurban dairy farms ( 150.64) was highest compared to rural dairy farms ( 91.29)for local cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes. Among total maintenance costs of periurban dairy farming, feed and fodder costs accounted major share (73.49%) followed by labour cost (15.53%) and total fixed cost (7.73%). The return per litre of milk was highest ( 8.91) for crossbred cows followed by buffalo ( 4.82) and local cows (` 0.14). The net return from crossbred cow was more than that of buffalo and local cows indicating higher profitability in rearing crossbred cow in the study area.
Aditya, Nidhi Sharma, P. S. Shehrawat
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 802-805; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2183

Abstract:Soil degradation is a point of evolution which leads to a reduction of resource potential. About 7.40 m ha arable lands globally turn to degraded lands as a result of climate change and deforestation. The problem of soil degradation has been ever since cultivation of soils started because of increasing population of India at the rate of about 1.8% requiring marginal areas to be brought under the plough to meet the growing food demand. The present study was conducted in Kaithal district in the year 2018-19. The study revealed that ‘Excessive use of chemical fertilizers’ (88.33%) followed by ‘non- judicious use of insecticides/pesticides’ (85.83%), ‘less application of organic manure’ (85.00%), ‘deforestation (78.33%), and ‘over uplifting of ground water’ (75.83%) were found as most important causes of soil degradation. The most important remedial action for problematic soil were found as ‘land for equal distribution of resources/irrigation’ (90.83%) followed by ‘application of Gypsum for sodic and saline soil’ (85.83%), ‘introduction of legumes in cropping system’ (80.00%), ‘recharge of ground water during rainy season’ (78.33%), ‘crop residue incorporation by happy seeder’ (77.50%), ‘application of green manuring/ organic manure’ (75.00%) and ‘leaching of salts in saline soil’ (72.50%). Soil conservation is important for the future use and future generation. The study would be helpful in soils conservation which may otherwise cause damage to plant growth which in turn may adversely affect yield and there by food security also.
Published: 10 December 2019
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 823-829; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2167

Abstract:Wheat is one of the most important cereal crop and staple foods in the world. Increase in productivity of wheat by balance nutrient management is one of the most crucial factors. The main objective this study is to assessing the role of micronutrients in improving different components of wheat yield. There are different methods of application such as seed priming, soil application and fortification but foliar application is more beneficial. This is due to response of foliar application has positive and quadrate in nature i.e. the optimum dose of foliar application of zinc for grain yield of wheat was observed as 0.04%. Among treatments of micronutrient alone or combined forms give better results over control. Results have show that micronutrient application substantially improved leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration, CGR (Crop growth rate), RGR (Relative growth rate), NAR (Net assimilation rate), plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, grains/spike, test weight, tillers m-2, grain yield, chlorophyll content and biological yield as well as harvest index of wheat. The yield and quality of wheat products improved and boosted by micronutrient applications. Therefore, human and animal health will be protected with the feed of enriched and balanced nutrition of produce as well as it will help in facing the severe global food security.
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