Journal VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII-
Published: 10 January 2020
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII; doi:10.20874/2071-0437
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 121-139; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-10
Abstract:The article considers the dietary habits of a small Selkup group that lived in the north of Western Siberia along the upper reaches of the Taz River in the18th–19th centuries. To this end, we carried out paleopathological and archaeoparasitological studies of the anthropological material from a burial ground located next to the once-existing settlement of Karakonskaya, as well as performed an isotopic analysis of organic samples. Another ob-jective was to study archival documents containing information on the inhabitants of the Upper Taz area. The isotope analysis included 17 anthropological and zooarchaeological samples, represented by the bones, hair and nails of 10 people, bones of a herbivore (reindeer), an omnivore (squirrel) (2) and fish (3). Soil samples taken from the surface of the sacra of 22 people served as the material for the archaeoparasitological study. Paleopa-thological studies included the bone remains of 23 people. We examined the originals of 19th-century documents stored at the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In order to differentiate the sources of land- and river-based diet, we analysed the stable-isotope ratio of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in anthropological and zooarchaeological samples. The comparison of collagen and keratin isotopic values in one individual allowed seasonal variations in the diet to be established. For the purpose of identifying gender differences in the diet, an isotopic comparison between men and women was performed. In order to characterise the ways of food con-sumption and preparation, soil samples taken from burials were studied to detect eggs of intestinal parasites, as well as to establish their species. Other aspects of the group’s diet were studied by analysing the manifestations of porotic hyperostosis on the skull and dental diseases. When working on the archival materials, we employed cross-validation of information and analysed some documents covering large time intervals. It was established that the everyday diet the local Selkup group included bottom-dwelling and predatory fish, whereas the consump-tion of land mammals was minimal. Moreover, when preparing fish dishes for all members of the group, including children, fish was not heated or it was not heated enough. Seasonal fluctuations in the diet associated with hunt-ing certain animals were recorded. The consumption of sugar and flour-based food by the Northern Selkups until the beginning of the 20th century was insignificant. Regular periods of hunger occurred given that the population had no tradition to make long-term food reserves. The consumption of certain food (dishes) resulted in the da-mage to the teeth and soft tissues of the mouth. For the men of this group, hunted food was somewhat more ac-cessible than for women. The dietary system of the Northern Selkups had more in common with their closest neighbours — the Khanty of the Vakh River — rather than with the ethnically close Southern Selkups.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 28-44; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-3
Abstract:The article describes morphological and typological characteristics of non-ferrous metal, determines the for-mulae of alloys, as well as identifies techniques used for the production of tools by the Alekseyevka-Sargary cul-ture from the South Trans-Urals (15th/14th and 12th/11th BC). We carried out the morphological and typological study of the non-ferrous metal along with the X-ray fluorescence (Institute of Archaeology RAS, Institute of Mine-ralogy UB RAS; X-MET3000TX analysers from Oxford Instruments Analytical, M1 Mistral from Bruker Nano GmbH) and metallographic (Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS; Zeiss Axio Observer D1m microscope) analyses. A total of 19 tools exhibiting morphology inherent to the tool collections of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture were selected for the study. These tools comprised random finds and items from the settlements of the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions of Russia, as well as from the Kostanay Region of Kazakhstan: daggers, а spearhead, sick-les, socketed chisels, a spear end cap and single-blade knives. A group of tools and weapons characteristic of all Eurasian cordoned-ware cultures was distinguished — daggers with handguards and socketed grooved chisels. In addition, weapons characteristic of the sites attributed to the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture (Saryarka, Altai, and Semirechye) were identified within the weapon complex of the South Trans-Urals. These weapons included bush hooks of the Sosnovaya Maza type, knives having marked handles, spearheads with holes and socketed straight-blade chisels. The metal of the South Trans-Urals is distinguished by the marked heterogeneity of its chemical composition with the predominance of low-alloyed bronzes Cu–Sn, Cu–Sn–As and Cu–As (66.7 %). There are 4 pure copper items, as well as products from the complex alloy Cu–Sn–As–Ni–Co and products with elevated iron concentrations (up to 2.68 %). These data indicate that the population experimented in the course of metal-lurgical processing of raw materials; they transitioned to smelting metal from sulphide ores or to the smelting of copper with sulphide or silicate nickel ores of the Ufaley Massif (deposits in the Chelyabinsk Region). South Ural craftsmen produced bronze and copper primarily using technologies for casting tools in one-sided (with flat cov-ers) and two-sided moulds. The casting was followed by refining operations using the cold forming technology with the intervals of low-temperature forging modes. This choice of temperature is justified in the procession of low-alloyed bronze. Clearly, the centre for metal production of the Alekseyevka-Sargary culture in the South Trans-Urals was a metallurgical one, with the development of both oxidised and sulphide deposits in the South Urals. Innovative technologies of smelting copper with chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and nickel-containing ores were introduced. The complex of tools attributed to the Alekseyevka-Sargary tribes from the Tobol area is...
