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Wei Han, , Yi Wang,
Published: 20 September 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 600-614; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1372442

Abstract:
Appealing to tourists’ intrinsic interest for high-quality tourism environments, and thus encouraging them to act with a greater sense of personal responsibility toward the environment, could be critical to promoting sustainable tourism. Proliferating media channels makes the choice, style and delivery of pro-environmental messages a key issue for tourism marketers and management. Social media has become a recognized important channel for tourism information, with user-generated content (UGC) being more trusted than official channels, yet there is little knowledge about its potential role in activating pro-environmental norms. This study investigates that issue. Focusing on the conjoining aspects of personal and social norms for the first time, we propose a hypothetical model to explain the direct and indirect effects of pro-environmental UGC in activating tourists’ pro-environmental behavioral intentions. Working in a Chinese context, where social media plays an increasing role, the research, using a web-based sample (N = 1043), UGC-linked pro-environmental knowledge and awareness, was found to have a strong role in activating pro-environmental norms, creating a pro-environment online community, and increasing tourists’ level of engagement in pro-environmental social media activity. The study highlights the effectiveness of social media channels with UGC providing persuasive communications able to impact sustainable behaviors.
, Catherine Cullinane Thomas, Pamela Ziesler, Jeffrey Olson, Bret Meldrum
Published: 25 September 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 25, pp 1865-1876; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1374600

Abstract:
This paper provides an overview of the evolution, future, and global applicability of the U.S. National Park Service's (NPS) visitor spending effects framework and discusses the methods used to effectively communicate the economic return on investment in America's national parks. The 417 parks represent many of America's most iconic destinations: in 2016, they received a record 331 million visits. Competing federal budgetary demands necessitate that, in addition to meeting their mission to preserve unimpaired natural and cultural resources for the enjoyment of the people, parks also assess and showcase their contributions to the economic vitality of their regions and the nation. Key approaches explained include the original Money Generation Model (MGM) from 1990, MGM2 used from 2001, and the visitor spending effects model which replaced MGM2 in 2012. Detailed discussion explains the NPS's visitor use statistics system, the formal program for collecting, compiling, and reporting visitor use data. The NPS is now establishing a formal socioeconomic monitoring (SEM) program to provide a standard visitor survey instrument and a long-term, systematic sampling design for in-park visitor surveys. The pilot SEM survey is discussed, along with the need for international standardization of research methods.
Published: 21 September 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 1204-1221; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1374962

Abstract:
Family firms often pursue social and environmental sustainability, or corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts that go beyond regulations. This is particularly true in nature-based industries. This study draws on socio-emotional wealth (SEW) and tourism literatures, as well as random utility theory, to disentangle the drivers of sustainability in rural tourism family firms (RTFFs). Informed by interviews, this study applied a novel choice-method survey, that brings understanding to the CSR payoffs and trade-offs between ecological, social and economic attributes in RTFFs. The results from 152 family firms in Western Austria show that after satisfying financial requirements, RTFFs are predominantly motivated by ecological and social considerations. The findings indicate that RTFFs obtain greater utility from positive ecological and social outcomes than additional financial profits, which the authors hypothesise is because of family-related SEW dynamics that enhances CSR. The findings from this study offer theoretical and practical insight into the motivations for proactive sustainability strategies among RTFFs.
Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, , Hannes Antonschmidt, Claudia Hödl
Published: 20 September 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 567-582; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1361428

Abstract:
This paper interrogates the polarized and heated discussions about mountain bike tourism in Austrian forests, with several organizations favoring permitting biking on all forest roads, using claimed tourism development opportunities, while other stakeholders including hikers, hunters and landowners wish to restrict development. An international literature review on the value and impacts of mountain biking shows that both sides have oversimplified complex cases. The paper draws on 12 in-depth interviews with Austrian tourism destination and mountain bike experts to find ways forward. Results suggest that in Austria, bike tourism will increase in the future, supported by new bike technology, including electric bikes and new hand-held route information technology. It notes the complexity of the market for mountain and other forms of cycle tourism, and the pressing need to create not more trails but more sophisticated tourism products, including appealing and well-maintained trails plus attractive leisure infrastructure (bike rental, service and repair facilities, attractive localities, accommodation suited to the mountain bikers’ needs, etc.). Collaborative planning with all stakeholders, better trail construction standards adapted to differing preferences, needs and environmental conditions as well as clear standards for monitoring are prerequisites of an Austrian strategy for sustainable cycle tourism development and management, which can be replicated elsewhere.
Published: 1 January 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 134-153; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.699060

