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Journal Journal of Applied and Natural Science

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D. Sukumar, Thanga.Thamil Vanan, A. Thennarasu, T.M.A. Senthil Kumar
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 738-742; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2148

Abstract:A study was undertaken to assess the incidence of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows of Villupuram district by using direct microscopic Somatic cell count (SCC). For this purpose sixty eight crossbred cows positive for subclinical mastitis (SCM) as per IDF (International Dairy Federation) criteria were randomly allotted in to two treatment groups. The cows in T1 group were subjected to post milking teat dip with one per cent Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution immediately after milking. The cows in T2 group were sprayed with TEAT PROTECT sprays. Sixteen healthy cows were kept as control group and udder was washed with plain water. The treatments were carried out for 30 days. Udder health status was determined by recording the parameters viz. somatic cell count (SCC), average daily milk yield, udder colony count and teat colony count. The results revealed that TEAT PROTECT spray is superior to Potassium permanganate in curing SCM of crossbred cows.
Priyanka Kumari, Neelima R. Kumar, Avtar K. Sidhu, Kailash Chandra
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 612-618; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2125

Abstract:Solitary bees belonging to genus Megachile are important pollinators very crucial for the wellbeing of the ecosystem. Large scale surveying will return a wealth of spatio-temporal species data which is critical for systematics, taxonomy and conservation of biodiversity. Detailed taxonomic characterization of solitary bee species belonging to subgenus Eutricharaea collected from the Sutlej basin of Indian northern plains is being described. A total of four species viz. Megachile hera Bingham, M. femorata Smith, M. vera Cameron and M. argentata Cameron belonging to subgenus Eutricharaea with 18 examples were studied. Detailed morphological descriptions, zoogeographic records, specimen examined, floral associations with illustrations and morphological measurements have been provided. Various areas finalised from different parts of Sutlej basin of northern plains were surveyed for the first time for the documentation of Megachile fauna. Hence, all these four species are first records for the studied area.
Jhanvi Saini, Rajan Bhatt
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 698-703; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2149

Abstract:Intensively cultivated rice-wheat cropping sequence of Punjab, India responsible for many sustainability issues viz. declining underground water, declining soil health, arising micro-nutrient deficiencies etc. Around 1.3 M ha-m additional withdrawal of water from the ground is being taken place annually in Punjab and mainly it is used for the rice crop which is not a traditional crop of the region. Puddling, seepage and percolation losses are the main sources of water loss from the rice based cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGPs) and many Resource Conservation Technologies (RCTs) have been recommended for water saving. The real water saving techniques are those which hinder the water from going into those sinks from where it cannot be reused (Evaporation, E) and diverted greater fraction of water of ET toward transpiration (T) which is desired as greater transpiration, greater the inflow of water and nutrients andwhich ultimately increase the grain yield with the lesser consumption of irrigation water as interval in between two irrigation increases, which further increase the water productivity. Among different RCTs, short duration crop varieties and delaying transplanting time are the real water saving techniques for the regions where water table is already declining down, however other RCTs may be suitable for the regions facing water logging problems as these cut down the drainage losses and these energy saving rather than water saving techniques.
Olubunmi Adenike Akinwunmi, Olalekan Christian Olatunde, Samuel Adefemi
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 718-723; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2153

Abstract:Fruits of Nauclea latifolia (Family Rubiaceae) have been used as food and medicinal plants. The ethnomedicinal reports indicated that it can be traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, malaria etc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant, ?–amylase and ?–glucosidase activities of methanol extract of N. latifolia fruits at varying concentrations (20-100 µg/ml) using standard methods. The results of the DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging capacity showed IC50 values 92.0µg/ml and 30.0µg/ml respectively indicating a good inhibitory capacity but lesser when compared to the standard, ascorbic acid which are < 10.0µg/ml and < 20.0µg/ml respectively. The analysis shows total phenolic contents of 147.9±3.35mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of 1604.1±9.20mg/g supporting the fact that phenolics are highly potent antioxidants. Based on the results obtained from ?–amylase and ?–glucosidase inhibition, the IC50 > 100µg/ml showing a lesser inhibitory activity when compared to the standard Acarbose with IC50 values of 50.1µg/ml and 44.0µg/ml respectively. The results clearly indicate that the methanol extract of N. latifolia has a moderate free radical scavenging activity resulting from various interaction between different components of the plant. It can be concluded that the fruits may provide natural source of bioactive compounds which is beneficial to human health and can be used as basis of folkloric remedies for diabetes.
Anjali Sharma, Geeta Sumbali
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 624-631; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2130

