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Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 330-347; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.257

Abstract:
The visualization of specific activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) directly in the zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio) via live-imaging is a reliable tool to investigate the presence of dioxin-like substances in environmental samples. The co-existence of inducers and inhibitors of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYP1A) is typical of complex environmental mixtures and requires modifications of the in vivo EROD assay: For this end, zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the EROD-modifying potentials of common single-compound exposures as well as binary mixtures with the PAH-type Ah-receptor agonist β-naphthoflavone. For chemical testing, chlorpyrifos and Aroclor 1254 were selected; β-naphthoflavone served as maximum EROD induction control. Chlorpyrifos (≤EC10) could be documented to be a strong CYP1A inhibitor causing characteristic edema-related toxicity. Aroclor 1254 resulted in inhibition of CYP1A catalytic activity in a concentration- and specific time-dependent manner. Next to a fast CYP1A induction, CYP1A inhibition could also be detected after 3h short-term exposure of zebrafish embryos to chlorpyrifos. This communication also describes techniques for the quantification of fluorescence signals via densitometry as a basis for subsequent statistical assessment. The co-exposure approach with zebrafish embryos accounts for the nature of potential interaction between CYP1A inducers and inhibitors and thus pays tribute to the complexity of environmental mixtures. The co-exposure EROD live-imaging assay thus facilitates a better understanding of mixture effects and allows a better assessment and interpretation of (embryo) toxic potentials.
, Jong Hun Jeon, SangKi Choi, Jingyeong Shin,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 289-296; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.279

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate reduction in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via targeting solid waste in effluent from a flow-through aquaculture in South Korea. The level of suspended solids in the filtrates was approximately 12.5±2.3mg/L, corresponding to a removal efficiency of 68.8±5.7% irrespective of variations in the size of the filter pores. The total number of particles in the effluent was reduced to the lowest numbers of particles using a filter pore size of 25μm, corresponding to a removal efficiency of 40.3%. Among the 23 ARGs conferring resistance to tetracyclines, beta-lactam antibiotics, sulfonamides, quinolones, macrolides, florfenicol and multidrug, tetracycline resistance genes were the most prevalent with a relative abundance of 67.5%. Of eleven tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetD, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ, tetX, tetZ, tetB/P) analyzed, the relative abundance of tetG was the highest in the effluent. The removal efficiency of the total number of particles showed similar patterns to the removal efficiency of ARGs depending on the size of the filter pores. Levels of ARGs in the filtrates were reduced to approximately 60.5% of those of the ARGs in the effluents. With a filter pore size of 25μm, a maximum removal efficiency of 66.0% was achieved. In particular, the relative abundance of detected tetracycline resistance genes decreased only after passing through the filters, perhaps reflecting the presence of high quantities of tetracycline resistance genes in particles from the fish farm. Using Illumina sequencing based on a 16S rRNA gene, the dominant phyla were found to be Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia in the effluent. Although the overall composition of the bacterial communities was not significantly changed via filtering tests, only the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria was changed. These results demonstrate that a filtering process in aquaculture facilities can be used to reduce solid waste as well as ARGs from aquaculture farms.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 282-288; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.277

Abstract:
Wild boar populations are expanding throughout the world and intruding into periurban and urban areas. In the last years, wild boar has colonized several European cities, including our study area, the city of Barcelona. It is required to identify the main factors driving wild boar into urban areas prior to establish management measures. We built Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) using 3148 wild boar presences registered in the urban area of Barcelona from 2010 to 2014 to identify the variables correlated with these presences. The variables analysed included proxies for distance to source population, urban food resources, climate and urban habitat structure. Wild boars enter the urban area from close natural habitat using corridors such as streams, preferably in fragmented urban environment, looking for food such as urban green areas or dry pet food from cat colonies. Wild boar presence is higher in spring possibly due to the births of piglets and the dispersion of yearlings during that season, and also when natural resources in the Mediterranean habitat fail to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wild boar population during the summer season. Management measures derived from this study are currently being applied in the city of Barcelona, including vegetation clearings in the wild boar entrance areas and an awareness campaign aimed at reducing the anthropogenic food availability for wild boars. The methodology used can be applied to other cities with wild boar or even other wildlife species issues. The comparison between the factors attracting wild boars into different urban areas would be helpful to understand the global phenomenon.
Juan Cui, Jing Zhu, , Jan Mulder, Bing Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 319-329; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.251

Abstract:
Denitrification characteristics of forest soils from eight headwater catchments in China were investigated in this study, along a climatic gradient from the tropics in the South to the temperate zones. Within each catchment, different landscape positions along hydrological flow paths were also considered, including well-drained soils on hill slopes and poorly drained soils in groundwater discharge zones. The results showed that instantaneous denitrification rates were much greater in soils from the northern sites than those from the southern sites (with the average of 110.0 and 25.4nmolNg(-1)drysoilh.(-)(1), respectively). Large potentials for nitrous oxide (N2O) loss (evaluated as maximum N2O accumulation before it was reduced to dinitrogen (N2)) were observed in the six tropical and subtropical catchments, particularly in soils with high carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Meanwhile high N2O/(N2O+N2) stoichiometries were displayed in soils from these southern sites. Within catchments, soils from the groundwater discharge zones showed greater potential denitrification rates but smaller N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in comparison with those on the hill slopes, implying large N removal potentials of soils from the groundwater discharge zones. Furthermore, our findings suggest soil pH is the key controller for the potential denitrification rates and the N2O/(N2O+N2) stoichiometries. Soil pH, C and N availability affect the potential for N2O loss synergistically. Our findings not only pinpoint the denitrification phenotypes of soils along the climatic gradient, but also confirm the small-scale variations within catchments which reflect the in situ habitat of the denitrifiers. These indicate the importance of discrimination related to different landscape positions when modeling N2O emissions and N removals from regional N loading.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 297-306; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.278

Abstract:
New technologies for wastewater treatment have been developed in the last years based on the combination of biological reactors operating under different redox conditions. Their efficiency in the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) has not been clearly assessed yet. This review paper is focussed on understanding the sorption and biotransformation of a selected group of 17 OMPs, including pharmaceuticals, hormones and personal care products, during biological wastewater treatment processes. Apart from considering the role of "classical" operational parameters, new factors such as biomass conformation and particle size, upward velocity applied or the addition of adsorbents have been considered. It has been found that the OMP removal by sorption not only depends on their physico-chemical characteristics and other parameters, such as the biomass conformation and particle size, or some operational conditions also relevant. Membrane biological reactors (MBR), have shown to enhance sorption and biotransformation of some OMPs. The same applies to technologies bases on direct addition of activated carbon in bioreactors. The OMP biotransformation degree and pathway is mainly driven by the redox potential and the primary substrate activity. The combination of different redox potentials in hybrid reactor systems can significantly enhance the overall OMP removal efficiency. Sorption and biotransformation can be synergistically promoted in biological reactors by the addition of activated carbon. The deeper knowledge of the main parameters influencing OMP removal provided by this review will allow optimizing the biological processes in the future.
, Hamid Darabi, , Farzaneh Sajedi-Hosseini,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 272-281; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.293