Abstract:
This paper focuses on rock art tourism, a highly vulnerable heritage of broad public interest, only sustainable within an effective management framework. The paper explores tourism management in South Africa's uKhahlamba-Drakensberg World Heritage Site, inscribed in 2000 for its natural landscapes and its exceptional rock art heritage. In practice, nature dominates the area's tourism and management dynamics. Current tourism patterns, markets and frequencies, together with rock art's low place within tourist agendas, are described. This situation is shown to be a legacy of European Alpine romanticism, and the political rejection of indigenous cultural heritage prior to 1994, still expressed through visitor patterns and marketing policies. Despite rock art needing tourism to valorise its conservation, and being recognised by commentators and the state as a viable route to tourism development, heritage conservation, socio-economic regeneration and cultural empowerment, the failure to reform entrenched and ineffective tourism/conservation governance and management systems is exposed. The problems affecting rock art tourism have allowed the retention of unwelcome values from South Africa's pre-democratic era, risk the loss of World Heritage site status, the destruction of globally outstanding art works and waste an important opportunity to expand and diversify sustainable tourism in South Africa.
Shu-Chun Lucy Huang
Published: 1 January 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 154-171; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.687739

Abstract:
The development of rural tourism and tourism to protected areas relies heavily on visitors' appreciation of scenery. This paper assesses visitor responses to Taiwan's changing rural landscapes, which have experienced agricultural decline, and a government-aided shift to rural tourism, with landscapes rapidly transformed from farm production scenery to recreation-oriented scenery. The study describes the changing character of the visual landscape characteristics of the Dongshan River Basin in Yilan County, and the influence of those changes on visitors' landscape preferences. Using a recognized nine landscape characteristics typology, survey results indicated participants believed that agricultural landscapes represented the qualities of historicity, naturalness and ephemera more than tourist landscapes, but showed fewer qualities of stewardship, disturbance and visual scale than tourist landscapes. Participants did not perceive the two types of landscapes differently for their qualities of coherence, imageability and complexity. They also preferred tourist landscapes to agricultural landscapes. For agricultural landscapes, when the qualities of ephemera, coherence, imageability, complexity, visual scale, stewardship, naturalness and historicity increased, participants appreciated the landscapes more. However, as the quality of disturbance increased, participants appreciated both landscapes less. Overall, when ephemera, coherence, imageability, complexity, visual scale, stewardship and naturalness increased, participants liked the landscapes more.
Published: 18 September 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 551-566; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1361430

Abstract:
This article applies existentialism to sustainable tourism discussion using an exploratory netnographic case study of 12 backpackers. Highlighted is the importance of both existential avoidance and authenticity to participants looking to escape and transcend underlying existential anxiety. Avoidance can be found in the cultural-adherence and self-esteem pathways facilitated by travel. Authenticity is identified in the deeper interactions with host peoples and landscapes, and the liberation, reflection and learning which emerge from this. Avoidance and authenticity are linked in turn with the sustainability of tourism pursued. The former is associated with more hedonistic escape and superficial, self-centric and insensitive tourism. The latter is suggestive of more transcendent escape and involved, appreciative and alternative tourism.
, Zhi-Wei Lin
Published: 17 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 433-450; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1359279

Abstract:
High-speed rail (HSR) and tourism are closely related economic activities because improved mobility is perceived to facilitate tourist behavioral changes. This study examines the influence of HSR on the travel patterns of individual tourists in Taiwan in relation to time, space and carbon emissions. A framework is first provided to discuss how changes in the speed of intercity transportation will affect visitors’ choice of the journey, behavior at destinations and trip quality. In addition, HSR is expected to influence five general aspects of travel decisions relating to mobility and trip emissions, including mode selection, travel distance, length of stay per trip, annual travel frequency and total travel days. In the example of Taiwan, information by onsite sampling of 400 domestic travelers found that HSR had a weak influence on travel distance and length of stay per trip, but was observed to facilitate extended time at each stop, a deeper engagement with the locality, and an approximate 10% reduction in transport carbon emissions through intermodal substitution. These phenomena are in line with the slow travel concept of sustainable tourism consumption.
Published: 1 January 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 117-133; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.681787

Abstract:
In western society since the 1970s, interpretation has played an important role in improving tourists’ appreciation of the natural environment, developing their environmental attitudes and facilitating the adoption of environmentally sensitive behaviour. In China, interpretation of natural attractions is a more recent phenomenon and a largely cognitive approach has been taken, focusing on the presentation of scientific information. This paper questions whether the “scientific” approach used in the development of environmental interpretation in Chinese natural areas meets the needs of Chinese tourists. It explores this theoretically through an examination of the relationship between Chinese tourists and the natural landscape, noting that landscape memories and intangible cultural heritage are important mediators of Chinese landscape appreciation. Practically, research in the Danxia Shan National Natural Reserve and Geo-Park demonstrates that self-guided interpretation using the “western” scientific approach with signage, an information centre and a geological museum, is ineffective, and ignored by the majority of visitors. Guided tours, employing an “aesthetic” approach to interpretation, using stories, art and poetry to emotionally engage visitors with the landscape, appear more appropriate, culturally relevant and effective in China. Key techniques used by guides include numerous adjectival words, figurative or metaphorical landscape descriptions and exaggeration of the landscape's beauty.
Jennifer Strickland-Munro, Susan Moore
Published: 1 January 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 26-41; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.680466

