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Cagatay Tuncsiper, Izmir Centrade Fulfillment Services Co-Founder
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 3, pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2023.v03i01.003

Abstract:
In this study, the relationship between Türkiye’s real gross domestic product, CO2 emission and renewable energy consumption is modelled using machine learning techniques. The data between 2003-2020, the period when renewable energy production and consumption have accelerated, are included in the modelling. First of all, it was tested whether there is a causal relationship between the real gross domestic product, CO2 emission and renewable energy consumption data. Afterwards, a deep learning model was developed in Python programming language by considering the real gross domestic product as the dependent variable while CO2 emission and renewable energy consumption are considered as independent variables. The developed deep learning model has two input nodes, three hidden layers consisting of 100 neurons each, and an output node. In addition, the rectified unit functions are used as nonlinear activation functions in the deep learning network. Based on the standard usage, seventy percent of the data was used as the training data and the remaining thirty percent were employed as the test data. The results of the developed deep learning network and actual gross domestic product data were compared, and it is shown that the developed deep learning network successfully models the relationship between the real gross domestic product, CO2 emission and the renewable energy consumption. The coefficient of determination of the developed model was calculated in Python environment as R2=0.986. This parameter value also indicates that the developed deep learning network model has a good performance for the modelling of the real gross domestic product dependent on the CO2 emission and renewable energy consumption.
Iqbal Saujan, Achchi Mohammed Mohammed Hazib, Mohamed Haniffa Mohamed Nairoos
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2023.v03i01.001

Abstract:
The purposes of this study are to examine the level of satisfaction among the teachers and students of Arabic Colleges those who were involved and participated in the learning and teaching activities carried out through online learning during the period of restriction due to covid-19 pandemic and also to identify the factors that hindered the process of online education. The number of 270 students were selected from the Arabic Colleges situated in the Ampara district of Sri Lanka those who are currently (2022) pursuing shari’ah education therein and questionnaires were distributed among them. All the obtained data were subjected to the descriptive analysis method with the help of SPSS software (Version-26). According to the results of this study, the teachers (84%) and students (66.6%) have expressed their dissatisfaction with the online education activities carried out during the period of restriction where various factors have contributed to such dissatisfaction. Such as Lack of access to appropriate internet communication devices due to poverty experienced by the family (70.5%), Unable to obtain clarifications regarding the subject matter (59%), Internet tracks (81.6%), Importance provided only for certain subjects (63.3%), lack of payment of incentive as additional allowances for Teachers for the service and utilizing the internet facilities (60%), Dropout rates among students have increased (76%), lack of enough attendance of students (76%). Also, it would be worth notifying at this juncture that both parties are in the mode of reluctant on recommending the trend of online education in the event of such a situation if it will be re-emerging in the future. This study is important in exploring alternatives for the effective implementation of online education in Arabic colleges in the future and the findings of this study can be a remarkable starting point for future researchers and policymakers.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 3, pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2023.v03i01.002

Abstract:
In this paper, the effect of sample length on different currents and frequencies of measurement on magneto impedance (MI) of amorphous cobalt based ribbons was investigated. Firstly, we cut the ribbon to 4 cm length and then measurements of MI were carried out in constant current of 8 mA and frequency ranges between 1 to 15 MHz. The maximum sensitivity (9.16 Oe-1) at a frequency of 11 MHz was obtained. Also, the maximum extinction field was obtain 41.6 Oe. In the next step, the currents of 6 to 14 mA and the frequencies from 1 to 6 MHz were examined and in the optima conditions the maximum MI reached to 195%. In the next step, the length of ribbon was reduced to 2 cm and the MI was measured at previous currents and frequencies that results showed the reduction of MI in the most of conditions. In addition, at frequency ranges between 1 to 15 MHz, the maximum sensitivity was 10.2 Oe-1 and the maximum extinction field was 52.3 Oe. As a result, by decreasing the length of the ribbon, the MI reduce, but the sensitivity and excitation field increases, which is suitable for sensing applications. This behavior can be explained due to the demagnetization field, which is strongly dependent on the sample length.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i12.005

Abstract:
Among herbaceous biomasses, several grasses are widely spread in lands and forests. In this study, the pyrolysis behaviour and kinetic analysis of two kinds of grasses including Cortaderia Selloana (CS) and Juncus inflexus L. (JIL) in nitrogen flow were studied by thermogravimetric analysis at four different heating rates 5, 10, 15 and 20 oC/min. Thermogravimetric analysis showed three distinct zones of thermal decomposition for both biomasses. Two model-free (isoconversional) methods, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flinn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) were used to determine the apparent activation energy. Activation energy average values were shown to be 296.29-290.69 kJ mol-1 for (CS) and 216.75-215.07 kJ mol-1 for (JIL) as calculated by KAS and FWO methods, respectively.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i12.004

Abstract:
The object of research in this scientific paper is the treatment of waste generated by paper production in industrial landfills. In the part of the paper production process, i.e. in its subsystem for wastewater treatment, a significant amount of solid waste is generated, which ends up in industrial landfills. The reason for the impossibility of returning to the production process lies in the fact that the sludge contains larger amounts of moisture and present chemical components that are isolated in the paper production process or during wastewater treatment. In the experimental part of the paper, a “trial plot” was selected on which seedlings of the paulownia elongate plant were planted in the waste sludge. The process of plant growth was monitored for two years and bioremediation, i.e. transfer of elements from sediments to plants, was analysed by modern instrumental methods. Based on the results obtained by research, it can be said with certainty that Paulownia elongate can be used in bioremediation of areas where these sediments are deposited.
Oyetoro John Oyewole, Tiamiyu Abdullah Oyediran
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i12.002

Abstract:
The study evaluated funding research on generating agricultural technologies in University of Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents in the study area, identify the benefits associated with use of agricultural technologies generated, identify the constraints hindering agricultural technology generating practice, and examine the sources of funding researchers generating agricultural technologies. Eighty-five (85) respondents were selected for the study. Statistics such as frequency table, percentage and mean were used to analyze the data while Pearson Correlation was used to establish relationship between selected variables. There is positive and significant relationship between age (r = 0.375, P = 0.000), years spent in schooling (r = 0.405, P = 0.000), working experience (r= 0.535, P = 0.218) and level of accessing research funds on generating agricultural technologies. The study therefore recommended that Agricultural University researchers should seek funds from wider range research funding bodies to help alleviate the drain on researcher’s personal funds.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 18-22; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i12.003

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to group OECD countries using the better life index indicators through multidimensional scaling analysis. The Better Life Index consists of thirty-three variables under the dimensions of material living conditions (income and wealth, work and earnings, housing conditions) and quality of life (health status, work-life balance, education and skills, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environmental quality, personal safety and life satisfaction). These thirty-three indicators constitute the variables of the multidimensional scaling analysis. As a result of the analysis, the positions of countries in two-dimensional space were obtained and it was observed that some countries formed distinct clusters. In this way, OECD countries are compared not on the basis of a selected indicator, but on the basis of an approach that encompasses all the indicators of the Better Life Index.
Xuan Wang
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i12.001

