Results in International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology: 42
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Published: 22 November 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 038-044; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001049
Aim and objective: 1. To study the manifestations of fungal corneal ulcer in different age groups and sex 2. To study the distribution of fungal corneal ulcer in relation to occupation 3. To know the effect of Natamycin and Fluconazole as anti-fungal agents. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of microbiology records of patients presenting with suspected microbial keratitis seen between January 2021 and June 2021. Patients with positive fungal cultures were analyzed in detail for the type of fungus isolated. Results: 90 patients with suspected microbial keratitis were reviewed. A microbiological diagnosis of mycotic keratitis was established 9 (10%) patients over a period of 6 months, based on positive fungal cultures. Filamentous fungi were isolated more often than yeasts. Aspergillus species followed by Fusarium species were the commonest filamentous fungi isolated. Conclusion: Over a period of 6 months, the cumulative incidence of mycotic keratitis was 10%. The pathogenic organisms most frequently responsible for mycotic keratitis were Aspergillus species. When beginning an empirical therapy for mycotic keratitis, etiological factors were helpful. Eight of the 90 patients with corneal ulcers who were admitted to the patient department for treatment had positive fungal cultures in Sabouraud’s media. The age range of 50 to 60 years had a high prevalence of illness. There were 90 total cases of corneal ulcers. Out of those there were 8 (8.8%) incidences of fungal ulcers. More men than women were impacted. Workers in agriculture are more impacted than others. The main cause of a fungus-induced corneal ulcer was trauma. Natamycin was the better option for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus species, fusarium, and curvularia) responded effectively to Natamycin 5% eyedrop.
Published: 27 September 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 035-037; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001048
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and is very rare in the neonatal period. At this age, the alveolar type is a remarkably uncommon variety. We report a 56 days old female with alveolar RMS of the right eye noted since the age of 7 days with fast progression and unfavorable prognosis. Congenital alveolar RMS is an important cause of neonatal onset rapidly progressive proptosis. Early onset, alveolar type, and late diagnosis were poor prognostic factor.
Published: 2 August 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 031-034; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001047
Given improvements in neonatal care and the increased survival rates of infants born pre-term, Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) is now the leading cause of visual impairment (VI) in the developed world. In this study, Step VEPS, transient VEPS and Vernier Sweep VEPs all demonstrated unbiased relationships with Preferential looking (PL) cards over the whole range of Visual Acuity (VA) in children with CVI, allowing equations for clinical use to be derived. The results also suggested that a slower, vernier steady-state stimulus of 80% contrast and presented with the Step VEP algorithm could further improve VA agreement with PL and optimise developmental sensitivity. An eye tracking device has proved very useful in the clinical assessment of this cohort. It is also now known that children can have good VA and CVI, and that sweep VEPS can highlight higher processing deficits. As well as negative findings, compensatory neuroplasticity is thought to occur during maturation and it is now realistic to study this mechanism, and other age-related changes across VI with functional tests and neuroimaging (including VEPS). A cross-sectional study of adults would highlight CVI’s ultimate functional limitations.
Published: 27 June 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 026-030; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001046
Steady-state VEPs, have been used to estimate visual acuity since the 1970s and allow responses to a range of stimulus sizes to be collected rapidly- with particular utility in infants. However, the assessment of children with cortical visual impairment is a bigger challenge that lead to the development of the Step VEP. Its initial evaluation revealed that accuracy and precision were poorer for pediatric patients than for optically degraded normal adults and that it was not necessarily successful in every child. Statistical models generated the equations: VAO = 0.56 VAStep (r2 = 0.75, F = 60.93, p = 0.000) and VAPL = 0.45 VAStep (r2 = 0.82, F = 156.85, p = 0.000), supported by a recent a systematic review of VA comparisons showing that recognition VA (optotypes) agrees more closely than discrimination VA (PL) with VEP VA. In combination, Step VEPS and subjective tests allowed complete assessment in 96% of patients, with incomplete Step VEPS much more likely to be partially successful than not, and more likely to be partially successful than incomplete subjective tests. This supports the rationale that Step VEPs maintain attention by limiting the time spent stimulating away from an individual’s threshold of spatial resolution. For the small number of patients in whom VA cannot be estimated, alternative stimuli and methods of presentation are proposed.