Abstract:
For many protected areas, sharing benefits with local indigenous communities is an important management requirement. This paper explores indigenous involvement in and benefits from tourism, using a study of Australia's World Heritage–listed Purnululu National Park and the nearby Warmun Aboriginal Community. Interactions between the Community, the Park and tourism were explored using semi-structured interviews. The results illuminate an ongoing cultural connection to the Park providing indigenous people with intrinsic, non-financial benefits. Significant financial benefits are possible through art sales to tourists but are currently limited. Physical difficulties in visiting the Park, issues related to skills, resources and motivation, and problems with joint management all contribute to this limited benefit accrual, as well as fostering a sense of separation from the Park. The findings have broader relevance to efforts elsewhere to engage indigenous people in meaningful ways in the benefits accruable from protected areas and associated tourism. Identifying and further enhancing intrinsic benefits and addressing perceptions of separation are promising areas for attention as part of efforts to progress sustainable tourism. The paper also raises the important fact that some indigenous people may not wish to engage in tourism and that underengagement may be a part of the achievement of sustainable tourism.
, , Line C. Wold, , Birgitte Skar
Published: 1 January 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 99-116; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.680465

Abstract:
World Heritage Sites (WHSs) are motivated by such diverse reasons as heritage celebration, alarm calls, tourism branding and marketing and place making. Irrespective of the primary motivation for their creation, WHSs are often used to develop tourism based on cultural and natural resources of international significance. Heritage conservation may or may not be in agreement with what local populations perceive as desirable development paths. We conducted a survey among the island community of Vega in Norway that received WHS status in 2004 motivated by conservation alarm, tourism marketing and place making. We examined the local population's views of the key aspects of future development and how this related to WHS status. The islanders placed high value on social and community conditions as well as heritage linked to cultural and natural resources. While a majority supported tourism based on sustainable use of heritage they also felt that WH listing should not limit development opportunities. There were differences between younger people and adults. WHS may be an effective agent of sustainable tourism development if the main goals and strategies of the WHS are clearly understood and prioritized in the local community, leave room and perhaps link to other development opportunities.
Kristín Rut Kristjánsdóttir, Rannveig Ólafsdóttir,
Published: 25 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 583-599; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1364741

Abstract:
Integrated sustainability indicators for tourism (ISIT) address tourism as an element of both economic and socio-ecological systems and as actively integrated in multi-level policy-making and planning. This paper aims to review studies of ISIT in peer-reviewed journals with a focus on methodological approaches. By specifically examining ISIT, this study embraces the interdisciplinary nature of both sustainability science and tourism studies. The results are based on a systematic literature review and categorization of the studies’ academic disciplines, methods and organization of indicators. The results reveal that despite being a relatively young area of study, research on ISIT has developed simultaneously across multiple academic disciplines, and is expanding. There seems to be greater interest in developing new methodologies than applying existing indicator frameworks. Most papers refer to indicators thematically and thus discuss tourism separately in the contexts of environmental, social or economic impact. However, emerging approaches analyze tourism as a system of interconnected components and an element of multi-level policy-making. These approaches emphasize public participation and a continuous redefinition of sustainability challenges in response to changes in socio-ecological systems. Current research on ISIT thus focuses on the interconnectedness of indicators and sustainable development as a dynamic process rather than an end goal.
Nadim Charara, Adrian Cashman, Robert Bonnell, Ronald Gehr
Published: 9 February 2011
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 19, pp 231-245; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.502577

Abstract:
Barbados is water stressed, with water production close to its renewable freshwater resources. The hotel sector uses far more water than the general population (756 vs. 240 L/cap-d); water savings there would improve the overall water balance. No comprehensive analysis exists for water use by the Barbados hotel industry; this study addresses the gap. Data were collected from the Barbados Water Authority and from onsite surveys; consumption patterns were compared with international studies which had established environmentally acceptable benchmarks. The water use efficiency of Barbadian hotels was also studied as a function of “influential variables”: unit water consumption was somewhat correlated with the number of rooms, average room rate, property size and number of employees. The lack of success in reducing hotels' water consumption is tied to the fact that water bills represent less than 5% of their annual expenses. A model for unit water consumption was derived using two influential variables: the annual number of guest nights and the number of employees. Ways of fostering sound water practices include promotion among guests of the need to save water, schemes to promote the financial benefits of water conservation by relating unit water pricing to total consumption and awareness-raising among hotel managers.
, Felix Mavondo, Muzaffer Uysal
Published: 17 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 341-361; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1354866