Abstract:
Suspended sediment load (SSL) modelling is an important issue in integrated environmental and water resources management, as sediment affects water quality and aquatic habitats. Although classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms have been applied successfully to ecological and geomorphological modelling, their applicability to SSL estimation in rivers has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated use of a CART model to estimate SSL based on hydro-meteorological data. We also compared the accuracy of the CART model with that of the four most commonly used models for time series modelling of SSL, i.e. adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and two kernels of support vector machines (RBF-SVM and P-SVM). The models were calibrated using river discharge, stage, rainfall and monthly SSL data for the Kareh-Sang River gauging station in the Haraz watershed in northern Iran, where sediment transport is a considerable issue. In addition, different combinations of input data with various time lags were explored to estimate SSL. The best input combination was identified through trial and error, percent bias (PBIAS), Taylor diagrams and violin plots for each model. For evaluating the capability of the models, different statistics such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) and percent bias (PBIAS) were used. The results showed that the CART model performed best in predicting SSL (NSE=0.77, KGE=0.8, PBIAS<±15), followed by RBF-SVM (NSE=0.68, KGE=0.72, PBIAS<±15). Thus the CART model can be a helpful tool in basins where hydro-meteorological data are readily available.
Melissa Morselli, , , , Roberto Giacchini, ,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 307-318; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.287

Abstract:
The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agricultural areas implies potential chemical loadings to surface waters, which can pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Due to the spatio-temporal variability of PPP applications and of the processes regulating their transport to surface waters, aquatic organisms are typically exposed to pulses of contaminants. In small mountain watersheds, where runoff fluxes are more rapid due to the steep slopes, such exposure peaks are particularly likely to occur. In this work, a spatially explicit, dynamic model for predicting pesticide exposure in surface waters of cultivated mountain basins (DynAPlus) has been developed. The model has been applied to a small mountain watershed (133km(2)) located in the Italian Eastern Alps and characterized by intensive agriculture (apple orchards) around the main river and its tributaries. DynAPlus performance was evaluated for chlorpyrifos through experimental monitoring, using samples collected during the 2011 and 2012 productive seasons. The comparison between predictions and measurements resulted in a good agreement (R(2)=0.49, efficiency factor 0.60), although a more accurate spatial information in the input scenario (e.g., field-specific applications, rainfall amount, soil properties) would dramatically improve model performance. A set of illustrative simulations performed for three PPPs highlighted the potential role of DynAPlus in improving exposure predictions for ecological risk assessment and pesticide management practices (e.g., for active ingredient and application rate selection), as well as for planning efficient monitoring campaigns and/or interpreting monitoring data. However, some model improvements (e.g., solid erosion and transport) and a more thorough model validation are desirable to enlarge the applicability domain.
, , Manuela Andrioletti, Claudio Vismara, Giovanni Vailati
Published: 15 March 2008
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 392, pp 110-118; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.11.031

Abstract:
Embryotoxic effects of Carbaryl (CB), a widely used carbamate insecticide, was evaluated by modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), coupled with a histopathological screening of the survived larvae. X. laevis embryos were exposed to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 mg/L CB from stage 8 to stage 47. From an estimated LC50 of 20.28 mg/L and TC50 of 8.43 mg/L a TI of 2.41 was derived, indicating that CB is to be considered teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The most characteristic terata, classified as abnormal tail flexure, involved a significant percentage of larvae from 1 mg/L CB onward, reaching 100% at 24 mg/L CB. Histopathological screening revealed tail musculature and notochord as the main targets for CB. Skeletal muscle lesions consisted of myotomes reduced in size, showing myocytes with disorganized contractile systems and irregular myosepta, coupled with disarranged myocyte apexes. Notochords from CB exposed larvae appeared wavy or bent, with irregular connective sheaths and histologically characterized by protrusions of fibrous matrix and inclusions of ectopic cell masses. This axial–skeletal damage was hypothesized to be related both to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with consequent muscular tetanic spasms, and to disorders in the organization of the connective tissue matrix surrounding the notochord.
, , M.O. Hill, , S. Rushton, K. Austin, E. Small, B. Wood, , R. Sanderson, et al.
Published: 1 May 2006
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 360, pp 196-204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.08.035

Abstract:
We examined the biodiversity of urban habitats in Birmingham (England) using a combination of field surveys of plants and carabid beetles, genetic studies of four species of butterflies, modelling the anthropochorous nature of the floral communities and spatially explicit modelling of selected mammal species. The aim of the project was to: (i) understand the ecological characteristics of the biota of cities model, (ii) examine the effects of habitat fragment size and connectivity upon the ecological diversity and individual species distributions, (iii) predict biodiversity in cities, and (iv) analyse the extent to which the flora and fauna utilise the ‘urban greenways’ both as wildlife corridors and as habitats in their own right. The results suggest that cities provide habitats for rich and diverse range of plants and animals, which occur sometimes in unlikely recombinant communities. The studies on carabids and butterflies illustrated the relative importance of habitat quality on individual sites as opposed to site location within the conurbation. This suggests that dispersal for most of our urban species is not a limiting factor in population persistence, although elements of the woodland carabid fauna did appear to have some geographical structuring. Theoretical models suggested that dormice and water voles may depend on linear habitats for dispersal. The models also indicated that other groups, such as small and medium sized mammals, may use corridors, although field-based research did not provide any evidence to suggest that plants or invertebrates use urban greenways for dispersal. This finding indicates the importance of identifying a target species or group of species for urban greenways intended as dispersal routeways rather than as habitat in their own right. Their importance for most groups is rather that greenways provide a chain of different habitats permeating the urban environment. We suggest that planners can have a positive impact on urban biodiversity by slowing the pace of redevelopment and by not hurrying to tidy up and redevelop brownfield sites.
Peng Zhang, Chao Ren, , Lujuan Min
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 59-69; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.097

Abstract:
In this study, the sorption, desorption and degradation of three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI), clothianidin (CLO) and thiacloprid (THI), and their effects on microorganisms in four different agricultural soils were systematically evaluated. The sorption of neonicotinoids on the soils was generally low with distribution coefficients (K) up to 16.2L/kg at C of 0.05mg/L following the order THI>IMI≈CLO, and the sorption were mainly influenced by the soil organic carbon content. The percentage degradation rates of the pesticides in different soils ranged from 25.4% to 80.9%, all following the order THI>IMI≈CLO. All the three neonicotinoids degraded much faster under non-sterilized conditions than sterilized conditions, indicating considerable contribution of biodegradation. The total degradation or biodegradation of neonicotinoids was the fastest in the soil with the highest organic carbon content, and the neonicotinoids' bioavailability was not the primary influencing factor due to their weak sorption. The chemical degradation was mainly affected by pH and cation exchange capacity. The degradation of neonicotinoids occurred mainly via nitrate reduction, cyano hydrolysis and chloropyridinyl dechlorination. High-throughput sequencing data showed that the microbial community structure and abundance changed greatly in neonicotinoid-spiked soils as compared to the control, which might influence their degradation pathways. Some microbe families associated with the biodegradation of neoniconoids were found, which were all belonging to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The degradation of neoniconoids influenced the soil nitrifying process. The present study provides valuable information for comprehensively understanding the fate of neonicotinoids in soils.
Ziqiang Yin, Michael Hoffmann,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 262-271; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.175