Abstract:
N. K. Jemisin’s science fiction, The Fifth Season, describes the “End” in Yumenes and the female protagonist, Essun’s (Damaya or Syenite) pursuits of freedom. This thesis will explore the protagonist’s fluid identity in different periods of life in The Fifth Season by adopting postmodern approaches. The character’s identities are fluid according to her mobility to different places. Nevertheless, she is continually trying to construct her own “real” identity during different life stages and to pursue a sense of home.
Ali Shakir Mahmood, Munthir Bahir Tuieb, Ahmed Abd Ali Abdulkadhim
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i11.001

Abstract:
As in last few years, quantum cryptography appears to overcome the current challenges of time and quality of the encryption systems and offer new fields of cryptography. This paper briefly introduces the quantum cryptography from the basic ideas, theoretic foundation, as well as analyses some innovative papers where used quantum theory in the field of cryptography especially for image encryption. Formerly, current work illustrates the accomplishments of quantum cryptography in image encryption methods and its upcoming progress schemes. Conclusively, its motivation to make a general view that represents a new trend in cryptography scheme can be developed on the benefits of the quantum cryptography.
Ali Fahem Neamah, Mohammed Ibrahim Mahdi
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i11.002

Abstract:
For the purpose of forecasting meteorological time series, a number of established methodologies have been presented (analog techniques, neural networks, etc.). However, when dealing with multivariate time series that are spread spatially, the aforementioned approaches do not take into consideration all of the information that is accessible. In this research, we tackle the challenge of using Bayesian networks to provide accurate weather predictions. This research aims to offer the Bayesian network (BN) model as a means of estimating dustfall based on atmospheric ensemble forecasts. The following categories of data were collected and analyzed for this study: mean temperature, mean humidity, mean rainfall, mean wind speed, and maximum and lowest dustfall. Between the years 2021 and the beginning of 2022, the Iraqi agency for Meteorology and Seismology collected the data on the weather. The values available are month averages. The structure and parameters of the Bayesian network were learned with the help of these data. Through the use of dynamic Bayesian networks, inference in the Bayesian network was able to assist in anticipating the maximum and minimum dustfall that will occur in the following months. The model demonstrated an overall precision of 75% and 89.0% in predicting the maximum amount of dustfall, respectively.
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 89-99; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.005

Abstract:
Introduction: Globally, youths are at risk of engaging in drug abuse. In Uganda, the prevalence of drug abuse among youths is 70.1% which is a lot higher than that of East Africa which is approximated at 45.5%. The study examined the factors influencing drug abuse among the youth in Kisenyi slum of Kampala district. It specifically assessed the relationship between socio-cultural factors, economic factors, and individual factors on drug abuse among youth. Methods: The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design in which a quantitative data collection approach was applied. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 239 youths. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into SPSS software for analysis. The results generated were in the form of descriptive statistics, Pearson chi-square analyses and binary logistics regressions. Results: The study found that the following factors had a statistically significant relationship with drug abuse in Kisenyi slum; religious service attendance (AOR=0.12; 95%CI=0.02-0.68; p=0.03*), family structure (AOR=20.04; 95%CI= 1.75-29.66; p<0.001*), family member smoking cigarettes/tobacco (AOR=0.83; 95%CI= 0.21-3.35; p=0.001*), a friend who drinks alcohol (AOR=1.21; 95%CI= 0.50-2.95; p=0.050*), a friend who smokes cigarettes/tobacco (AOR=0.47; 95%CI= 0.06-3.75; p=0.003*), television watching (AOR=3.56; 95%CI= 1.19-10.71; p<0.001*), social media access (AOR=1.51; 95%CI= 0.51-4.42; p=0.002*), type of house lived in (AOR=3.64; 95%CI= 0.91-14.5; p<0.001*), source of livelihood (AOR=0.88; 95%CI= 0.06-13.39; p=0.014*), drug availability (AOR=0.18; 95%CI= 0.03-1.20; p=0.029*), cost of drugs (AOR=5.92; 95%CI= 1.81-19.40; p<0.001*), perceptions on drugs (AOR=0.70; 95%CI= 0.17-2.88; p=0.002*), and convenience in talking (AOR=1.41; 95%CI= 0.48-4.15; p=0.002*). Conclusion: It can be concluded that socio-cultural, economic and individual factors have a statistically significant influence on drug abuse among youths in Kisenyi Slum, Kampala district. The study recommends engagement of religious leaders to include drug abuse and its effects in their sermons, regular police patrols to remand street children, rolling out business, technical vocational education and training (BITVET) to provide skills to youths, support youth businesses with seed capital and identification of youth champions to sensitize youths on drug abuse, its dangers and how to overcome addiction.
Queenie Elyza G. Salinas, Bernardita I. Tiamzon
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 14-87; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i10.003

Abstract:
Parents’ love is unconditional, truly selfless, and unending. It always protects, always hopes, and is always proud. Parenting life seems to be challenging, but despite all this, having children to nurture and a family to lean on is somehow fulfilling. This study explored the lived experiences of parents of learners with intellectual disabilities. The researcher conducted a virtual face–to–face interview to describe their parenting day–to–day experiences, challenges, and coping mechanisms as parents of learners with intellectual disability. Limitations to examining the phenomenon are observed in this study. Six (6) parents of learners with intellectual disabilities were interviewed virtually, and the data gathered was transcribed using thematic analysis. The themes derived from this study were: Journey to Acceptance, The Art of Being Selfless, and The Key to Successful Co-Parenting. The exploration of themes described meaningfully and inspirationally the parents' journey when raising a child with an intellectual disability. Data gathered was supported by related literature and studies and the theoretical perspectives involving Parent Development Theory (PDT) and Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. The insights gained in this study will contribute to further parenting studies and special education and general education research. The findings of this study may enlighten parents of learners with intellectual disabilities, special education teachers, general education teachers, social workers, and others in support of awareness advocacy on the wonderful journey of parenting experiences, challenges, and coping mechanisms when raising a child with intellectual disability.
Frederick Edward T. Fabella
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 5-13; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i10.002

Abstract:
This study was conducted to ascertain whether a relationship exists between perceived self-efficacy and preference to pursue an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) career. The New General Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure perceived self-efficacy. The level of preference to pursue an OFW career was measured using the OFW Career Preference Questionnaire - a researcher-made instrument. 153 college students from the Province of Rizal, Philippines volunteered to take part in this study. An online Google Forms version of both questionnaires was administered on the respondents. Pearson r computation of the scores from both research instruments yielded a low negative relationship between self-efficacy and respondents’ preference to pursue an OFW career.
Khangelani Shoko, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Francis Farai Chikuse, BenjaminI Benjamini
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 58-88; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.004