Abstract:Coal is an important non-renewable source of energy, which is being constantly used by mankind for various purposes. Coal mining activities affect the surrounding ecosystem by contaminating it with traces of toxic metals, which may accumulate and affect the diversity and abundance of biological communities. A number of microorganisms, such as, filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria are known to degrade coal by their enzymatic action and use it as the sole source of carbon. In addition, the indoor environments of coal mines possess bioaerosols, which may include living or dead allergens, pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycotoxins, bacterial endotoxins, peptidoglycans, etc., that may cause skin, respiratory tract and other health problems. This article throws light on the impact of coal mining on the surrounding ecosystem, degradation of coal by the microbial inhabitants and their effects on the health of miners.
G.M. Bhat, M.A. Islam, A.R. Malik, T.A. Rather, F.A. Shah Khan, A.H. Mir
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 743-751; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2104

Abstract:Performance of two fodder crops namely, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated with Willow (Salix alba L.) to evaluate productivity and economics of the silvopastoral agroforestry system in Kashmir valley. The experiment was laid out by planting two year old willows at 2.0m × 2.0m spacing and dividing the main plot into sub-plots of size 8m × 2m each with 5 replications in randomized block design (RDB). The intercrops of sorghum and maize were maintained at 20cm × 10 cm spacing and supplied with recommended doses of fertilizers. The economics of the willow plantation intercropped with fodder crops was compared with sole willow farming by the benefit-cost ratio and net present worth. The study revealed the differential behaviour of Salix alba regarding growth parameters (height, diameter and girth) by different intercrops and various fodder intercrops with respect to yield, above ground biomass, dry matter production and soil nutrient status (pH, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The willow based silvopastoral system was estimated to have benefit-cost ratio of 2.71 with maize and 2.68 with sorghum, while as sole crop the willows accrued a benefit-cost ratio of 2.66. The study is useful in discovering growth of willows, productivity of fodder crops and soil nutrient status under various silvopastoral agroforestry systems for maximizing economic gains. The findings envisaged evidences in favour of adopting willow based silvopastoral agroforestry instead of sole tree farming and the knowledge of interactions will be helpful in proper management of the system for sustained multiple productions.
Anuj Kumar Rai, Himangshu Das, Asit Kumar Basu
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 687-693; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2147

Abstract:The field experiment was conducted at District Seed Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal in summer season of 2011 and 2012. Pre-sowing bio-priming was done with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens with an un-primed control to assess the trend of okra varieties viz., Lalu, Arka Anamika, Ramya, Satsira, Lady Luck,Debpusa Jhar,Japani Jhar and Barsha Laxmi due to bio-priming of seeds towards vegetable production Significant variation among the varieties was noted for all the characters studied. Okra variety Lalu gave highest vegetable yield per plant in both years and it was statistically at par with Arka Anamika. Vegetable yield per plant was increased by 4.33 to 20.08% in first year and 3.68 to 19.60% in second year with T. viride as compared to P. fluorescens and un-primed control. Individual varieties indicated that vegetable yield per plant was maximum with Lalu when priming was made with both the bio-inoculants followed by Arka Anamika during both years. Hence, Lalu and Arka Anamika may be recommended for experimental region for higher yield and pre-sowing seed bio-priming may be recommended with both T.viride and P. fluorescens for enhanced vegetable yield of okra.
Adeola Folashade Ehigie, Gbadebo Emmanuel Adeleke, Wasiu Ayinde Oladiran, Leonard Ona Ehigie
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 650-656; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2055