Abstract:
Electrical heating has been proposed as a potential method for pathogen inactivation in human waste sludge, especially in decentralized wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we investigated the heat production and E. coli inactivation in wastewater sludge using electrical thermal treatment. Various concentrations of NaCl and NH4Cl were tested as electrolyte to enhance conductivity in sludge mixtures. At same voltage input (18 V), sludge treated with direct current (DC) exhibited slower ascent of temperature and lower energy efficiencies for heat production comparing to that using alternate current (AC). However, DC power showed better performance in E. coli inactivation due to electrochemical inactivation in addition to thermal inactivation. Greater than 6log10 removal of E. coli was demonstrated within 2 h using 0.15 M of NaCl as electrolyte by AC or DC power. The heat production in sludge was modeled using Maxwell–Eucken and effective medium theory based on the effective electrical conductivity in the two-phase (liquid and solid) sludge mixtures. The results showed that the water and heat loss is a critical consideration in modeling of sludge temperature using ohmic heating. The experimental data also suggested that the models are less applicable to DC power because the electrochemical reactions triggered by DC reduce the concentration of NH4+ and other ions that serve as electrolyte. The results of this study contribute to the development of engineering strategies for human waste sludge management.
Bohan Wang, Fangwei Liu, Jing Dong, Mingdan You, Yuanyuan Fu, Chao Li, Yiping Lu,
Published: 30 September 2017
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 253-261; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.276

Abstract:
Di (ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used phthalates (PAEs) compound as plasticizer and becomes a severe environmental pollutant worldwide. Studies show that DEHP, as an environmental endocrine disruptor, has potential adverse effects on human. Epidemiologic studies indicate that DEHP is positively correlated to allergic diseases. Maternal exposure to DEHP may contribute to the increasing incidence of allergic diseases in offspring. However, the role of DEHP and its detailed mechanism in allergic disease of the offspring are still unclear. The aim of our study is to investigate whether DEHP maternal exposure could aggravate the allergic responses in offspring and its mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and exposed to different doses of DEHP. Half of the offspring were challenged with OVA after birth. All the pups of each group were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND)14, PND21 and PND28. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage was counted, lung pathological changes were observed, Th2 type cytokines expressions were checked, and the expression of TSLP signaling pathway were examined. Our results showed that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy and lactation aggravated the eosinophils accumulation and the pathological inflammatory changes in pups' lung after OVA challenge. And maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy and lactation also elevated the levels of typical Th2 cytokines in OVA-challenged rats. What's more, maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy and lactation increased the levels of TSLP, TSLPR and IL-7R in the offspring after OVA challenge. Our study suggested that DEHP maternal exposure could aggravate the OVA-induced asthmatic responses in offspring. And this adjuvant effect of DEHP was related with the TSLP/TSLPR/IL-7R and its downstream signal pathways.
Qiwen Zhou, Bohan Liao, Lina Lin, ,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 115-122; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.220

Abstract:
Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water bodies necessitates the continuous development of effective decontamination techniques. To address this issue, ferromanganese binary oxide-biochar composites (FMBC) were prepared using impregnation/sintering methods, and their physicochemical properties and morphologies were examined. Kinetic modeling and adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on FMBC, revealing that adsorption was well represented by pseudo-second-order kinetics (R(2)>0.99) and the Langmuir isotherm model. The prepared FMBC exhibited maximum Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 64.9 and 101.0mg/g, respectively, exceeding the corresponding values of biochar (21.7 and 28.0mg/g, respectively). Moreover, adsorption was favored by increased pH and high humic acid concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared analyses confirmed that the heavy metal ions adsorbed on FMBC were divalent, indicating that the uptake of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was mainly due to the formation of strong mono- or multidentate inner-sphere complexes (e.g., COO-M (M=Cu or Cd) and Fe-Mn-O-M). Thus, the prepared composites exhibited potential applications as excellent adsorbents for Cu(II) and Cd(II) removal from contaminated water.
Published: 15 September 2011
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 409, pp 4335-4343; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.026

Abstract:
Understanding the interactive effects of multiple stressors on ecosystems has started to become a major concern. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the consequences of a long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of Cu, Zn and As on the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of lotic biofilm communities in artificial indoor channels. Moreover, the specificity of the PICT was assessed by evaluating the positive and negative co-tolerance between these metals. Photosynthetic efficiency and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), targeting the autotrophic and heterotrophic communities respectively were used in short-term inhibition bioassays with Cu, Zn and As to assess sensitivities of pre-exposed biofilms to the metals tested. Diversity profiles of a phototrophic, eukaryotic and prokaryotic community in biofilms following the different treatments were determined and analyzed with principal component analysis. The results demonstrated that pre-exposure to metals induced structural shifts in the community and led to tolerance enhancements in the phototrophic and heterotrophic communities. On the other hand, whatever the functional parameter used (i.e. photosynthesis and SIR), communities exposed to Cu were more tolerant to Zn and vice versa. Furthermore, only phototrophic communities pre-exposed to As developed tolerance to Cu but not to Zn, whereas no co-tolerance between Cu and As was observed in the heterotrophic communities. Finally, phototrophic and heterotrophic communities exposed to Cu and Zn became more sensitive to As, reflecting a negative co-tolerance between these metals. Overall, our findings support the fact that although the mode of action of the different metals is an important driver for the structure and thus the tolerance of the communities, it appears that the detoxification modes are the most important factors for the occurrence of positive or negative co-tolerance.
Published: 15 September 2011
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 409, pp 4206-4216; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.019

Abstract:
Global stress on water and land resources is increasing as a consequence of population growth and higher caloric food demand. Many terrestrial ecosystems have already massively been degraded for providing agricultural land, and water scarcity related to irrigation has damaged water dependent ecosystems. Coping with the food and biomass demand of an increased population, while minimizing the impacts of crop production, is therefore a massive upcoming challenge. In this context, we developed four strategies to deliver the biotic output for feeding mankind in 2050. Expansion on suitable and intensification of existing areas are compared to assess associated environmental impacts, including irrigation demand, water stress under climate change, and the productivity of the occupied land. Based on the agricultural production pattern and impacts of the strategies we identified the trade-offs between land and water use. Intensification in regions currently under deficit irrigation can increase agricultural output by up to 30%. However, intensified crop production causes enormous water stress in many locations and might not be a viable solution. Furthermore, intensification alone will not be able to meet future food demand: additionally, a reduction of waste by 50% along the food supply chain or expansion of agricultural land is required for satisfying current per-capita meat and bioenergy consumption. Suitable areas for such expansion are mainly located in Africa, followed by South America. The increased land stress is of smaller concern than the water stress modeled for the intensification case. Therefore, a combination of waste reduction with expansion on suitable pastures generally results as the best option, along with some intensification on selected areas. Our results suggested that minimizing environmental impacts requires fundamental changes in agricultural systems and international cooperation, by producing crops where it is most environmentally efficient and not where it is closest to demand or cheapest.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 219-227; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.215

Abstract:
Increased nutrient cycling in the agri-food system is a way to achieve a healthier nutrient stewardship and more sustainable food production. In life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, use of recycled fertilizer products is often credited by the substitution method, which subtracts the environmental burdens associated with avoided production of mineral fertilizer from the system under study. The environmental benefits from avoided fertilizer production can make an important contribution to the results, but different calculation principles and often implicit assumptions are used to estimate the amount of avoided mineral fertilizer. This may hinder comparisons between studies. The present study therefore examines how the choice of substitution principles influences LCA results. Three different substitution principles, called one-to-one, maintenance, and adjusted maintenance, are identified, and we test the importance of these in a case study on cattle slurry management. We show that the inventory of avoided mineral fertilizer varies greatly when the different principles are applied, with strong influences on two-thirds of LCA impact categories. With the one-to-one principle, there is a risk of systematically over-estimating the environmental benefits from nutrient cycling. In a sensitivity analysis we show that the difference between the principles is closely related to the application rate and levels of residual nutrients in the soil. We recommend that LCA practitioners first and foremost state and justify the substitution method they use, in order to increase transparency and comparability with other studies.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 228-239; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.061

