Results in Khulna University Studies: 598
(searched for: container_group_id:116390)
Published: 6 June 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.975-ls
Owing to the community engagement of the gastropod collection in the south western ecosystems in Bangladesh, the gastropod molluscs are getting important attention in terms of edible and non-edible purposes while detailed morphological information about the gastropods is scarce in this area. The present research has investigated the morphological variability of the gastropod molluscs (Pila globosa) in the six localities of south-western coastal Bangladesh (such as, Khulna, Bagerhat, Satkhira, Gopalganj, Pirojpur and Jessore). A total of 2160 gastropod samples (Pila globosa) were collected from July to December monthly over the two consecutive years of 2013 and 2014. The results of the analyses revealed that the maximum monthly mean values of the dry shell mass and the dry body mass were found in November, indicating the complete growth and development of the gastropods in the coastal environment. One-way ANOVA and ANCOVA show that there is a significant morphological variability of Pila globosa among different localities in the south-west coastal Bangladesh, while the covariate of water salinity significantly affects the aperture length of it; the covariate of electrical conductivity of soil significantly affects both the height and aperture length; the covariate of sodium contents of the soil significantly affects the aperture length of the gastropod mollusc. The results also revealed that the morphological variability of the mollusc P. globosa is linked to complex ecological systems and habitat variation.
Published: 4 June 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2231-ah
The parent-child relationship is one of the most important subject matters in Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of King Lear in the sense that from it naturally spring the major themes of the play. Themes like regeneration of wisdom, distribution, and effect of power and pelf, human and divine justice, and man’s relationship with man and nature, are all presented on a universal scale, spatial and temporal, passing from the palace to the hovel, from the court to the heath, and from moments of folly to moments of enlightenment through moments of purgatorial sufferings. This universal scale can be regarded as connected to the political contexts of Britain, modeled on the prototypical and primary unit of a family. And since family, which involves principally the begetter and the begotten that also has the potential of begetting, is the primary and fundamental unit of the whole universe from both human and animal perspectives of life, this paper seeks to investigate how the familial background of the parent-child relationship in King Lear is portrayed against the backdrop of the kingdom and the universe. In order to do so, these three units – family, kingdom, and in natural and metaphysical senses the universe – are considered to be deeply interconnected with human relationships, corresponding consecutively to its psychological, material, and spiritual aspects. Shakespeare has illuminated the tragic truths about the relationship between the parents and their children by showing a profound interaction between the family, kingdom, and the universe with respect to their corresponding psychological, material, and spiritual aspects.
Published: 31 May 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2225-se
The increasing effects of flooding in flood-prone areas over the years cannot be overstated in terms of reducing flood damage. There are several measures of various characteristics, each of which has its own justification in flood protection. The concepts of vulnerability, hazard, and risk have been extensively used in various disciplines with different meanings, impeding cross-disciplinary cooperation for dealing with hazardous events. In Nigeria, there has been an occurrence of flooding and many households have been rendered homeless and many lives have been lost due to this devastating issue. This article aimed to examine flood vulnerability and possible adaptation practices for residential buildings as well as the potential for resiliency in the event of its occurrence. The objective was to propose appropriate resilient strategies to mitigate flood risk in Abuja, Nigeria. The paper adopts a purposive sampling technique in the selection of some areas for the study. A structured questionnaire survey was used to get information on the residents, and also a site risk assessment was taken on the selected areas. A total of 174 questionnaires were administered, with a valid rate of 96.6% and a reliability value of 0.606. The result shows that an average percentage of residential areas are affected by floods with low resilience strategies. The study concludes that the government should have policies to set the rules of implementation and possible resilience strategies to mitigate the occurrence of floods for the residents.
Published: 28 May 2023
Khulna University Studies pp 10 pages-10 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.900-ls
Lectins are capable of cell agglutination by interacting with the cell surface exposed glycans. Lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes are called hemagglutinin. These compounds occur in various organisms including plants. In this study, twenty edible vegetables were subjected to screen for haemagglutination and lectin activity. Lectin activity was assessed by measuring the inhibition ability of haemagglutination by different sugars. PBS (Phosphate Buffer Saline) treated homogenate was tested for haemagglutination against erythrocytes suspension, and inhibition of agglutination was determined by serially diluted sugar solution. The results of this study demonstrated that one homogenate among the homogenates of 20 vegetables was found to be capable of human erythrocyte agglutination. The Ipomoea aquatica homogenate shown positive haemagglutination reaction against red blood cells (RBCs) with HA titer value of 4 HA-U/25uL, and four out of seven sugars were able to inhibit RBCs agglutination. Among the four sugars, two are potent inhibitors of agglutination. The neutralization of haemagglutination by four monosaccharides provides a suggestion that the lectin present in I. aquatica may be multivalent carbohydrate binding hemagglutinin. This is the first report to identify that Ipomoea aquatica contains lectin protein which is a polyvalent sugar binding lectin and specific for glucose, galactose, mannose and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine.
Published: 24 May 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.940-ls
Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski is one of the most noxious invasive plant species, posing a serious threat to native biodiversity. This species has been invading large areas of Bangladesh for the last two decades. The study investigated the efficacy of herbicides and shading treatments during winter and monsoon to find an effective control method for S. trilobata. Both surface-inhabiting (Glyphosate) and root-inhabiting (Paraquat) herbicides were applied for six months in five different combinations (100% Glyphosate, 75% Glyphosate + 25% Paraquat, 50% Glyphosate + 50% Paraquat, 25% Glyphosate + 75% Paraquat, and 100% Paraquat) and the percentage coverage was measured for each experimental plot. Results from the study showed that all shading and chemical combinations of Glyphosate and Paraquat significantly reduced the percentage coverage of S. trilobata in each experimental plot (p < 0.05). However, the shading and Paraquat-dominated combinations reduced the coverage slowly compared to the Glyphosate-dominated ones. Among five different combinations, Paraquat-dominated herbicides were less effective in controlling the species. On the other hand, the Glyphosate-dominated combinations completely eradicated the species within a week but increased thereafter. Meanwhile, the seasonal variation was found to be highly significant (p < 0.0001) among treatments, and a significant reduction was observed in winter compared to the monsoon. The results of this study highlighted that the Glyphosate-dominated combinations were the fastest, while the Paraquat-dominated combinations and shading were slower control methods.
Published: 23 May 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2227-ah
In Man and Superman, which is subtitled A Comedy and A Philosophy, G. B. Shaw is basically concerned with the issue of the relationship between men and women. He portrays women as primarily endowed with vital reproductivity and men as endowed with potential intellectuality. Though in this philosophical comedy, he expounds to some length the doctrine of Life Force, he does not attempt to approach the issue in a purely philosophical manner. He contrasts men’s intellectualism and romanticism and women’s active vitality and practical immorality, and thus his women are motivated to desire men for marriage, and his men either harbour romantic illusions about women or engage in intellectual discussion about man-woman relationship before attempting to escape from the women who are pursuing them for marriage. In the prefatory note to the play, Shaw defends men’s intellectual view of this relationship, and as the writer of this comedy, he represents women as if they are the queen bees guided by the Life Force, which forces them to mark out men as their mates and their subsequent victims. The playwright represents men as finally capitulating to such desires of women, though all for the sake of this Life Force, which is purposed to produce intellectually advanced supermen. Though Shaw uses this drone-bee relation as a motif to produce comical effects, with this he both highlights the man-woman relationship and makes it clear that this concept of the Life Force cannot be taken too seriously.