Published: 6 May 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 015-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001045
Commonly referred to as an ecstatic, non-inflammatory disease, Keratoconus, usually bilateral and asymmetric, is characterized by progressive steeping and thinning of the cornea. This results in irregular astigmatism which compromises vision [1,2]. Traditionally, early Keratoconus stages have been treated by prescribing a hard contact lens to obtain a regular anterior optical surface. This tendency was discontinued when contact lens intolerance in advanced stages required the use of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or deep anterior lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK). An alternative technique of corneal cross-linking was designed in 2003 as a treatment option for keratoconus. The cornea measured at least 400 um thickness after epithelium removal and pre-operative maximum keratometry (Kmax) measured 58D or less. As a result, no corneal transplantation was required or postponed .
Published: 25 April 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 013-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001044
Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydroce-phalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) .
Published: 7 April 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 007-012; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001043
Background: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a bilateral visual impairment that affects children in all industrialized countries. It has become more common in low-income countries as a result of the increased survival rates of children who suffer from severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of children with CVI in a tertiary children’s eye care center population. Methods: From October 2020 to September 2021, a cross-sectional study was conducted to select all consecutive patients with a diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment aged 6 months to 16 years. On the neurological deficit, information was gathered from the patient’s referral: parental interviews, observations, and direct assessment were used for functional vision characteristics, and an ophthalmic examination was performed for eye findings. The interviewees’ responses were matched to the ten specific behavioral characteristics shared by children with CVI. Cortical visual impairment was diagnosed using three criteria: [the vision loss is not explained by abnormalities found on the eye examination, a neurological medical diagnosis, and the child exhibits one of the unique visual and behavioral characteristics described by Roman Lantz]. A descriptive statistical analysis (frequency, mean, and range) was calculated. Results: Forty children with CVI (1.96% of total children) were seen. The mean age was 2.56 ( 1.98) years. There were 24 (60%) males. On a referral paper of 28, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was the commonest cause mentioned (70.0%). Seizures were the most frequent neurological deficit at presentation. Ophthalmic and neurologic impairments were found in 42.5% of children with CVI. Based on Roman-Lantzy’s three phases of the CVI Range, 90% of children with CVI at the test time had Phase I or Phase II vision. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, visual impairment is critical in the diagnosis of CVI. The prevalence of CVI as a cause of childhood vision impairment is significant. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is the most common cause of CVI. All children with CVI have serious neurological issues, and the majority have associated ophthalmic abnormalities.
Published: 9 March 2022
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 6, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001042
Aim: Accumulating data imply that glaucoma may represent a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the entire visual system. We evaluated retrobulbar glaucomatous damage with favorable techniques for 1.5T diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and we compared those techniques with clinical data in a large case series. Material and methods: This Cross-sectional study included 130 eyes of 65 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Patients with no known ocular or systemic concomitant disorders, neurological diseases, previous glaucoma surgeries, or antioxidant usage were selected. A decrease in thickness and deterioration in the optic nerve diffusion of severely glaucomatous eyes of patients with asymmetrical involvement was observed in optic nerve tractography. Optical coherence tomography and visual field results of the subjects were recorded. Glaucoma analysis with optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry results of the subjects were recorded. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis of optic nerves and radiations were performed, computing fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Correlation between the diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and clinical eye parameters of glaucomatous neurodegeneration were statistically evaluated. Results: The correlations between diffusion parameters and age were highly significant. Statistically significant correlations were found between ganglion cell complex and apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivities of optic nerves. Conclusion: Eye-brain connection in glaucoma can be evaluated with routine clinical instruments. Our study also revealed a limited correlation of retrobulbar glaucomatous neurodegeneration with ophthalmic damage. A better understanding of retrobulbar damage will enable us to develop more efficient strategies and a more accurate understanding of glaucoma.
