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Alqralleh Muna, , Alasfoor Sadiq, Salman Zainab, Mohammad Salman Farah Bilal, Banihani Majd J
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 026-027;

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is produced from the liver, kidney, bone and placenta. During pregnancy, ALP may raise markedly with no clear reason. Here, we present a rare case of highly elevated ALP in a 21 years old pregnant woman during the third trimester who had no important past medical history. It was 2800 U/L. Bone, renal, or liver was all normal. Close monitoring of the fetus and his mother until birth was the way of treatment. We had seven weeks postpartum to decline in ALP concentration but did not return to the normal range. The placenta showed lesions of chronic villitis. The extreme incline in ALP during the gestational stages is riskier because the threat here is posed to 2 lives. In such conditions, constant monitoring of ALP in the maternal serum backed with necessary medication is required.
Campitiello Mara, Cruz `maría, González-Ravina Cristina, Vergara Vanessa, Pacheco Alberto, Remohí José, Miranda Antonio Requena
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 021-025;

Information regarding the effects of the novel coronavirus on human reproduction is currently limited. The objective of our work was to assess whether, in women who have passed the disease, there was a variation in the ovarian reserve through the determination of AMH levels. During May-June 2020, women performing an Assisted Reproductive treatment and who had a positive IgG for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the study; this group of women had a previous AMH determination of no more than 6 months. Women were stratified into two groups, according to their previous AMH levels: low responders (AMH<1 ng/ml) or normal-high responders (AMH ≥ 1 ng/ml) Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 19.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). A total of 46 patients were included in the study; 16 women were diagnosed as having low ovarian reserve (AMH < 1 ng/ml), with an average age of 38.6 years, whereas 30 were classified as having normal ovarian reserve (AMH ≥ 1 ng/ml), with an average age of 34.7 years. Generally, the data show no variation in AMH levels before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.73 ng/ml vs. 1.61 ng/ml, respectively). However, when we analyzed these differences according to the study groups, the results were consistent with the patient's ovarian status. It is possible to conclude that the fact of having passed the disease does not affect the ovarian reserve status but the degree of the variation of AMH levels depending on the patient was a low or high responder.
Elnashar Aboubakr Mohamed
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 016-020;

A large systematic review and meta-regression analysis found that sperm counts all over the world appeared to be declining rather than stabilizing. The decline in male sperm counts does not necessarily translate to a decline in male fertility. The cause of declining sperm counts remains unknown; however, several potential causative factors have been identified: 1. Chronic diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypertension; hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and skin Diseases & metabolic syndrome. 2. Environmental factors: bisphenol a; phthalates; heavy metals and heat. 3. Lifestyle: obesity, diet, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, stress, reduced sleep & sedentary life. Addressing these causes is required to stop or decrease male fertility decline. Action to improve semen quality such as prevention & treatment of chronic disease, decreasing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, poor diet, or lack of physical activity & eliminating toxic environmental chemicals.
, Riyadh Alabdaly Abdilya, Alqralleh Muna, Ibrahim Dana Issa Juma, Mohamed Amna Elrayah
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6;

Hyperemesis gravidarum may prompt hypovolemia and significant electrolyte anomalies. Hypokalemia is one of the most common abnormalities. When practical, it may lead to rhabdomyolysis. We report a rare case of rhabdomyolysis in a 24 years old pregnant woman due to hyperemesis gravidarum. She had a profound weakness. Physical examination and laboratory findings showed a need for the hospital admission. Aggressive rehydration and electrolytes were the definite treatment. Her serum creatinine kinase (CK) concentration during entry was 80,01 units/L. Continuous rehydration led to complete recovery clinically. On discharge, she had normal laboratories.
Slaoui Aziz, Bennani Aicha, Tayeb Roughaya, Zeraidi Najia, Lakhdar Amina, Baydada Aziz, Kharbach Aicha
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 006-009;

Background: Among the different forms of ectopic pregnancy, cesarean scar pregnancy is one of the most uncommon with an estimated incidence of 1/1800 pregnancies. A major risk of massive hemorrhage, it requires active management as soon as it is diagnosed because it can affect the functional prognosis of the patient (hysterectomy) but can also be life-threatening. Different surgical techniques are generally proposed in first intention to patients who no longer wish to have children, who are hemodynamically unstable and/or in case of failure of medical treatment. Case presentation: We hereby report the case of a young 19-year-old patient with no particular medical history, gravida 2 para 1 with a live child born after a cesarean section for fetal heart rhythm abnormalities during labor 5 months earlier and who presented to the emergency room of our structure for the management of a cesarean pregnancy scar diagnosed at 6 weeks of amenorrhea. She was successfully managed with an intramuscular injection of methotrexate. The follow-up was uneventful. Conclusion: The implantation of a pregnancy on a cesarean section scar is becoming more and more frequent. With consequences that can be dramatic, ranging from hysterectomy to life-threatening hemorrhage, clinicians must be familiar with this pathological entity and be prepared for its management. The latter must be rapid and allow, if necessary, the preservation of the patient's fertility. In this sense, conservative medical treatment with methotrexate injections should be proposed as a first-line treatment in the absence of contraindication.
Slaoui Aziz, Lazhar Hanaa, Amail Noha, Zeraidi Najia, Lakhdar Amina, Kharbach Aicha, Baydada Aziz
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 010-013;

Background: Ovarian fibroma is a very unusual epithelial tumor representing less than 1% of all ovarian tumors. It can be asymptomatic and discovered during surgery or be associated with a pleural effusion preferentially located on the right side and a more or less abundant free ascites in the framework of the so-called Meigs syndrome. The challenge of management then lies in distinguishing benign from malignant since clinically, radiologically, and biologically everything points towards malignant which requires radical surgical treatment. We report here the case of a 69-year-old postmenopausal patient with a clinical form of Meigs' syndrome that strongly suggested ovarian cancer. Case presentation: We hereby report here the case of a 69-year-old patient, menopausal, gravida 4 para 3 with 3 live children delivered vaginally and one miscarriage. She presented with ascites, hydrothorax, and a solid tumor of the ovary. Serum CA 125 and HE 4 levels were very high. ROMA score was highly suggestive of malignancy. A hysterectomy with adnexectomy was performed. It was only the histological evidence of ovarian fibroma and the rapid resolution of its effusions that confirmed Meigs syndrome. Conclusion: Meigs syndrome is an anatomical-clinical entity that associates a benign tumor of the ovary, ascites, and hydrothorax. Highly elevated CA 125 and HE-4 tumor markers often point clinicians toward a malignant tumor and compel radical surgical treatment. This case report reminds us once again that only histology confirms the diagnosis of cancer.
, Salinas-Casado Jesús, Moreno-Sierra Jesús
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 001-005;