Abstract:
Introduction: The study analysed the trajectories and dimensions of social support intervention to the elderly people in the Cheshanga rural area of Mberengwa District in Zimbabwe after observations of the plight of marginalised population in the Cheshanga rural area compounded by high incidences of migration outflows, drought, poverty, HIV/AIDS pandemic and the massive unemployment. Method: Qualitative approach with a phenomenological perspective carried out in-depth analysis of the phenomenon on 10 elderly people. Data analysis adapted grounded theory approach specifically open, axial and selective coding technique. Results: Social support to the elderly was tangible support from their offspring revealing a yawning gap on the other types of social support like companionship, financial, instrumental and emotional support necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among old people. Conclusion: Interventions from other support groups must address psychological, emotional, physical and behavioural distress among old people to improve the well-being of the elderly people.
O.H. Egbo, H.O. Elimian
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i10.001

Abstract:
Synovial haemangioma is a rare clinical condition which refers to abnormal proliferation of blood vessels in the synovia membrane of a joint. This usually arises in tendon sheaths, synovial membranes of joints or bursae. The lesion is a benign vascular neoplasia was first described by Bouchut in 1856 that occur most frequently around the knee. Trauma has been reported as an Aetiological factor in the formation of post traumatic synovial haemangioma in young adults. The granulation tissues formed following minor trauma to muscle and joint may cause proliferation and infiltration endothelial tissues and subsequently enlarges and grows into vascular tumours. Post traumatic Synovial haemangioma of the elbow usually mimics other lesions as bursitis. This case was an incidental finding of synovial haemangioma of the elbow following trauma in a young adult.
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 43-57; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.003

Abstract:
The content of heavy metals in poultry and local (free range) chickens raised within Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria was investigated. The poultry chickens were obtained from poultry farms while the local (free range) chickens were bought from the natives within the study area. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method using nitric acid and the heavy metals determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The mean concentration (μg/g dry weight) of heavy metals in the Poultry chickens were 3.68 ± 0.86, 0.58 ± 0.36, 0.78 ± 0.02, 4.79 ± 1.27, 77.40 ± 66.44, 2.09 ± 0.54, 1.44 ± 0.82 and 68.99 ± 23.90 for Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Fe, Co, Mn and Zn respectively. Also the heavy metal contents in the local chickens were 2.01 ± 1.25, ND, 1.07 ± 0.30, 3.00 ± 1.24, 108.88 ± 73.41, 1.36 ± 0.46, 13.44 ± 6.14 and 75.49 ± 24.02 μg/g dry weight for Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Fe, Co, Mn and Zn respectively. A Pearson correlation analysis on the heavy metals in the chicken meat revealed positive strong correlations between Zn/Fe (r = 0.867), Zn/Mn (0.764), Zn/Cu (r = 0.591), Mn/Cu (r = 0.657) and Fe/Cu (r = 0.598) at p < 0.01 significant level. This is not unusual as Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn are essential elements and constitute part of expected components of the chicken. The human risk assessment conducted on the chicken samples revealed that Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were in the safe levels, indicating that the exposure of adult population to individual heavy metals through consumption of poultry and local (free range) chickens will not pose adverse health effects. However, the Hazard Index (HI) value for the poultry chicken is suggestive of potential adverse health effect on the consumers. Also, the HI value of local (free range) chickens cannot be ignored because the accumulation of heavy metals in the human body over time can cause serious health effects.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i08.003

Abstract:
The current study was carried out to survey if genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are present in feeds and foods found in local supermarkets in Namibia. Little is known of the presence and prevalence of GMOs in the local supermarkets or information available on the labelling provided on some. The aim was to prove the absence or existence of GMOs in the foods and feeds by means of molecular extraction and screening procedures. Samples purposefully selected were nine (6 food and 3 chicken feed samples). DNA was extracted from them, and they were screened by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the terminator of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid nopaline synthase gene (NOS) that are commonly found in transgene constructs. Screening results indicated that GMOs were present in the 3 chicken feed samples, absent in 1 food sample, present in 3 food samples and the other 2 food samples’ results were inconclusive. These results and survey information reveal the extent of GMOs in the food chain in supermarkets in Namibia and highlight the need for regulatory bodies in the food and feed industry to protect consumers from being misled by absence of properly informative labels on genetic modifications.
Colleen Rakabopa, Zar Gomo, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Cuthbert Musarurwa
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.001

Abstract:
Reference intervals for markers of renal function are critical in determining the point estimates for renal disease intervention before and during disease management. Estimates of glomerular function are becoming more practical than the traditional methods beset by insensitivity and high mean errors during estimation. Current tests for renal function tests diagnose renal insufficiency when less than a third of the nephrons are remaining in the both kidneys. Serum cystatin C and derived serum cystatin based estimated glomerular filtration rate are critical as a comparative determinant of values to distinguish diseased from health individuals being important markers for renal function which need to be diagnosed before the renal mass has been irreversibly diminished. However, reference intervals for the protein are not yet established amongst black in Southern Africa and it is necessary to determine these as it appears their usage in renal function estimation is becoming a viable alternative to traditional renal function markers.
Calleta Gwatiringa, Lebitsi Maud Modiba, Greanious Alfred Mavondo
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 25-42; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.002

Abstract:
The need to create a harmonized process of handling mental health issues cropping up during the perinatal period in Zimbabwe cannot be over emphasized. The number of pregnant women needing perinatal management is growing. The number of trained midwifery nurse practitioner is also growing contributed from different nursing schools meaning different practice methodologies necessitating national guidelines to be adopted. A search of the literature revealed that the British Columbia guidelines provided a framework which could be adopted and adapted for use in the formulation of best practices guidelines to advance collaborative and supportive care as it applies to perinatal health care and client-centred childbirth. The guidelines were premised on the inkling that the use of the ideal strategy and a coordinated approach results in appropriate identification and effective management of mental pathology. The framework and the resultant guidelines, were able to guard against disturbances in the mental wellbeing of the women, whilst excluding the presence of mental disorders. The pillars of the framework we adopted to address dimensions namely: of instruction and avoidance, assessment and the verdict, therapy and self-administration, adapting and backup linkages. The adopted framework facilitates recognition, diagnosis, management and keeping track of ladies with identified mental health challenges. These were conceptualized as recognition, diagnosis, management and follow-up, giving a more promotive and preventive flair to the Zimbabwean perinatal mental health guidelines. Therefore, the theoretical framework for guidelines in mental health views mental stability is an interconnected quadlet of recognition of the tell-tail signs of the disease, diagnosis of the condition, management of the disease and follow-up of the those who have been successfully managed for possible relapses.
Violet Mashe, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Joy Mavondo, Priscah Kachepe, Judith Audrey Chamisa
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-39; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i08.001