Abstract:
This paper contributes to the advancement of quality-of-life research in tourism by examining complex relationships involving direct, mediated, moderated and moderated mediation relationships among the antecedents to quality-of-life. Using a sample of 222 repeat visitors in an Australian national park, the findings indicate positive significant effects of (1) place satisfaction on quality-of-life; (2) place satisfaction on place attachment; (3) place attachment on quality-of-life; (4) park citizenship on place attachment. The findings further support that (5) place attachment mediates the relationship between place satisfaction and quality-of-life; (6) social involvement moderates the relationship between place satisfaction and place attachment; (7) park citizenship moderates the relationship between place satisfaction and place attachment; (8) social involvement moderates the relationship between place attachment and quality-of-life; (9) social involvement moderates the indirect effect of place satisfaction on quality-of-life. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Park managers, for example, need to promote on-site marketing and post-visit communication/interpretation, encouraging repeat visits and behavioural change. Message delivery needs to promote a sense of belonging to the park with personal meaning, creating place distinctiveness. Personal actions to promote include signing petitions supporting the park's biodiversity, and other resources, and volunteering to participate in meetings and other direct actions.
Published: 17 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 496-514; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1360316

Abstract:
Summer music festivals that involve a few days of camping have often been linked to sustainability agendas. Yet relevant studies have so far overlooked how these events can themselves serve as experiments in less resource consumptive living. Building on a wider interest in the cultural evolution of cleanliness norms, this paper explores how attendees come to use water in personal washing at two UK festivals. Through survey, observation and interview research, it examines how current festival goers respond to the disruption of their usual washing regimes, paying particular attention to how a combination of social and infrastructural cues serves to encourage the emergence of a temporary new cleanliness culture. Doing so highlights the value of seeing human resource consumption as a matter of dynamic collective convention more than fixed personal preference since these respondents were seen to embrace a new relationship with washing that was otherwise deemed unthinkable. This leads to a broader discussion of how visitor needs and the social world are most usefully studied by both future festival organisers and the wider field of sustainable tourism research.
, , Teresa Wohlfart
Published: 16 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 470-495; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1360315

Abstract:
Managing visitor conflict is an important task in protected areas. This study used public participation GIS (PPGIS) mapping and a visitor survey to research conflicts between mountain bikers and horse riders, and other groups frequenting trails for tourism and recreation in national parks in northern Sydney (Australia). The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the PPGIS for determining conflict locations, and to integrate stated reasons and conflict resolution measures in a model. The survey showed that 42% of mountain bikers and 69% of horse riders had experienced conflicts, with each other, motorbike riders, walkers/hikers and dog walkers. PPGIS effectively mapped concurrent usage intensity to predict potential conflict locations over a reasonably large study area thereby identifying trails of the greatest concern. PPGIS also offered high-quality GIS visualisation options, and the novelty of the PPGIS increased participant engagement. We evaluated PPGIS compared to questionnaire-based surveying, direct visitor observations, GPS tracking, traffic counters and cameras. Because visitor conflict occurs within a spatial context, conflict management will require greater spatial knowledge of visitor activity, which can be obtained through the innovative PPGIS mapping. A conflict model is presented that integrates this study's empirical findings on conflict reasons and resolutions with existing conflict theory.
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 307-324; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1349774

Abstract:
Participation in wildlife-based community tourism within and around protected areas is seen as a tool to link biodiversity conservation and community livelihoods improvement. However, there is a deficiency of frameworks currently used to understand complex and dynamic relationships that exist among conservation, tourism and development. The community capitals framework is adopted to assess these linkages from a systems-thinking perspective in which community capitals’ stock and flow, explained by a community's participation in tourism determines the direction of change. Results of the Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust in Botswana indicate that all community capitals are interdependent and play a dynamic role in shaping the spiraling of community livelihoods. Participation in tourism led to both the spiraling up and down of community capitals. The spiraling up of community capitals is explained by increased livelihoods and diversification options facilitated by increased tourism income. The spiraling down is explained by the heightened human–wildlife conflicts and fragile wildlife–livestock co-existence, which led to livestock diseases, loss of beef market and the ecosystems’ fragmentation through the introduction of veterinary fences. Thus, the spiraling of community capitals is explained by the transformation of one stock of community capital to another in a systems-thinking dynamics fashion.
, , Stefan Gössling
Published: 1 April 2010
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 18, pp 393-408; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669581003653542

