Results in International Journal of Pathogen Research: 219
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Published: 20 March 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i2221
Poultry waste are not properly disposed and most rural farmers make use of it as manure therefore poultry wastes may serve as source of enteric organism capable of infecting humans. The antibiotic resistance from these bacteria can be transferred to natural microbial community as a result of involvement of antibiotics in poultry farming. This research was carried out to assess the multidrug resistant pattern of enteric bacteria in poultry stool dropping. samples of poultry droppings were obtained from a free-range commercial poultry farm in Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Samples were cultured on selective and differential media. 16 isolates of enteric bacteria were obtained from poultry stool droppings. The isolates identified were of four genera. Salmonella species which is predominant 6(37%) followed by Escerichia coli 5(31%) Proteus species 3(19%) and Kiebsiella species 2(13%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Gram negative antibiotics including crioxacin cefprozil, nitrofuration, ceftazidime co-trimoxazole, genetamicin, cefuroximo. The resistant pattern in among the gram negative pathogens revealed that more than 98% were resistant to nitrofuratioin cefprozil, gentamicin and augumentin while 12.89% resistant to certazidime, 90.10% resistant to augmentin, 15.32% cefuroxime, 12.30% co-trimoxazole, 38.17% resistant to gentamicin, 15.20% resistant to cefprozil and 50.20% resistant to ofloxacin, Multidrug resistance species were isolated from poultry stool dropping and some of the bacterial isolates are potentially pathogenic to humans and animals and therefore poses a serious threat to public health.
Published: 20 March 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i2220
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths are among the neglected tropical disease parasites of humans and one of the major public health burdens in developing countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that about 1.5 billion people are affected worldwide. Aims: The study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Soil-transmitted helminths infection among primary school children. Study Design: This was a cross sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among primary school children within the age of 4-15 years old in Sokoto South, Wamakko, Yabo and Dange Shuni local government areas of Sokoto State from February 2021 to July 2021. Methodology: Faecal samples of 252 children were collected and analyzed using formol-ether concentration technique. Results: An overall prevalence of 6.0% was recorded. Differential prevalence of parasite species showed 6.7% Ascaris lumbricoide, and 93.3% hookworm infection. There was high prevalence among Males (7.2%) than Females (4.0%). The age group 10-12 has the high prevalence of 9.8%. The high prevalence of 9.5% was obtained in Yabo and Sokoto South respectively. Tap water and water closet users have the lowest prevalence of 5.3%. High prevalence of 33.3% was recorded among borehole users contaminated with soil. Conclusion: The total low prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths may be as a result of improved awareness of the Soil-transmitted helminths in the study area. The government, non-government agencies should help in the provision of social amenities to ensure the total eradication of these diseases. The teaching of health education in both private and public schools should be encouraged by the government.
Published: 27 February 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 13-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1216
Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium. It is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea which may eventually lead to death. The parasite impedes growth and development of affected children. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess cryptosporidiosis and the associated risk factors among children aged 0-15years attending selected paediatric hospitals in Enugu Metropolis between November 2021 and August 2022. A total of five hundred and fifty stool samples were examined for oocysts of Cryptosporidium species using Formol Ethyl-Acetate sedimentation and modified Ziehl Neelsen’s staining techniques. The overall prevalence of the parasite was 14.4% (79/550). Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital recorded the highest prevalence 32(25.6%) of Cryptosporidium species while St. Patrick Hospital recorded the least 1(1.1%). Public hospitals recorded more infections than private hospitals. The age group ≤ 5years 43(15.8%) recorded the highest prevalence. Males 52(17.1%) were more infected than females 27(10.98%), which was not significant (P>0.05). Children whose parents/caregivers had only primary education 11(26.8%), has the highest prevalence while those whose parents/caregivers had tertiary education 17(8.9%), has the least. Children whose parents/caregivers were farming has the highest prevalence 9(25.0%), while children of civil servants, 40(12.4%) has the least which was not significant (P>0.05). Children living in multifamily residences 48(15.2%) had higher prevalence than those living in private homes, 2(6.3%). Other protozoan parasites identified in the study were Entamoeba histolytica 88(16.1%) and Giardia lamblia 69(12.5%). There were co-infections of Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica 27(4.9%), Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia 21(4.3%) which was not significant (P>0.05). Intervention through health education on good hygiene habits, and provision of clean water and proper disposal of faeces will help reduce cryptosporidiosis among children.