Published: 14 December 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 029-038; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001041
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of preventable blindness. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) develop not only DR but also corneal endothelial damage leading to anatomical and physiological changes in cornea. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a key parameter of refractive surgery and Intraocular pressure (IOP) estimation. The role of CCT and higher glycemic index in DR needs to be researched upon. Objectives: To identify the corneal endothelial morphology in patients with type 2 DM, to measure the Central Corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to assess the relationship of CCT with HbA1C levels in the study group and to correlate the CCT with the severity of Diabetic retinopathy in the study group. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January 2018 and June 2019 in Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. The study included 100 subjects with type 2 DM for 5 years or more. Patients with comorbidities that may affect the severity of DR or alter CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters such as glaucoma, previous ocular surgery or trauma, corneal degenerations and dystrophies, chronic kidney disease and Hypertension were excluded. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy, fundus photography and optical coherence imaging of the macula and graded as per the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters were measured through specular microscopy. Relevant blood investigations including blood sugar levels were done for all patients. Statistical analysis: Relationship between CCT and grades of DR and HbA1c levels were established using the Chi-Square test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean CCT in patients with no diabetic retinopathy, very mild and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe and very severe NPDR and PDR was 526.62 ± 8.084 μm, 542.07 ± 8.713 μm, 562.16 ± 8.255 μm, 582.79 ± 7.368 μm and 610.43 ± 18.256 μm respectively. Analysis of the relationship between CCT and severity of DR showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the two parameters (Pearson r = 0.933, P=0.001). Beyond this, a correlation was found between all the corneal endothelial parameters and severity of DR. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced DR was positively correlated with CV (r = 0.917) and CCT (r = 0.933); while it was negatively correlated with ECD (r = -0.872) and Hex (r = -0.811). A statistically significant correlation was also found between CCT and HbA1c. Also increasing age, duration of DM and higher glycemic index were positively correlated with severity of DR. Conclusion: This study, by demonstrating a strong correlation between the central corneal thickness to the severity of DR and HbA1c levels emphasizes the importance of evaluation of corneal endothelial morphology in the early screening and diagnosis of microvascular complications of DM.
Published: 11 November 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 025-028; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001040
Progeria syndromes are very rare genetic diseases characterized by premature aging changes. There are several phenotypes and variables noted in literature in some cases difficult to specifically classify a specific syndrome. It occurs due to mutation in DNA repair genes. The most common ocular findings are loss of eyebrow and eyelashes, brow ptosis, lid margin changes, entropion, Meibomian gland dysfunction, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, cataract, poor mydriasis, and rod-cone dystrophy. We report this case with all the above ocular manifestations in 19year old teenager with additional finding being retinal detachment.
Published: 11 October 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 023-024; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001039
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble discovered in 1913. Hypo-vitaminosis A can cause blindness by various mechanisms. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the severity of Vitamin A deficiency and its local consequences on the eyes causing corneal ulcerations, abscess and even blindness.
Published: 13 September 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 019-022; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001038
Published: 10 August 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 016-018; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001037
Introduction: A dermoid cyst is a developmental choristoma lined with epithelium and filled with keratinized material arising from ectodermal rests pinched off at suture lines. These are the most common orbital tumors in childhood. They are categorized into superficial and deep. Superficial orbital dermoid tumors usually occur in the area of the lateral brow adjacent to the frontozygomatic suture. Infrequently a tumor may be encountered in the medial canthal area , which is the second most common site of orbital dermoids. We report a case where a swelling presented in the medial canthal area without involving the lacrimal system. Case report: A 43 year old lady presented with complaint of swelling near the (RE; Right eye) since 2 years duration. She presented with a solitary 1.5 cm x 1 cm ovoid, non-tender, non-pulsatile, firm, non-compressible mobile swelling with smooth surface over the medial canthus of right eye. (MRI; Magnetic Resonance Imaging) brain and orbit showed right periorbital extraconal lesion and the (FNAC; Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) suggested of Dermoid Cyst. RE canthal dermoid cyst excision was done under Local Anasthesia. Conclusion: Complete surgical excision in to be treatment of choice for dermoids. Since medial canthal mass can involve the lacrimal system, it becomes necessary to perform preoperative assessments using (CT; Computed Tomography), MRI or dacryocystography while planning the surgical approach. Silicone intubation at the beginning of the surgery is an easy and effective way of identifying canaliculi and of preventing canalicular laceration during dermoid excision if the lacrimal system is found to be involved.
Published: 5 August 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 009-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001036
Background: In developing countries, manual small incision cataract surgery is a better alternative and less expensive in comparison to phacoemulsification and thus the incision is an important factor causing high rates of postoperative astigmatism resulting into poor visual outcome. Thus, modifications to the site of the incision is needed to reduce the pre-existing astigmatism and also to prevent postoperative astigmatism. Modification to superotemporal incision relieves pre-existing astigmatism majorly due to its characteristic of neutralizing against-the-rule astigmatism, which is more prevalent among elderly population and thus improves the visual outcome. Aims: To study the incidence, amount and type of surgically induced astigmatism in superior and superotemporal scleral incision in manual SICS. Methodology: It is a randomized, comparative clinical study done on 100 patients attending the OPD of Ophthalmology at a tertiary care hospital, with senile cataract within a period of one year and underwent manual SICS. 50 of them chosen randomly for superior incision and rest 50 with superotemporal incision. MSICS with PCIOL implantation were performed through unsutured 6.5 mm scleral incision in all. Patients were examined post-operatively on 1st day, 7th day, 2nd week and 4th week and astigmatism was evaluated and compared in both groups. Results: It is seen that on postoperative follow up on 4th week, 77.78% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent superior incision had increased astigmatism whereas, only 13.63% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism but 81.82% had decreased ATR astigmatism. However, 77.78% of the patients with preoperative WTR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism, whereas 44.45% of the patients with WTR astigmatism preoperatively, had increased astigmatism in contrast to 50% had decreased amount of astigmatism. It is also seen that the supero-temporal incision group had more number of patients (78%) with visual acuity better than 6/9 at 4th postoperative week than superior incision group (42%). Conclusion: This study concludes that superior incision cause more ATR astigmatism postoperatively whereas superotemporal incision causes lower magnitude of WTR astigmatism, which is advantageous for the elderly. Besides superotemporal incision provides better and early visual acuity postoperatively.