Aims: To analyze the prevalence and risk factors for postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women submitted to robot-assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC) for correction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was carried out on 51 consecutive women who underwent RASC to treat POP. We recorded preoperatively the presence of LUTS urgency, symptomatic stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and voiding difficulty. We also performed an urodynamic study prior to surgical intervention including an incontinence test for overt and occult stress urinary incontinence (with POP reduction). A transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) was implanted in patients with demonstrable urodynamic SUI (overt or occult). Patients' LUTS were reassessed at 6 months after the surgical intervention. McNemar test and the Fisher exact test were used to analyzing dependent variables and Student’s t - test for independent variables. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Postoperative voiding difficulty and symptomatic SUI were significantly reduced. No significant differences were observed in the postoperative prevalence of urgency. The presence of preoperative urinary urgency was the only significant risk factor of postoperative urgency, whereas TOT placement was the only significative factor associated with postoperative symptomatic SUI. TOT placement in patients with occult SUI significantly reduced postoperative Symptomatic SUI. Conclusion: RASC reduces the prevalence of voiding difficulty but not urgency. Concomitant implantation of TOT in patients with preoperative urodynamic SUI (overt or occult) is useful to reduce symptomatic postoperative SUI.
Ochie Kalu, C Abraham John
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 101-103;

Introduction: Sonographic scan tests are real-time procedures but the female reproductive systems are subject to continued changes beyond the mid-menstrual period. Therefore a second test may be useful after mid-menstrual ultrasound tests among women with infertility who first had normal ultrasound tests during the mid-menstrual period. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out whether physiological changes beyond the mid-menstrual period in the female reproductive system could develop into findings that could be missed at the first ultrasound test among women with infertility during mid menstrual period. Method: One hundred and forty (140) women participated in this study, over a period of 12 months. The inter-observer correlations were carried out. The ultrasound test measured the diameters of the endometrium and ovarian follicle. The study was carried out during the mid-menstrual cycle when normal changes are optimal. The subjects were women of childbearing age (18 years - 40 years) with 28 days cycles who were referred from the fertility clinic. Women who had previous pelvic surgery, women on fertility therapy, and women who were unsure of the date were excluded from the study. Only women who met the inclusion criteria were selected for the study. The selection was by convenience sampling method. The women underwent the first phase of the ultrasound test during the mid-menstrual cycle. Those who had ultrasonographic-positive infertility reports were returned to the referral clinic. Only women who had normal ultrasonographic fertility reports were included in the second phase of further ultrasonographic tests. The scans were carried out further for four days for this second phase study and the result was again compared with normal values. (Endometrium Normal range 7.4 mm - 13.5 mm and ovarian follicles normal range 17.4 mm to 23.5 mm). Results: The first phase of the scan showed 108 (77%) of the women had positive infertility results for endometrium and ovarian follicles, while 32 (23%) of the women had a normal ultrasonographic result and were rescanned over days. The findings of the second phase scan showed that 10 subjects (7.30%) showed new abnormalities, Findings were distributed in three sub-groups in this second phase of the study. Sub-group A, 4 (2.67%) had enlarged unruptured follicles, sub-group B, 6 (4.30%) had an endometrial cavity filled with fluid, sub-group C, 22 (15.70%) subjects still had normal scans who may be referred for other studies. Conclusion: Women with infertility who had a normal scan at the mid-menstrual cycle should be followed up with a second-phase ultrasound scan before other tests.
D Bursać, Diana Culej, G Planinić Radoš, J Župan, P Perković, Ž Duić, S Gašparov
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 096-097;

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines anemia as a global public health problem. It is a medical condition in which the number of red blood cells or the hemoglobin concentration within them is below the physiological range. We present a case of a 40-year-old woman with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) accompanied by malaise, weakness, and tachycardia. The patient reported heavy menstrual bleeding for the past 14 days. Speculum examination revealed that the bleeding was from the uterus. There were no pathological findings during a gynecological and transvaginal ultrasound examination. A complete blood count performed at the time of her arrival showed a low hemoglobin level of 24 g/L, a low hematocrit level of 7,4%, a mean corpuscular volume of 98,7 fL and a number of red blood cells 0,75 x 1012/L. Due to the severity of the anemia, she was given 6 units of red blood cell transfusion, 2 fresh frozen plasmas and tranexamic acid accompanied with calcium carbonate. The curettage was performed. The pathohistological finding was endometrium in proliferation. Afterward, the hemoglobin level increased to 90 g/L. Their past medical history revealed that she abused alcohol. On an abdominal CT scan, Alcohol-Related Liver Disease (ARLD) was confirmed. We should keep in mind that coagulopathy could be the underlying cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and that anemia must be analyzed for successful treatment. A multidisciplinary approach to anemia caused by AUB is required in cases of severe anemia.
Tate Jessica, McGrath Niamh, Lalchandani Savita
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 093-095;

Ms X is a 40-year-old gravida 12, para 2 + 9 woman, who was admitted for an elective caesarean section at 38 weeks gestation following the previous two caesarean sections. Ms X had abdominal distension and generalised abdominal tenderness in the postoperative period. On investigation, she was found to have an elevated white cell count (WCC), C - Reactive Protein (CRP) and creatinine with free fluid in the abdomen on imaging but there was no evidence of perforation of any visceral organ. Ms X was treated conservatively for sepsis, an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and post-operative ileus and her symptoms gradually resolved. This is a case of idiopathic ascites post caesarean delivery with no clear cause.
Karoui Abir, Cherif Ahmed, Chaffai Olfa, Saidi Wassim, Sahraoui Ghada, Menjli Sana, Chanoufi Mohamed Badis, Boujelbene Nadia, Abouda Hssine Saber
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 090-092;

Background: Leiomyomas beyond the uterus are defined by benign smooth muscle cell tumors outside of the uterus. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare type of uterine leiomyoma and is characterized by the formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within the vascular wall. Herein, we present a case of Intravenous leiomyomatosis successfully treated by surgical removal and a review of actual medical recommendations. Case presentation: A 49 - year-old woman, maghrébin, G3 P2, no family history of uterine myomas mentioned, having systemic arterial hypertension, presented to our department with hypogastric pain and abnormal uterine bleeding in the prior five months resulting in anemia which required iron supplementation. On physical examination the vital signs were normal. A palpable mass in the hypogastrium was noted. The rest of the exam was unremarkable. Pelvic ultrasound showed a huge uterus with multiple heterogeneous leiomyomas, including at least one intracavity. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging were not done initially due to the unaffordability of the patient. The initial diagnosis was leiomyoma. The decision to perform a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was taken. The abdomen was opened by a midline vertical incision. During surgery, multiple subserosal, intramural and submucosal fibroids ranging from 2 cm × 3 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm were seen. On pathological examination, the uterus measured 19 cm in the largest diameter and weighed 1.3 kg. The cut section showed white nodular myometrial masses. Microscopically, intravascular growth of benign smooth muscle cells is found within venous channels lined by endothelium. The diagnosis of Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus without malignant transformation was retained. The patient was monitored for 14 months and subsequent computed tomography did not reveal any evidence of tumor recurrence. The follow-up will be performed annually till the age of menopause. Conclusion: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a benign, rare and potentially lethal pathology. It especially affects premenopausal women with a history of uterine myoma, whether operated on or not. They require close and prolonged follow-up because of the high risk of recurrence.
Underkofler Kaylee A, Morell Alexandra J, Esquivel Rianne, DeSimone Francesca I, Miller M Craig, Moore Richard G
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 080-089;