Abstract:
Rates of performed caesarean sections (CS) have increased globally with 18.6% of all births occurring by CS. A range of 6%-27.2% has been seen in the least and most developed regions. In Zimbabwe, CS deliveries accounts for 6 % of all births against a WHO recommended 10-15% preferred limit. Different post-delivery problems arise such as pelvic abscesses requiring surgical intervention. Unfavourable foetomaternal post-delivery outcomes have been after CS. How women handle themselves to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with post CS complications is not well known in Zimbabwe. The knowledge and degree to which selfcare after CS practices are carried out by women requires further elucidation. Assessing level of knowledge on self-care practices among women delivered by CS, establishing their self-care practices, exploring their attitudes towards selfcare practices and determining the relationship between their selfcare knowledge and selfcare practices is of paramount importance.
Edet Okon Umoh, Michael E. Endra, Monday P. Anake, Dennis E. Amu
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 40-84; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i08.002

Abstract:
Aggressive management is one of the cardinal roles of psychiatric mental healthcare providers. This study aimed at reporting incidence and management of patients’ aggressive behaviors within January to December, 2021 in Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Calabar. An ecto-facto research design was used to conduct the study. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of study was Healthcare providers which involved Nurses, Doctors, Social workers, Health Assistants and Emergency Prepared Unit of the facility. Purposive sampling technique was used to study the 461 mental healthcare providers with observational techniques. A standard AIS tool was used as instrument to illicit how aggressive incidents were observed and managed. Obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using frequencies, percentages, tables, charts and graphs. Findings revealed that Ward 1 had the highest incidents of aggression followed by Wards 3 & 4; that the highest aggression incidence occurs in the morning followed by night shifts; that Nurses use their verbal and physical intervention most in managing incidents; that the most triggering factor of aggression is patients’ poor mental state and effective management results in prevention of aggressive incidence to other patients, protection of the young, weak and aged patients from harm, prevention of patients’ escape and protection of hospital properties from destruction among others. This study implies that nurses who are closest to the patient deliver verbal and physical interventions most times before the arrival of the doctor on call. It was therefore recommended among other things that more male psychiatric nurses should be employed and psychiatric nurses should be placed on special allowances like call duty allowance, hazard allowance and others to motivate them do their work.
Gwatiringa Calleta, Mavondo Greanious Alfred, Modiba Lebitsi Maud
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-65; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.004

Abstract:
Introduction: Women have psychosocial challenges but perinatal interventions are not making much impact on their mental status hence the interventions need scaling up. This study involved measuring and analysing the extent to which levels of the psychosocial markers reflect effectiveness of the mental health interventions offered by midwives. Methods: The study was conducted at Mpilo Central Hospital Maternity Bulawayo, for the main reason that it receives women referrals from 5 out of the 10 provinces in the country with a total catchment of almost 50% of the country’s population. The maternity hospital has a full complement of all the five maternity units. A quantitative approach administrating a Quality-of-Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Short form (Q-LES-SF) scale was used. The scale ranged from “very poor” to “very good” with “poor”, “fair”, “good” components in between was used to measure the psychosocial scores on a purposive sample of 300 women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The participants had attended at least three antenatal reviews where psychosocial interventions and mental health assessment, monitoring and evaluations are normally carried. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics on SPSS Version 23 package. Results: The Q-LES-Q-SF psychosocial scale which was revealed that women had psychosocial challenges without adequate mental health interventions to ameliorate these challenges. The study demonstrated a bimodal sample with peaks at the “Good” and “Poor” set points. The relationships of the psychosocial and satisfaction scores along the scale continuum showed that “Poor” (33%) Q-LES-Q-SF was higher, followed by “Good” (29%), followed by “Fair” (25%), followed by “Very Poor” and “Very Poor” and “Very Good” being equal (6.5%) in a normal distribution pattern. The likelihood of the demographic variables influencing the Q-LES-Q-F scale were not necessarily linked to the quality-of-life enjoyment and satisfaction of the expectant women during prenatal period. However, age, education level acquired and marital status showed a linearity towards the “Good” when individually rated against the Q-LES-Q-F. Discussion: The psychosocial scores were generally both poor and good indicating that perinatal interventions are needed are needed to making much impact on the mental and social wellbeing of women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The good to very good Q-LES-Q-F scores are a requirement in expectant mothers as this has a strong bearing on the wellbeing of the foetus and mother post parturition. Apparently, the need for scaling up psychosocial support, monitoring, evaluation and interventions to third trimester pregnant women by midwives cannot be overemphasized.
Tanka Prasad Upadhyaya
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 66-76; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.005

Abstract:
The commencement of financial sector reform initiated in early 1990’s changed India’s policy on development strategy absolutely. The preliminary approach of financing current account deficit mainly by way of debt flows and official development assistance has altered to harnessing non-debt creating capital flows. Under this approach since September 14, 1992; Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) were allowed to invest in financial instruments in India and consequently Indian financial markets have changed greatly in its volume, size, depth and nature. FIIs are important to emerging economies because they bring funds and capital to businesses in developing countries. Foreign institutional investors play a very important role in any economy, since these are the big companies such as investment banks, mutual funds etc, who invest considerable amount of money in the Indian markets. These investors typically include hedge funds, mutual funds, insurance companies and investment banks among others. FIIs generally hold equity positions in foreign financial markets. Due to this, the companies invested in by FIIs generally have improved capital structures due to healthy inflow of funds. Thus, FIIs facilitate financial innovation and growth in capital markets. The entry of an FII can cause a drastic swing in domestic financial markets. It increases demand for local currency and directs inflation. Therefore, there are restrictions put by the managing authority of a country on how much stake FIIs can hold in the domestic company. This ensures that the FII’s influence on the company is limited, so as to avoid exploitation. However, not every FII will make an FDI in the country it is investing in. FIIs directly impact the stock market of the country, its exchange rate and inflation. FIIs can invest in listed, unlisted, and to-be-listed companies on the stock markets, in both the primary and secondary markets. This paper tries to analyse the changing role of FIIs in Indian capital markets because of their increasing share in the market.
Voke Peter Orubgbo, Kenneth Atoe
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 18-45; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.003