Published: 17 May 2023
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2217-ss
Study on cultural elements to reduce vulnerability become so popular in academia. Therefore, over the past few decades, research on the understanding relationship between religion, as a cultural element, and disaster management has also gotten its popularities. Nevertheless, how different religious aspects can influence people to shape up their disaster management strategies remains untold. To address this gap, adopting a mixed-method approach of data collection this study selected two most disaster-prone areas namely, Dacope Upazila and Koyra Upazila, of Khulna District in Bangladesh to collect primary data. The findings of this study reveal that in some areas religious institutions play a significant role through disseminating disaster-related news, providing social supports immediately after a disaster, and acting as a victim support center. Similarly, religious masters as well as other religious leaders have played a leadership role to bind people together. The findings of this study also indicate that the most important role of religion in disaster management was psychological. Besides, religion increase the capacity of community management through enhancing moral responsibilities. However, the lack of coordination of these potential cultural elements remains unused in the field of disaster management. Therefore, through this study, the researcher would like to call upon policymakers' attention to integrating religious elements with other disaster risk reduction elements.
Published: 14 May 2023
Khulna University Studies pp 13 pages-13 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.22964-ls
Averrhoa carambola L. (A. carambola) is particularly well-known for its distinctive star-shaped fruit (Star fruit), cultivated in Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and northern and southern America. Historically, it has been used for a long time to cure many ailments, including vomiting, fever, arthralgia, cough, hypertension, hangovers, chronic paroxysmal headache, hyperglycemia, and diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to examine its preliminary phytochemical and some biological properties. For this, fresh leaves of A. carambola were extracted (hot and cold) with ethanol, which was then fractionated with n-hexane and chloroform. Following a preliminary investigation of phytochemicals, radical scavenging, membrane stabilizing, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and clot lysis effects were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, egg albumin model, alpha-amylase assay, and human blood clot lysis assay, respectively using suitable reference standards. The results suggest that A. carambola contains alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars. All the organic fractions demonstrated significant (p <0.05) radical scavenging, membrane stabilizing, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and clot lysis activities in a concentration-dependent approach. Except for DPPH radical scavenging, the ethanol fraction showed better activities than the n-hexane and chloroform fractions. In summary, A. carambola might be a potential source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and atherothrombolytic agents. Further studies are required to isolate, characterize, and establish molecular mechanisms for each component’s biological effects.
Published: 2 April 2023
Khulna University Studies pp 8 pages-8 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2248-ah
In the 21st century, violence has become so abundant and deeply rooted in the visual medium of storytelling known as cinema that it has compelled film researchers to consider violence as a part of cinema’s formal structure. Violence being plentiful and readily available to this increasing degree in cinema, it has become a pertinent subject of deep analysis in film studies to decipher all the different implications embedded in the violent acts depicted on celluloid. Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight (2008) is a film that portrays violent tales revolving around the characters of Batman and the Joker. In fact, both heroic and evil characters perform violent acts in the film. Using Jacques Derrida’s post-structuralist idea of deconstruction, binary oppositions revolving around violence in the film - such as violence perpetrated by hero/villain, violence in/out of context, justified/unjustified violence - can be analysed. Such analysis of binary oppositions concerning violence can then lead to the discovery of plurality of meaning. As deconstruction aims to uncover the unconscious voices of a text by identifying internal contradictions, binary oppositions or inconsistencies within a text, it is an effective lens to study such complex implications regarding violence. Thus, a single violent act depicted in the film can be deconstructed in different contexts to strip off its singular meaning intended by the filmmakers.
Published: 19 March 2023
Khulna University Studies pp 10 pages-10 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2023.20.01.2232-ls
Nutrients leaching from litter (leaves, bark, needles and twigs) have a major contribution to the supply and cycling of nutrients to crops. Among the litter parts, leaves are the main and quick source of organic matter to the soil whereas, green leaves return more nutrients than other forms of leaves. The return potentiality of K, P and N through leaching from green leaves of the major agroforest tree species: Zizyphus jujuba, Melia azadirachta, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo and Azadirachta indica are presented on this study. Green leaves of the studied tree species were collected and then leached in water (deionized). Nutrient release through a leaching experiment was conducted for 192 hours. Percentage (%) of green leaf mass loss and Total Dissolved Solid with Electrical Conductivity of the collected leaching water showed a curvilinear relationship with time significantly (p < 0.05). NH4, PO4 and K concentration of the collected leaching water of the individual cropland agroforest tree species was significantly (p < 0.05) increased for 72 hours in the initial stage but at the later stage remained constant. Individual tree species showed the same nutrient release (K > NH4 > PO4) pattern. The highest concentration of 5121 ppm NH4 and potassium (13357 ppm) was found for Melia azadirachta and the lowest concentration of 1424 ppm NH4 and potassium (4410 ppm) was observed for Albizia saman. Results from the study highlighted that M. azadirachta was the best among the studied tree species in terms of nutrient return followed by A. indica and D. sissoo.
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2146-se
Community garden (CG) is a form of urban green space. It provides social, economic, health and environmental benefits to the urban people in a city. Bangladesh's third largest city is Khulna, which is dominated by agriculture, two of the Wards of this city namely Ward no. 17 and Ward no. 20 are selected as the study area for this study. In many established and developing countries, community gardening is a common feature of urban development, but it is a new concept in Bangladesh. The study aims at exploring the potentials i.e., factors or favorable reasons of introducing community gardens in Khulna City. A wide range of related literature on community gardens are reviewed. A total of 300 households of the study Wards are surveyed through semi-structured questionnaire, key informant interviews of urban planners, civil engineers, architects, agriculturist, environmentalist and sociologist are conducted with review of Khulna City master plans, and other reports and publications. The study finds that approximately 3. 67 acres and 2.43 acres land in Ward no. 17 and Ward no. 20 remain vacant respectively. Also, after knowing the pros and cons of CG, 58.33% people in Ward no. 17 and 60% people of Ward no. 20 become interested to participate in CG. If it is possible to utilize the vacant land for community gardening, community gardens on one acre land having 17 decimal or 10.30 katha land of each community garden will be capable to sequestrate about 3.5 tons of carbon per year and depending on the size and duration of rain event, will be able to hold about 2000-10000 cubic ft. of storm water per year. The study also proposes some sites for the development of community gardens in future.
Khulna University Studies pp 15-34; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2149-fa
Nakshi Kantha is the most traditional needle-craft and important domestic art of women in Bangladesh that displays the multiracial and multi-religious expressions of motifs which indicate the aspiration for fluency as well as display the objectives of craftswomen. It is not only an ornate coverlet but also the work of art for beliefs, values and clarity of rural women of Bangladesh. Women fabricate the art in reusing depleted resources like sharees, dhutis and lungis, which are sewing to form needlework coverlets for their essential function in a fastidious exploit. Though it is a very old traditional artistic element of material art but for its unique design and elegance, it is a fascination to the people of Bangladesh and West Bengal of India till contemporary period. Various type of Nakshi Kantha in style, form, fabric or technique has been found in different places of Bangladesh. It is also been seen own style of art work in different regions. Nakshi Kantha of Khulna developed glory in the scale of its motifs, using magnum size floral and foliate borders, the Kalka, and alien mythological symbols as well as unique for the colored threads of vibrant and contrasting. This article is an attempt to study and understanding of the emerging reality and socio economic observations of Nakshi Kantha featuring new challenges and scope in greater Khulna of Bangladesh.