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 165-173; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-13
Abstract:The present article is aimed at estimating the informative value of the Patrol Book of the Tara District (1701) and the Chorographic Drawing Book of Siberia by Semen U. Remezov. Drawing on the comparative analysis of these documents, the authors consider their presentation of the south of Western Siberia through the settlement system of the Russian and Tatar. The study covers late 17th — early 18th centuries, which is associated with the datings of the studied sources. The Patrol Book was compiled by Ivan R. Kachanov, with the patrol having been ordered by Peter I. The Patrol Book contains statistical and descriptive material, includes information on settle-ments, their inhabitants, as well as various geographical features. Also by the order of Peter I, Semen Remezov created the Chorographic Drawing Book in 1697–1711. It included known data on Siberia and adjacent territories. This source is organised in accordance with the river routes. The Tara District of the Tobolsk Governorate is de-picted on pages 84–93 and 107. The maps contain information similar to that found in the Patrol Book, which provides the opportunity to perform a comparative analysis of these two documents. A total of 48 Russian and 51 Tatar settlements are described in the Patrol Book. The Chorographic Book depicts 65 Russian settlements, three small forts (ostrogs), 79 yurts, 5 towns and 8 Tatarian volosts. The difference in numbers was due to the fact that Ivan Kachanov was to note places of residence, places of tax collection, as well as places to which the authorities allocated pay for service-men. During this period, the population of the Tara District developed new lands and founded new temporary settlements, some of which years later turned into permanent ones. Semen Remezov recorded these settlements, so their number on the map is greater than in Patrol Book. The comparison of the studied documents revealed the inconsistency in the names of many settlements. A comparative analysis and comparison of the content of the sources helped determine settlements having similar names and identify identical settlements having different names. The reason for the unestablished names is that some settlements were named after the surnames of first inhabitants; others were named after geographical objects or other inhabi-tants. For Siberia, both sources, on the one hand, were a sensory, somewhat illusory phenomenon, and on the other, they constituted an experimental perception of the newly included territories.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 140-151; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-11
Abstract:The article covers the results of a study on the odontological series from the Kamenny Mys burial ground (3rd–2nd centuries BC). In this work, we set out to study the genesis of the Kulay population of the Early Iron Age in the Novosibirsk Ob area. The main relations of the population with the groups of adjacent territories, as well as the nature of their interaction with the local groups, were determined. The odontological series from the Kamenny Mys burial ground includes the teeth of 24 individuals: 12 males, 6 females and 10 adult individuals whose gender could not be determined. The anthropological materials were examined according to a standard procedure, which involves the description of the tooth crown morphology considering the archaic features of the dental morphology. Also, an intergroup comparative analysis was performed via the method of the principal component analysis using the program STATISTICA version 10.0. It was established that the dental characteristics exhibited by the Kulayka population reveal signs of mixed European-Mongoloid formation with a significant predominance of the Eastern component. We compared the morphological characteristics of the sample with data obtained for the populations of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The intergroup comparison revealed the closest connection between