Abstract:Rhodanese is a key enzyme that plays an important role in cyanide detoxification. The enzyme was extracted, purified and physico-chemically characterised from Bacillus licheniformis which demonstrated the highest efficacy compared to the seven isolates of bacteria of the cassava processing industry effluent morpholologically and biochemically characterised. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and values were considered significant at p0.05). Therefore, B. licheniformis have the potentials of reducing cyanide pollution thereby enhancing effective management of cassava mill effluent before eventual discharge into the environment and this may be developed into a more effective tool for bioremediation.
Z. Aiysha Thasneem, K. Aravindh, M. Jeba Malar Fencia, C. Nitheesh Kumar, T. Pavithra, K. Rajkumar, S. Surendran, M. Vidhya, R. Mahesh, S. Ramalakshmi
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 645-649; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2139

Abstract:The rhizosphere of plant possesses important microflora, which secretes wide chemical compounds including secondary metabolites necessary for plant growth and development. The microbial flora of alfalfa plant rhizosphere soil region was explored for functional activity and we found upto ten different pigmented colonies. Due to good functional diversity, this yellow pigmented colony was taken for further studies. Thus, the culture was molecularly characterized and identified for potent bioactive components responsible for antimicrobial activity. The selected culture mass was cultured and secondary metabolites were produced and extracted using ethyl acetate and subjected to GC-MS analysis. The antimicrobial study revealed selective activity against Streptococcus pneumonia, and Proteus sp with zone of inhibition to be 18 and 20 mm respectively. Molecular identification of the isolate by 16S rRNA sequencing showed the isolate as Macrococcus equipercicus with 100 % similarity. Based on GC-MS analysis report 25bioactive compounds were identified and 13-docosenamide, hexadecanoic acid esters and quercetin were found in ethyl acetate extract. Conclusion: Thus the yellow pigmented gram positive cocci M.equipercicus isolated from Medicago sativa possessed wide antibacterial activity due to presence of quercetin. Through the studies, we were able to identify potent antibacterial compound producing bacteria from M. sativa plant rhizosphere soil.
Betsy Zodinpuii, Lalnuntluanga, H Lalthanzara
Journal of Applied and Natural Science, Volume 11, pp 601-611; doi:10.31018/jans.v11i3.2122

Abstract:Soil organisms are an integral part of agricultural ecosystems and are essential for the maintenance of healthy productive soils. Little is known about soil arthropods assemblages in shifting cultivation system. Therefore, we compared the diversity of soil macroarthropods in shifting cultivation (EXPTL) system and its adjacent natural forest (CTRL) ecosystem in Mizoram, northeast India and assessed the impact of shifting cultivation on the diversity. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, and the period was divided as pre-cultivation, cultivation and post-cultivation phases. Traditional shifting cultivation was practised in EXPTL site in the year 2014. Sampling was done by handpicking and digging from a quadrat (25×25×30 cm) located at least 10 m apart at monthly intervals. Specimens were preserved in 4% formalin and were identified up to the lowest possible taxa. A total of 97 taxa of arthropods belonging to five classes were recorded. 88 taxa and 48 taxa were recorded in CTRL and EXPTL respectively. Order-wise Shannon diversity index was significantly higher (p < .001) in CTRL as compared to EXPTL site. There were significant differences in both cultivation (p <.001) and post-cultivation (p <.001) phases between CTRL and EXPTL sites. There was a significant effect of shifting cultivation on the diversity of soil macroarthropods at the p <.05 level for the three cultivation phases in EXPTL site. Therefore, it was concluded that shifting cultivation system negatively affected soil macroarthropod diversity at least for a short duration. This study provided the first baseline data of soil macroarthropod diversity and its interaction with land-use system from Mizoram, northeast India.
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