Abstract:
Several epidemics have posed a serious threat to global public health, notably the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which claimed the lives of 800 people out of an estimated 8 000 cases. With the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a new public health crisis is threatening the world (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has claimed the lives of almost 1•8 million people. The WHO declared the COVID-19 epidemic, which is focused in Wuhan, central China, a global health emergency on January 30, 2020. Individuals, as well as state and local governments, have all responded differently to the pandemic. COVID-19 precautions include keeping a safe distance, washing hands, and wearing masks, among others. Others are less stringent in requiring these safeguards or outright prohibiting high-risk behavior. Some cities, towns, and communities have closed or imposed restrictions on how many people are allowed inside at any given time, while others have remained open as usual. Masks and physical isolation in public settings are advocated or even required by some government and community leaders. Others believe it is a matter of personal taste. Masks and physical separation in public places are advocated or even required by some government and community leaders. Others argue that it is simply a matter of personal preference. COVID is now a global pandemic and an emergency, not just a matter of personal views. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 complications have been shown to influence age and gender. Comorbidities were found to enhance the risk of infection in cases that were found. To stop coronavirus pandemic it’s crucial to have access to safe and effective vaccines, so seeing many vaccines being developed and tested is quite encouraging. The corona virus 19 dilemma is has influence the global economy as well as Africa’s. As a result of the pandemic, certain critical areas of the African economy are already slowing. Tourism, aviation travel, and the oil industry are all affected. Over the decade 2000-2010, Africa’s growth improved dramatically. Many forms of conspiracies have been underway in numerous nations as a result of the government's exploitation of the COVID-19 as a vehicle for getting funds from other countries. In this class, conspiracy theories include assertions that the virus was manufactured in China to alleviate the overcrowding problem, while the virus was created in Europe to remove the elderly. Individuals, as well as state and local governments, have responded to the pandemic in a variety of ways. Some people take COVID-19 precautions such as staying a safe distance, washing their hands, and wearing masks.
Obahiagbon I, Egbo Oh
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.002

Abstract:
Dyspepsia is a symptom complex characterized by features which include epigastric pain or discomfort, belching, bloating and heart burn amongst others, and is one of the commonest indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the histopathological bases of organic dyspepsia in this environment. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy specimens from 186 patients diagnosed with organic dyspepsia in our centre over the 6-month study period were the materials for the study. These were subjected to tissue processing and histopathological examination. The vast majority of the cases of organic dyspepsia had their histopathological bases in the stomach, mostly from various forms of chronic and reactive gastritis, with occasional cases of gastric mucosal ulcers and frank malignancies. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis continues to underlie most organic causes of dyspepsia in our environment.
Primada Kusumaninggar, Firman Pribadi
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.001

Abstract:
Background: Due to the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical health care plays a more crucial role in handling the increase. Countries worldwide accidentally collapsed because of unpreparedness in facing COVID-19, which caused a hospital panic phenomenon to stock medical equipment. Objective: To describe the procurement system for health and pharmaceutical supplies in hospitals during pandemic COVID 19. Method: A Systematic literature review. In a literature search from 2019 to 2022, the investigation found as many as 92 papers extracted using PRISMA guidelines, and a total of fourteen articles were selected for review. Results: in this review, we found that the government in every country has different procurement systems, revealing that each has its strengths and weaknesses. However, centralized procurement systems have a distinct advantage.
Chukwunonso Hyacinth Muotoo, Abraham Enefu
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 47-61; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.004

Abstract:
Depuis l’ère de la négritude jusqu’à présent, la littérature africaine d’expression française continue à faire une grande évolution. Elle nous expose toujours aux problèmes quotidiens de l’homme africain. Elle est la réflexion de la société. Elle ne cesse pas de miroiter les conditions et les réalités sociopolitiques des états africains surtout celles de la période postcoloniale où la corruption, l’exploitation, la mauvaise gouvernance, l’abus du pouvoir, l’injustice sociale et toutes sortes de maux triomphent. La présente étude a pour but de mettre en examen en s’en basant sur la sociocritique, la corruption comme elle est dépeinte dans l’univers romanesque de Sony Labou Tansi, un écrivain congolais de renommée internationale surtout dans son La Vie et demie (1979) et L’Etat honteux (1981) qui forment le corpus de notre étude. Ce travail adoptera aussi l’analyse thématique et textuelle.
Tanka Prasad Upadhyaya
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-21; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.002

Abstract:
The Assam economy represents a unique example of poverty amidst plenty. In spite of being richly endowed with natural resources, the State lags behind the rest of India in many aspects. The cultivation in Assam is inundated by several problems; some of them are natural and some others are manmade. In this context, some of the major issues directly relating to the agricultural sector are small and fragmented land-holdings, lack of quality seed and planting materials, limited use of fertilizers, natural disasters, limited irrigation facility, lack of mechanization, disease and pest problems etc. Further, a considerable quantity of products harvested in Assam perishes due to lack of adequate storage and processing facility as well as due to absence of sound marketing facilities. Social factors such as low literacy levels lack of awareness about the benefits of modern high-value agriculture, inadequate training programmes for farmer etc. also contributes to the challenges for agricultural development in Assam. In order to improve the contribution of the agricultural sector to the overall development of the state, there is an urgent need to develop some appropriate, regionally differentiated strategy. Crop intensification and diversification with multiple cropping such as intercropping, mixed cropping, multi-storied cropping system, agro-forestry etc. are the need of hours to meet the challenges of natural hazardous and climate change effect. However, sustainable development is the only way to promote rational utilization of resources and environmental protection without hampering economic growth. “Integrated Farming Systems” hold special position as in this system nothing is wasted, the byproduct of one system becomes the input for other, as it refers to agricultural systems that integrate livestock and crop production. Additionally, the system help poor small farmers, who have very small land holding for crop production and a few heads of livestock to diversify farm production, increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced and exploitation of unutilized resources. The Government will have to play a much greater and active role in Assam for promoting the agricultural development process.
Richmond P. Ilao, Frederick Edward T. Fabella
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 35-61; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.004

Abstract:
Middle school students face various developmental and academic challenges. As these grade levels are characteristically in-between elementary and high school years, the adolescent difficulties may be even more prominent in these stages, pre-pandemic and more so during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of important variables to individuals in the middle school age group such as self-regulation, stress, and life satisfaction, and to analyze whether these variables differ when students are grouped according to sex, grade level, and socio-economic status which are deemed to be bases of a proposed program. One hundred (115) purposively sampled middle school students in Ekamai International School in Bangkok, Thailand were the respondents of this study. Results indicated that a significant positive relationship was found only between life satisfaction and self-regulation. This study also concludes that students may have a high level of life satisfaction despite experiencing stress. No significant difference was noted in self-regulation, stress, and life satisfaction when students are grouped according to sex, grade level, and socioeconomic status.
Veronica C. Ferrer
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 62-67; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.005