Published: 27 February 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1219
Background: Metabolic conditions such as Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity have become worldwide public health important. Numerous evidences indicate that gut Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes are associated with these co-morbidities. Thus, the gut microbiota serves as a promising target for prognosis of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of gut Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes on obese related Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gut microbiota signature of 10 adults was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing targeting V3–V4 hypervariable regions and obtained data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26). Result: The Pearson correlation analysis showed that phyla Bacteriodetes was significant positive when correlated with Body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.666, p = 0.002*), followed by phyla proteobacteria (r = 0.464, p = 0.045*), Firmicutes versus BMI (p>0.05), Actinobacteria versus BMI (p>0.05), while Firmicutes versus Glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c) (p>0.05), Bacteriodetes versus HbA1c (p>0.05), Proteobacteria versus HbA1c (p>0.05), Actinobacteria versus HbA1c (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed the abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and phyla Bacteriodetes were significantly associated with obese related type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although, these Phyla/ taxa showed no significant correlation with Hb1Ac in obese related type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Published: 27 February 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1218
Background: The rate of multidrug resistant bacteria is the most worrisome in the health setting because it often associates with nosocomial infection. Objectives: This present study aim at, evaluating the antibiotic pattern of multidrug resistance of Gram-negative extended betalactamase isolates from urine of diabetic patients. Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital with a total of 110 diabetic patients and were recruited using convenient sample method. The patients were instructed on how to collect the mid-stream urine samples without contamination. The samples were cultured and characterized the isolates following standard bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were subjected to sensitivity test pattern using agar disc diffusion techniques. The multidrug resistant isolates were physically checked for the extended spectrum betalactamase production. Obtained data was subjected to these statistical tools; descriptive statistics, chi-square and pair-test using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26). Results: Out of 110 urine samples assessed for significant growth of bacteria, it was found that, 55(27%) were the Gram negative bacteria (GNB).The highest prevalence of isolates were E. coli 30(54.6%), followed by Klebsiellapneumonia 14 (25.5%), Pseudomonasaeruginosa 6 (10.9%), and Proteus species 5 (9.09%) respectively. The most occurrence of the MDR bacteria were found in Augmentin 46 (83.6%) as well as as Cefuroxime 43 (78.2%) respectively. The significant mean range of Augumentin and Cefixime resistant to ESBL producers were (0.53±1.2; p = 0.000) and (0.600 ± 0.974; p = 000) respectively. Conclusion: The study detected the high proportion of multi-drug resistant isolates and the most occurrence were found in E. coli and Klebsiellapneumoniae. Regular monitoring, conducting, supervising, or management of antibiotics and molecular biomarkers for drug resistance are paramount to curtail the rate of drug-resistant pathogens.
Published: 27 February 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 21-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1217
The ABO blood group system is the most clinically recognized blood group and it is made up of A, B, AB and O antigens. Many studies have been done to determine the relationship between malaria and the ABO blood group system in terms of the susceptibility, intensity, resistance and frequency of the disease among the various blood groups and there have been variations in the findings thus; this study sought to determine the prevalence of malaria among the various blood groups among the residents of the Adentan municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 208 participants were enrolled, out of which 147 (70.7%) and 61(29.3%) were females and males respectively and 194 (93.3%) and 14 (6.7%) participants were adults and children respectively. There were 69 malaria cases of which 13 (18.8%) were children and 56 (81.2%) were adults. 40.58% out of the 69 malaria cases were males while 59.42% were females respectively. Malaria was most prevalent among blood group O Rh positive (44%) and less in blood group B negative (0%). Blood group O positive (41%) was more prevalent among the residents. There was significant correlation between malaria and gender and malaria and age distribution (P=0.012 and P<0.00) respectively. In conclusion, children and the female gender type are more prone to malaria parasitemia than adults and the male gender type. Age is a significant risk factor in malaria infections. Although there was no significant relationship between malaria and blood group, malaria was most prevalent among those with blood group O Rh positive. Blood group O positive was the most common among the participants.