Objective: Pelvic masses can be classified as low risk (likely benign) and high risk (likely malignant) based on an initial clinical risk assessment, which involves a detailed history, physical exam, basic laboratory tests, and imaging. In recent years, the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), which combines CA125, HE4 and menopausal status, has emerged as a powerful tool in the classification of pelvic masses and triage of patients to either a generalist gynecologist or a gynecologic oncologist for management. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of ROMA, alone or in combination with Initial Clinical Risk Assessment (ICRA), provides cost savings compared to triage based on ICRA alone. Methods: A health-economic decision model was developed to assess clinical and cost differences associated with three different clinical pathways of risk assessment for a pelvic mass: ICRA alone, ROMA alone, or ICRA + ROMA in combination. Using previously reported accuracy rates and patient characteristics from a prospective, multicenter, blinded clinical trial, total healthcare costs were modeled for each clinical pathway using the Medicare 2020 reimbursement rates. Results: A total of 461 patients with pelvic masses were included with 10.4% ultimately diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Total healthcare costs for patients with benign disease, EOC, or low malignant potential tumors (LMP) (n = 441) triaged using ROMA alone were 3.3% lower than when triaged using ICRA alone. While lab costs increased 55% using ROMA, the use of ROMA alone resulted in a 4% decrease in laparoscopy costs and a 3.1% decrease in laparotomy costs compared with ICRA alone. Similarly, total costs associated with a combination of ICRA + ROMA were 3.9% lower than total costs associated with ICRA alone. The model also predicted a 63% reduction in repeat surgeries resulting from false negative ICRA when using ROMA to triage patients. Conclusion: Triage of women with pelvic masses using the more sensitive ROMA score lowers overall healthcare costs compared to ICRA alone. With fewer false negative results than ICRA alone, the ROMA score improves initial detection of malignancy and reduces second surgical treatments in women with pelvic masses.
Towner Mary, Underkoffler Kaylee, Urh Anze, Robison Katina, Moore Richard G
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 072-079;

Objective: Sentinel lymph node mapping is an acceptable standard for lymph node evaluation in patients with endometrial cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adoption of this technique at two academic institutions, including which patient and disease features are associated with rates of successfully identifying sentinel lymph nodes with fluorescent mapping. In addition, we sought to characterize if and how surgeons experience the technique related to successful bilateral sentinel lymph node mapping. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients at two academic institutions who underwent sentinel lymph node mapping prior to a minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer over the first 30 months during which the technique was adopted at each institution. A modified Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationships between patient, disease, and surgeon factors on outcomes of sentinel lymph node mapping. Results: A total of 460 charts were reviewed. The mean age was 64 and the median body mass index was 34.2. The most disease was stage I (83%), endometrioid (89%), and Grade I (64%). The bilateral sentinel lymph node mapping success rate was 65%, while unilateral or bilateral success occurred in 91% of cases. Sentinel lymph node mapping was significantly more likely to be successful in premenopausal women (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.46; p = 0.005) and Asian women (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.3-1.68; p < 0.001). BMI was not significantly predictive of mapping success (RR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.07; p = 0.05). Increasing surgeon experience with the technique did predict successful bilateral sentinel lymph node mapping (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.03; p = 0.02). Conclusion: Premenopausal status and surgeon experience with the technique increases the likelihood of bilateral sentinel lymph node detection for endometrial cancer.
Jain Namita, Malik Sonia, Prakash Ved
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 067-071;

Introduction: PCOS is a common cause of female infertility. Although PCOS patients are characterized by producing an increased number of oocytes, they are often of poor quality, leading to lower fertilization, cleavage, and implantation and higher miscarriage rates. Aims: The present study aims to identify the effect of various PCOS phenotypes on oocyte competence in an ART cycle. Settings and design: A retrospective observational study. Methods and material: The study group included 102 women with PCOS as a main cause of infertility. Data was collected over a period of one year (2017-18). These women were divided into four groups on basis of PCOS phenotypes (A-D) and the relevant clinical data and the ART outcome were noted. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Data presented as mean ± SD which was compared using the ANOVA test. A p - value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 102 PCOS women, 23.52% women had phenotype A, 11.76% had phenotype B, and 45.09% and 19.60% had phenotype C & D respectively. Good quality embryos formed (p - value 0.01) were lower in Group B vs. other groups. However, clinical pregnancy rates were comparable in all groups. Conclusion: The reproductive potential of women with PCOS varies with the oocyte health and it largely depends on PCOS phenotype. Women with PCOS phenotype B might have poor IVF/ICSI outcomes with regard to the number of oocytes retrieved and embryos formed. PCO morphology might carry an advantage with regards to the number of oocytes retrieved and better quality embryos. It seems that hyperandrogenism in combination with chronic anovulation is associated with poor oocyte competence and hence, a negative impact on embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to further support it. Key messages: Oocyte competence in various PCOS phenotypes.
, Youssef Esraa M
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 061-066;

Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cause of cancer mortality in females. There were an estimated 300,000 new cases of OC diagnosed worldwide in 2018, corresponding to 3.4% of all cancer cases among women. The high mortality rate of OC attributed to asymptomatic growth of the tumor leads to its diagnosis at advanced stages. About 85% - 90% of OC are epithelial including serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Aim: To study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of FOX A1 and p53 in epithelial OC and its association with prognostic indicators such as age, tumor size, stage, grade, and histological type. Materials and methods: The study included 52 cases with EOC from the pathology department, faculty of medicine, Aswan, and Sohag Universities, in the period from January 2017 to December 2019. This study involved 52 patients with OC and a median age of 53 years. Different histological types were included as 37 serous, 12 mucinous, 1 case endometroid 2 cases clear cell OC. The study cases were classified into 22 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 20 Grade III. About 22 cases were at stage I, 9 at stage II, 11 at stage III, and 10 at stage IV. Tissue sections were stained using the IHC technique with FOX A1 at a dilution of 1:100 and p53 at 1:100. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between FOX A1 expression and advanced patient's age, high grade, advanced stage, ruptured capsule, and ascites, regardless of tumor laterality. No significant association was found between p53 immunoexpression and the same clinic-pathological parameters although p53 was associated with serious type. Conclusion: FOX A1 immunoexpression in EOC is considered a poor prognostic factor in EOC. FOX A1 could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in EOC.
Merse Fekadu, Kelbiso Lolemo,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 055-060;