Abstract:
The paper suggests a methodology for predicting next-year seasonal pollen index (SPI, a sum of daily-mean pollen concentrations) over large regions and demonstrates its performance for birch in Northern and North-Eastern Europe. A statistical model is constructed using meteorological, geophysical and biological characteristics of the previous year). A cluster analysis of multi-annual data of European Aeroallergen Network (EAN) revealed several large regions in Europe, where the observed SPI exhibits similar patterns of the multi-annual variability. We built the model for the northern cluster of stations, which covers Finland, Sweden, Baltic States, part of Belarus, and, probably, Russia and Norway, where the lack of data did not allow for conclusive analysis. The constructed model was capable of predicting the SPI with correlation coefficient reaching up to 0.9 for some stations, odds ratio is infinitely high for 50% of sites inside the region and the fraction of prediction falling within factor of 2 from observations, stays within 40-70%. In particular, model successfully reproduced both the bi-annual cycle of the SPI and years when this cycle breaks down.
S. Yang, Y.L. Ma, , , L.T. Wang, Z. Wei, L.D. Zhu, T. Ma, H. Li, S.Q. Ye
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 1367-1375; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.033

Abstract:
Handan, a city within the North China Plain (NCP) region, is a typical city influenced by regional particulate matter (PM) pollution. One-year hourly semi-continuous observation was carried out in 2015 in Handan with the aim of identifying the chemical composition and variations in PM2.5. Moreover, the concentration of aerosol precursors, meteorological factors, and secondary transformations are considered. The results demonstrate that the annual average PM2.5 concentration in Handan is 122.35μgm(-3), approximately 3.5 times higher than the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (35μgm(-3)), and only 12days were below the guideline. As expected, PM concentrations are highest in winter, especially in December. In addition, we measure the concentrations of five species commonly found in PM, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, inorganic carbon, and organic carbon. Of these, nitrate and sulfate account for the largest proportion of PM2.5; during periods when the PM2.5 concentration was below 400μgm(-3), nitrate dominates, while above this concentration, sulfate dominate. This is likely related to the nitrogen and sulfur oxidation ratios, which are in turn, especially the sulfur oxidation ratio, driven by high relative humidity (>60%). In addition, haze events are driven by other meteorological conditions, wind speed and direction, where low wind speeds from the south and southwest enable pollutant accumulation, which are infrequently interspersed with brief periods with high wind speeds that promote pollutant dispersal. Even though Handan is among the ten most polluted cities in China with regard to air pollution, few studies beyond model simulations have analyzed air pollutant concentrations in this city. Therefore, this study makes a significant contribution to understanding air pollution in Handan, which can further be used to improve our understanding of regional pollution in the highly populated North China Plain. These results have implications for the creation of policies and legislation, as well as other pollution control measures.
Published: 29 September 2017
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.253

Abstract:
During silicate weathering, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is consumed and base cations are released from silicate minerals to form carbonate and bicarbonate ions, which are finally deposited as carbonate complexes. Continental silicate weathering constitutes a stable carbon sink that is an important influence on long-term climate change, as it sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide at a million-year time scale. Traditionally, CO2 sequestered through silicate weathering is estimated by measuring the flux of the base cations to watersheds. However, plants also absorb considerable amounts of base cations. Plant biomass is often removed from ecosystems during harvesting. The base cations are subsequently released after decomposition of the harvested plant materials, and thereby enhance CO2 consumption related to weathering. Here, we analyze plant biomass storage-harvest fluxes (production and removal of biomass from forests) of base cations in forests across China to quantify the relative contribution of forest trees to the terrestrial weathering-related carbon sink. Our data suggest that the potential CO2 consumption rate for biomass-related silicate weathering (from the combined action of with afforestation/reforestation, controlled harvesting and rock powder amendment) in Chinese forests is 7.9<!-- --> <!-- -->±<!-- --> <!-- -->4.1<!-- --> <!-- -->Tg CO2 <!-- -->yr 1. This represents ~<!-- --> <!-- -->34% of the chemical weathering rate in China. Globally, forests may increase CO2 sequestration through biologically-mediated silicate weathering by ~<!-- --> <!-- -->32%.
Jiaqiong Zhang, , Xinxin Deng, Zhang Liu, Fengbao Zhang, Weiying Zhou
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 240-252; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.238

Abstract:
Soil erosion is complex in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of the Chinese Loess Plateau, as interleaving of wind and water erosion occurs on both temporal and spatial scales. It is difficult to distinguish wind erosion from the total erosion in previous studies due to the untraceable of aeolian particles and the limitation of feasible methods and techniques. This study used beryllium-7 measurements to study wind erosion in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau arms to delineate wind erosion distribution, to analyze its implication to erosive winds and surface microrelief, and to determine correlations between erosion rates and slope gradients. Results obtained using beryllium-7 measurements based on observation plots were verified with saltating particle collection method, and were also verified on a field scale. Results indicated that the effective resultant erosion wind was from northward, which was proved by the eight-directional distributed saltating particles. The microrelief of the ground surface contributed to the formation of high or low erosion centers. Wind erosion rates increased with a linear (R≥0.95) or exponential (R≥0.83) fitting increase in the slope gradients as reported in previous studies. Compared to wind erosion on field scale, both the plots and fields exhibited similar distribution patterns in wind erosion isolines. We also determined that the wind erosion rate for two fields estimated, based on equations developed from plot scale was acceptable. This study validates the feasibility of beryllium-7 measurements for soil-wind erosion field experiments and the potential to expand this approach to real field conditions.
, Chafik Maazouzi, , Simon Blanchet, Amy Ritter, Maritxu Saplairoles, Marie-José Dole-Olivier, , , , et al.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 1353-1366; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.191

Abstract:
Ecological criteria are needed for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater ecosystem health by including biological components with the physical and chemical properties that are already required by European directives. Two methodological approaches to assess the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems were combined in two alluvial plains (the Ariège and Hers Rivers, southwestern France) varying in agriculture intensity (from grassland to crop rotation including maize and sunflower, and to maize monoculture). In the first approach, the composition of invertebrate assemblages (only obligate-groundwater crustaceans, i.e. stygobionts) sampled in 28 wells differing in their land use contexts was analysed. Abundance, species richness, and assemblage composition significantly changed with agricultural land use or urbanization around the wells. In the second approach, we tested an in situ exposure of sentinel organisms to quantify their response to the environmental pressures. The epigean and native amphipod species Gammarus cf. orinos was used as the sentinel species. Amphipods (30 individuals in each of 10 wells) were exposed for one week to the in situ conditions at two seasons with contrasted concentrations of pollutants. The Ecophysiological Index (EPI) synthetizing the survival rates and energetic storage decreased in wells with low oxygen and high nitrate concentrations, but only during the highest contamination period. Atrazine-related compounds negatively impacted sentinel health whatever the season. The combination of these two approaches may have major applications for orientating groundwater ecosystem management.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 169-176; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.227