Published: 27 February 2023
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1215
Introduction: Potato production in the Far North Region, Cameroon is hampered by a wide range of fungi of the genus Fusarium.Aims: The aim of this work was to isolate and conduct physiological characterization of Fusarium spp. isolates responsible for potato Fusarium disease in the Far North Region, Cameroon. Methodology: Isolates were obtained from diseased organs (leaves) from fifteen villages in the district of Mogodé, Mokolo and Koza, Far North Cameroon. The species responsible for fusariosis were identified using several identification Keys on a base of symptoms and morphological spores characteristics (macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores). Fusarium incidence and rainfall were assessed. Radial growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of the isolates were use to evaluated the parameters of physiological characterization. Results: The overall average incidence of Fusarium head blight in the Far North Region, Cameroon is 29.36%. Furthermore, out of the 20 isolates obtained, six Fusarium species (Fusarium oxysporium, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. avenacearum, F. colmorum and F. sambicum) were identified. The highest growth rate (8.1 cm), the highest spore production (8 × 105) and the highest severity index (3%) were respectively obtained with the isolates FUROM 2 and FUTEK 3, FUMOG 1, FUMOG 2, FUROM 1 and FURAF from Mogodé District on PCA medium. Conclusion: Potato production in the Far North Region, Cameroon is confronted by various Fusarium species which have physiological characteristics that vary according to the area of origin of the isolates and the growing media.
Published: 31 December 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 79-87; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3-4214
Before the 21st century, most of Nigeria's rural and coastal communities obtained their drinking water from surface water sources. However, due to development, many coastal towns now get their drinking water from underground sources. Nevertheless, surface water remains a crucial source of drinking water in communities where groundwater is inaccessible. This study evaluated the density of total heterotrophic bacteria and in situ characteristics of drinking water sources in Sagbama town in the Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Triplicate water samples were obtained from five stations for each of the water types (ground and surface water). The water samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The results of ground and surface water ranged from 2.33 to 2.86 (overall mean of 2.52) Log CFU/mL and 2.70 to 3.87 (overall mean of 3.24) Log CFU/mL for total heterotrophic bacteria counts, 7.05 to 7.68 (overall mean 7.40) and 7.06 to 7.31 (overall mean 7.22) for pH, 146.67 to 232.00 (overall mean 169.13) mg/L and 40.23 to 45.60 (overall mean 41.50) mg/L for total dissolved solids, 207.57 to 327.67 (overall mean 239.31)µS/cm and 56.73 to 64.47 (overall mean 58.55) µS/cm for conductivity, and 0.11 ppt and 0.03 ppt (in all the stations) for salinity. The temperatures of both kinds of water were in the range of 26°C. Except for the pH, salinity, and conductivity of groundwater, an analysis of variance reveals no significant differences (p>0.05) across sites for any water type. The overall t-test revealed that all parameters, except pH and temperature, were statistically distinct (p<0.05) between the various water types. According to Pearson’s correlation, conductivity correlates positively with total dissolved solids for both kinds of water. In contrast, salinity correlates positively with conductivity and total dissolved solids for surface water at p< 0.01. Except for total heterotrophic bacteria counts on surfaces, which exceeded World Health Organization standards, other parameters fell within the Standard Organization of Nigeria and World Health Organization guidelines. Therefore, drinking surface water from the research location without first purifying it increases the chance of avoidable ill health consequences.