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is common during pregnancy since the overall iron requirement is greater than non-pregnant women and is associated with adverse outcomes. Iron deficiency (ID) is a state of insufficient iron to maintain normal physiological functions of tissues and leads to anemia. Objectives: To assess factors associated with the utilization of Iron with Folic acid supplement Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal care at Government Health Facilities and Family Guidance Clinic in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 412 health providers who are working at public health institutes in Hawassa city from March to April 2015. Pretested Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. The data was entered into Epi-data and analysed by SPSS version 26.0. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to see the significant association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be computed to measure the strength of the association, p - value of ˂ 0.05 will be considered a statistically significant. Results: A total of 412 pregnant women who came to attend ANC at least for the second time were interviewed in seven health facilities. Our study showed that 333 (81%, 95% CI: 77.2 - 84.8) pregnant women reported taking IFA supplements and high compliance was 37.7% (95% CI: 32.5 - 42.9). In multivariable analysis, side effects and low acceptance of the supplement were significantly associated with compliance to IFA supplementation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a relatively better level of compliance towards IFA supplementation compared to other national data. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding how to manage the side effects of IFA supplements during ANC. Further research has to be done on the acceptability of the supplements.
Singh Vaishali, Nath Paras
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 051-054;

Introduction: Induction of labour is a common obstetric intervention, occurring in approximately 25% of term pregnancies in developing countries. Pharmacological and mechanical methods commonly used are prostaglandin preparations (PGE1 and PGE2) and various intracervical catheters (single or double balloon), respectively. Material and methods: Study was conducted in Siliguri District Hospital, Siliguri, Darjeeling, west Bengal. 100 antenatal woman admitted in obstetrics ward with pog more than 37 weeks were taken for study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. 50 were induced with cerviprime gel and 50 with intracervical foley catheter. Statistical analysis done. Results: Mean interval between treatment initiation and delivery was not statistically significant, tachysystole was more common in group B women, rate of LSCS and NVD was similar in both groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that Foley’s catheter (mechanical) and prostaglandin E2 gel [pharmacological] both are effective agents for preinduction cervical ripening which substantially improve the bishops score and increase the chances of successful labour induction. There is no significant difference in their efficacy, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome.
Mekonnen Adane, Shewangizaw Zewdu
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 044-050;

Background: WHO and UNICEF recommend breastfeeding to be initiated within an hour of birth. However, timely initiation of breastfeeding remains low in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors with cesarean and vaginal deliveries in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, 2021. Methods and materials: Comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2021 to February 2021 in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. 322 mothers within three days of delivery at the postnatal ward of the respective public hospitals were selected. A multi-stage sampling method was employed with the final participants being recruited by systematic random sampling. Data was entered to Epi data Version 4.6 and analysis was performed by SPSS Version 26. A Binary and multivariate logistic regression statistical model was used. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association. Result: Timely breastfeeding initiation was 79 (51.2%) and 123 (80%) for cesarean and vaginal deliveries. With a vaginal delivery, pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 5.50, 95% CI: 1.83 - 16.57) was significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding. Multiparity (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.02 - 4.50), support from health care workers (AOR = 2.602, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.82), and pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.13 - 5.75) were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding with cesarean delivery. Conclusion: The rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding differs according to the mode of delivery. Cesarean delivery, as compared to vaginal delivery, was associated with a lower rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding.
Pd Gupta
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 042-043;

Sleep and menstrual cycle both are normal physiological processes in women’s life but they are regulated by different centers. Sleep is a daily rhythm whereas the menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days. During this period the estrogen peaks twice. We have shown earlier that there is an inverse relationship between estrogen and the hormone melatonin which aids sleep. Because of this menstruating women will have sleep disorders.
Prakash Pooja, Khadka Shanti, Silwal Muna, Chandra Ayush
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 036-041;

Background: Breast self-examination is the most important screening method for early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Females assess their breasts regularly to detect any abnormalities to seek instant medical attention. Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the knowledge on breast self-examination among female adolescents of Nepal. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-structured questionnaires among female adolescents of Model Multiple College, Dhanusha. The sample size was 120 participants. Probability proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from October 28th to November 12th, 2013. Data were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 120 participants 67.5% participants had knowledge about breast cancer and 40% had knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE). Most of them (94.2%) had a poor knowledge of BSE followed by 5.8% of participants with a moderate level of knowledge of BSE. The mean knowledge score was 18.7 ± 3.5. The majority (66.7%) of participants were from science faculties. More than half (51.7%) of participants stated source of information on BSE was health personnel. Only 25% of the respondent had a family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: The study revealed that most (94.2%) of the participants had poor knowledge of breast self-examination. There is further need for awareness and health education on breast self-examination.
Lecourt Anne, Labrosse Julie, Peigné Maeliss, Vinolas Claire, Laup Laetitia, Sifer Christophe, Grynberg Michael, Cedrin-Durnerin Isabelle
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 027-035;

Purpose: Adding dydrogesterone (DYD) to vaginal micronized progesterone (VMP) and postponing embryo transfer in order to improve outcomes in patients with low progesterone (P) levels in hormonally substituted cycles prior to frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET). Methods: Endometrial preparation comprised sequential administration of vaginal estradiol until endometrial thickness reached 7 mm, followed by transdermal estradiol combined with 800 mg/day VMP. Our previous analysis of serum P levels on FET day showed that the optimal P level was > 11 ng/mL for live birth. Serum P was measured on day1 (D1) following exogenous VMP introduction in the evening. When P levels were > 11 ng/mL, FET was performed “in phase” on day-2, day-3, or day-5 depending on embryo stage at cryopreservation (n = 139 cycles). When P levels were < 11 ng/mL, DYD 10 mg three times a day orally, was added to VMP and FET was postponed by one day (n = 237 cycles, 63%). The primary endpoint was the comparison of live birth rates (LBR) between the two groups. Results: Mean serum P level on D1 was 10.2 + 3.7 ng/mL. Characteristics of patients in both groups were similar for age, body mass index, endometrial thickness prior to P introduction, quality of transferred embryos, and embryo transfer stage. Regarding the primary endpoint, LBR was similar between the VMP+DYD group and the VMP group (26.1% vs. 27.3%, NS). Conclusion: These results suggest that adding DYD to VMP and postponing the transfer in patients with low P levels in hormonally substituted FET cycles might optimize outcomes.
Gomes Richmond R
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 022-026;