Abstract:
This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of current tourism GHG emissions and emissions projected in a business-as-usual scenario through to 2035 and contrasts them with the “aspirational” emission reduction targets proclaimed by the sector. Analysis reveals that with current high-growth emission trends in tourism, the sector could become a major global source of GHGs in the future if other economic sectors achieve significant emission reductions. Success in achieving emission reductions in tourism is found to be largely dependent on major policy and practice changes in air travel, and stated tourism emission reduction targets do not appear feasible without volumetric changes considering the limited technical emission reduction potential currently projected for the aviation sector. The opportunities and challenges associated with a shift towards a low-carbon global economy are anticipated to transform tourism globally and in all respects. Much greater consideration and dissemination of these issues is required to inform future tourism development and travel decisions.
, Matthew Adams
Published: 9 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 27, pp 189-206; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1358272

Abstract:
This paper provides an empirical application of some recent developments in the social science of sustainability to understanding sustainable transport behaviour. We analyse talk about holidaymaking taken from interviews with self-defined “eco” or “sustainable” tourists. The focus of this paper explores the ways in which participants understand and reconcile the potential conflict of air transport and the notion of sustainable holidays. We identify a number of discursive strategies participants used to project and maintain positive self-representations in the context of complex, often incompatible constructions of sustainability derived from this particular dilemma. Such strategies are considered as concrete examples of the psychosocial organisation of denial and thus offer discursive barriers to sustainable transport futures. However, the analysis also demonstrates the ways in which some individuals were able to resist or challenge such forms of socially organised denial. The potential implications of these discursive barriers and strategies for sustainable transport futures and the tourism sector are discussed.
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 325-340; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1352590

Abstract:
Surfing, a dominant recreational activity in many coastal areas, is a primary driver of local and international tourism. Surf-spots, nearshore oceanic locations where waves break and surfing occurs, are essential community resources. Yet, many surf-spots are at risk of degradation from climate change and other factors. Knowing whether and why surfers consider surf-spots as meaningful places can inform sustainable management of these resources, benefitting the environment and users alike. This study examines place attachment and disruption in relation to surf-spots through an online survey of 1055 surfers in California, where surfing is an important recreational and touristic industry. Our findings suggest that surfers exhibit high fidelity to specific surf-spots and develop deep attachments to those spots, with the strength of the attachment varying depending on the type of surf-spot. Some respondents consider surf-spots to be “part of their family”; few respondents describe no attachments. We conclude that, despite being dynamic oceanic locations, surf-spots are meaningful places for surfers. This importance, combined with the value of surf-spots as resources driving coastal tourism and recreation, warrants systematic consideration of surf-spots as natural resources by managers, and suggests that user–place attachment should be better understood at surf-spots and other tourism sites.
, Carmelo J. León
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 192-204; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1338292

Abstract:
Can distinctive natural assets in tourist destinations be artistically recreated and used to improve destination image and attract more visitors? This paper analyses the formation of the tourist image based on artistically recreated local nature icons, and shows how those images can enhance the overall destination image. It focuses on the island of Lanzarote, a destination with its development based on promoting an environmental image founded on the creation of a network of multifunctional, high-quality art, culture and tourism centres exhibiting artistic recreation of its unique environmental assets. The methodology utilizes a questionnaire (n = 453) structural equations modelling approach in which the overall image of the destination is directly dependent on the image of the environmental conditions and indirectly influenced by the image of the artistically recreated centres. Results show that the destination's image is significantly grounded on the image of the art, culture and tourism centres using art based on Lanzarote's natural assets. They suggest that destinations have relevant opportunities to artistically enhance natural assets to improve their tourist image and marketing, that quality multi-functional visitor centres can be important within a sustainable tourism policy, and part of the emerging breadth of approaches taken by sustainable tourism marketing.
, Bruce Prideaux
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 277-291; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1347176

Abstract:
Many of the issues confronting Indigenous peoples result from disempowered communities. Conversely, where communities are empowered, usually as a consequence of landownership, they are able to actively participate in, and benefit from, economic activities such as tourism. In this study, a framework titled the wheel of empowerment framework is used to demonstrate how the level of empowerment/disempowerment in five dimensions can be measured. The dimensions tested are economic, psychological, social, political and environmental. Indicators to measure the level of empowerment for each dimension were developed in a three-stage research process commencing with semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, followed by focus groups with community members from Coba, a Mayan village located near Cancun in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Appropriate indicators were identified and used to assess community levels of empowerment. Results show that the ability of communities to develop sustainable ecotourism businesses requires support from external stakeholders including governments and the private sector as well as internal stakeholders including the local community and importantly from community leaders. The results also show that empowered communities are able to derive considerable social and economic benefits from ecotourism business ventures and make a positive contribution to the ongoing maintenance of sustainability of their local environment.
, , Chang Hao Tseng, Yang Fan Lin
Published: 17 August 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 362-378; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1354865