Published: 30 December 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3213
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus causes a congenital infection, which poses a great public Health challenge such as hearing loss, seizure and mental disorder among children. Methodology: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen serum samples (90) collected from Patients presented with Seizure between the ages 0-13 years for Cytomegalovirus IgG specific antibodies. Results: The presence of CMV IgG specific antibody among Seizure patients obtained from this study recorded a prevalence of 68(75.5%). The age groups 9-13 years presented highest CMV (IgG) specific antibodies response 36(40.0%), followed by ages 5-8 years 22(24.4%) and least for ages 0-4 years 10 (11.1%), P>0.005. The CMV (IgG) specific antibodies response with respect to gender presented male with highest prevalence 50 (55.5%) than their female 18 (20.0%) counterparts P<0.005. Conclusion: Therefore CMV is highly prevalent within the study area and the need for necessary facilities to be available in screening pregnant women of the virus in order to prevent the spread vertically to their fetuses thereby increases the risk of Seizure.
Published: 28 December 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 14-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3212
Background and Objectives: Carbapenem antibiotic are drug of last-resort from the treatment of bacterial infection, as a result of the prevalence and rapidly evolving enzymes from Carbapenem resistant bacteria such Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae make urinary tract infection difficult, and in some cases impossible to treat in health care settings. With limited progress of new antibacterial drugs, the best approach is monitoring the prevalence and antibiogram profile of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients with UTI in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methodology: A non-repetitive, clean catch mid-stream urine was collected from five hundred (500) diagnosed UTI inpatient and outpatient. The samples were evaluated using routine microbiological protocol for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phenotypic screening of Carbapenem-resistant strains was performed using Modified Hodge Testing. Antibiogram studies of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for MDR strain. Result: The prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate accounted for 148(29.6 %) consisting of 95(54.3 %) and 53(16.3 %) from in-patients and out-patients. Escherichia coli accounted overall isolation rate of 112(22.4 %) comprising of high proportion among in-patient 82(46.9 %) over out-patient 30(9.2 %). The proportion of K. pneumoniae accounted for 36(7.2 %) with 13(7.4 %) and 23(7.1 %) recorded among in-patients and out-patients. Association between presence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in clinical samples was statistically significant with patient’s population with p value <0.05. Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for 37(7.4 %) comprising of 24(13.7) and 13(4.0 %) among in-patients and out-patients respectively while carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for overall detection rate of 111(22.2 %) consisting of 71(40.6 %) and 40(12.3 %) among in-patients and out-patients respectively. The isolates resistance rate to cephalosporins were relatively high i.e., Cefotaxime, Cefoxtin Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone resistance was observed at 60-100% while amoxicillin/clavulanate, azetronam, tetracycline nitrofurantoin and Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid recorded 100 % with MDR index ranged from 0.5-0.8, but were 100 % and 85.0 % sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Conclusion: These results strongly hypothesize that MDR bacteria, including Carbapenem-resistant isolate, have become common residents in various hospital environments, however with substantial evidence in this study, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as drugs of choice could be used for treatment of UTI. Therefore, its importance that good antibiogram evaluation of other drug classes beside fluoroquinoles reported in this study need to be establishes as baseline for empirical diagnosis, epidemiological surveillance, drug prescriptions and infection management.
Published: 24 December 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3211
This study's objective is to separate and identify harmful fungus from spoiled avocado pears. Healthy avocado pear fruits were delivered to the lab and left to rot on a lab bench after being purchased from Awka, Nnewi, and Ihiala. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and SDA agar were used to test the fruits for the presence of fungal infections that cause deterioration. According to the findings, PDA media exhibit greater growth than SDA, and ther45 x 102 CFU/g).e was no statistically significp > 0.005ference (p>0.005) between the fungal counts of the avocado and pear samples collected from the three different sites, with the Eke Awka market sample showing the highes48 x 102 CFUcount (48x102cfu/g), followed by the Total Market47 x 102 CFUample (47x102cfu/g), and the Nnewi market sample showing the lowest fungal count (45x102cf Based on their colonial and physical traits, the fungus responsible for the fruit deterioration was identified. The investigation also revealed that a total of 5 isolates of fungus from fruits, including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium spp., and Candida spp., were collected. Of them, isolates of Aspergillus niger species were found most commonly (36%). Rhizopus species and Candida were next, each with an infection incidence of 18%, while Fusarium solani and Penicillium digitatum were the least common (141%). Aspergillus niger, one of the identified fungi, was the least harmful and produced the least amount of fruit rot. R. stolonifer, Fusarium solani, Candida tropicalis, and Penicillium digitatum were the least pathogenic and caused the most fast disintegration of treated fruits in 3-5 days. This study has demonstrated that fungus is to blame for fruit rotting. This study has demonstrated that fungus is to blame for fruit rotting. Producing, preparing, and preserving foods like fruit salads must be done as quickly and hygienically as possible using high-quality tools, products, and materials since fruits are typically infested by harmful fungus.