Abstract:
Generally, this study delved on the performance of Teacher Education Institutions in state universities and colleges of Region IV-B in relation to their Level II accreditation status. The levels of performance of Teacher Education Institutions were seen in terms of the following indicators: 1) faculty with specific provisions in teaching performance and professional development; 2) curriculum and instruction with specific provisions in board examination performance and admission-graduation ratio; 3) research outputs; and 4) extension services. Descriptive and documentary analysis types of research were adopted. Data extracted from the Agency Performance Rating (APR) instrument which is basically the measurement the tool for Normative Financing Scheme of DBM, the SUC Leveling instrument of CHED, the National Budget Circular (NBC) No. 461-Qualitative Common Evaluation (QCE) instrument, the Performance Evaluation System (PES) of the Civil Service Commission and the AACCUP Survey Instrument were used. As an offshoot of the study, a sustainable accreditation plan was proposed. The respondents of the study were the Teacher Education Institutions in the main campus of six state universities and colleges in Region IV-B offering Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education during the SY 2011-2012. Generally, the findings revealed that the level of performance as perceived by the SUC-TEIs under study and based from the ratings of AACCUP varies in different descriptions. Comparative analysis showed that board examination performance and admission-graduation ratio got statistically similar ratings from the two evaluation systems and that their assessments as far as academic performance is concerned are the same on the aforementioned areas. However, a significant difference was reflected on the areas of teaching performance, professional development and extension Services and highly significant difference on research as perceived by the SUC-TEIs and AACCUP. Documents supplemental to the data elucidated that the six TEIs of state universities and colleges in Region IV-B have common strengths and limitations in the four major (4) areas of accreditation. Conclusions were drawn out of the findings and strengthened the concept that despite gaining level II accreditation status, there were some areas that need considerable improvement in performing the academic functions of Teacher Education Institutions to achieve institutional effectiveness. An overview of the general result showed that several items have no significant difference between the perception made by SUC-TEIs respondents under study and the accreditation ratings by AACCUP concluding, therefore, that the two groups of organization had almost the same analysis as to the effectiveness of academic performance of these six TEIs. Common limitations were identified in almost all Teacher Education Institutions. For these reasons, it was recommended that faculty members of each college/dept should sustain a strong academic focus and further strengthen capabilities in research and extension. Re-evaluation of the areas with low performance was also suggested for possible interventions that can be resulted to an effective and efficient delivery of services to stakeholders. Other areas that did not contribute significant effects to the performance of the College/Department of Education should be given emphasis and attention by the school administration in preparation for the next higher level of accreditation. Finally, adoption of the proposed sustainable accreditation plan for the University/College and replication of this study among other SUCs located in other regions or maybe used by other programs are advocated.
Norma B. Muyot
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 22-34; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.003

Abstract:
The informal food sector is a vital part of rural, peri-urban and urban communities sitting alongside formal economic activities and trading procedures for centuries. It largely contributes to the local economy. However, since they source their supplies from agricultural produce in the local markets, they become vulnerable to the uncertainties which could possibly result to livelihood vulnerability. This descriptive study aimed to assess and describe the livelihood vulnerability level of the informal food sector, determine the issues, challenges and opportunities and identify policy implications that could improve the livelihood resiliency of the informal food sector in Occidental Mindoro. The Livelihood Vulnerability framework of Hahn (2009) where seven indicators were used in determining the vulnerability: socio-demographic profile, livelihood strategies, social network, health security, food security, access to utilities, and disaster experience. A random sampling of 200 informal food enterprises was employed to three market areas San Jose, Magsaysay and Rizal in Occidental Mindoro. The livelihood vulnerability index was used to describe the vulnerability level. The study revealed a low to moderate vulnerability level of the informal food enterprises. The issues, challenges and opportunities of the informal food sector include their limited access to formal credits, high dependency ratio, poor educational background, low marketing skills all contribute to their livelihood vulnerability. However their high adaptive capacity specifically in livelihood diversification and their ability to supply the essential needs of the market enhance their resilience They bank on two business strengths: affordability and availability which have become their investment to develop their regular buyers.
Norma B. Muyot, Cheryl B. Asuncion
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.001

Abstract:
This study drew the profile of the salt farm owners and farmers in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines; their salt production characteristics in terms of salt farm size, material used for salt beds and intended use of the salt produced and post-harvest practices. It also identified the constraints and challenges faced by the salt farm owners and farmers. Key Informant Interview using an interview guide was used to gather data from 52 salt farm owners/farmers. Results of the study indicate that the salt farm owners and farmers are males, between 41-55 years old married and belong to large households. The salt production area is 10 hectares or less, clay (from Vigan) and stones are used to line the crystallizers, and salt produced include agricultural grade salt for the coconut fertilization, yellow quality raw salt for bagoong and dried fish production, cleaning purposes, green quality raw salt for human consumption, iodized salt for human consumption (table salt), washed and refined salt for human consumption (table salt) and food industries (chips, biscuits). Findings of the study also revealed that majority of the salt farmers did not own a warehouse to store their salt and used sacks to package the salt. It is recommended that the Occidental Mindoro Salt Industry Road Map be translated into reality by providing government support to the industry in the form of research and development projects and programs on salt production, post-harvest, logistics and marketing strategies, provision of loan facility to augment capitalization and encourage industry-academe and government line agencies collaboration for an inclusive Occidental Mindoro Salt Industry revitalization.
Norma B. Muyot
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 62-74; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.005

Abstract:
This study focused on the ergonomic risk assessment of salt workers in Occidental Mindoro. The study intended to determine which work activities posed risks to the farm workers, find if significant relationship between profile variables and the total pain and body parts pain experienced by the salt workers from doing the work activities that posed risks. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to detect symptoms to the neck, back, shoulders and extremities. It is composed of 28 multiple choice questions and structured into two well-differentiated parts, the first part refers to symptoms in nine parts of the body(neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, hip/thighs, knees and ankles during the last 12 months. The second part refers to the symptoms in three parts of the body (neck, shoulders and lower back) throughout the subject’s working life/seven days beforehand. To interpret data, correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were used. Findings of the study revealed that the salt workers are middle adults, have been working in the salt farms for most of their lives, have heights and weights that are well within the average height and weight for Filipino males. Results further suggest that the work activities that posed risks and caused pain to the salt workers are, transporting salt, collecting salt and filling the salterns with brine. Further, age and years of working in the salt farms are also found to be significantly related to the pain in body parts experienced by the saltworkers in doing the activities that pose risks to them. The body parts that are likely to feel pain are neck, lower and upper back and knees. Lastly, in knowing the risky work activities of salt farmers, mitigation measures can be proposed.
Amalia E. Roldan, Nimfa B. Pastrana
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 75-80; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.006