In pregnancy, the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) is increased fivefold when compared to nonpregnant women of the same age, and PE is one of the leading causes of death during pregnancy. However, the diagnosis of PE among pregnant women is complicated by concerns regarding radiation exposure. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a wide array of presentations and a predilection to affect women of certain ethnic backgrounds. The hallmark of the disease is multisystem involvement, dispersed in time and severity. Usual pulmonary involvement includes pleuritis, pleural effusions, pneumonitis, shrinking lung syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and alveolar hemorrhage. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively unusual presentation of SLE. We report the case of a 20-year-old primi at 21 weeks gestation with an acute PE with central chest pain and shortness of breath. The absence of overt signs and symptoms and traditional risk factors prompted a fragmentary workup. This led to the detection of antibodies sensitive for SLE, in the absence of overt signs and symptoms. We revive the concept of latent lupus, a condition construed as early lupus. We firmly suspect direct causation between SLE and PE. Further studies are needed to establish pathogenesis to facilitate early diagnosis and prevent morbidity and mortality from PE. Due to persistent hypotension, thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase was administered and the clinical and hemodynamic response was excellent, with no maternal or fetal hemorrhagic complications. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is sometimes camouflaged by the physiological changes that occur in pregnancy and diagnosis is often delayed by a reluctance to expose the fetus to ionizing radiation.
Nazari Zeinab, Mortazavi Leila, Gordani Noushin
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 019-021;

Background: Cervical choriocarcinoma is a malignant trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from pluripotent gonadal germ cells. Various manifestations are expected including vaginal bleeding and symptoms related to metastasis. Here, we report a case of primary choriocarcinoma in a post-menopausal woman. Case presentation: A 67-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound and laboratory results were normal except for a β-hCG titer of 14850 IU/L. Hysteroscopy revealed a polyp in the posterior wall of the cervix. hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed due to suspected choriocarcinoma. The β-hCG titer decreased immediately after surgery. However, the β-hCG titer increased again one month after surgery and treatment was continued with weekly methotrexate administration. Conclusion: Manifestations such as vaginal bleeding is very important in post-menopausal women. Although there are no specific guidelines for the treatment of choriocarcinoma in these patients, hysterectomy following chemotherapy based on response to treatment and β-hCG titration is favorable.
Karpa Monica, Thakur Sita, Singh Kamal, Sharma Jyoti, Chaudhary Harsha
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 013-018;

Background: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia have remained a major global public health threat in contributing significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Based on the inverse relationship between serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and plasma renin activity found previously, it is speculated that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be a negative endocrine regulator of renin production in vivo. During pregnancy, vitamin D may play a role in implantation and placental function potentially due to angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory effects. Vitamin D deficiency can affect the health of both mother and fetus by increasing the production of inflammatory cytokines and stimulating the activity of T-regulating cells. Vitamin D is emerging as a promising agent for pre-eclampsia prevention. Aims and objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the vitamin D levels in pre-eclamptic and healthy non-pre-eclamptic pregnant women in labor and find out the relationship between vitamin D levels and pre-eclampsia. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on pregnant women with pre-eclampsia in labor. For each case with pre-eclampsia, one uncomplicated, normotensive pregnant woman in labor was taken as control. On admission to the labor room detailed history, physical examination followed by thorough obstetrics and systemic examination was done. Required investigations were done including vitamin D and calcium levels. Maternal and fetal condition was monitored during labor/cesarean section, mode of delivery, maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. After delivery, 2cc of cord blood was collected in a serum tube and sent for vitamin D levels. Data was collected and analyzed statistically using Epi-info version 7.1. Results: It was observed that the patients in both groups were comparable with respect to demographic and obstetrics characteristics except for significantly high BP in group I. Vitamin D deficiency (i.e. < 20 ng/ml) was significantly more in group I as compared to group II and the difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the mean maternal calcium levels were significantly lower in group I in comparison to group II (p < 0.0001) i.e. the mean maternal calcium level in group I and group II were 8.03 ± 0.94 and 9.19 ± 0.67 respectively. It was also observed that the level of 25-OH-D in neonates of preeclamptic women was significantly lower than for those of the normal pregnant women (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in all parts of the world. Pregnant women and neonates are highly vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. Preeclampsia is indeed associated with lower vitamin D levels and the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia involves vitamin D and calcium metabolism through their role in immunomodulation, angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects. From the present study, it was observed that vitamin D and calcium levels were significantly lowered in women with pre-eclampsia as compared to those of the normotensive pregnant women. So early detection of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies may be helpful in preventing occurrence of PET and its complications.
L Foumsou, A Kouamé, Nl Danmadji, Bm Gabkika, S Damthéou, H Aché
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 009-012;

Introduction: Preeclampsia constitutes a public health problem in our region. According to the WHO, it is the third cause of maternal mortality after severe hemorrhages, infections and is responsible for morbidity and high fetal mortality. The aim of this study was to improve on the management of severe preeclampsia at the University Hospital Center of Mother and Child (UHCMC) in N’Djamena. Patients and methods: It was a prospective and descriptive survey of 3 years duration, from January 01st, 2017 to December 31st, 2019. Included in our study were, all patients admitted for severe preeclampsia and agreed to participate in the study. Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic studies were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Results: During the study period, 13599 pregnant and parturients were admitted to the Gynecology-Obstetrics department of the UHCMC, among whom 406 cases of severe preeclampsia, with a frequency of 2.9%. The patients were young (23.2 years), married (96.3%), primipara (61.3%), referred (64.3%) without antenatal care in 47.9% of cases. Functional signs were dominated by headaches with 34.0% of cases. The proteinuria was ≥ 3 crosses in 83.7% of cases. Patients had received magnesium sulfate in 98.3%, the delivery mode was cesarean in 64.0% of cases. Principal morbidity was eclampsia (40.8%) and fetal was prematurity (36.4%). Maternal lethality was 11.1% and fetal mortality was 19.9% cases. Conclusion: Severe preeclampsia is frequent in the UHCMC in N’Djamena. It is responsible for high maternal and fetal mortality. The practice of quality antenatal care, could prevent the occurrence of complications and improve the maternal-fetal prognosis.
Rachaneni Suneetha, Enki Doyo, Welstand Megan, Heggie Thomasin, Dua Anupreet
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 001-004;

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a non-invasive treatment for overactive bladder (OAB). PTNS involves peripheral neuromodulation that uses electrical stimulation to target the spinal cord roots, mainly S3, which controls bladder function. Neuromodulation is postulated to be the effect of cross-signaling between sympathetic and parasympathetic post ganglionic nerve terminals and synapses, causing alteration of nerve signals involved in the voiding reflex. de Groat, et al. described this neurophysiological process and the neural circuits involved in controlling the lower urinary tract [1]. Stimulation of peripheral nerves and subsequent “cross-talk” at the level of the postganglionic neuroeffector junctions can modulate transmission and facilitate detrusor inhibition [2].
Crowley Clare Margaret, Gill Noelle, Geisler Minna
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 005-008;