Abstract:
Aging soot in soil under neutral aqueous condition for 30days significantly (p<0.05) reduced the apparent gastrointestinal bioaccessibility (B) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives (d-PAHs) natively present in a composite fuel soot sample. B was determined under fasting conditions by a previously developed in vitro digestive model that includes silicone sheet as a third phase absorptive sink in the small intestinal stage. Redistribution of contaminants from soot to soil, determined in independent experiments, was too small to affect B. Prior uptake by soot of a commercial humic acid representing dissolved soil organic matter had no impact on B. We identified two causes for the reduction in B by soil and found they were approximately additive. One is an aging time-independent "matrix effect" attributable to competitive sorption by the soil of labile contaminant that is desorbed from the soot during the digestion test. The other is the dissolution of soluble substances from the soot during the aging process that increases soot surface area and nanoporosity. The increased surface area and nanoporosity drive contaminants from labile to nonlabile states in the soot and decrease the desorption into the digestive fluid, the former contributing most to the reduction in B. The present study shows that mixing of raw soot with soil has important effects, both aging and non-aging, on the bioaccessibility of soot-borne contaminants.
, , Taeko Wakahara, Ayumi Kawamori
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 187-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.212

Abstract:
Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor and the temporal evolution were measured in two Japanese cedar stands and a secondary mixed broad-leaved forest in the early phase of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In situ measurements of the Cs gamma count were made using a portable germanium gamma ray detector. These measurements revealed that the forest floors were contaminated with radionuclides derived from the accident. In the cedar stands, the inter-canopy area had higher Cs count rate relative to the under-canopy area, whereas no clear relationship was found between the radiocesium pattern and canopy cover in the mixed broad-leaved forest. Repeated radiocesium measurements revealed that the spatial pattern of radiocesium activity on the forest floor did not substantially change following additional deposition inputs. Furthermore, the magnitude of canopy cover partially explained spatial variability of the Cs on the forest floor in cedar stands. These results suggest that canopy structure affected the genesis of the horizontal variability of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor during the early phase of the Fukushima accident.
, Tsuneo Matsunaga, , Zhengqiang Li, Xingfa Gu, Xuehong Chen
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 177-186; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.241

Abstract:
Fine particulate matter, or PM, is a serious air pollutant and has significant effects on human health, including premature death. Based on a long-term series of satellite-retrieved PM concentrations, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM in South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) from 1999 to 2014 using standard deviation ellipse and trend analyses. A health risk assessment of human exposure to PM between 1999 and 2014 was then undertaken. The results show that PM concentrations increased in most areas of SSEA from 1999 to 2014 and exceeded the World Health Organization average annual limit of primary PM standards. Bangladesh, Pakistan and India experienced average PM values higher than the total average for SSEA. From 1999 to 2014, the entirety of SSEA exhibited an increased rate of 0.02μg/m/year on average. Bangladesh and Myanmar witnessed greater incremental rates of PM than India. Correspondingly, the center of the average regional PM concentration gradually shifted to the southeast during the study period. The proportion of areas with PM concentrations exceeding 35μg/m increased consistently, and the areas with PM concentrations below 15μg/m decreased continuously. The proportion of the population exposed to high PM (above 35μg/m) increased annually. The extent of high-health-risk areas in SSEA expanded in size and extent between 1999 and 2014, particularly in North India, Bangladesh and East Pakistan. Therefore, all of SSEA should receive special attention, and strict controls on PM concentrations in SSEA countries are urgently required.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 197-207; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.311

Abstract:
The "pharmaceutical" polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampler composed of an outer polyethersulfone (PES) membrane and an inner receiving Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) phase. Target micropollutants can accumulate in the POCIS HLB phase following different uptake patterns. Two of the most common ones are a first-order kinetic uptake (Chemical Reaction Kinetic 1, CRK1 model), and a first-order kinetic uptake with an inflexion point (CRK2 model). From a previous study, we identified 30 and 13 micropollutants following CRK1 and CRK2 accumulation model in the POCIS HLB phase, respectively. We hypothesized that uptake in the outer PES membrane of POCIS may influence the uptake pathway. Thus, novel measurements of uptake in PES membrane were performed for these micropollutants to characterise kinetic accumulation in the membrane with and without the HLB phase. We determined, for the first time, the membrane-water distribution coefficient for 31 micropolluants. Moreover, the lag times for molecules to breakthrough the POCIS membrane increased with increasing hydrophobicity, defined by the octanol-water dissociation constant D. However, D alone was insufficient to predict whether uptake followed a CRK1 or CRK2 model in the POCIS HLB phase. Thus, we performed a factorial discriminant analysis considering several molecular physico-chemical properties, and the model of accumulation for the studied micropollutants can be predicted with >90% confidence. The most influent properties to predict the accumulation model were the log D and the polar surface area of the molecule (>70% confidence with just these two properties). Molecules exhibiting a CRK1 uptake model for the POCIS HLB phase tended to have log D>2.5 and polar surface area <50Ǻ.
, , Umberto Vesco, Giancarlo Quaglia, Giovanni Guido
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 208-218; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.226

Abstract:
Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health is compromised by complex interactions between multiple stressors, among which pesticides play a major role. To better understand the extent of honey bee colonies' exposure to pesticides in time and space, we conducted a survey by collecting corbicular pollen from returning honey bee foragers in 53 Italian apiaries during the active beekeeping season of 3 subsequent years (2012-2014). Of 554 pollen samples analysed for pesticide residues, 62% contained at least one pesticide. The overall rate of multiresidual samples (38%) was higher than the rate of single pesticide samples (24%), reaching a maximum of 7 pesticides per sample (1%). Over 3years, 18 different pesticides were detected (10 fungicides and 8 insecticides) out of 66 analysed. Pesticide concentrations reached the level of concern for bee health (Hazard Quotient (HQ) higher than 1000) at least once in 13% of the apiaries and exceeded the thresholds of safety for human dietary intake (Acute Reference Dose (ARfD), the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL)) in 39% of the analysis. The pesticide which was most frequently detected was the insecticide chlorpyrifos (30% of the samples overall, exceeding ARfD, ADI, or MRL in 99% of the positive ones), followed by the fungicides mandipropamid (19%), metalaxyl (16%), spiroxamine (15%), and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (12%). Imidacloprid had also the highest HQ level (5054, with 12% of its positive samples with HQ higher than 1000). This 3year survey provides further insights on the contamination caused by agricultural pesticide use on honey bee colonies. Bee-collected pollen is shown to be a valuable tool for environmental monitoring, and for the detection of illegal uses of pesticides.
, J. Neca, Vladimír Adamec, J. Janosek,
Published: 1 December 2004
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 334-335, pp 141-148; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.034

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Published: 1 January 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 610-611; https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(17)32475-0

Lian Chen, , Yaxing Shi, , , Yan Li,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 141-149; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.230

Abstract:
Environmental pollution by heavy metals resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Soil, water, wheat, and rice samples were collected from the Lihe River Watershed in the Taihu Region (east China). In this study area, many types of industrial plants, including ceramics factories, plants working with refractory materials, and chemical plants are densely distributed and cause serious heavy metal pollution. In addition, well-developed transportation and agricultural activities are also important sources of heavy metals. Thus, the concentrations of selected heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the samples were analyzed to evaluate their potential integral risk (IR) to the health of the local population. Accordingly, the spatial distribution pattern of the IR values was determined in the study. The soil in the study area showed heavy Cd pollution, whereas the pollution by other elements was relatively slight. When the proportions of grain samples in which the concentrations exceeded the tolerance limits were examined, the grains were primarily contaminated with Pb, Ni, Cd, and Zn; and less contaminated with Cu and Cr. The drinking water of the local inhabitants was safe. The average IR value was 3.53 for adults and 3.91 for children, indicating that both adults and children may experience adverse health effects. The spatial distribution pattern of the IR values among the exposed populations in the study area showed high values in the eastern and middle parts, with maximum values >5, and low values in the western part, with minimum values <2. This is consistent with the distributions of the industries and the population. The study may provide a basis for comparison to other regions both in China and worldwide.
, , Leonard Levin, Arnout F.H. ter Schure,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 131-140; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.207