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to monitor and evaluate the English Performance of the respondents in a tertiary state college from their first year to the second year of their stay in the institution. One hundred twenty sophomore students across colleges were used in the study. One group pre-test and post-test design was used to determine the increase in the English performance of the respondents. The results of their Diagnostic Test in English taken during their first year college were used as the basis of their pre-test. To see if there is a difference in their performance in English after taking English subjects in first year and second year of stay in the institution, they were asked to take again the same diagnostic test. Results of their first take and second take of the test were compared using the t-test for a dependent sample of means. To evaluate the test, the results of the test per component were scrutinized and analyzed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the performance of the respondents in the first take and second take of the test. Most of the students got high scores on nouns, pronouns and adjectives, conjunction, and preposition; however, low mean scores were reported on identifying adverbs, tenses of the verb, vocabulary, and essay. The weak areas of the students are recommended for possible intervention. Based on the findings, it is concluded that generally, (1) there is a marked increase in scores in the second take of the English Diagnostic Test across all colleges; (2) There is no significant difference in the English performance of the respondents in the first and second take of the test.(3) the strengths of the students in English are noun, pronoun, adjectives, conjunction and preposition.The weak areas of the students are adverbs, verbs, vocabulary, and essays.
Iqbal Saujan, Mohamed Haniffa Mohamed Nairoos, Aathif Ahmed S.H.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 13-35; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.002

Abstract:
Widows encounter plenty of negative socio-economic consequences due to the increasing divorce among Sri Lankan Muslims. Especially divorce is prevalent among Muslims in the study area, and it is common for women to face various socio-economic and psychological challenges after divorce. As an alternative to these issues encountered, Islam has introduced and encouraged remarriage. In that respect, the study aims to assess the concept of remarriage of Muslim women who have divorced and identify the factors that hinder remarriage. Primary and secondary data collection methods were used in this study. In the first stage of data collection, the report of the divisional Quazi Court was obtained and the details of the divorced women were obtained through the documentary analysis. As the second step of data collection, a closed questionnaire was distributed among the divorced women and an unstructured interview was conducted with them. Interviews and telephone conversations were conducted with those 152 divorced women who were selected on the basis of convenient sampling methods and as well as by newly elected clergy, intellectuals, school administrators, and parents of divorced women. Moreover, other publications such as research articles, texts, journals, and web articles were read. It appears that there is a low number of remarriages in practice in the research area Beruwala and the women in the study area are found to be uninvolved in remarriage. In this case, it was detected that, the influence of the research sample's psychological, social and familial factors. In this regard, awareness needs to be raised as remarriage is an excellent solution to the various economic and social challenges faced by divorced women.
Nimfa B. Pastrana
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.003

Abstract:
This study was conducted to examine the disaster mental health preparedness of people living in rural areas which are identified to be prone to floods specifically during the monsoon months of June to December. The study employed the descriptive-correlational method. A total of 100 respondents representing five (5) communities were the participants in this study. Using the Psychological Preparedness for Disaster Threat Scale (PPDTS) as the main instrument in gathering the data, the respondents were also asked to complete the demographic survey such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The major findings of the study include the following: that most of the respondents represent the young generation, are female, and belong to the mass-based socioeconomic status. The statistical calculations showed that the respondents are not mentally well-prepared in facing disasters specifically floods and typhoons. It was also revealed that demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and length significantly impact the disaster mental health preparedness of people who are living in flood-prone areas. Also, both age and socioeconomic status affect the mental health readiness of the respondents. It is recommended that psychological readiness be one of the components of the existing plans and programs for disaster mitigation.
Frederick Edward T. Fabella
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i05.001

Abstract:
This study sought to investigate certain factors that could contribute to the spread of fake news. A 49-item, researcher-made instrument, which underwent content validation was used in this study. The instrument used a 4-point Likert scale. This instrument was posted online through Google Forms and volunteers were obtained as respondents. The respondents were all adults who use social media and reside in Quezon City, Pasig City and Marikina City as well as from San Mateo and Rodriguez in the Province of Rizal. There were 52 males and 125 females, totaling 177 participants. The results indicate that the respondents have encountered fake news on Facebook, Youtube and Tiktok. The results also show that the respondents do not consider the number of likes, positive comments or shares as indicative of the truth of the social media content. It was also found that the direct sharer such as a family member, a relative, a present or former classmate, a friend, a present or former coworker, a teacher, a job superior, a romantic partner, a fellow church member or church leader, a former school mate and a fellow member of an organization to which they belong, is not a factor that will move them to share the social media news. The respondents also do not immediately believe the truth of a photo or the identity of the individual posting social media content. The results also suggest that the respondents exercise critical thinking practices prior to believing any social media content. The results further show that the respondents do not believe that they have intentionally or accidentally shared any fake news.
Frederick Edward T. Fabella, Cainta Feu Roosevelt
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i04.005

Abstract:
This study sought to determine whether gender, birth order, parental separation and duration of current romantic union were factors that influenced relationship trust. 95 single adult respondents whose biological parents were alive and are currently in heterosexual romantic relationships volunteered to participate in this study. Trust Scale of Rempel and Holmes was used to measure the respondents’ relationship trust. The findings of this study indicated that differences in gender, birth order, parental separation and duration of current romantic union yielded no statistically significant differences in the respondents’ relationship trust scores.
Frederick Edward T. Fabella
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i04.001

Abstract:
This study sought to explore the relationship between self-esteem and aggression levels of 3rd year college students undergoing online learning from home. One section of 34 students was selected randomly from a government institution, while one section of 33 students was similarly selected from a private institution. To measure self-esteem, the Sorensen Self-Esteem Test was used. On the other hand, the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry was used to assess the respondents’ level of aggression. The responses were obtained through Google Forms. The results of this study indicate that there is a statistically significant inverse correlation between self-esteem and aggression of the respondents. The lower the self-esteem, the higher the level of aggression.
Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud Aboelkheir
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 37-49; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i04.004

Abstract:
National oil companies now control 77% of global oil and gas production compared to formerly dominant international oil companies. National oil companies appear to be recovering in global energy markets and now control most of the world's oil and gas reserves. Towards defining their public role, a research investigation was conducted to assess their current position and the steps necessitated to maintain and increase the scope of their public influence in terms of job creation and national economies. The findings of this publication were that international oil companies, independents and national oil companies need to think differently about how, where to invest and when assets are liquidated. More so, unlike independent companies and independent managers, national companies are also concerned about how downstream investments can be used to create jobs and prosperity for the national economies of national companies.
Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud Aboelkheir
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 7-23; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i04.002

Abstract:
The intention behind this study is to select the most prominent from the political risks for the industry in Yemen and describe the best practices to mitigate them, identify strategic risk and risk management strategies involved in oil and gas industry operations & analyse the effectiveness of oil and gas company's risk response strategies in promoting political stability in its areas of business. The methodology behind identifying the risks and assessing them is the following Risk management according probability impact matrix in analyzing risk factors. A total of 61 factors that might cause risks in oil and gas construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. Risk factors identified were bureaucratic government system and lengthy project approval procedure; poor design; incompetence of project team; inadequate tendering; late internal approval process from the owner; inadequate project organization structure; improper project feasibility study; inefficient and poor performance of constructors; improper project planning and budgeting; and design changes among others.
Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud Aboelkheir
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 24-36; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i04.003