Aims: To examine patient satisfaction of an outpatient operative hysteroscopy performed by both doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. Secondly, compare satisfaction, complications, and failure rate of these procedures performed by doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. Methods: In this retrospective study, the charts of 80 women who attended the service over one year were examined. Women were included if either an endometrial polyp or submucosal leiomyoma required removal using an endoscopic morcellator. All women had signed a consent form for the procedure. Results: In total 67/80 (84%) patients were satisfied with the service. Nurse hysteroscopists completed most procedures 59/80 (74%). Satisfaction ratings were not recorded for 13/80 (16%) consultations, completed by doctors. There was no difference in satisfaction and complication rates between doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. A total of five patients required repeat endoscopic morcellation, three completed by doctors and two completed by nurse hysteroscopists. For this group, satisfaction and complication ratings did not change. Conclusion: High patient satisfaction and low complication rates were found. Nurse hysteroscopists performed more procedures, providing a safe and useful service. Few patients required repeat morcellation procedures.
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 101-105;

Introduction: Although worldwide maternal and neonatal mortalities have decreased, but Achieving sustainable development goals remains an unfinished agenda and global challenge. This study aimed to predict neonatal and maternal index based on development and demographic indicators. Methods: In this ecologic study, the dependent variables were Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), Neonatal mortality rate (NMR), and Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) and the independent variables were Gender gap index (GGI) and its four components, human development, life expectancy, total fertility rate, and population growth. Data conducted using international secondary data published data bases of health metrics from 2016 to 2018 in 149 countries from WHO (World Health Organization), World Economic Forum, UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). Data analysis was performed using correlation model in Stata version 14.1 software. Results: In this study, economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with MMR. Human Capital Index, Educational attainment, and Life expectancy are negatively associated with NMR. Economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with U5MR. Discussion: To reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality rate, it is important to pay attention to indirect causes such as equal conditions for men and women to demographic and population indices such as economic participation, educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy.
Chrysoula Kaparelioti, Eleni Koniari, Vasiliki Efthymiou, Dimitrios Loutradis, George Chrousos, Eleni Fryssira
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 096-100;

In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with couples who conceived before completing one year of trying. Children from assisted reproduction (AR), have a 30% increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with children from infertile fathers. Regarding the conflicting results the present study aimed to record the frequency of genetic, congenital anomalies in children and adolescents who had examined in the last decade to the Clinical Genetics Clinic of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens whose mothers had undergone assisted reproduction. The research process was conducted at the "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital based in Athens. However, the cases that were studied came from all over Greece. Initially, the researcher recorded the cases that came to the clinic of Clinical Genetics and whose conception occurred after technical assisted reproduction. After telephone communication and the consent of the parents, a live appointment was scheduled. In this meeting-interview all the provisions of the investigation and the protocol were asked and some elements of the medical history of the cases were confirmed. The total sample included 230 children and adolescents. The resulting data were recorded on a printed form/questionnaire. Then, they were registered electronically in the program SPSS 25.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) with a specific unit code for each case/patient, followed by the processing and statistical analysis of the data as well as the recording of the results. The gender of the participants was male for 118 participants (51.3%) and 112 females (48.7%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of maternal, paternal (at the time of delivery) age was equal to 36.38 (5.94) and 39.94 (6.58) respectively. The observed abdormalities were 35.53% psychomotor retardation, 23.68% facial abnormalities, 23.68% spinal cord abnormalities, 21.05% morphological abnormalities, 20.61% short stature, 19.74% developmental disorders, 19.30% heart disease, 16.67% neurological diseases, 14.47% genetic syndromes, 11.40% genital abnormalities, 8.33% limb abnormalities, 7.46% dermatological abnormalities, 6.14% eye abnormalities, 6.14% hypothyroidism, 5.70% endocrine disorders, 5.26%otolaryngology abnormalities, 2.63% disease of kidney, intestine, 2.19% vascular malformations. Regarding the karyotype chromosome analysis by G-banding technique, from the 230 children in: 24 (10.43%) a pathological result was found, in 158 children (68.70%) it was found normal (46, XX or 46, XY by case) without other findings, while in 48 children (20.87%) the test was not performed for various reasons. Regarding the results of molecular analysis (DNA) from the 230 children, in 50 (21.74%) a pathological finding was found, in 56 children (24.35%) no abnormalities were found and in 124 children (53.91%) no molecular analysis was performed for various reasons. In conclusion, the sample of this descriptive study is characterized as uniform in terms of the method of assisted reproduction since 96.24% had followed the classic IVF. Full-term pregnancy was associated with the appearance of malignancy and head morphological abnormalities (64.6%), normal pregnancy was associated with genetic syndromes (18.2%) and facial abnormalities (11.1%). It is recommended the screening oocyte and sperm donors in order to help protect the safety and health of donors, recipients, and future offspring. The present study confirms the association of the presence of congenital anomalies after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the absolute risk of developing severe dysplasias after an IVF procedure is limited.
Tang Toon Wen, Jessie Phoon Wai Leng
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 092-095;

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is uncommon tumour arising from the female reproductive tract. Incidence of LMS in pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 10 cases reported thus far in medical literature. We present a case of myomectomy performed during elective caesarean section for breech presentation, due to its easy accessibility and well contracted uterus. Subsequent histology revealed LMS on final specimen. Patient subsequently underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. No chemotherapy was given as she opted for close clinical- radiological monitoring instead. This case report highlights the importance of discussion with patients regarding the risk of occult malignancy in a fibroid uterus. Appropriate management of uterine leiomyosarcoma in pregnancy remains unclear. Consideration of removing an enlarging leiomyoma during caesarean section might be ideal in view of its malignant potential, just like in this case; however, location of the tumour and risk of bleeding needs to be weighed. Ultimately, management of such cases needs proper discussion between obstetrician and the patient.
Assefa Endalkachew Mekonnen, Janbo Adem, Ghiwot Yirgu
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 081-091;

Objectives: We analyzed the indications of cesarean section (CS) using Robson Ten-Group. Classification Systems (RTGCS) and comparison between private and public health facilities in Addis Abeba hospitals, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 2411 mothers who delivered by CS were classified using the RTGCS. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analyzing. Binary logistic regression and AOR with 95% CI were used to assess the determinants of the CS. Results: The overall CS rate was 41% (34.8% and 66.8% in public & private respectively, p < .0001). The leading contributors for CS rate in the private were Robson groups 5,1,2,3 whereas in the public 5,1,3,2 on descending order. Robson group 1 (nulliparous, cephalic, term, spontaneous labor) and group 3 [Multiparous (excluding previous cesarean section), singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation& spontaneous labor], the CS rate was over two-fold higher in the private than the public sector. Women in Robson groups 1, 2, 5 & 9 are two and more times higher for the absolute contribution of CS in private than public. The top medical indications of CS were non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS, 39.1%) and repeat CS for previous CS scars (39.4%) in public and private respectively. Mothers who delivered by CS in private with history of previous CS scar (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.2), clinical indications of maternal request (AOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-27.98) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-10.7), induced labor (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and pre-labored (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0) were more likely to undergo CS than in public hospital. Conclusion: The prevalence of CS was found to be high, and was significantly higher in private hospitals than in a public hospital. Having CS scar [having previous CS scar, Robson group 5(Previous CS, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) and an indication of repeat CS for previous CS scar] is the likely factor that increased the CS rate in private when compared within the public hospital. Recommendation: It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS, encouraging vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Policies should be directed at the private sector where CS indication seems not to be driven by medical reasons solely.
Rafiq Shagufta, Abbasher Ibrahim, Denona Branko, Anwar Sadia, Ahmad Ammara, Aziz Bushra
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 066-068;