Abstract:
Coal combustion is one of the largest contemporary sources of anthropogenic mercury (Hg). It releases geologically sequestered Hg to the atmosphere, and fly ash can contaminate terrestrial and aquatic systems. We estimate that coal combustion has released a cumulative total of 38.0 (14.8-98.9, 80% C.I.) Gg (gigagrams, 10g or thousand tonnes) of Hg to air, land, and water up to the year 2010, most of which (97%) has occurred since 1850. The rate of release has grown by two orders of magnitude from 0.01Ggyr in 1850 to 1Ggyr in 2010. Geographically, Asia and Europe each account for 32% of cumulative releases and an additional 18% is from North America. About 26.3 (10.2-68.3) Gg, 71% of the total, were directly emitted to the atmosphere, mostly from the industrial (45%) and power generation (36%) sectors, while the remainder was disposed of to land and water bodies. While Europe and North America were the major contributing regions until 1950, Asia has surpassed both in recent decades. By 2010, Asia was responsible for 69% of the total releases of Hg from coal combustion to the environment. Control technologies installed on major emitting sources capture mainly particulate and divalent Hg, and therefore the fraction of elemental Hg in emissions from coal combustion has increased over time from 0.46 in 1850 to 0.61 in 2010. About 11.8 (4.6-30.6) Gg of Hg, 31% of the total, have been transferred to land and water bodies through the disposal or utilization of Hg-containing combustion waste and collected fly ash/FGD waste; approximately 8.8Gg of this Hg have simply been discarded to waste piles or ash ponds or rivers.
, Quri R. Daniels-Witt, Deric R. Learman, , Dustin W. Jordan, Thomas M. Gehring, Jorge Santo Domingo
Published: 28 September 2017
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 123-130; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.232

Abstract:
Contamination of recreational beaches due to fecal waste from gulls complicates beach monitoring and may pose a risk to public health. Gulls that feed at human waste sites may ingest human fecal microorganisms associated with that waste. If these gulls also visit beaches, they may serve as vectors, transporting fecal microorganisms to the beach where they may subsequently contaminate sand and water. In this study, samples collected from landfills, treated wastewater storage lagoons, and public beaches demonstrated a spatial and temporal overlap of markers for gull and human-associated microorganisms. In addition, markers for gull, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-associated marker, HF183, were detected in gull feces and cloacae samples. Further, HF183 was detected in cloacae samples from gulls that were documented by radio-telemetry traveling between human waste sites and public beaches. This study highlights the potential for gulls that visit human waste sites to disperse human-associated microorganisms in the beach landscape.
Leah D. Bedrosian, , David E. Cantonwine, Thomas F. McElrath,
Published: 28 September 2017
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 1349-1352; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.244

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Eun-Bi Son, Kyung-Min Poo, Jae-Soo Chang,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 161-168; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.171

Abstract:
Despite the excellent sorption ability of biochar for heavy metals, it is difficult to separate and reuse after adsorption when applied to wastewater treatment process. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an engineered magnetic biochar by pyrolyzing waste marine macro-algae as a feedstock, and we doped iron oxide particles (e.g., magnetite, maghemite) to impart magnetism. The physicochemical characteristics and adsorption properties of the biochar were evaluated. When compared to conventional pinewood sawdust biochar, the waste marine algae-based magnetic biochar exhibited a greater potential to remove heavy metals despite having a lower surface area (0.97m/g for kelp magnetic biochar and 63.33m/g for hijikia magnetic biochar). Although magnetic biochar could be effectively separated from the solution, however, the magnetization of the biochar partially reduced its heavy metal adsorption efficiency due to the biochar's surface pores becoming plugged with iron oxide particles. Therefore, it is vital to determine the optimum amount of iron doping that maximizes the biochar's separation without sacrificing its heavy metal adsorption efficiency. The optimum concentration of the iron loading solution for the magnetic biochar was determined to be 0.025-0.05mol/L. The magnetic biochar's heavy metal adsorption capability is considerably higher than that of other types of biochar reported previously. Further, it demonstrated a high selectivity for copper, showing two-fold greater removal (69.37mg/g for kelp magnetic biochar and 63.52mg/g for hijikia magnetic biochar) than zinc and cadmium. This high heavy metal removal performance can likely be attributed to the abundant presence of various oxygen-containing functional groups (COOH and OH) on the magnetic biochar, which serve as potential adsorption sites for heavy metals. The unique features of its high heavy metal removal performance and easy separation suggest that the magnetic algae biochar can potentially be applied in diverse areas that require biosorbents for pollutant removal.
, , Harvey J. Clewell, James R. Rabinowitz, ,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 615, pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.033

Abstract:
Chemical ionization plays an important role in many aspects of pharmacokinetic (PK) processes such as protein binding, tissue partitioning, and apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss). Here, estimates of ionization equilibrium constants (i.e., pKa) were analyzed for 8132 pharmaceuticals and 24,281 other compounds to which humans might be exposed in the environment. Results revealed broad differences in the ionization of pharmaceutical chemicals and chemicals with either near-field (in the home) or far-field sources. The utility of these high-throughput ionization predictions was evaluated via a case-study of predicted PK Vdss for 22 compounds monitored in the blood and serum of the U.S. population by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemical distribution ratio between water and tissue was estimated using predicted ionization states characterized by pKa. Probability distributions corresponding to ionizable atom types (IATs) were then used to analyze the sensitivity of predicted Vdss on predicted pKa using Monte Carlo methods. 8 of the 22 compounds were predicted to be ionizable. For 5 of the 8 the predictions based upon ionization are significantly different from what would be predicted for a neutral compound. For all but one (foramsulfuron), the probability distribution of predicted Vdss generated by IAT sensitivity analysis spans both the neutral prediction and the prediction using ionization. As new data sets of chemical-specific information on metabolism and excretion for hundreds of chemicals are being made available (e.g., Wetmore et al., 2015), high-throughput methods for calculating Vdss and tissue-specific PK distribution coefficients will allow the rapid construction of PK models to provide context for both biomonitoring data and high-throughput toxicity screening studies such as Tox21 and ToxCast.
, Juan Pablo Corella, , , M. Carmen Trapote, Pilar López, ,
Published: 1 January 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 612, pp 1577-1592; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.148

Abstract:
Recent expansion of anoxia has become a global issue and there is potential for worsening under global warming. At the same time, obtaining proper long-term instrumental oxygen records is difficult, thus reducing the possibility of recording long-term changes in oxygen shifts that can be related with climate or human influence. Varved lake sediments provide the better time frame to study this phenomenon at high resolution. We tracked the oxic/anoxic shifts of the varved Lake Montcortès since 1500CE, and tried to recognise anthropogenic and climatic influences combining biological and geochemical proxies. Four main scenarios emerged: 1) years with abrupt sediment inputs (A); 2) years with outstanding mixing and oxygenation of the water column (B); 3) years with strong stratification, anoxia, intense sulfur bacterial activity and increased biomass production (C); 4) years with stratification and anoxia, but relatively less biomass production (D). In line with current limnologic trends, high supra-annual variability in the occurrence of oxygenation events was observed. Interestingly, at least 45.3% of the years were mixing years and, like the meromictic ones, were mostly clustered into groups of consecutive years, thus alternating years of monomixis with years of meromixis. Most years of D belong to the period 1500-1820CE, when human activities were the most intense. Most years of A belonged to the climatic unstable period of 1850-1899CE. Years of B were irregularly distributed but were best represented in the period 1820-1849CE. Most years of C belonged to the 20th century. More than 90% of the years with climatic instrumental records belonged to B and C. Current climate warming seems to be taking control over the oxygenation capacity of the lake, especially since the second half of the 20th century. Our results support recent findings related to hypoxia spreading at the global scale.
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, , , , , , Guoyin Wei,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.288