Abstract:
This study expands the profile characteristics of island-based tourists by assessing recreation experiences. In so doing, it aims to elucidate the market segmentation of island-based tourists by assessing the recreation experiences of tourists at Liuqiu Island in Taiwan. A total of 481 useable questionnaires were obtained and analyzed. The analytical results indicate that tourists can be segmented into four clusters according to their recreation experiences: multi-experience recreationists, aestheticists, hedonists and knowledge seekers. These four different tourist segments performed significantly differently in terms of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). The market segmentation introduced in this study can be helpful for elucidating tourist experiences and ERB implementation. Understanding tourism experience preferences will help managers develop marketing strategies and design tourism products to meet tourists’ needs. This study's findings could be used to provide different strategies for different segments of tourists. To help manage natural resources, managers should design their environmental programs to encourage different segments of tourists to participate in ERBs. We provide valuable managerial implications for the sustainable development of island-based tourism.
Stefan Gössling
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 292-306; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1349772

Abstract:
Learning is often a central element of tourism. Tourists can learn actively, i.e. with a specific purpose, as well as passively through the comparison of values, norms and customs. It has been argued that travel supports active learning that has positive outcomes for sustainability, for instance, in the context of conservation. Yet, the complexity of active and passive learning processes and their outcomes for environmental sustainability and sustainable lifestyles remain insufficiently understood. Against this background, the paper discusses selected learning outcomes for transportation (air travel), accommodation (hotels) and activities (theme park visits). Findings suggest that “desirable” learning (defined as pro-sustainable development learning) in tourism may be very limited, while in particular, passive learning processes which redefine social norms frequently have outcomes that are largely detrimental to sustainable lifestyles. They include forms of moral licensing, the diffusion of responsibilities as well as the attenuation of the negative consequences of travel. Given the economic, social and cultural importance of tourism vís-a-vís its global implications for environmental sustainability, learning outcomes in tourism deserve to be studied in greater detail, while strategies need to be devised to enhance sustainable learning effects
Published: 18 May 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 146-164; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1322599

Abstract:
Demand for Protected Area (PA) tourism continues to grow, raising concerns for its environmental sustainability. Numerous sustainable tourism guidelines and best practice examples exist for separate aspects of PA regulation and management. However, such efforts are insufficient to reliably and holistically understand how regulation can mediate the relationship between tourism development and PA environmental sustainability. This paper proposes a theory development project, to map the compatibility and interplays among various regulatory approaches, and their consequences for sustainable PA tourism. The project is initiated here by taking the first steps toward a concession-related theory of regulation. The focus on concessions has been chosen because concessions are the most under-researched aspects of PA tourism regulation. Four regulatory aspects are selected and conceptualized in this paper: the approaches to PA planning, the types of monitoring undertaken, the methods of concession allocation and the design of environmental requirements in concession contracts. Methodologically, grounded theory is used, with data collection relying on written sources. The paper develops two sets of narrative statements regarding the prospects for PA environmental sustainability, under particular examples of concession-related regulation. The conclusion articulates several research questions, as an immediate research agenda, and calls for an international research group to be formed.
B. Bynum Boley, Norma P. Nickerson
Published: 1 March 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 314-330; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.692684

Abstract:
This study expands research on geotourism by using the Geotraveler Tendency Scale (GTS) to profile geotravelers. The results demonstrate the GTS's ability to effectively identify different levels of geotravelers. An a priori segmentation was conducted using the respondents’ overall geotraveler score from the GTS as the segmenting criterion. The resulting three segments were labeled “minimal geotravelers”, “moderate geotravelers” and “strong geotravelers”. MANOVA and Pearson Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the three groups on all items within the GTS as well as significant differences between the segments on the variables of gender, income, country of origin and likelihood to visit national parks. This study (1) confirms the usefulness of the GTS for identifying and segmenting travelers, and (2) provides the sustainable tourism field with a more holistic tool for measuring sustainable travelers. Destination managers interested in marketing to geotravelers can use this tool to identify how many geotravelers come to their area, their level of geotraveler tendencies and what the destination can focus on to attract more of this travel segment. Geotourism is positioned as a sustainable marketing strategy that attracts conscientious visitors whose impacts help promote the “character of place” rather than detract from it.
, Elena Konovalov, Laurie Murphy, Nancy McGehee
Published: 23 April 2013
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 21, pp 532-556; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.785556

