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Journal Journal of Applied and Natural Science

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Sciprofile linkEkta Hooda, Urmil Verma
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 661-665; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2144

Abstract:Unlike classical regression analysis, the state space models have time-dependent parameters and provide a flexible class of dynamic and structural time series models. The unobserved component model (UCM) is a special type of state space models widely used to analyze and forecast time series. The present investigation has been carried out to study the trend of sugarcane(gur) yield in five districts (Ambala, Karnal, Panipat, Yamunanagar and Kurukshetra) of Haryana state using the unobserved component models with level, trend and irregular components. For this purpose, the time series data on sugarcane yield from 1966-67 to 2016-17 of Ambala and Karnal, 1971-72 to 2016-17 of Kurukshetra and 1980-81 to 2016-17 of Panipat and Yamunanagar districts have been used. For all the districts, the irregular component was found to be highly significant (p=0.01) while both level and trend component variances were observed non-significant. Significance analysis of the individual component(s) has also been performed for possible dropping of the level and trend components by setting their variances equal to zero. The state space models may be effectively used pertaining to Indian agriculture data, as it takes into account the time dependency of the underlying parameters which may further enhance the predictive accuracy of the most popularly used ARIMA models with parameter constancy. Moreover, the unobserved component model is capable of handling both stationary as well as non-stationary time series and thus found more suitable for sugarcane yield modeling which is a trended yield (i.e. non-stationary in nature).
Sciprofile linkAshish Kumar Arya, Dinesh Bhatt, Amar Singh, Vikas Saini, Pushpendra Verma, Robin Rathi, Parul Bhatnagar
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 732-737; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2085

Abstract:Migration is the seasonal habitual movement, exhibited by many avian species along a flyway from breeding to wintering grounds and vice versa all over the world. Migratory birds are very sensitive to even small changes in water level which may be affected by flood or drought on their breeding and wintering grounds. High rains during monsoon season can cause flood conditions in the lower hills and Gangetic plains including Haridwar district. In our study, conducted during last ten years (2009-2018), we covered Bheemgoda Barrage and Missarpur Ganga Ghat of Haridwar, Uttarakhand, where 46 species of Migratory (M) and Resident Migratory (RM) wetland birds were observed. Bird survey indicated that there was a significant increase (p = 0.064, t-test) in the population of certain species such as Bhraminy Shelduck (67%), Black Headed Gull (31%), Gadwall (7%), Northern Pintail (59%), Red Crested Pochard (10%) and Tufted Pochard (47%) in Missarpur Ganga Ghat as compared to Bheemgoda Barrage (based on the average abundance of the species observed during study period). It may be pointed out that after flood and loss of vegetated island, there was significant decrease (p= 0.023, t-test) in the population of species such as Black necked stork (76%), Great crested grebe (56), Pallas gull (47%) at Bheemgoda barrage, while some species such as Bar headed goose, Common pochard did not arrive in Bheemgoda barrage after the flood. The study would help to understand the effect of climatic change on water birds species distribution in natural and man-made wetlands.
Sciprofile linkD Sharmah, B Debnath, B K Kandpal, D Das
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 587-589; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2008

Abstract:The present study was carried out under Krishi Vigyan Kendra, South Tripura to study the production, profitability and employment generation of IFS over prevailing conventional rice-rice system of farming in South Tripura district of Tripura during 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18. The components rice, maize, vegetables, ginger, apiculture, fishery, poultry and piggery were considered for the study under integrated farming system. The Integrated Farming System (IFS) model showed 17.79 % increase in productivity and 48.91 % higher net return over conventional rice-rice system. Among the components evaluated, the highest per cent net return was received from Fishery unit (31.78), followed by Piggery unit (18.19), Apiculture (13.93), Poultry unit (12.96), Spice Ginger (10.19), Crop (7.31) and Vegetables (5.64) respectively. The highest B:C ratio (3.67) was obtained from fishery unit among all the component evaluated under the IFS. A total of 289 Man days/ha/year employments can be generated under Integrated Farming System. This system of IFS model may be useful in the areas where water is limiting and an efficient alternate system of conventional rice-rice system.
G. Kranthi Kumar, K. Nagendra Prasad, Sciprofile linkM. Raghu Ram
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 632-635; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2132