Abstract:
The UAE aims to increase the global competitiveness of the UAE by increasing the share of renewable, clean and alternative energy sources in its overall energy mix. In this study, a commentary on the prospects, challenges, gains & opportunities of the environmental policies, models & strategies in the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) Oil and gas sector are discussed in how they play an important role in meeting the UAE's energy needs. The findings of the paper were that in the short to medium term, the "energy transition" is unlikely to have a negative impact as energy demand continues to grow.
Ifediba Emmanvitalis. E, Nwangene Ogochukwu. C
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i03.001

Abstract:
The Nigeria capital market has not witnessed obvious transformation over the years. The research aimed at Assessing Current Performance, Issues & Opportunities on the Nigeria capital market. An empirical survey based on secondary data & primary data procured from Lagos Stock Exchange, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Securities & Exchange Commission. A total number of one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaire were administered to staff of financial regulatory sectors respectively for which (80) were used for analysis. After cleaning and sorting the copies of the accepted questionnaire they were fed into the statistical package for social science (SPSS). The questionnaire was structured in line with the research objectives, questions and hypothesis of the study. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to confirm formulated hypotheses. The findings indicate that the rate of capital market performance is low and has not contributed effectively to Nation gross domestic product (GDP). The capital market, stock market which are the major players in the Nigeria economy diminished as shown in Tables. The Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) All share index greatly collapsed. The study concluded that policies like improvement in the institutional quality, enhancement of Nigerian security challenges to make Nigeria an investor-friendly nation, encouragement of the local industries by supporting small and medium enterprises, and enhancement of international trade between Nigeria and other countries will be suggested to Nigerian government as a way to improve stock market performance.
Puja Singh
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i02.001

Abstract:
Each educated human have their own novel penmanship qualities which is normally inserted. Penmanship is the photo of the inner struggles continuing. The review shows that the penmanship appraisals can fill in as a viable indicator for the guess of the previously mentioned aggravations and perhaps some others too. The proficient finding of the aggravations in the area of brain science is mostly founded on indications referenced in books of analytic rule that are generally physical and mental yet semantic capacities like penmanship can likewise be utilized for something similar. It very well may be utilized as a projective method to concentrate on part that the individual oppose or at times knows nothing about to share. Graphology can be effectively utilized in crooks' profiling and understanding, that it is a suitable strategy for examination and that it can just finish the overall image of a crook's mind. Graphology inspects conduct, yet the psyche or the whys that untruth behind activities, giving data that couldn't be set up in some other manner or in such a fast time. It tends to be utilized for character appraisal in any space of human action where individuals connect.
Edet Okon Umoh
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 58-110; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i01.004

Abstract:
This study evaluated Products of Federal School of Psychiatric Nursing in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Five research questions were raised to direct the course of this study. An evaluation research design was adopted to evaluate 64 psychiatric nurses purposively selected from the 150 students who graduated from the School between 2014-2019 working in Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Calabar. Data was collected using observational technique and checklist designed by the researcher. The instrument was validated and reliability established with the use of Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test at the range of 0.810-0.990. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics which involve proportion, percentage, mean, and weighted mean score. Findings of the study revealed that nurses from Federal School of Psychiatric Nursing, Calabar fairly utilize their nursing process. However, they had overall good performance in creating an atmosphere of trust, which allows for meeting the patient’s basic emotional needs; creating opportunity for patients to express selffeelings; displaying tolerance in accepting maladaptive behaviours; and assisting in providing necessary corrective experiences. It was therefore concluded that Federal School of Psychiatric Nursing, Calabar is effective in preparing nurses for efficient healthcare delivery of the mentally ill. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that the school should include the programme objectives in their curriculum, increase supervision of students during clinical on use of nursing process and ensure enough nursing project booklets are reproduced for use in the school and clinical area.
Christian Ivan B. Camarce
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2021.v01i11.001

Abstract:
This paper presents the utilization of outdoor physics activities in the teaching of selected topics in light and optics in order to promote effective transfer of learning in physics and interacting with the environment which is one of the main subjects of the study. The study also looked into the effect of cooperative learning, active learning, use of higher order thinking skills (HOTS), relevance of learning experiences and development of social skills in physics among fourth year high school students in a secondary school in Bacacay, Albay. The researcher developed outdoor physics activities as an instructional intervention and used a single group pretest- posttest design. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were used in the study. The instruments used in data gathering were the teacher- made questionnaire for the features of the outdoor physics activities in optics and results of the pretest- posttest for conceptual understanding and the guide questions for the journal entries of the students. Validation of data was done through triangulation of students’ journal entries, self-rating checklist and experts’ observation. Positive result shows in the conceptual understanding, development of scientific skills, enhancement on the attitude and values and improvement on the social skillsof the students. Further, it is recommended that additional outdoor physics activities be developed for the enrichment of the students’ conceptual understanding as they see their relevance to real life experiences.
Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud Aboelkheir
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 38-57; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i01.003

Abstract:
A study was conducted to measure the values of m.t.c and N of an absorption column. Values of N were in the range of 10-5, while those of m.t.c were in the range of 10-7. The trends with variables were confirmed with the previous studies. However, they were not with m.t.c. Pressure variance was suggested as the reason. Error was assessed at a percentage of 15% for m.t.c, and under 2% for pressure. Using other methods than only measuring concentration of solute with the Hempl apparatus was recommended.
Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud Aboelkheir
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-37; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i01.002

Abstract:
Design of an ammonia reactor was conceived as part of a series of item designs for an ammonia plant in Cyprus. The Chemical and Mechanical aspects of the design were considered. Optimization of these designs was studied, worked on, & discussed. The safety, environmental and legal regulations of relevant reactor regulations were followed in the design concerned.
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i01.001

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the effect of transformational leadership style and work motivation on employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) mediated by employee job satisfaction. The object of the research is employees of PT. Sumberdaya Dian Mandiri with a sample of 95 people. Methods of data collection using questionnaire data collection and library research. Data analysis method using Partial Least Square. The result of this study show that (1) transformational leadership has a positive but not significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); (2) work motivation has a positive and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); (3) transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction; (4) work motivation has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction; (5) job satisfaction has a positive but not significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); (6) job satisfaction in mediating transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has a positive but not significant effect, and (7) job satisfaction in mediating work motivation on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has a positive and significant effect.
Yiglet Mebrat
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-62; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2021.v01i12.001

Abstract:
A Laboratory Manual for the Preparation of Chemical Reagents, Solutions and Special Indicators. ETHIOPIAN BIODIVERSITY INSTITUTE, Microbial Biodiversity Directorate. This manual includes detailed view of the following: Laboratory Safety Precautions, Chemical Reagent Preparation, Buffer and Chemical Solution Preparation, Staining Solution Preparation, Indicators and Dye Solution Preparation, Preparation of Special Reagents, Known and Suspected List of Carcinogens and References.
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