Published: 20 December 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2210
The well-known vegetable Telfairia occidentalis, sometimes known as the fluted pumpkin leaf, is utilized throughout Nigeria. In Igbo, it is typically referred to as Ugu. The objective of this study was to ascertain the biochemical (phytochemical) makeup of Telfairia occidentalis, a popular vegetable in Nigeria. The study made use of fluted pumpkin leaf extract that was treated differently by soaking in ethanol and water. Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, and phenol compounds were all present in the ethanolic extract at the conclusion of the research, but terpenoids were not, making seven out of the eight phytochemicals present. Alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, and phenol compounds were all present in the water extract, while saponin, tannin, and terpenoids were not. This made five out of the eight phytochemicals present. According to quantitative analysis, the flavonoid concentration in the fluted pumpkin leaf was the highest (11.83 mg/100 g), followed by steroid (11.67 mg/100 g), saponin (4.58 mg/100 g), alkaloid (3.63 mg/100 g), terpenoids (3.56 mg/100 g), and phenol (3.50 mg/100 g), while tannin had the lowest value (0.51 mg/100 g).
Published: 9 November 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 32-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2209
The coronavirus (COVID-19) took the world by storm and triggered intensive research mobilization and action towards vaccines and drug repurposing. This pandemic triggered an emergence therapy intervention of which the development of new vaccine and drug repurposing were good options that was to be validated by regulatory authorities for potential use for enhancing acquired immunity for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Prior to the outbreak that led to the global health emergency intervention, an understanding of the viral architecture, pathophysiology and mechanism of action and functions were well established. The global health disaster caused by COVID-19 has generated significant interest globally for research in vaccine discovery and development by many research institutions and Pharmaceutical sectors since 2019. So far, the approval of many clinical trials tested vaccines by the regulatory authorities have led to the need for post approval concerns of efficacy, safety and quality of these approved vaccines. This review paper attempts to explore the vaccines approved for global access to the population discovery and development process, the potential safety implications. An insight into other therapy options such as the convalescence plasma treatment and management for the global COVID-19 pandemic has been reviewed.
Published: 25 October 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 20-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2208
Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the antifungal activities of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Thevetia peruviana seeds on the in vitro growth of the fungus. Study Design: A randomized sample block design containing four treatments (T- = Negative control; T2= Ethyl acetate extract; T3= Acetone extract; T+=Callomil Plus) with three repetitions was used. Plant extracts were used at three concentrations: C1: 12.5 µl/ml; C2: 25 µl/ml and C3: 50 µl/ml; the chemical fungicide at the dose of 12.5 μL/ml. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the University of Yaoundé 1, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Laboratory of Phytopathology and Crop Protection, and in the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IARD) of Yaoundé, Laboratory of Phytopathology, during the year 2019-2020. Methodology: acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of T. peruviana were prepared and used at concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 µl/ml. P. colocasiae was isolated from infected taro leaf cultivars "Macumba or Ibo coco" located in three different regions: west, Littoral and Centre. The various explants were were put in V8 agar medium and maintained in pure culture. Mycelial fragments of P. colocasiae of about 0.8 cm in diameter were cut and placed in sterile Petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant extracts and incubated at 23±1°C for seven days for the evaluation of the radial growth. Results: The results obtained showed that the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts have completely inhibited the growth of the strain of West at 25 μ/ml while total inhibition of the pathogen was not obtained with strain of Centre region. The lowest inhibition was obtained with the strain of Littoral region: 93.88 % for acetone extract and 90.78 % for ethyl acetate extract compare to 100 % for west and Centre region at highest concentration. Conclusion: The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts at the concentration of 25 μ/ml totally inhibited the in vitro radial growth of some strains of P. colocasiae. These extracts, which are effective against P. colocasiae, may substitute fungicides in the fight against taro leaf blight.