the Bolshaya Rechka culture and the Kulayka group. The studied material provides anthropological confirmation of the interaction between Kulayka (taiga) and Bolshaya Rechka traditions (steppe), drawing on the data about the burial rite and ceramic complexes. The comparison of the Kulayka series with Bronze Age samples suggests that the forest-steppe populations occupying the territories of the Novosibirsk and Tomsk Ob and the Ob-Irtysh areas had no effect on the genesis of the Kulayka population. We suppose that the origins of the Kulayka population in the Novosibirsk Ob area should be traced to the populations from the West Siberian taiga of the Bronze Age, which is significantly complicated by the lack of sufficiently complete and representative series dating back to the specified period from the territory of the Middle Ob area. Further accumulation of anthropological material from the Middle Ob area will provide the opportunity to trace the genesis of taiga populations of the Early Iron Age.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 5-14; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-1
Abstract:In this study, the author set out to determine the chemical composition and possible use of a substance, which remnants were found on a tile fragment made of soft brown shist. This item was discovered in the occupa-tion layer of a Neolithic settlement belonging to the Boborykino culture (Mergen 3), located on the terrace of Lake Mergen in the forest-steppe of the Ishim area (south of Western Siberia). By analogy with the complexes of the Boborykino culture in the Tobol area — Yurtobor 3 (7701 ± 120 BP (UPI 559)) and Tashkovo 1 (7440 ± 60 BP (LE 1534)) — which age was determined using carbon-14 dating, the Mergen 3 settlement can be attributed to the second half of the 7th millennium Cal. BC. The fragment measuring 3.0 × 2.1 × 0.55 cm has a spherical indenta-tion in the centre measuring 2.0×2.0×0.2 cm with a volume of 0.118 cm3 (0.118 ml). The whole item probably had a square shape with rounded and slightly raised edges. A visual analysis of the spot was carried out using an MBS-10 binocular microscope at a magnification of 16×. The analysis revealed a brown substance on the edges of the indentation, which looked like a dark porous carbon-like spot in the centre. These remnants were studied using a Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer with an Eco-ATR module — a single reflection ATR sampling module equipped with a zinc selenide crystal (ZnSe) that allows you to analyse liquid, solid and powder samples without preliminary sample preparation. The measurements were performed in the wavenumber range of 300–4000 cm-1 at a resolution of 4 cm-1. Some of the most significant absorption bands (709; 975; 1,024; 1,027 cm-1) were ob-served, which characterise vibrations bending and stretching the bonds in the skeleton of an organic molecule containing single С–С and С–О bonds. The obtained spectra are most consistent with the IR absorption spectra of resin acids, in particular, dehydroabietic acid that is present in resin obtained from coniferous trees. Consider-ing the small volume of the above-mentioned substance and the limited of its burning, the author excludes the use of this tile as a lamp, the use of the substance for the preparation of glue that held together the parts of complex tools, as well as the use of the substance for healing wounds and for cosmetic purposes, which involved addi-tional ingredients. Signs of burning indicate the use of the artefact for rituals, in particular for obtaining finely dis-persed soot employed when applying tattoos. The conducted experiment showed that the soot from a burnt drop of fresh resin covered 4 cm2 of the wrist area. Soot formed at the very beginning of the combustion process (probably combustion of volatile components), then the substance was oxidised without noticeable emissions. The remnants of the porous substance on the tile confirm the importance of the moment of resin burning with the abundant production of soot. However, the possibility that there were other unknown areas of...