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2144-se
Equitable distribution of parks as urban green space over a city can provide recreational, health and environmental services to city people. This research aims to assess the spatial distribution of parks as urban green space of Khulna City in equity planning. Primary data on existing condition of parks with facilities, user satisfaction level, improvement of existing parks, and proposals for new parks etc. are collected from questionnaire survey of 384 park users and key informants of urban planners, civil engineers and architects from Khulna Development Authority (KDA) and Khulna City Corporation (KCC), the city planning and urban service delivery government organizations. Implementation status of park proposals in 1961 and 2001 City Master Plans, and proposals in the 2018 Detailed Area Development Plan (DAP) along with relevant published research articles, reports etc. are reviewed as secondary data sources. Demand for parks is assessed through Buffer and Network analysis using GIS and also from Threshold Population analysis. Khulna, the 3rd largest industrial city of Bangladesh has about 0.7 million people in its 45.65 sq. km area. There are only 8 parks in Khulna City, most of which are small and cover only 0.15% of total KCC area. Among the 31 KCC Wards, only 7 (23%) Wards, where 27% city people live have parks. The remaining 24 (77%) Wards having 73% city people are deprived of parks. Increased urban population due to rapid urbanization is causing tremendous pressure on the existing limited number of parks. KCC and KDA have not followed equity principles while planning and implementation of park proposals. The parks are mostly found in the Wards having planned and old built-up areas. The existing parks are unable to fulfill the demand of city people. Considering the served, over served and underserved area of existing parks in a more conservative manner, a total of 14 new parks are proposed to ensure equity in planning and development of parks in Khulna City.
Published: 18 December 2022
Khulna University Studies; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2213-ss
In the past few years, it is observed that social media was the first to respond to some issues that become the talk of the town. Broad and easy access to mobile devices and social media has created immense opportunities for the public to share and publish their works on open forums. The audience as the prosumer (producers and active consumers) generates ‘user-generated content’ that undoubtedly influences the mainstream media’s content production procedure and manner through distributing them to many news or social platforms. This process leads to citizen journalism as a parallel mode of journalism where collection, collaboration and dissemination of the information go through a single channel. This study is based on both primary and secondary data sources to understand the impacts, challenges, and opportunities of citizen journalism needed beside the journalism. The qualitative data are collected from seven in-depth interviews with senior journalists, editors, academics and news managers. And two semi-structured interviews were conducted with citizen journalism project coordinators. Their analysis regarding this citizen journalism practices in mainstream media creates access to information by opening a new door to more significant resources. However, the concern remains whether incorporating citizen journalism into mainstream journalism poses any threat or not. It is observed that the absence of practicing journalistic rules and regulations in social media makes their credibility questionable and generates confusion. Online news sites use mobile technologies to create and disseminate their media products, gradually attracting the audience and readers. As a result, people are often used to accessing news from online sites rather than print media. With this current demand, mainstream news media is focusing on more interactivity on their online platforms and encouraging their audiences to join in the news production process.
Published: 15 December 2022
Khulna University Studies pp 10 pages-10 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2237-ls
Probiotics can be considered as biological agents that modify the intestinal microbiota as well as show several health benefits. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of probiotics in neonatal STZ-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Following the biochemical analysis of probiotic bacteria, yogurt was prepared using cow milk and used to feed the experimental rats. Probiotic yogurt was supplemented to three rat groups, each with six rats, and the doses were 2 g in PYT1, 4 g in PYT2 and 6 g in PYT3 for 21 days. Fasting serum glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and liver glycogen levels were measured to investigate the probiotic effects on type 2 diabetic rats. It was observed that fasting serum glucose levels were significantly lower in case of PYT3 group (p<0.05) whereas a significant (p<0.05) upsurge of serum insulin levels was detected in PYT2 rat group. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in LDL level in PYT2 group and significantly (p<0.05) increased level of HDL was detected in PYT1 and PYT2 rat groups. However, there were no significant differences regarding triglyceride as well as total cholesterol levels among three probiotic yogurt supplemented rat groups. Hepatic glycogen content was 34.5%, 30.9% and 39.1% among the probiotic yogurt feed groups viz. PYT1, PYT2 and PYT3, respectively. Findings of this research suggest that application of probiotic yogurt can help to manage type-2 diabetes. Further study on clinical trial would be worthy to investigate for probiotic-based product improvement for treatment of type-2 diabetic patients.
Published: 15 December 2022
Khulna University Studies pp 9 pages-9 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2245-ls
A total of 12 diverse tomato genotypes as parents and their 32 hybrids, obtained through Line × tester mating fashion, were evaluated to observe the consequence of different genetic parameters on yield contributing traits. The experiment was conducted during two consecutive years of the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 winter seasons in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant differences for all the characters, suggesting the presence of genetic variation among the parents. In parents, the highest GCV and PCV were observed 48.94 and 49.10 for fruits plant-1, 39.40 and 39.77 for yield plant-1, and 29.32 and 29.49 for fruits cluster-1, respectively. In hybrids, the higher level of GCV was observed for yield plant-1 (35.62), fruits plant-1 (25.83), individual fruit weight (24.73), cluster plant-1 (21.79), and of PCV for yield plant-1 (35.86), fruits plant-1 (25.83), individual fruit weight (24.93), and cluster plant-1 (21.79). The heritability ranged between 83.92-100% in parents and 99.38-100% in hybrids for most of the traits which denotes a higher level of heritability. The GA as % of mean was higher (>10%) for most of the characters except for days to maturity in parents (9.91) and in hybrids (10.19). According to the per se performance, the promising parents were G10, G4, G9, G8, G7, G6, G14, G1, and hybrids were G7×G14, G8×G14, G10×G6, G10×G12, and G9×G1 based on their yield plant-1 which could be used as elite varieties of tomato.
Published: 7 December 2022
Khulna University Studies pp 11 pages-11 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2239-ls
An experiment was conducted from November 2018 to March 2019 to identify the effect of radiation levels and plant population on dry matter allocation and yield of wheat with the variety ‘BARI Gom 25’. The study was set out in the Randomized Complete Block Design with four radiation levels (full sunlight, 75% light, 55% light and 25% light) and three plant densities (160 plants m-2, 200 plants m-2, 230 plants m-2) that replicated thrice. Full sunlight or 75% light in combination with optimal plant density (200 plants m-2) resulted maximum culm dry weight, leaf dry weight, spike dry weight and total dry matter weight plant-1. The numbers of filled grain and unfilled grain plant-1 and yields of grain and straw m-2 were the highest from the above-mentioned combination. The lowest dry weights for culm, leaf, spike, and total dry matter and minimum grain yield and straw yield were obtained from 25% light either alone or in combination with any plant densities indicating the profound influence of light on dry matter production and grain yield of wheat. Therefore, reduced light (up to 25%) and optimal plant density can ensure wheat production without significant yield loss. This finding suggests possibility of wheat cultivation in agroforestry system and light limiting areas in Bangladesh and other parts of the world.
Khulna University Studies pp 904-916; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0184-se
This study is conducted to identify the trends in aquaculture and capture fish production in Bangladesh from 1960 to 2018 using Sen’s slope estimator and Mann Kendall test and apply time series modeling to forecast aquaculture and capture fish production (in metric tons). The data is retrieved from World Bank (WB). To forecast, ARIMA models are used and optimum models are selected by simulating several candidate models with AIC, BIC, mean squared error, and white noise error as selection criteria. Co-integration between two time series (aquaculture and capture fish) had been tested to establish a vector error correction model (VECM). Sen’s slopes for both aquaculture and capture fish production are positive and significant (p-value<0.01). This study found that the ARIMA (1,2,1) and ARIMA(1,1,0) are the best models to forecast aquaculture fish production and capture fish production in Bangladesh. The estimated aquaculture fish production will be 47,17,014 metric tonnes, and capture fish production will be 25,15,141 metric tonnes in the year 2028. The co-integration test confirms that there is no long-run association between aquaculture and capture fish production. Since increasing fish production will mitigate the necessity of adequate food and nutrition for the growing population, this study will assist policymakers in setting a sustainable and prospective hunger-free Bangladesh.