Abstract:The members of the family Apocynaceae are the rich in alkaloids, terpinoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and hydrocarbons. Anodendron paniculatum Roxb. is an woody climber, the roots of which have been used to control vomiting and cough. In the present study, adult plant and tissue culture plant extracts of A. paniculatum collected from Eastern Ghats, Araku, Andhra Pradesh were used for the production of their secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts of calli showed high contents of total phenol and alkaloid with 25.53 and 25.98 mg/g respectively. Methanol extract of tissue culture plant at higher concentrations showed better antioxidant activity with reference to standard ascorbic acid. For this study different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) of extracts were prepared by using four different solvents. Tissue culture extracts from methanol showed maximum scavenging activity with 231.9±1.39 % at 200 µg/ml of concentration, while that of adult plant extracts showed the scavenging activity of 189.1±0.74% only. These results on high antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of A. paniculatum calli can be attributed to the presence of high phenolic and alkaloid contents in calli when compared to that of adult plant extract.
Sciprofile linkJaya Tripathi, Janardan Singh
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 694-697; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2150

Abstract:The purpose of this study was to introduce nutri flour in the development of value-added food products. Nutri flour was developed using malted wheat, malted barnyard millet and malted pearl millet. The proximate composition, iron, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phytates) and antioxidant activity were determined for developed nutri flour and conventional flours like whole wheat flour, refined wheat flour and Bengal gram flour. The results indicated that the developed nutri flour had the highest protein (18.68 g/100g) as well iron content (9.22 mg/100g) which was significantly higher than other conventional flours. The nutritional quality of the obtained nutri flour suggests that the flour can be considered as an alternative to conventional existing flours in process of food product development ensuring better nutritional quality of developed products.
Amrita Khound, Sciprofile linkD. Sharmah, P.C. Barua
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 684-686; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2160

Abstract:The risk of adverse reactions in herbal remedies is less and has become popular to be used traditionally for treating various diseases. The species associated with genus Piper are important medicinal plants used for preparation of herbal medicines. The present investigation was carried out in the Experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13 during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to investigate the flowering variation of some Piper longum germplasms of North East India. A total of 16 Piper longum germplasms including ‘Viswam’ as check variety were evaluated and experimental data revealed significant difference in spike initiation time among the germplasms with shortest spike initiation period (245.30 days) that recorded in germplasm PLJ-19 while the check var. recorded 287.40 days. Significant and shortest period for spike initiation to maturity was recorded in germplasm PLJ-19 (61.04days) followed by PLJ-01 (61.00days), PLJ-11 (61.38days) and check var. (70.03days).The number of flowering spike per plant ranges in between 58.53-113.73. The highest number of flowering spike per plant 113.73 was observed in germplasm PLJ-19 followed by PLJ-01 (109.40), PLJ-11 (104.11), PLJ-16 (100.33) and were found to be superior over check var. (92.07). The present findings has a significant contribution in determination and identification of germplasm having shorter spike formation period with higher number of flowering spike as the variation in piperine content depends on both the characters also.
Sciprofile linkShrimant Rathod, Sudhir Dahiwalkar, Sunil Gorantiwar, Mukund Shinde
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 724-731; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2142

Abstract:An estimation of optimal design parameters of subsurface drainage system through monitoring of water table depths and drain discharges are expensive in terms of time and money. The simulation modeling is an effective tool for estimation of drainage design parameters at less cost and short time. In view to this, calibration of DRAINMOD model for prediction of water table depths and drain discharges were conducted by installing subsurface drainage system with 40 m drain spacing and 1.0 m drain depth at Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Dist. Sangli (Maharashtra) during 2012-13 to 2013-14. The field data on water table depth and drain discharge were used for calibration of DRAINMOD model. The input data files on climatic, soil, crop and drainage design system parameters were attached to DRAINMOD model and calibrated successfully. It is found that both observed and simulated water table depths and drain discharges showed a fluctuating trend and predicted both water table depths and drain discharges closely with the observed values during frequent rainy days and following the rainy days. The DRAINMOD model reliably predicted water table depths with a goodness of fit (R2 = 0.97), MAE (12.23 cm), RMSE (15.49 cm) and CRM (0.05); drain discharges with R2 of 0.93, MAE of 0.095 mm day-1, RMSE of 0.1876 mm day-1and CRM of 0.04. Thus, the calibrated DRAINMOD model can be used to simulate the water table depths and drain discharges in semi-arid climatic conditions of Maharashtra and in turn to estimate and evaluate drain spacing and depth.
Anju B. Raj, Sciprofile linkSheeja K. Raj
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 673-679; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2157