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 81-92; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-7
Abstract:The article considers the settlement of Early Medieval population in the Trans-Urals (4th–9th centuries AD). The study is based on the data about the location of monuments attributed to the Bakal culture, which are re-corded on the territory of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve and its water system in the area of the modern forest-steppe belt. The relevance of the study is determined by the following points: presentation of new data on the monu-ments of the Bakal culture; analysis of the settlement system and landscape use in the specified period; identifica-tion of economic areas characteristic of the early medieval population. In this study, the authors used the methods and approaches of landscape and settlement archaeology. In addition to the spatial and morphological character-istics, the source database includes data on the Earth's digital model drawing on SRTM30 data. The analysed materials (81 monuments — 36 hillforts, 40 villages, 5 burial grounds) were collected in one geoinformation sys-tem; the authors proposed an improved classification of fortified villages, which provides the opportunity to char-acterise the economic structure of the Bakal groups in a new way. The hillforts comprise 27 terrace settlements located on the high bedrock coasts of rivers, as well as 9 floodplain fortified settlements situated on isolated hills. When identifying economic zones on the basis of constructed Thiessen (Voronoi) polygons, it was found that there was one or, less often, two fortified villages (hillforts) in the centre of one zone. Settlements were located not far from the centre (most often in a floodplain). The analysis of direct visibility from the settlements showed that direct visual watch was kept over the villages in the floodplain, with the visibility zones covering large flood-plain sectors, thereby providing fairly tight control of the territory. It was established that the burial grounds were located in the immediate vicinity of fortified villages. The analysis revealed a correlation between the location of the village and the economy of the Bakal population, where cattle, prevailing in quantity, played an important role. This is due to the presence of large fortified settlements located in floodplains, whose population kept livestock. The authors established a system of the settlement and space-related occupation of the Medieval population in the Trans-Urals, with hillforts being the main centres used to control the territory simultaneously performing the functions of political, trade and economic centres.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 68-80; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-6
Abstract:The article gives a historical interpretation of a stakewall with an underground passageway found in the cen-tral part of the upper posad drawing on the materials from the excavation site in Oktyabrskaya Street (204 m2). The thick log wall consisted of vertical posts erected at the bottom of a specially dug ditch. The underground pas-sageway constituted a manway, starting on one side of the stakewall and ending on the other. Its ceiling and walls were covered with planks supported by low half-logs, thick planks and small logs. The plank ceiling of the under-ground tunnel was just below the base of the log wall, with the horizontal adit being so small that one could only crawl through it. In order to determine the absolute age of the stakewall, we carried out the dendrochronological and radiocarbon studies of its logs. For the purpose of identifying this object with one of those mentioned in writ-ten sources, we reconstructed the history of fortification construction and localisation by performing a detailed analysis of historical data and all known plans of the city. As a result, it was established that the wall found during the excavation in terms of its location and orientation better correlates with the building shown on S.U. Remezov’s plans, which was located in the central part of Trinity Cape and surrounded by a rectangular stakewall, rather than with the posad fortifications. On the plans of 1687 and 1688 from the Chorographic Drawing Book, the object in question was captioned as ‘prison’ and ‘prison yard’. This assumption allows us to date the log wall discovered in Oktyabrskaya Street at 1687, or, quite possibly, at an earlier time. This prison yard fence could be used after 1714 and, judging by the stratigraphic and planigraphic observations made at the excavation site in Oktyabrskaya Street, until the period of stone construction in the upper posad.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 45-56; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-4