Khulna University Studies pp 993-1006; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0257-se
The increasing consumption of non-renewable energy and consequent global warming calls for use of renewable energy at scale. Bangladesh is moving toward ensuring renewable energy for all households by 2025 and has already been ranked 2nd in the world in providing off-grid solar home systems. Yet, national energy generation is largely dependent on fossil fuels and covers about one-third of the rural households. Driven by thriving economic development, villages of Bangladesh are experiencing rapid socio-economic-spatial transformation. However, most of the rural population lives with short of energy and safe water which is the main obstacle in sustainable transformation of rural settlements. To compensate for this shortage, they rely on traditional renewal energy sources such as biomass and solar energy to meet their daily needs. Regarding this energy-water scenario, this research aims to explore the potential of planning renewable energy integrated homestead from a physical-spatial design perspective taking a typical village as the case. With a multidisciplinary-exploratory approach the research is designed with a two-fold methodological framework: 1) investigation of existing energy status (consumption, needs and affordability) and water security (usage, sources and quality); 2) mapping spatial patterns of available energy and water services; and 3) exploration of existing homestead morphology to examine the scope of integrating renewable energy and rainwater harvesting systems in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Based on the triangulation of findings from these investigations, the research develops a Renewable Energy and Safe Water Integrated Spatial Model towards sustainable transformation of rural settlements.
Khulna University Studies pp 968-979; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0252-se
Co-production is more than an idea; it is a gathering of thoughts collaborating to find common results. Co-production within the community becomes successful when the community people lead their processes themselves. Through this theme, the communities can enhance their capacity to respond constructively to future problems. Besides, community people, the government, and other organizations play important roles in regulating, financing, and managing the whole process, being potential actors. Slowly, a transformation is taking place in the relationships between the stakeholders—that is, being equal partners in development. This type of relationship strengthens the sustainability of community development initiatives. In some cases, the application of co-production at the grassroots for a better life has encountered numerous challenges limiting participation at various levels. Our study aims at exploring the concept of co-production in housing scenarios, identifying the outcomes of this concept by indicating active roles encountering diverse ways that actors and participants may face challenges to make it successful in the housing process. This paper also focuses on finding out the benefits and drawbacks of co-production in housing and the effectiveness of management policies in the context of Bangladesh. For achieving these objectives, an effective literature review of the existing knowledge on this theme of “Co-Production” has been followed as the study methodology. The results from this study depict that co-production within a community can be an alternative approach to addressing the housing issues of the underprivileged community of society. Although having the challenges of socio-economic and political dynamics, a flexible participatory approach to co-production can be successful in Bangladesh, with an appropriate management policy undertaken by the stakeholders.
Khulna University Studies pp 936-951; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0247-se
The historic tea estates are part of the cultural landscape of Sylhet and attract numerous tourists. However, most tea-workers living in these areas have lower social profiles and, to some extent, are isolated from mainstream society. The tea-workers communities have diverse ethnic backgrounds, mainly from the neighbouring country - India and different parts of Bangladesh. Initially, within the Tea estates, they were settled in housings developed as 'labour lines', and later those areas were modified and expanded by the communities. There are issues related to space crisis, municipal services, and other amenities such as health care and education in their housing areas, but their settlement patterns have inherent traditional features crafted by the vernacular adaptations. This study aims to identify and analyse their settlement areas' ethnographic landscapes and understand the relationships between their housing morphology and socio-cultural beliefs. We have selected three different communities from the three (03) major tea estates, i.e. Lakkatura, Malnichara and Khadimnagar estate. We developed a conceptual framework incorporating principles from ethnographic landscape and spatial morphology. For ethnographic analysis, we have investigated the socio-cultural profiles (including ethnic origin, demography, financial status, community participation and socio-cultural activities), housing policies and vernacular techniques through field surveys and secondary sources. For morphological analysis, we have adopted McCartney, 2018's framework that helped characterise the study areas' spatial dimensions. Finally, we have developed a typological understanding from the combined approach that outlines the ethnographic landscape of the selected tea-workers communities in Sylhet. Cross-cultural investigations in future can further explore how ethnic landscape changes with migration movements and aid in the planning and policy-making of informal settlements.
Khulna University Studies pp 980-992; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0256-se
A growing population with rising per capita income has intensified the competition for limited land in Bangladesh. As regulation of land use is largely absent in rural areas, agricultural land use is getting indiscriminately converted into non-agricultural uses. This conversion is threatening agro-based food security of the country in general and of the rural households in particular. Regarding this issue, the current government has emphasized the rural homestead as a ‘production unit’ of agro-farming. As an important source of food and nutrition, homestead farming is an integral part of rural settlements where women play a vital role. However, in most of the cases, it is done in an un-integrated and rudimentary manner. As a result, they are unable to yield the maximum from homestead farming. In this context, the research focuses on designing integrated homestead agro-farming based on case studies of two homesteads of a typical village in Batiaghata, Khulna. With an exploratory approach the research methodology is designed with a three-stage framework. Stage I includes investigation of the categories and needs of agro-products focusing on the role of women in production, processing, management and consumption; Stage II includes exploration of existing spatial-morphological patterns and extent of different types of agro-farming; while Stage III includes development of design schemes for integrated homestead agro-farming. Based on the triangulation of findings, this research contributes strategic physical-spatial design considerations for integrated homestead agro-farming towards ensuring household food security in a socially sustainable and agro-ecologically resilient manner.
Khulna University Studies pp 917-924; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0196-se
In this investigation, the gaseous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is issued at the inner port, and methane (CH4) is injected at the outer port of the sub-millimeter scale burner in order to establish an inverse CH4/H2O2 micro-scale diffusion flame numerically under heat recirculation conditions. The velocity of gaseous H2O2 is considered only as a numerical parameter in this study and the velocity of CH4 is kept constant to examine the flame structure and the transition behavior of an inverse micro-scale diffusion flame. The numerical simulation has been conducted using ANSYS Fluent 14.5 based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) under normal gravity (1G) conditions with low thermally conductive burners. The semi-detailed reaction model, which consists of 58 chemical reactions and 17 chemical species, has been applied in this study. It is found that when the momentum of the gaseous H2O2 is high, then a CH4 /H2O2 inverse micro-scale diffusion flame is formed, and this flame is attached just on the top of the burner by which one can easily analysis an active flame-wall interaction phenomenon. On the other hand, when the momentum of the gaseous H2O2 has been reduced significantly, then H2 /O2 micro-scale premixed flame is established entirely inside the micro-burner. Furthermore, it is found that when the momentum of H2O2 reduces remarkably, then CH4 does not diffuse inside the micro-burner at the flame zone, and consequently only H2 /O2 micro-scale premixed flame is established there as H2O2 is playing the role of a monopropellant, where no extra oxidizer is needed for the survival of flames. This type of flame mode transition phenomenon under micro-burner systems is the first ever reported event in the literature of reacting fluid dynamics (i.e., combustion dynamics). Besides, this is the primary findings of our ongoing research, and hence, the further numerical calculation adopting different pertinent parameters is now under progress with the aim of extracting more profound physical and chemical insights that are associated with the aforesaid transition phenomena.