Abstract:
Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0.27kg of e-waste collected and 0.22kg of e-waste reused/recycled. Furthermore, for each additional citizen, there will be an increase of 7.7kg of e-waste collected and 6.2kg of e-waste reused/recycled. The better collection of e-waste acts an important role concerning the circular economy, and it can be an advantageous approach. Therefore, e-waste could be considered as an opportunity for recycling or recovery of valuable metals (e.g., copper, gold, silver, and palladium), given their significant content in precious metals than in mineral ores.
, Deepak Singh, , Braj Bihari Singh, Vinod Kumar Jain
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 492-501; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.096

Abstract:
This paper reports the first study which comprises the seasonal, diurnal variability, source characterization, ozone forming potential and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at three sites (two urban and one rural) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. The study was performed during three seasons of the year 2013-14 and two different categories of VOCs (aromatics and halogenated) have been selected. The study used the sampling and analytical procedures of NIOSH methods. Results showed that the mean concentration of sum of VOCs (∑VOC) is significantly higher at urban sites (110.0 and 137.4μg/m(3) for JN and CP, respectively) as compared to the rural site, DP (56.5μg/m(3)). The contribution of individual to total VOC concentrations is noticed to be very similar at all the three sites. Most of the VOCs are observed to be significantly higher in winter followed by summer and autumn. Diurnal cycles of aromatic VOCs are highly influenced by the vehicular traffic and photochemical oxidations which showed higher and lower levels during morning/evening and daytime, respectively. Diagnostic ratios of the toluene/benzene (ranged from 0.65 to 13.9) infers the vehicular traffic might be the main contributing source in the urban sites while xylene/benzene ratio (ranged from 0.7 to 2.8) confirms the VOCs are transported to rural site from the nearby urban areas. Correlation and factor analysis suggested the sources are group of different species (traffic emissions, solvent usage and industrial) rather than single gas. The analysis of reactivity in terms of Prop-Equiv concentrations and ozone forming potential indicated that m/p-xylene and toluene are the main VOC contributing to the total ozone formation in urban and rural sites, respectively. Hazard ratios and lifetime cancer risk values exceeded the permissible standards established by USEPA and WHO suggests that the people are at significant risk.
, , P.K. Murumkar, S.A. Ahmed
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 88-97; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.285

Abstract:
The Western Ghats (WG) of India are basically north-south oriented mountains having narrow zonal width with a steep rising western face. The summer monsoon winds during June to September passing over the Arabian Sea are obstructed by the WG and thus orographically uplift to produce moderate-to-heavy precipitation over the region. However, it is seen that characteristic features of rainfall distribution during the season vary from north to south. Also its correlation with all-India summer monsoon rainfall increases from south to north. In the present study, an attempt is also made to examine long-term as well as short-term trends and variability in summer monsoon rainfall over different subdivisions of WG using monthly rainfall data for the period 1871-2014. Konkan & Goa and Coastal Karnataka show increase in rainfall from 1871 to 2014 in all individual summer monsoon months. Short-term trend analysis based on 31-year sliding window indicates that the trends are not monotonous, but has epochal behavior. In recent epoch, magnitudes of negative trends are consistently decreasing and have changed its sign to positive during 1985-2014. It has been observed that Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) plays a dominant positive role in rainfall over entire WG in all summer monsoon months, whereas role of Nino regions are asymmetric over WG rainfall. Indian summer monsoon is known for its negative relationship with Nino SST. Negative correlations are also seen for WG rainfall with Nino regions but only during onset and withdrawal phase. During peak monsoon months July and August subdivisions of WG mostly show positive correlation with Nino SST.
Published: 26 September 2017
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 569-578; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.117

Abstract:
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the ‘grand nutrients’ nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems (‘anthroposphere’). However, to date both biogeochemical cycles and MFA studies suffer from narrow system boundaries, failing to fully illustrate relative anthropogenic and natural flow magnitude and the degree to which human activity has perturbed the natural cycling of elements. We discuss important interconnections between natural and anthropogenic cycles and relevant EU raw material dossiers. Increased integration of both cycles could help to better capture the transport and fate of elements in nature including their environmental/human health impacts, highlight potential future material stocks in the anthroposphere (in-use stocks) and in nature (e.g., in soils, tailings, or mining wastes), and estimate anticipated emissions of TCEs to nature in the future (based on dynamic stock modeling). A preliminary assessment of natural versus anthropogenic element fluxes indicates that anthropogenic fluxes induced by the EU-28 of palladium, platinum, and antimony (as a result of materials uses) might be greater than the respective global natural fluxes. Increased combination of MFA and natural cycle data at EU level could help to derive more complete material cycles and initiate a discussion between the research communities of biogeochemists and material flow analysts to more holistically address the issues of sustainable resource management.
Mei Zan, , , , Leiming Zhang,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 977-989; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.002

Abstract:
Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (p<0.05, n=96) in 88.9% of vegetated areas in China (average value 0.78) and varied among vegetation types. The interannual variations in monthly sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer.
, Davide Marveggio,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 1013-1023; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.187

Abstract:
The environmental sustainability has emerged as a crucial aspect in the agri-food sector, nevertheless environmental assessments and certifications of cocoa and chocolate are still missing. Given this gap and the increasing global demand for cocoa derivatives, this study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of an Italian dark chocolate through a holistic cradle-to-grave Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed are acidification potential (AC), eutrophication potential (EU), global warming potential (GW), photochemical ozone creation potential (POC), ozone layer depletion potential (OD), abiotic depletion (AD) and cumulative energy demand (CED). The obtained results highlight the relevant contributions of upstream phase (63% for the ODP, 92% for EU and 99% for the AD) and core processes (39% for the GW and 49% for the CED) on the overall impacts. Specifically, cocoa provisioning and energy supply at the manufacturing plant emerged as environmental hotspots and have been deeper investigated through a sensitivity analysis. Obtained outcomes show the significant variability of the environmental impacts due to the agricultural phase (i.e., depending on agroecosystems and practices) and environmental benefits guaranteed by an efficient trigeneration system implemented in the manufacturing plant. The quantification of the environmental impacts of chocolate through LCA, the identification of the main hotspots along the supply chain and the sensitivity analysis performed in this study could effectively support chocolate companies in their pathway towards environmentally sustainable productions.
Qianqian Liu, , , Dongsheng Zhan, Jiaming Li
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 521-529; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.110