Abstract:Zn plays major role in many physiological processes viz., chlorophyll formation, pollen formation, fertilization, protein synthesis, cell elongation, nodule formation etc. Hence, Zn nutrition favourably influences the growth, yield, physiological parameters and nodule formation in pulses. Similar to that of Zn, B also plays a major role in the functioning of reproductive tissues, structural integrity of plasma membrane, sugar transport, nodule development etc. Boron nutrition reduces the flower drop, increases the pod setting in pulses and also increased nodulation in pulses. The review elaborates the effect of Zn and B nutrition on the physiological, growth and yield parameters and yield of pulses and their effect on nodule formation and uptake of nutrients in pulses.
Sciprofile linkKeshav Kumar Upadhyay, Bakerbha Japang, Ngangbam Somen Singh, S.K. Tripathi
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 590-595; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2121

Abstract:Sacred groves are among one of the best practices of biodiversity conservation used by the ethnic societies which are deeply associated with the religion and culture that significantly nurture nature. As these practices play a vital role in conserving socio-ecologically important species and protect threatened flora and fauna from extinction in different ecological zones. In northeast India, sacred groves are well connected with culture and society through religious beliefs of the population and their associated myths. Sacred groves cover a total of > 40,000 hectares of natural forest area in the five northeastern states of India. These forests house some of the most important and highly threatened species of plants. Wild relatives of present-day cultivated plants are found in these forests and hence act as the gene pool for these species. Social transformation and urbanization have a large impact on the structure and health of these forests and responsible for their destruction. Developmental projects like railways, roads, hydro-electric projects etc. have reportedly destroyed many groves in the past. Due to social transformation, the rate of activities like grazing, encroachment, cutting and collection of fuel wood, fruits and leaves has been increasing and posing a threat to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem function in the future. Creating awareness about the social and ecological benefits of maintaining sacred groves among local people, especially youth, can help in reviving these practices and conserving them as a natural heritage for future generations is the need of the hour.
Sciprofile linkOmesh Bajpai, Narendra Mohan, Jitendra Mohan, Rajan Kumar Gupta
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 619-623; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2129

Abstract:The nature of an ecosystem can be easily assumed by the presence of planktonic diversity, as they have a major role in oxygen amelioration, binding and removal of toxic substances from water body. The present enumeration deals with the annual algal diversity from the Lakhna town of Etawah, Uttar Pradesh. During this one year period, total fifty-four species of Algae recorded viz. Achnanthes minutissima, Amphora ovalis, Anabaena oscillarioides, A. oryzae, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Aphanocapsa littoralis, Aphanothece microscopica, Arthrospira sp., Calothrix gloeocola, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorococcum humicola, Chroococcus minor, C. minutes, Cladophora glomerata, Closterium venus, Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cylindrospermum minutissimum, Euglena minuta, Fragilaria crotonensis, Gloeocapsa magma, Gloeotrichia pisum, Gomphonema parvulum, Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Lyngbya contorta, L. epiphytica, L. majuscula, Merismopedia glauca, M. tenuissima, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae, M. robusta, Mougeotia calcarea, Navicula ambigua, N. brebissonii, N. lata, Nostoc commune, N. punctiforme, Oscillatoria formosa, O. subuliformis, O. princeps, Pediastrum boryanum, Phormidium ambiguum, P. fragile, P. lucidum, Rivularia aquatica, Scenedesmus bijuga, S. obliquus, Spirogyra affinis, S. submaxima, Spirulina gigantea, S. major, Ulothrix zonata, Zygnema collinsianum. This information can be used as baseline data and may be further used to assess any change in algal diversity of Gangetic plain after a sufficient gap to understand the impact of changing climate on it.
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