The lumbar epidural analgesia is commonly used for labour analgesia. The “loss of resistance to air” LORA technique is commonly used for recognition of epidural space. One of the rare complications of this technique is Pneumocephalus (PC). We want to present a case of Pneumocephalus which the mother developed during epidural analgesia in labour. The patient complained of severe headache immediately after attempt at epidural catheter insertion. The symptoms progressively worsened following delivery. A postnatal anaesthetic review was performed and an urgent CT scan of the brain was arranged that showed pneumocephalus. A conservative management pathway was followed with liberal analgesia, oxygen inhalation and keeping the patient mostly in supine position. Her symptoms regressed in severity over the next three days and subsided after one week. We believe that the amount of air used for LORA should be minimized; LORA should not be used after dural puncture and the use of normal saline would alleviate the risk.
Ade-Ojo Idowu Pius, Ipinnimo Oluwadare Martins
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 069-071;

Primary umbilical cutaneous endometriosis is a rare umbilical endometrioma that affects women who are within the reproductive age group. It may be associated with infertility and severe dysmenorrhea and can be difficult to diagnosed in an asymptomatic patient. We report a case of a 38-year-old nulliparous with seven years history of infertility and severe dysmenorrhea. Her hormonal profile assay and hysterosalpingogram results were normal while her husband semen analysis was also within normal range. She complained of monthly bleeding from a painful rubbery multilobate cutaneous nodule on the umbilicus of one year duration. She was diagnosed of cutaneous endometriosis. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and she had surgical excision with good outcome.
E Peters Grace, N Ononokpono Dorathy, U Willson Nsikanabasi, I Oko Nnabuike, Ej Peters
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 060-065;

Background: Obstetric fistula is a condition that results from obstructed labour, which occurs when the baby cannot pass through the mother’s birth canal because it either does not come head first or is too large for her pelvis. Prompt medical intervention, often including Caesarean section, permits a safe delivery for both mother and child. Despite this possibility, yearly, thousands of women across the country receive no such aid and their labour is a futile agony lasting between three and five days, with uterine contractions constantly forcing the baby, usually head first, against the organs of the pelvic and unyielding pelvic bone resulting in Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF). The main thrust of this study was to examine how health system factors affect health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Akwa Ibom and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. Methods: Qualitative and descriptive research approaches were adopted for the study and a total sample of two hundred and sixteen (216) respondents comprising of one hundred and fifty (150) post fistula repair operative patients and sixty six (66) health workers were purposively selected using simple random techniques. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis and tables of frequency. Results: The respondents views showed that availability of treatment centre and quality of health care services influenced health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Nigeria. Conclusion: The study indicated that health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula is a major challenge in Nigeria. Establishment and proper equipment of obstetric fistula treatment centres as well as subsidization of the cost of treatment to allow women with this health problem to access health care services are strongly recommended. Therefore, government at all level and non-governmental organizations need to educate the women and create awareness on the causes and dangers of VVF.
Sayed Sayed Mohamed, Khalifa Ahmed Khedr, Abd Allah Shehata Nesreen Abd El Fattah, Am Eweis Mohamed, M Shawky Sherwet
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 055-059;

Objective: To observe the predominance of fetal anomalies in pregnant women in a multi-centric setting. Methods: This prospective observational study included 20225 pregnant women who came for antenatal care in University Hospital and fetal medicine units from 2016 to 2019. Fetal anatomical scanning was done for all participants. Results: One hundred eighty-three cases had fetal congenital anomalies, yielding a prevalence of around 0.9%. Third of cases had positive consanguinity, this increased in cases of skeletal and thoracic anomalies. The presence of past history of anomalies was evident in 8.2% mostly with skeletal and heart anomalies. History of drug intake was only verified in 1.6% of cases. Sixty-three women out of 183 (34.4%) were diagnosed to have anomalies in fetal nervous system. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis are recommended for early detection of congenital anomalies and counselling.
M Sena-Martins, V Tadini, Bg Bolsonaro, C Mariani-Neto, Abn Pires, Ll Lucato, An Soares, Jc Xavier, Bacb Teixeira, Sl Faro, et al.
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 050-054;

Puerperal acute uterine inversion is a rare obstetric condition observed as a serious complication during the third stage of labor. Reported as one of the causes of postpartum haemorrhage, it commonly requires quick diagnosis and surgical treatment in order to reduce morbidity and lethality. The authors describe a case of uterine inversion with hypovolemic shock after home birth, brought to Hospital Leonor Mendes de Barros. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of acute uterine inversion and its management and a review of aetiology, predictive and risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.
, Jain Bhoomika, Mhapankar Sabrina, Kumar Sushil
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 040-043;

Episiotomy is a most commonly performed minor procedure. There are various type of episiotomy suturing, in this study two most common types of episiotomy suturing techniques were compare in terms of healing rate. This study concluded that the continuous method of episiotomy suturing is although faster, cosmetically better and associated with less post-operative pain but it heals significantly better than interrupted method of suturing.
, Jain Bhoomika, Mhapankar Sabrina, Kumar Sushil
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 044-049;

Pre eclampsia and IUGR are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pre eclampsia is a multisystem disorder, in normal pregnancies trophoblastic invasion transforms high resistance spiral arteries into low impedance uteroplacental circulation. This uteroplacental circulation remains incomplete in pre eclampsia and IUGR. This study is to correlate the Doppler Findings with the Fetal Outcome in pre eclampsia patiens, and helps decide appropriate time for delivery with least perinatal morbidity.
Jangra Isheeta, Chauhan Aditi, Prabha Vijay
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 033-039;

Earlier in our laboratory, the role of various individual sperm impairing microorganisms on sperm parameters and female infertility has been elucidated at higher doses. As, multiple bacterial species tend to exert more pathogenic effect in comparison to single organism hence, present study was carried out to evaluate that if consortia of these sperm impairing organisms can lead to infertility in female mice at sub fertility dose. For this, impact of individual bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and consortia of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined on the motility, viability of mouse spermatozoa and fertility outcome. The results showed that the individual bacterial strains of E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae could led to immobilization of spermatozoa by agglutination and P. aeruginosa led to immobilization of spermatozoa without agglutination. Also, all of them led to 100% sperm death in 45 min of incubation. In case of consortia of bacterial strains, the results showed sperm agglutination in all the cases and they were able to induce 100% sperm death at 30 min of incubation time. Further, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains on the fertility outcome in female Balb/c mice. For this, female mice were administered intravaginally with 101 cfu/20µl of individual bacterial strains or consortia of strains for 10 consecutive days or PBS. The results showed that both individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains were able to efficiently colonize the mouse vagina. Further, control group receiving phosphate buffer saline and groups receiving individual bacterial strains showed all the pregnancy related changes viz. abdominal distension, string of pearls on palpation as well as delivery of pups on completion of gestation period and delivery of pups. The histological examination of reproductive organs viz. uterus and ovary, of the female mice receiving PBS or individual bacterial strains showed the formation of corpus luteum in the ovary and the formation of decidua’s in the uterus, indicative of pregnancy. However, mice receiving consortia of bacterial strains did not show any pregnancy related changes throughout the experiment. Thus, these results indicate that the presence of consortia of sperm impairing microorganisms in vaginal milieu is efficient in provoking infertility even at subfertility doses.
, Fouillet Catherine, Bodeau Nicolas, Nizard Jacky
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 025-032;