Abstract:
Environmental pollution has aroused extensive concern worldwide. Existing literature on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and environmental pollution has, however, seldom taken into account spatial effects. Addressing this gap, this paper investigated the spatial agglomeration effects and dynamics at work in FDI and environmental pollution (namely, in waste soot and dust, sulfur dioxide, and wastewater) in 285 Chinese cities during the period 2003-2014, using global and local measures of spatial autocorrelation. Our results showed significant spatial autocorrelation in FDI and environmental pollution levels, both of which demonstrated obvious path dependence characteristics in their geographical distribution. A range of agglomeration regions were observed. The high-value and low-value agglomeration areas of FDI were not fully consistent with those of environmental pollution. This result indicates that higher inflows of FDI did not necessarily lead to greater environmental pollution from a geographic perspective, and vice versa. Spatial panel data models were further adopted to explore the impact of FDI on environmental pollution. The results of a spatial lag model (SLM) and a spatial error model (SEM) revealed that the inflow of FDI had distinct effects on different environmental pollutants, thereby confirming the Pollution Heaven Hypothesis and Pollution Halo Hypothesis. The inflow of FDI was found to have reduced waste soot and dust pollution to a certain extent, while it increased the degree of wastewater and sulfur dioxide pollution. The findings set out in this paper hold significant implications for Chinese environmental pollution protection.
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 653-662; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.051

Abstract:
Although the potential neurotoxic effects from the exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on humans and on experimental models have been reported in previous studies, the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of them remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs on the behavior of male Swiss mice. The animals were daily exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs (5.625×10mgkg) at toxic level (300mgkg) through intraperitoneal injection for five days; a control group was set for comparison purposes. Positive control groups (clonazepam and fluoxetine) and a baseline group were included in the experimental design to help analyzing the behavioral tests (open field, elevated plus maze and forced swim tests). Although we did not observe any behavioral change in the animals subjected to the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests, our data evidence the anxiogenic behavior of animals exposed to the two herein tested ZnO NPs concentrations in the open field test. The animals stayed in the central part of the apparatus and presented lower locomotion ratio in the central quadrants/total of locomotion during this test. It indicates that the anxiogenic behavior was induced by ZnO NP exposure, because it leads to Zn accumulation in the brain. Thus, the current study is the first to demonstrate that the predicted environmentally relevant ZnO NPs concentration induces behavioral changes in mammalian experimental models. Our results corroborate previous studies that have indicated the biological risks related to the water surface contamination by metal-based nanomaterials.
Quentin Vincent, , Thierry Beguiristain,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 990-1002; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.118

Abstract:
The intensification and subsequent closing down of industrial activities during the last century has left behind large surfaces of derelict lands. Derelict soils have low fertility, can be contaminated, and many of them remain unused. However, with the increasing demand of soil surfaces, they might be considered as a resource, for example for non-food biomass production. The study of their physico-chemical properties and of their biodiversity and biological activity may provide indications for their potential re-use. The objective of our study was to investigate the quality of six derelict soils, considering abiotic, biotic, and functional parameters. We studied (i) the soil bacteria, fungi, meso- and macro-fauna and plant communities of six different derelict soils (two from coking plants, one from a settling pond, two constructed ones made from different substrates and remediated soil, and an inert waste storage one), and (ii) their decomposition function based on the decomposer trophic network, enzyme activities, mineralization activity, and organic pollutant degradation. Biodiversity levels in these soils were high, but all biotic parameters, except the mycorrhizal colonization level, discriminated them. Multivariate analysis showed that biotic parameters co-varied more with fertility proxies than with soil contamination parameters. Similarly, functional parameters significantly co-varied with abiotic parameters. Among functional parameters, macro-decomposer proportion, enzyme activity, average mineralization capacity, and microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders were useful to discriminate the soils. We assessed their quality by combining abiotic, biotic, and functional parameters: the compost-amended constructed soil displayed the highest quality, while the settling pond soil and the contaminated constructed soil displayed the lowest. Although differences among the soils were highlighted, this study shows that derelict soils may provide a biodiversity ecosystem service and are functional for decomposition.
, M. Devecseri, A. Callegari,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 663-671; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.149

Abstract:
Nitrates have been detected in groundwater worldwide, and their presence can lead to serious groundwater use limitations, especially because of potential health problems. Amongst different options for their removal, bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have achieved promising results; in particular, attention has raised on BES-driven autotrophic denitrification processes. In this work, the performance of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for groundwater autotrophic denitrification, is assessed in different conditions of nitrate load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process configuration. The system obtained almost complete nitrate removal under all conditions, while nitrite accumulation was recorded at nitrate loads higher than 100mgNOL. The MEC system achieved, in different tests, a maximum nitrate removal rate of 62.15±3.04gNO-Nmd, while the highest TN removal rate observed was 35.37±1.18gTNmd. Characteristic of this process is a particularly low (in comparison with other reported works) energy consumption: 3.17·10±2.26·10kWh/gNON removed and 7.52·10±3.58·10kWhm treated. The anolyte configuration in closed loop allowed the process to use less clean water, while guaranteeing identical performances as in other conventional configurations.
, Pauline van Gaans, ,
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 707-713; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.087

Abstract:
Interest in the combination concept of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and enhanced bioremediation has recently risen due to the demand for both renewable energy technology and sustainable groundwater management in urban areas. However, the impact of enhanced bioremediation on ATES is not yet clear. Of main concern is the potential for biological clogging which might be enhanced and hamper the proper functioning of ATES. On the other hand, more reduced conditions in the subsurface by enhanced bioremediation might lower the chance of chemical clogging, which is normally caused by Fe(III) precipitate. To investigate the possible effects of enhanced bioremediation on clogging with ATES, we conducted two recirculating column experiments with differing flow rates (10 and 50mL/min), where enhanced biological activity and chemically promoted Fe(III) precipitation were studied by addition of lactate and nitrate respectively. The pressure drop between the influent and effluent side of the column was used as a measure of the (change in) hydraulic conductivity, as indication of clogging in these model ATES systems. The results showed no increase in upstream pressure during the period of enhanced biological activity (after lactate addition) under both flow rates, while the addition of nitrate lead to significant buildup of the pressure drop. However, at the flow rate of 10mL/min, high pressure buildup caused by nitrate addition could be alleviated by lactate addition. This indicates that the risk of biological clogging is relatively small in the investigated areas of the mimicked ATES system that combines enhanced bioremediation with lactate as substrate, and furthermore that lactate may counter chemical clogging.
, , Yilong Zhang, Rong Ma, Yasong Li, Qiuyao Dong, Yuanjie Li, Ruike Zhao
Published: 1 February 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 613-614, pp 958-968; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.182

Abstract:
Less is known about controls of sedimentary structures in groundwater As distributions in sedimentary aquifers, and quantitative description of relationship between sedimentary environment and high As groundwater (according to WHO, As>10μg/L) is a challenging issue. Three hundred and eighty-two hydrogeological borehole loggings (well depths of 50-300m) were collected and four hundred and ninety nine groundwater samples were taken to investigate controls of paleochannels on groundwater arsenic distribution in shallow aquifers of alluvial plain in the Hetao Basin. Results showed that the swing zone, formed by bursting, diversion and swing of ancient Yellow River course since the Late Pleistocene, has an obviously corresponding relationship with spatial variability of groundwater As in the Hetao Basin. "Swing Intensity Index" (S), which is firstly defined as the sum of clay-sand ratio (R) and the number of clay layers (N), can be used as the sedimentary facies symbol to establish the new recognition method for hosting high As groundwater. There is a positive correlation between the swing intensity index (S) of paleochannels and groundwater As concentrations. The swing zones of paleochannels with high S values represent hydrogeochemical characteristics of the strong reducing environment, serious evaporation, strong cation exchange, and the low infiltration recharge of surface water, which lead to enrichment of groundwater As in the shallow aquifers.
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