Abstract:
Tourism researchers are beginning to explore the implications of the “New Mobilities Paradigm” for improving our understanding of several aspects of tourism. This paper employs a study conducted at the intersection of this new mobilities paradigm, a consideration of destination community well-being, and the analysis of tourism sustainability through an examination of its positive and negative impacts on destinations. It describes a qualitative investigation of tourism impacts on community well-being in three Australian destinations that revealed six distinct types of tourists each characterised by different patterns of mobility. Types included Archetypal Tourists, Grey Nomads, Green Nomads, Backpackers, Temporary Workers and Amenity Migrants. The study found that patterns of impacts could be connected to these distinct types of tourists. Four key themes were identified and described – the consistent linkages between mobility variables and tourism impacts, the perceptions of tourists and tourism as providing resources for destination communities, the modification of impacts as a result of the physical, social and economic characteristics of destination communities and the emergence of conflicts and collisions between different types of tourists and residents in shared spaces. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for sustainable tourism planners and researchers, and especially for resident perceptions research.
, Bakyt Turdumambetov, Bilgehan Gulcan
Published: 30 May 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 68-84; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1319843

Abstract:
As traditional international trophy hunting destinations are becoming less accessible due to hunting restrictions and regulations, new destinations are entering the scene, such as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, located in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan has grown to be one of the top destinations for international trophy hunting of argali Ovis ammon and ibex Capra sibirica, both of which are in danger of extinction. Empirically, the article draws on a case study from the largest region in Kyrgyzstan, At-Bashy, and 395 questionnaires with local inhabitants from 5 villages, and 1 interview with an international trophy hunting tour operator. In this article, the impacts of trophy hunting as a tourism practice in a rural context is discussed in terms of its sustainability and through the opinions of the local inhabitants. In sum, the negative impacts of trophy hunting in At-Bashy seem to overrule the positive ones, and in its current form it is not sustainable. The local inhabitants report about a decrease in argali and ibex during the last years; they receive basically no economic benefits from hunting tourism; and not surprisingly, 70% of the population rejects the further development of the industry in its current shape.
, Alastair Birtles, , , , Roger Beeden
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 238-256; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1343339

Abstract:
The projected decline in reef health worldwide will have huge repercussions on millions of stakeholders depending upon coral reefs. Urgent action is needed to sustain coral reefs into the future. Tourism operators are recognised as stewards of Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), a World Heritage Site, and are taking action on climate change, through their business practices and by engaging guests with interpretation and targeted messages. Yet little is known about how tourism operators along the GBR perceive climate change, or what actions they believe are most effective to address climate change impacts on the GBR. We describe a set of semi-structured interviews with 19 tourism operators in the Whitsundays and Cairns, the most popular tourism destinations along the GBR. Using a thematic analysis to code and report patterns within the data, we show tourism operators recognise the threat of climate change and strongly support increased action to address it. Most respondents are hesitant to engage their guests about climate change despite acknowledging an interest, expertise, and responsibility to do so. Understanding the barriers preventing tourism operators from addressing climate change is an important step towards helping them, and the tourists visiting the region, take action to protect the GBR.
, Jamie Gillen, Daniel A. Friess
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 257-276; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1343338

Abstract:
Ecotourism is a normative concept defined and driven by generalized principles concerning local livelihoods and conservation of natural and cultural environments. Supply-side studies considering the applicability of these principles in practice are limited. In particular, an understanding of how entrepreneurialism shapes ecotourism is largely absent from the literature. We investigate the intersection of entrepreneurialism, ecotourism, and governance using a case study of actors at the Kilim Karst Geoforest Park (KKGP) in Langkawi, Malaysia, which has seen a rapid rise in entrepreneurial “ecotourism” activities. However, levels of competition between actors, their perceptions of ecotourism, and the challenges and tensions they face are unknown. To address this, a “hierarchy of entrepreneurship” is presented, grouping actors into three tiers: governing institutions, tour companies, and independent entrepreneurs, from whom qualitative data are elicited. Opinions and contestations between and among tiers are elucidated around themes including how understandings of ecotourism influence entrepreneurial strategies, and how challenges and tensions may inhibit the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of ecotourism at KKGP. The study demonstrates that the normative dogma guiding how ecotourism should be practised must be balanced against the diverse understandings, motivations, and capacities of ecotourism entrepreneurs on the ground and the effectiveness of governance systems.
, Marco Palomino, Gareth Shaw, Gemma Stephen,
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 221-237; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1339710