Internet has become an important part of our life, including during pregnancy where it is broadly used to find information (84%). The aims of this study were (1) to describe the proportion of women using Internet Social Networks (ISN) concerning their pregnancy, during pre or postpartum hospital stay, (2) to define how ISN users refer to their pregnancy and delivery on these social networks, (3) to compare anxiety level, social sustain level, sociodemographic characteristics of the both population (4) and to determine profiles of the ISN users with multiple correspondence analysis. Methods: 399 questionnaires were distributed in the postpartum wards of two academic hospitals in Paris, and 258 fully filled were retrieved. Tools: Anxiety scale (STAI- A and B), Cutrona Social Provisions Scale, sociodemographic and obstetrical questionnaire. Results: 76% (n = 195) were ISN users. We compared ISN users versus ISN non users women. Demographically, the two populations were comparable. Anxiety scores were similar in both groups, whereas social support scores showed a statistical difference in social integration. In the global population, 84% use Internet for information concerning pregnancy; this rate is higher for ISN users than ISN non users (tendency 0.058). ISN were used in priority for sharing with relatives, and 10% with other pregnant women. Concerning pregnancy, patients posted in priority the birth announcement (28%), the pregnancy announcement (23%), and the newborn’s pictures (12%). 6% posted their fetuses’ ultrasound pictures. Three clusters of ISN users were extracted with statistically different social support scores (p = 0.019) and comparable anxiety scores. The third one, with at risk profile, used ISN as social support. For all women, but specifically for younger and more socially fragile women, Internet gives to professional new perspectives to develop information and prevention tools during the perinatal period.
M Klimatsouda, C Donoudis, G Kontopoulos,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 020-024;

Borderline Ovarian Tumors (BOT) tend to present more frequently nowadays, especially in younger women. Furthermore fertility preservation and laparoscopic management is often desired and therefore appropriate counselling is challenging and the treatment selection must be made on evidence based medicine. Adnexal mass could be a random finding when a typical gynecologic examination is performed. The diagnostic algorithm for possible BOT is the same as for any ovarian tumor, but the treatment options and techniques may vary based on patient’s willing to preserve her fertility or not. Laparoscopic or laparotomy approach has similar results although intraoperative findings and frozen section may redirect the primary treatment planning. When an initial conservative approach is chosen, a secondary approach including total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with staging should be considered. Hence a full counselling is recommended before any primary approach.
Muralidhara Krithika, Dhareshwar Shashank
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 019-019;

31 year old female presented with abdominal pain and respiratory distress in the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Her blood workup revealed a lipemic sample (Figure 1) due to markedly elevated serum triglycerides of 8178 mg/dl (Glycerol Phosphate Oxidase method). Total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein were elevated at 1701 mg/dl and 788 mg/dl respectively. There was no family history of lipid disorders. Diagnosis was consistent with gestational hypertriglyceridemia with acute pancreatitis (Serum Amylase-50 U/L, Serum Lipase- 96 U/L), though genetic tests to rule out pre-existing primary hypertriglyceridemia was not feasible. In view of the life threatening condition, she was initiated on Insulin-Dextrose infusion and offered one session of Plasma Exchange. Figures 2,3 depict membrane plasma separation with the obtained effluent as lipemic plasma. Her serum triglycerides showed a declining trend and was discharged in good health (serum triglycerides at discharge-651 mg/dl).
Zamaniyan Marzieh, Gordani Noushin, Bagheri Paniz, Jafari Kaveh, Peyvandi Sepideh, Hajihoseini Mojtaba, Taheripanah Robabeh, Moradi Siavash, Peyvandi Salomeh, Alborzi Arman
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 015-018;

, Lalchandani S
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 003-006;

Aims: To audit the use of cervical dilators, local anaesthetic, and failure rates in outpatient hysteroscopy over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. To review the experiences of women attending the outpatient hysteroscopy clinic (OHC) over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. Methods: Retrospective data review was carried out. Green-top Guideline No. 59: Best Practice in Outpatient Hysteroscopy, published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), was the standard used for comparison. Results: Two hundred and twenty women were seen over a two-year period. The average age was forty-eight. The most common complaint being of menorrhagia/irregular bleeding per vaginum (PV). Local anaesthetic was used in just under one third of cases of which half required cervical dilatation. Most women reported experiencing mild to moderate levels of discomfort however most would opt for an outpatient hysteroscopic procedure again if required. Discussion/Conclusion: Outpatient hysteroscopy is a well-tolerated and safe procedure. Suitability for outpatient hysteroscopy is not predictable based on parity of menopausal status. Women would elect to undergo outpatient hysteroscopy again if required and this is likely due to several reasons including convenience and lack of requirement for general anaesthetic.
Soltani Mitra Ahmad, , Takhty Zahra, Shojai Azarmindokht, Sheikh Hengameh
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 001-002;

Shiddo Danyah, Danyah Shiddo, Hilmi Nour
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 073-080;

Introduction: It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation still remains to be a serious problem for large proportion of women in most sub-Saharan Africa countries including Sudan, with a high prevalence of 88%. Objective: The main objective was to identify the factors associated with FGM among daughters of reproductive aged woman. Materials and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers, the total sample was collected in ACTH based on the number of reproductive age mothers with at least one daughter older than 5 years. A structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data obtained was analyzed by the use of the SPSS software. Results: Out of 200 mothers, 113 (56.5%) had at least one circumcised daughter. Knowledge about genital mutilation (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.13-15.37), attitude (AOR = 48.53, 95% CI: 14.45-198.69) and mothers circumcision status (AOR = 14.03, 95% CI: 2.81- 95.45) were the most significantly associated with FGM. Furthermore, having good knowledge, positive attitude, high socio-economic status, being literate, being of Christian religion and living in urban area had lower odds of having a circumcised daughter. Conclusion: In this study, more than half of the mothers had at least one circumcised daughter. Mothers’ knowledge, attitude, circumcision status, socio-economic status, age, residence, educational level and religion were significantly associated with female genital mutilation.
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