Khulna University Studies pp 952-967; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0250-se
The largest metropolis in Bangladesh, Dhaka is home to a large number of facilities and a large number of people that travel here daily for employment. These people reside in impromptu colonies or slums and are primarily from rural areas. Rural poverty and natural catastrophes are driving the present situation of urban migration, moveable people on the streets start living on the roadside, on the Rail track and bus stop, and in any other purchasable locations including empty buildings. Numerous unauthorized constructions have been established as a result of the large underprivileged population. Rural poverty and natural catastrophes are driving the present situation of urban migration, forcing people to shift to Dhaka in pursuit of employment. These moveable people on the streets start living on the roadside, on the Rail track and bus stop, and in any other purchasable locations including empty buildings. Numerous unauthorized constructions have been established as a result of the large underprivileged population. Aside from that, multiple political stakeholders have established several different illegal constructions throughout the city. These illegal settlements are demolished by authorities' force evictions, which is a regular phenomenon in Bangladesh. This study aims to assess the future management of demolishing irregular settlements in Dhaka and the effects of dismantling unauthorized colonies. By far, this study adds the criteria that are crucial in determining the impact of tearing down multiple illegal structures on government land in Dhaka. This study will be a contribution to the field of research, enabling academics to educate about the challenges posed by unauthorized immigrants in slums in developing countries and prospective management strategies for the expulsion of illegal settlements.
Published: 30 November 2022
Khulna University Studies pp 925-935; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0234-se
Right now, there is no perceptible vehicle management framework for Khulna university that provides a vehicle monitoring system, real-time fuel consumption data analysis, vehicle route optimization by calculating passenger traffic, and so on. Albeit creating that framework is the holistic objective of the total project, the significant objective of this paper is to propose a cost-effective, reliable IoT-based vehicle monitoring system for Khulna University based on the developed prototype device. The open-source controller and GPS-GPRS-based module determine the real-time position of the vehicle, and the location of the test vehicle can be communicated via GPRS, which is provided by the GSM network. This real-time location data is stored in a web-based IoT platform. Authorized users of the system can access this information via the internet. The proposed solution will facilitate all stakeholders, including teachers, students, and other Khulna University staffs, to use this information to make smarter travel selections. This will also pave the way for future research like intelligent vehicle route optimization by storing real data from different vehicles of Khulna University on the online database.
Khulna University Studies pp 892-903; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0180-se
For obtaining analytical solutions to the modified forced Van der Pol equation, the modified harmonic balance method has been developed. In classical harmonic balance method, the numerical procedure is used for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. But it requires laborious computational attempt and accurate primary guesses values which makes it very hard-working to calculate. According to our method, a set of nonlinear algebraic equations has been converted to a set of linear algebraic equations by using a nonlinear one instead of a set. As a result, it reduces the massive computational work. This method provides not only better results than the existing harmonic balance method but also provides very close solutions to the corresponding numerical results. It is noticeable that there is substantial similarity between the approximate and the numerical results attained by the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Moreover, the method is facile and straightforward. This technique may play great role to handle strongly nonlinear damped systems with external forces.
Khulna University Studies pp 878-891; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0174-se
The forest-based Munda community is one of Bangladesh's many tribal communities, having their age-old religion, culture, customs, language, and knowledge, for which they are recognized as a unique group of people with different tribal traits. Originating in India, some of the Munda people travelled to Bangladesh around 300 years ago and have been living here ever since. Despite of their rich tradition and heritage, the Mundas are one of Bangladesh's most despised and disdained ethnic groups. Moreover, Mundas living in the Kalinchi village in the Sundarbans’s ecological zone, one of the country's most vulnerable locations, are facing major challenges from saline intrusion, tropical cyclones, storm surges, and what not. This research aims to explore Munda’s ancestral way of living, their traditional subsistence practices & their house pattern to infuse it to bring possible solutions towards a resilient Munda community. Initially, an anthropological study was conducted to uncover their indigenous foundations, traditional knowledge of living, and the events that shifted people away from their ancestral homeland. Later, architectural intervention was combined to achieve self-sustainability without losing the original traits. Additionally, this can help to preserve their ethnic identity and promote their indigenous heritage to the rest of the world. The final framework intends to increase the affordability of construction materials in an effective way to withstand climate challenges.
Khulna University Studies pp 863-877; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0166-se
The recognition of Bangla handwritten numerals (BHNR) has recently emerged as a very interesting area for machine learning and pattern recognition research. Recently, the technology for character or object recognition has also advanced. Bangla handwritten number recognition can serve as a foundation for creating an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in the Bangla language. However, the lack of a sizable and accurate dataset makes Bangla's handwritten numeral recognition study insufficient in contrast to that of other well-known languages. Similar to MNIST for English digits, NumtaDB is by far the largest dataset collection for handwritten digits in the Bangla language. The most used datasets for the recognition of Bangla handwritten numerals in the past were NumtaDB, CMATERdb, and ISI. The majority of approaches now in use rely on feature extraction and a few outdated machine learning algorithms. Although some approaches operate quickly enough to meet practical demands, they are not always accurate. Even while certain techniques work quite well for languages other than Bangla, they still require improvement. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), in particular, are demonstrating excellent achievements in this discipline with higher accuracy. In this work, we’ve used custom CNN architectures to build our model to recognize digits using all the existing datasets with a high degree of accuracy. Our CNN model shows an average of 98% accuracy recognizing Bangla numeric in respect of above datasets. We have cross verified our model with mixed datasets and the result is also promising.
Khulna University Studies pp 855-862; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0153-se
Early diagnosis of irregular cardiac activity through existing tools such as Electrocardiogram and greater understanding of the underlying processes is critical for saving lives. Cardiac activity originates from a deterministic dynamical system of heart with trajectories following a linear map. Irregular cardiac activity observed in arrhythmia patients adds nonlinearities to the evolution function of the dynamical system underneath. Therefore, it is of great importance to quantitatively measure this non-linearity as a biomarker for impending cardiac diseases in patients. In this work, we formulated a novel mechanism named Neural Temporal Perturbation Field where perceived nonlinearities are modeled through deep neural network with perturbated inputs. Here, we examined the nonlinear state space by modeling the volatility of outputs for slightly adjusted inputs. We discovered that volatility characteristics clearly define a decision threshold that may be employed as a biomarker in clinical practice by applying our technique to data on normal and abnormal heart activity. Our approach resulted in the greater understanding of nonlinearity and volatility of irregular cardiac activity and as a biomarker achieved comparatively better accuracy than the state-of-the-art models.
Khulna University Studies pp 817-831; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0144-se
Displaced communities living in housing rehabilitation projects in coastal Bangladesh often lack access to safe drinking water. Adverse climatic conditions, vulnerable geographic locations, and poor resource management make the scenario worse. Different water technologies have been inbuilt and installed in these projects, but most have proven unsustainable so far. Therefore, finding the most suitable water technology for these communities remains a key challenge in making these settlements sustainable. In this regard, the research first explores globally available water technologies that use different coastal water sources. Based on this, it seeks to identify the sustainability features of each selected water technology – suitable for the aforementioned coastal conditions. A narrative review process was used to review secondary literature and materials systematically. Relevant websites, journals, and conferences related to sustainable water supply and management were also examined. Findings suggest that sustainability parameters differ for water technologies in terms of different water sources. Rather than using a single water source-based technology, a combination based on a specific context should work better. Findings from this study can be used as a starting point for assessing the sustainability of water technologies in housing rehabilitation projects and retrofitted in possible cases.