Abstract:
The participation of persons with a disability (PWDs) in tourism has received growing academic interest in recent years. This paper contributes to a reflection on how accessible tourism relates to the sustainable development paradigm. To investigate this relationship, it goes beyond the question of PWDs’ access to tourism services, and adopts an inclusiveness perspective. Inclusion is examined in terms of legislation, marketing and imagery, and representations of PWDs as consumers embedded within social units – and families in particular. These dimensions are explored empirically in a study of visitor attractions in Cornwall (England) based on a quantitative and qualitative content analysis of brochures and websites. The study shows that the marketing materials of Cornish visitor attractions mainly focus on access, and the imagery used largely projects quasi invisibility or provides ambiguous messages. Communication with PWDs rarely addresses the family unit, making the family tourism experience intangible in the pre-trip phase. These results point at weaker implementation of inclusiveness, which corroborates previous findings of watered down definitions of rights to tourism under neo-liberal ideologies and economic crises. The paper discusses implications for social inclusion and highlights avenues for future research.
, Jing (Bill) Xu,
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 205-220; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1338293

Abstract:
An increase in tourism in popular destinations often leads to a growing need for various services, including sex-related services, which can exacerbate or accelerate social problems in the host community. Although often addressed in tourism studies within broad-ranging social impact research, prostitution in tourism destinations deserves independent investigation due to its complex nature. This study was conducted to investigate the opinions of Macau residents on prostitution and related social issues. We collected data using a questionnaire, which revealed the following results. Respondents tended to regard prostitution as a permanent part of the Macau community and believed that the likelihood of the government being able to eliminate prostitution through legislation was extremely low. Their perceptions of prostitution could be placed within the dichotomy of deviance and normativeness. Regarding prostitution as a normative existence was positively related to the acceptance of sex tourism. A tolerance of negative tourism impacts was associated with residents’ perceived quality of life. We ultimately draw conclusions from these findings and consider their implications for government agencies.
, Helen Hazen,
Published: 23 March 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 25, pp 1494-1512; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1291647

Abstract:
World Heritage sites must exhibit outstanding universal value, integrity, and authenticity. Based on this context, this study examined whether visitors to Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal (World Heritage Site inscribed under criteria vii in 1979) recognized it for its exceptional beauty and aesthetics. This study explored the basic concept of perceived park authenticity at this site, and associated factors that influenced the perception of World Heritage values. Questionnaire surveys were administered to 522 international visitors at the park. Exploratory factor analysis and ordinal logistic regression were used for analysis. Results indicated that visitors perceived the park to be authentic, preserved integrity, and constituted outstanding universal value. Additional regression results identified that overall trip satisfaction and educational level were statistically significant predictors of perceptions of authenticity, integrity and outstanding universal value of the park. Prior visits, substitutability of the park, age, and income were statistically significant predictors of perceptions of either authenticity, integrity or outstanding universal value of the park. Results suggest that emphasis on visitors‘ needs via interpretation and professional guides may solicit more favorable attitudes towards this site.
Published: 15 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 29-48; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1308372

Abstract:
The established mindset underpinning tourism planning, development and research is under attack from many quarters on the grounds that “business as usual” seems impossible to reconcile with sustainability. The paper first highlights key characteristics of the prevailing paradigm associated with tourism industry expansion globally. It then identifies common elements of an alternative “sustainable futures” paradigm, contrasting its features with those of the established paradigm in relation to seven fundamental elements: neo-liberalism, anthropocentrism, shareholder orientation, growth, price, space and promotion. Next, the paper identifies the implications of the alternative paradigm in terms of the underpinning mindset (attitudes and behaviours) of major tourism stakeholders. Pathways to facilitate the transition to the new sustainable futures’ paradigm are identified. The paper concludes with reflections on the power of the new paradigm, and its implications for a global sustainable tourism research and action agenda.
Josep-Francesc Valls, Josep Rucabado, , Antoni Parera
Published: 15 June 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 25, pp 1338-1352; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1273358

Abstract:
Governance models and future strategic visions for Spain's beach social–ecological systems are assessed using an online questionnaire. Beaches continue to represent the most valuable attraction for Spanish coastal towns, but their strategic vision regarding the beach consists more of it being a profitable attraction and of maintaining the traditional “sun and sand” model, rather than of planning strategically. There are three trends looking to 2020. First, beach resorts are becoming linked with culture and heritage, gastronomy, events and ecotourism to enhance their attraction capacity and competitiveness. Second, the coastal towns plan to reduce the strain on beaches by increasing the number of square metres of sand per user. Third, they plan to reduce the strain of the seasonal population compared to the year-round population. Two indices (Beach Quality and Governance Quality) and two factors (Beach Management Proximity and Tourist Resource Expectations) were developed to assess municipal beach governance frameworks, enabling us to construct a typology of four municipal governance models. The country follows a classical public hierarchical model of beach management. Other than at the local scale, beaches are not strategically managed. There is a lack of implementation of adaptive measures, collective actions, integrated management, or policy learning.
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