Abstract:The article presents the results of a taxonomic study of the archaeozoological collection from the Zolotoye 1 settlement. The settlement is located in the steppe zone of the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (the Polovinsky District of the Kurgan Region). A significant part of artefacts, including bone remains, belong to the Alakul culture of the Late Bronze Age (17th–16th centuries BC). A small collection (a total of 6 fragmented vessels) attributed to the Alek-seyevka-Sargary culture was also identified. The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that data on the species composition of Alakul archaeozoological collections are predominantly obtained from necropolises, whereas economic characteristics are primarily reflected by materials from the settlements. The study in question was conducted using the paleozoological method. The taxonomic affiliation of bones was determined using the reference collection of skeletons from the Zoological Museum of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS along with corresponding atlases. The conclusion about the taxonomic affiliation of fossil remains was based on the similarities in composition and size between the morphological structures of bones. The age of the indi-viduals was determined by the degree of tooth abrasion and by the attachment of the pineal gland. The studied osteological collection includes 2783 items. In order to define the features of its occurrence considering species composition, a planigraphic analysis was performed. To this end, we used data collected from a digital total sta-tion and field inventories. As a result, it was found that the bone remains belong mainly to domestic animals (99.5 %). Cattle bones (47 %) predominate, followed by the bones of small cattle (34 %) and horses (18 %). Jud-ging by age characteristics, cattle were kept for the production of milk and meat. The remains of wild animals are scarce (0.5 %). They include commercial species (elk, hare, waterfowl), which indicates that the Alakul population was engaged in hunting. The comparison of domestic and wild animals, the composition of the herd from the Zolotoye 1 settlement located in the interfluve area with the archaeozoological collections of the Late Bronze Age from the forest-steppe Trans-Urals revealed their similarity, first of all, with Alakul materials originating from the layer of settlements confined to river systems. This fact reflects the general line of development in livestock breeding of the period under consideration, which suggests that the carriers of the Alakul culture developed stable forms of adaptation to different living conditions.
Published: 30 December 2019
VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII, ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII pp 57-67; doi:10.20874/2071-0437-2019-47-4-5
Abstract:The article presents the results of archaeological studies carried out at the Yakushkino 3 settlement attributed to the Kashino culture of the Early Iron Age (subtaiga Tobol area, Western Siberia). The settlement was preliminary dated at the 4th–3rd centuries BC. In this work, the authors set out to study the house-building tradition of the Ka-shino culture using the Yakushkino 3 settlement as an example, create its graphic visualisation; identify certain characteristics of the structure defining the nature of the settlement — seasonal use or place of permanent resi-dence, which indicate the adaptation strategies of the population. In 2016–2017, two structures connected by a passage were studied at the settlement. The former is interpreted as a residential structure, whereas the latter is thought to have been used for utility purposes. The multi-chamber residential structure (ca 48 m2) was chosen for the reconstruction. To this end, the authors employed the method of theoretical reconstructions. Drawing on the planigraphy and stratigraphy of the excavation site, the main elements (foundation pit boundaries, pits, ditches, etc.) of the structure were identified. The authors defined the layout of the structure on the basis of the character-istic arrangement of structural elements; identified techniques used in the construction of walls and roofs; deter-mined the possible use of certain building materials; as well as suggested interior variants. Finally, a graphic image of the structure was created. As a result of the study, the following assumptions were made. The structure con-sisted of 4 near-square rooms: the main central chamber (1) — 25 m2; chamber 2 — 12.5 m2; chamber 3 — 6.75 m2; chamber 4 — 3.5 m2. The second chamber was divided into two unequal parts, with ceramics being concentrated in its larger part, which could serve as a kitchen or a dining area. Chambers 3 and 4 could be used as bedrooms or as utility rooms. There was no hearth in the structure. The structure had a frame, with vertical posts providing support for the roof beams and being part of the frame-wall construction. The walls could be constructed of wicker boards or erected by leaning poles against the upper beam of the frame. The roof could be gable, covered with reeds and poles. Against the background of uniform buildings of the Early Iron Age, Kashino dwellings are cha-racterised by one common structural detail that was traced in the layout of the dwelling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement — additional chambers (utility or sleeping rooms) attached to the main room without an additional cor-ridor. This fact distinguishes these buildings from the dwellings of the Sargatka or Gorokhovo cultures of the Early Iron Age (Western Siberia). The absence of a hearth and the lightness of the construction suggests that the dwel-ling from the Yakushkino 3 settlement was used in the spring-autumn period.