Published: 30 April 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 005-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001035
Background: The present study was conducted to study the donor profile and to assess the trends of cornea donation. Methodology: This was conducted as a hospital based cross sectional study at a tertiary care centre in Central India for a period of 5 years. Data was retrieved from 70 patients from eye bank who filled form of eye donation at Eye bank of our institution. Sociodemographic profile of donors, cause of death and time since death was recorded. Source of information regarding corneal donation and reason for not willing to donate the cornea for research purpose was recorded from the filled form. Further cornea enucleated were subjected to serology and their utilization for various purposes were recorded in questionnaire. Results: The present study retrieved data from a total of 70 donor forms with mean age of 65.84 ± 18.4 years. Cornea obtained from younger patients were mainly utilized for corneal transplantation whereas that from elderly age group > 60 years were mainly utilized for research/training purpose and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The corneas retrieved and utilized immediately after death were significantly used for optical or therapeutic purposes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present highlights the donor profile and trends of corneal donation at the tertiary care facility of Central India. It was observed that though the younger population and older population both are aware regarding corneal donation but still they are less aware on purpose for which cornea can be utilized. Quality of donor cornea is better when death to enucleation time interval was less.
Published: 11 February 2021
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 5, pp 001-004; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001034
Purpose: To evaluate the levels of salusin-beta (β-SAL) in the serum in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods: Our study was designed as a controlled comparative clinical study. The β-SAL levels in serums of age and sex-matched 20 healthy volunteers as controls (Group 1), 20 patients with dry-age related macular degeneration (d-ARMD) (Group 2) and 20 patients with wet-age related macular degeneration (w-ARMD) (Group 3) were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: In our study, it was found that age and gender didn’t show a statistically significant difference among the study groups (p > 0. 05). The mean serum β-SAL levels in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 1372,17 ± 1126.69 pg/mL; 1423,71 ± 1196.84 pg/mL and 940,57 ± 1092.05 pg/mL, respectively. Although the meanβ-SAL levels in w-ARMD seem numerically lower than both the control and d-ARMD groups, this difference among the study groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our study suggests that β-SAL levels in the patients with ARMD and healthy controls were not different than each other. Further studies with large numbers may reveal possible relationships between β-SAL and ARMD.
Published: 29 September 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 049-053; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001033
Published: 25 May 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 041-048; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001032
Background: Corneal abrasions are a common result of eye trauma. Corneal injuries are very common in both the adult and pediatric population and account for a significant proportion of the workload of most emergency departments.
Published: 22 May 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 038-040; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001031
Published: 20 May 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 021-030; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001029
Published: 20 May 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 031-037; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001030
Published: 12 March 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 015-020; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001028
Published: 25 February 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 012-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001027
Published: 19 February 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 009-011; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001026
Published: 29 January 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 005-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001025
Published: 7 January 2020
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 4, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001024
Published: 12 December 2019
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 3, pp 030-034; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001023
Published: 9 September 2019
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 3, pp 020-029; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001022
Published: 22 August 2019
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 3, pp 013-019; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001021
Published: 12 August 2019
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 3, pp 008-012; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001020
Published: 31 December 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 032-038; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001019
Published: 19 December 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 027-031; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001018
Published: 12 November 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 022-026; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001017
Published: 31 July 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 021-021; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001016
Published: 27 July 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 018-020; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001015
Published: 26 June 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 015-017; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001014
Published: 23 March 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 008-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001013
Published: 9 February 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 006-007; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001012
Published: 7 February 2018
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 2, pp 001-005; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001011
Published: 1 January 2017
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 055-059; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001008
Published: 1 January 2017
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 066-070; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001010
Published: 1 January 2017
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 1, pp 060-066; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001009