Khulna University Studies pp 845-854; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0149-se
The most prevalent health issue is salmonella infection. Every year, between 200 million and 1.3 billion people are infected with Salmonella. Salmonella spreads by direct animal contact, food and drink, and very infrequently, person-to-person contact via the fecal-oral route. It is estimated that 94% of salmonellosis transmission occurs through food. Salmonella infection is, in fact, a bacterial infection. It is crucial to utilize mathematical modeling to describe how biological and biomedical systems behave dynamically. The SIRS model of epidemics is the most often used mathematical model. Describing the patterns of Salmonella infectious disease in animal populations and the human population, we have formulated a SIRS epidemic model in our work. In significant part, the model was developed as a collection of ODEs based on the traits of transmission of infection. The occurrence of infection-free and endemic stable states was initially noted, and stability of the critical points of the model was later proven (infection-free and endemic). Following that, the fundamental reproduction number was calculated using the method of a next-generation matrix. Finally, the numerical simulations of this SIRS model have been completed. The analytical finding is explained using numerical simulations.
Khulna University Studies pp 775-787; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0139-se
In order to get the benefits of Industry 4.0 (4ir) we need the graduates who are able to face the challenges of 4ir. As the universities are the main sources of producing graduates, they should produce adaptable graduates of 4ir. The 4ir demands such a system of higher education where each and every stakeholders especially educators and learners should be connected in a globalized automated environment, networked, virtualized and flexible. In the paradigm of 4ir learners should learn to learn the sources of learning how to build knowledge and skills within the process of teaching –learning. The study aims to identify the dimensions of E4.0 corresponding to 4ir and to assess the readiness of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) is one of 50 public universities of Bangladesh. At present there are 28 disciplines in six schools of studies in SUST and among them 20 departments have been selected for the study based on minimum 10 years of establishment. The assessment has been focused on four aspects mainly curriculum, teacher (faculty), intuitional qualification and logistic supports in terms of E4.0. In conducting the study data from collected 120 teachers and graduate students with a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was five point scales. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS and mainly frequency in each dimension was found and finally factor analysis was done to find the factors affecting E4.0. The frequency distribution showed that Robotic Process Automation aspects ranked first following cloud computing, data analytics, IoT, AI, and BCT. The factor analysis showed that seventeen aspects have been considered as important and the top most five aspects are fees and rewards, data as a service, software as a service, AI extraction and user device.
Khulna University Studies pp 788-802; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0141-se
Due to its geographical location, Deltaic Bangladesh is naturally enriched with more than 700 rivers. Like the rivers, their distributaries, and tributaries, large and small canals also distinguish the land whether it’s naturally originated or excavated by the dwellers. Dinajpur City has such canal from city’s origin named “Ghagra,” which flows through the heart of the city. “Ghagra” is a 29 km long canal in which 15 km contributes to Dinajpur Urban area. Though it was excavated to maintain the water disposal network of the city, in later periods, it was also used for bathing, fishing, and boating. The absence of a proper master plan of the city considering the waterfront as a design element, rapid urbanization, and unawareness of people is causing continuous decay of the canals and the whole Dinajpur city in the near future. Unplanned development, canal encroachment, and waste dumping have blocked the flow of the canal and disconnected it from the river, resulting in waterlogging and sometimes flood in Dinajpur city. The research will focus on what are the impacts of neglecting the Ghagra canal in urban development on Dinajpur city sustainability. At first, the research will analyze Ghagra Canal’s morphological transformation and impact, then it will investigate city sustainability assessment criteria, and finally, the research will assess its impacts on the city’s sustainability. The research will be qualitative research guided by theoretical, mapping, and photographic analysis. This paper will show how neglecting the water body during urban development can affect a city’s sustainability and as well as similar phenomena.
Khulna University Studies pp 803-816; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0142-se
The recent world is facing a new pandemic which is caused by a virus named Coronavirus. Its fast mutation capability makes the situation worse affecting all the countries. Handling the virus is a challenging task now as there is still no permanent remedy for this. The doctors, engineers, scientists all are working together to fight against the virus. Revealing the genome sequencing and total structure of the virus paves the way for more research on this topic. Many researchers and scientists are working relentlessly on mutation analysis. Since spike proteins are one of the most important parts of SARS-CoV-2 for affecting humans, scientists are working for vaccine and drug discovery targeting S protein. Many Machine learning, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning methods are used on the genome datasets to detect the mutation position and predict further insights. The goal of this work is to predict the most probable next-generation Spike Protein sequence of SARS-CoV-2. We have proposed a model that uses the Encoder-Decoder based LSTM model on date-wise ordered protein sequence data of S-protein. This has worked effectively on predicting next generation sequence of S protein. We compared our model with other deep learning models i.e. CNN-LSTM and Attention-based LSTM. We also experimented our model with large datasets as well as with small datasets, and the results of the tests are effective and efficient in both ways.
Khulna University Studies pp 832-844; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0148-se
Corruption is rapidly affecting any country’s economic, democratic, financial, social, and political stability. It has been a consistent social phenomenon that happens in all civilizations. Only in the last 20 years has this phenomenon been given serious attention. It has different forms and different impacts on the economy as well as society as a whole. Economic growth is slowed by corruption, which also has a detrimental effect on business operations, employment, and investment. Additionally, it has a detrimental effect on tax revenues as well as the effectiveness of various financial aid programs. So, it is necessary to reduce this global problem. For this reason, we propose a nonlinear deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of societal corruption in terms of optimal control problem, using two time-dependent controls namely the efforts aimed at preventing corruption through the use of social networks, media, and social organizations; including a strong and effective anti-corruption policy, and also the attempt to encourage the punishment of corrupt people to analyze the model. The goal of this study is to reduce the problem of corruption. The results show that our proposed model can help to alleviate this social issue. Our findings also reveal that by using both control strategies instead of just one we get a more effective result. Overall, this research suggests that the impact of corruption can be reduced by implementing anti-corruption media and advertising campaigns, as well as exposing corrupted people to jail and punishing them.
Khulna University Studies pp 6 pages-6 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2233-ls
Urena lobata (L.) has diverse biological activities. A recent study suggests that its leaf extract exerts acute toxicity on three different phases of Zebra fish, where the authors calculated the median lethal concentration (LC50) value ranges between 2,548 and 8,748 g/L. This study aims to re-check its toxic effects on a new eukaryotic test model named the Allium sativum toxicity test model. For this, the ethanolic leaf extract of Urena lobata (ELEUL) was tested at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg/mL on the cloves of A. sativum at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times (ET) using copper sulphate (CuSO4) as a reference standard. Manual observation of root number and length profiles was considered in this study. The results suggest that ELEUL significantly (p< 0.05) and concentration-dependently reduced the number and length of roots of the test system in comparison to the control group. However, the ELEUL exerted more toxic effects at 72 h ET on the test system, and it showed an adaptive capacity at 48 h inspect of 24 h ET. The LC50 value was obtained between 4 and 8 mg/mL. Taken together, the ELEUL exerted toxic effects on the root meristems of A. sativum cloves, and this new model was sensitive like other popularly used toxicogenetic biomonitoring systems, like the A. cepa test model. Therefore, A. sativum might be another hopeful plant-based toxicogenetic test model.
Khulna University Studies pp 12 pages-12 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2244-ls
Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become a global threat that interferes with the interaction among humans, the environment, and microbes. Our study sought to detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria in light of the growing interest in using antibiotics in the poultry sector. We collected 24 poultry liter samples from 04 different upazilas of Khulna district (Batiaghata, Dumuria, Paikgachha and Koyra). Initially, 09 bacterial isolates were selected and among them, 77.78% bacteria were found gram positive. Subsequently, to characterize these bacteria, a toal of 10 biochemical tests (methyl red test, MacConkey agar test, indole test, catalase test, triple sugar iron test, mannitol salt agar test, oxidase test, Voges-Proskauer test, citrate test and nitrate test) were carried out in this experiment. Moreover, our study also isolated and amplified bacterial DNA for Sanger sequencing and finally disclosed 09 different antibiotic resistant bacterial species, namely Priestia aryabhattai, Bacillus cereus, Priestia megaterium, Lysinibacillus macrolides, Rossellomorea aquimaris, Mammaliicoccus sciuri, Bacillus wiedmannii, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii. Further, disk diffusion assays were performed following CLSI guidelines and it unveiled the susceptibility and resistant properties of isolates against commonly used 08 antibiotics (penicillin 10U, tetracycline 20µg, nitrofuran 300µg, clindamycin 2µg, azithromycin 15µg, quinolones 5µg, tetracycline 30µg and penicillin 30µg) in poultry farms. All of the bacterial isolates were found resistant to at least one of the antibiotics except C. freundii (isolate 9). Most of the isolates (66.67%) were resistant to nitrofuran, whereas all of them were susceptible to penicillin. Lastly, this study also made an effort to understand the evolutionary relationships of the identified species through a phylogenetic tree. Thus, the findings of this study will help farmers and common people to better understand the risk of developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria as a result of excessive antibiotic usage.
Khulna University Studies pp 13 pages-13 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.2.215-ss
In general, Bangladesh's coastal region has been hit by a lot of disasters, but the frequency of these disasters has grown in recent years. Providing adequate information can help lessen the damage caused by these events. Newspapers are vital medium for disseminating information to the public about impending disasters specially in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study is all about analyzing the role of newspapers in disseminating information about the Cyclone Amphan to common people's consciousness. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. The information was gathered through content analysis of four national dailies and interviews with two groups: victims of the Amphan affected area in the Pirojpur district and journalists from national dailies working in the same district. The study finds that there was insufficient coverage of Cyclone Amphan concerns in The Daily Star (5%), The Daily Prothom Alo (9%), The Daily Ittefaq (7%), and Bangladesh Pratidin (6%) of the total news. From the analysis, newspapers carried disaster-related news to warn the public in disaster-prone areas about the disaster's damage and measures, as well as to alert affected individuals about the disaster's position and signal. Despite the low coverage of disaster news, newspapers attracted people's attention because they provided accurate and credible news and allowed them to learn more about a diverse range of topics.
Khulna University Studies pp 625-639; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0118-se
Industry 4.0 (The 4th Industrial Revolution – 4IR) is an emerging ecosystem based on a connection between machines and humans. I4.0 has delivered new production technologies that maximize output while maximizing resource use. An increasing number of companies are reaping the benefits of technological advancements. I4.0 has the potential to provide sustainable industrial value creation across social, economic, and environmental aspects by enhancing resource efficiency. Human advancement, resource utilization, and commercial relationships all fall under the umbrella of sustainable development (SD). Traditional business problem-solving methodologies are being challenged by the I4.0 notion of sustainability, which calls for a shift toward a more systematic and quantifiable approach to dealing with sustainable development. Transformational business models include the triple bottom line and take into account many stakeholders as well as the wider community and environment. social, economic, and mental environment make up the three pillars of long-term viability. It is vital for business models in transforming to value delivery processes for sustainability, making them significant drivers of competitive advantage and overall SD. The paper focus is on the tools and procedures utilized to conduct a thorough examination of these components. This study proposes a quantifiable 4IR framework to map the broad spectrum of sustainable development. This framework is linked with the existing industry 4.0 environment and quantifiable sustainable nodes to measure businesses in the digital era that are potential for sustainable development.
Khulna University Studies pp 640-651; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0120-se
As coronavirus proliferation and death rates explode across the nation, the globe is on the verge of another health crisis, with daily doses of mental stress and depression among people of all ages. Our study was designed to investigate depression and stress among tertiary level students in Bangladesh during COVID-19 and to explore the influencing factors associated to them. We considered socio-demographics, educational information, financial information, life-style factors, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 etc. Univariate, bi-variate and binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. In our study, 32.6% (n=132) of the respondent were mentally depressed, and 44.9% (n=182) were stressed. Our analysis indicates that students aged more than 25 years, in a relationship, and those who ignored news were more likely to get depressed. Similarly, those who believed to have a hangout effect, ignored news, and spent more than 5 hours online daily were more likely to experience stress. On the other hand, students who are extrovert, participated in extra-curricular activities, did physical activities, meditated/prayed, solved problems, and studied more than 2 hours were less likely to get depressed. Likewise, students who were extrovert participated in physical activities and studied more than 2 hours were less likely to get stressed. We need to address students' mental health issues because of its long-lasting impact on current and future society, and make informed decisions to tackle depression and stress.
Khulna University Studies pp 610-624; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0116-se
The heat and mass transfer simulation of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) radiative convective flow of nanofluid through an inclined porous surface are studied. The governing system of couple partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. This transformation is done by similarity transformation technique. The numerical solutions are done by sixth order Runge-Kutta method along with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique and then displayed graphically by using Tecplot 9.0. The physical insight of velocity, temperature and concentration have been studied for various physical parameters through numerical calculation and their respective graphs are displayed. Skin friction, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer are also studied for different parameter. Finally, the results are presented in detail with the help of graphs and tables to observe the effect of different parameters like Magnetic parameter (M), radiation parameter (R), thermal Grashof number (Gr), mass Grashof number (Gc), Prandtl number (Pr), Eckert number (Ec) and chemical reaction parameter (Kr).
Khulna University Studies pp 597-609; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0111-se
Sustainable design approaches reduce energy consumption of urban form and the environment. Urban public space design is an efficient sustainable strategy to improve thermal and microclimatic conditions of outdoor spaces. A tropical city like Rajshahi, Bangladesh, an example of a rapid urbanization, is now dealing with the challenge of sustainable urban development, especially in the urban public space where thermal comfort makes a vital role for active to use of outdoor space in the various time. People’s activities and usages of outdoor space particularly urban public place which is the most viable and sustainable features of urban design is directly affected by thermal setting and thus affect people’s activities. This research aims to calculate the thermal comfort indices to find out the comfort condition of the urban public space by using a CFD based simulation software “ENVI-Met”. Online sources are used to collect site specific microclimatic data for thermal comfort. Data is then synthesized to find out MRT and thermal comfort condition. The aim is to develop and recommend a checklist of comfortable urban form and potential design and materials features to investigate the scope of improvement of outdoor thermal comfort of urban public space of study area. Both the physical (height width ratio of urban form, vegetation, water features, orientation, materials) has strong impact on improving thermal comfort and activities. This research suggests some urban design options for an effective and comfortable outdoor space in the context of tropical city like Rajshahi in the end.
Khulna University Studies pp 531-538; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0096-se
The highly contagious coronavirus wreaked havoc around the globe. There has been a rapid spread of the virus throughout the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), wearing a facemask will help keep the virus from infecting others. Consequently, many governments have adopted the solution of wearing facemasks. In this paper, we use a convolutional neural network (CNN), and a scaling method, namely, EfficientNet with Adam optimizer, for detecting face masks in real-time. A dataset including 10,000 colored images was collected from a public data platform, Kaggle, for training, and testing of the model. Image augmentation is also investigated on the dataset to improve the training, and testing accuracy. Then the binary classifier model is used to detect masks after detecting faces using single shot detection (SSD). From the experimental results, the EfficientNet model outperforms the existing CNN-based methods in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and the validation accuracy of EfficientNet models is above 99 percent. This efficient and highly accurate model can be used to detect facemask anywhere in a real time video surveillance system.
Khulna University Studies pp 539-552; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0100-se
In recent years, research trends are concentrated towards nanoparticles in many fields like aquatic ecosystems, clinical and pharma, agro and food chain-based industries. Nanomaterial plays a very crucial role in all the above fields, very particularly in medical treatments and experiments, aquatic ecosystems. The current study is to examine the ecological effects of nanoparticles in a commensal-host aquatic model with commensal species interference with the effect of nanoparticles. We examined the direct and indirect influence of these particles on the proposed model in view of stability of the system with appropriate chosen attributes. Our findings are more focused on nanoparticle-induced aquatic ecosystem which may stabilize or destabilize the system, resulting in sensitive analysis through various parametric values. We also found that as the contact rate between nanoparticles and the host increases, the equilibrium densities of the host and commensal fall. Furthermore, we notice that the depletion of nanoparticles from the aquatic system plays a vital role for the steady coexistence of both populations. Finally, the analytical results are verified and exposed through computer simulations which are quite interesting.
Khulna University Studies pp 553-565; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0103-se
Khulna railway station is one of the oldest establishments which is situated almost at the heart of Khulna city center, known as the Central Business District (CBD) of Khulna city. To support the growing demand for transport services in the CBD area, the existing three major transport modes (railway, waterway, and roadway) of the railway station area are fully functioning. Though they are situated in the same area for serving the same purposes but work separately. This separate route plan of the three transport modes demands more support services which cause traffic congestion and space scarcity to accommodate heavy weight vehicles like cargo trucks and lorry. The rapid growth of the economy and population of the city demand an upgraded transportation infrastructure. This paper aims to explore the context-specific challenges for planning transportation infrastructure in the CBD and its settlement area. A field survey of the study area, face-to-face interviews of different stakeholders, and questionnaire survey were conducted to gather necessary primary data. Detailed Area plan of Khulna Development Authority (KDA), Khulna City Master plans, newspaper cuttings, journal and conference papers, etc. are analyzed. This paper provides an overview of hazardous conditions of the study area caused by the existing public and freight transportation. Respecting the existing problems and limitations, an integrated transport infrastructure planning guideline has been provided to meet the future transport challenges in the densely populated urban CBD area.
Published: 18 November 2022
Khulna University Studies pp 15 pages-15 pages; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.19.02.2242-se
Environmental noise constitutes a major contributor to environmental pollution, with its unintended consequences posing a serious challenge to public health in the built environment. This study assessed the perception and the implications of urban environmental noise on urban residents' wellbeing. Data was collected using a sound pressure level meter and a self-developed questionnaire. Findings from eight hundred and eighty (880) responses obtained through random sampling were analysed and benchmarked against national (50 dBA) and international (55 dBA) standards by the WHO. The results showed that noise from places of worship and traffic noise were rated high, with about 75 percent of the respondents indicating that environmental noise negatively impacts their wellbeing. The study suggested the need for improved environmental quality in the built environment. It advocated for synergistic interventions from architects, other built environment professionals, and environmental protection agencies to tackle urban environmental pollution in residential environments. The contribution of this research lies in the necessity for further investigation, since it has important ramifications for architects, urban planners, and urban managers.
Khulna University Studies pp 728-742; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0135-se
Establishing the Largest Railway workshops of Assam-Bengal Railway here in Saidpur in 1870 by the British Crown, brought in Railway officers, service holders, workers, and traders from throughout the Indian sub-continent. Soon, this place was thriving with people of diverse cultures & ethnicities. It had become so prosperous & burgeoning that it became the third-largest city in East Pakistan. Since then, Saidpur has been facing a decline in growth due to conflicts in post-partition British India, the Independence War of Bangladesh & post-war problems. These incidents left deep scars in the people's hearts and generated misguided hatred. It had resulted in uneasy interaction & irrational mistrust among the diverse ethnic group of people living there for more than one & a half centuries. In this paper, the author aims to tell the true city narrative without any biases and means to alleviate the misunderstanding to identify between the stranded Pakistanis & other non-Bengalis. This paper intends to find out the present character of Saidpur city and the potential reasons behind it. In addition, it also aims to investigate and find the probable identity that the city and its people hold by analyzing them in contemporaneous situations. It's a qualitative research study conducted using a mixed method approach. Based on a conceptual framework & a review of relevant literature, the author applied different methods to collect primary data about this historical city. In-depth surveys, experiments, observations, key person interviews, focus group discussion & oral histories are considered to collect these data.
Khulna University Studies pp 768-774; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0138-se
Malnutrition seriously affects the health of elderly. The objective of the study is to determine the variation of nutritional status of elderly with respect to their socio economic and demographic characteristic. For this, a sample of four hundred elderly respondents have been selected randomly from Sunamgonj district in Bangladesh during 2019. Mini Nutrition Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) is used to assess the nutrition status of elderly. Percent frequency distribution, t-test and F-test are used to analyze the data. It is observed from the analysis that only a few (0.58 percent) elderly belongs to normal nutrition status. The rest of the elderly are suffering from malnutrition (39.62 percent) and at risk of malnutrition (59.8 percent). The study findings show that socio-demographic characteristics like occupation, marital status, age, place of residence, taking care and family type have significant role on the variation of nutrition status of elderly. Therefore, policymakers, GO and NGO should come forward to develop the nutrition situation of elderly especially in Sunamgonj district of Bangladesh.
Khulna University Studies pp 652-663; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0010-se
A series of novel bis-thiazolidinone derivatives 3(a-j) have been synthesized by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazones 2(a-j) with chloroacetic acid and sodium acetate. The integrated heterocyclic compounds were featured by chemical and spectroscopic methods such as IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus Aureus, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esherichia coli and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell line (HeLa cell) and Vero cell line, using MTT assays but showed no activity.
Khulna University Studies pp 690-701; https://doi.org/10.53808/kus.2022.icstem4ir.0133-se
Considering the capability approach of Amartya Sen, in many instances, migration is an adaption strategy that is no longer freedom of choice; rather, people are forced to choose it. Specifically, people often choose migration for adaptation due to climate and environmental vulnerabilities. This Bibliometric analysis aims to provide a detailed overview of how migration is considered an adaptation strategy using the Scopus database. The search query includes 'migration,’ 'adaptation', 'vulnerability', and 'climate change' as the keywords. A total of 7,335 scientific documents, including books, book chapters, articles, and review papers for 2011-2021, were analyzed using VOSviewer software. The lexical network analysis suggests a strong connection between migration and adaptation. Moreover, the spatial network analysis suggests that the migration-related research works are primarily concentrated in the USA, the UK, and Australia. The findings of an intensive review of 38 Scopus index migration literature suggest that migration is the ultimate effect of climate change, and the researchers termed this an 'adaptation strategy'. Although numerous dimensions of migration and adaptation strategy have been explored in the literature, however, future research options are still available in the field of migration-adaptation comparing circular and permanent migration, gendered dimension from the left-behind perspective, cultural diaspora between the migrants and receiving country, policies on alternative adaptation strategies, adaptation due to freedom of choice and forced migration from the wellbeing perspective. Moreover, heightened research collaboration is strongly suggested among the top migrant-sending and receiving countries to get more insights and policy formulation.