Published: 15 October 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2207
Background and Objectives: Antibiotic-resistance among microbiota found within the oral cavity is a growing concern due to extensive use of antibiotics in dental practice both for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons, but has so far received little attention in recent time. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of non-oral bacteria isolates from patients attending dental clinic at Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Medical Center Enugu (FEDCODTTEN) Methodology: A total of two hundred (200) oral swab samples were collected from patients with dental disease, placed in sterilized Brain Heart Infusion broth and immediately transported to the Microbiology Laboratory Unit of Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Enugu, for bacteriological analysis using standard microbiological methods for isolation and characterization. Antibiogram studies of non-oral bacteria was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for Multidrug Resistant (MDR) non-oral bacteria. Results: Phenotypic characterization of non-oral bacteria revealed an occurrence rate of S. aureus 35(17.5%) followed by E. coli 18(9.0%), Salmonella typhi 16(8.0 %) and K. oxytoca 4(2.0%) as the least predominant bacteria species. Among the oral site, lower right quadrant showed increase isolation rate of 30(15.0%) bacteria followed by lower left quadrant 23(11.5%) while upper right quadrant accounted 15(7.5 %) with the least isolation rate. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of non-oral bacteria in right quadrant and left quadrant samples from dental disease patients (P < 0.05). Non-oral bacteria isolate exhibited 57.1-100% resistant to Ertapenem, colisitn, amoxillicin, azetronam, colistin, ampicillin and clindamycin with Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index (MARI) ranged from 0.4-0.7, indicating high level of multi-drug resistance but were susceptible to ciprofloxacin 77.8%, gentamicin 100% and imipenem 100%. Conclusion: The high antibiotic resistant and increase multi-drug resistance outcome reported among non-oral bacteria in this study calls for strengthened efforts in antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control measures in dental practices with the need to implement regular awareness programs at time interval to control and manage multi-drug resistance bacteria through judicious use of antibiotic to re-establish dominance over multi-drug resistance non-oral bacteria implicated in dental diseases.
Published: 10 October 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2206
Background: Sickle cell anemia patients are a cohort of at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B virus infection due to their life-long dependency on transfusion therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations stipulates testing and vaccination for at-risk individuals. Objective: The objectives of the present study are to assess the level of knowledge of sickle cell disease patients to HBV infection, identify their HBV vaccination status and to assess the barrier that prevents patients from being tested and vaccinated for HBV infection. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The subjects comprised of 120 sickle cell disease patients who were recruited through consecutive sampling using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires and data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for Microsoft Window Version 23. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24 +6 years. About 57.5% of the respondents are aware of Hepatitis B virus infection but only 15% had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.8% of the respondents have not been tested for Hepatitis B infection while 70% has not been vaccinated. The cost of testing for HBV infection and vaccination was identified as a major factor that prevented many of the patients from identifying their HBV status as well as getting vaccinated as about 80% of the respondents have not been tested due to high cost of testing while 84.2% have not been vaccinated due to high cost of the vaccine. Conclusion: There should be universal health education to sickle cell anemia patients on the need for Hepatitis B virus infection test and vaccination as well as a health insurance scheme that will cover the cost of Hepatitis B virus testing and vaccination for patients.
Published: 7 October 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1204
Background: Disinfectants and conventional antibiotics are used daily in Nigeria’s households and hospitals, in various approaches and at exceptional concentrations with inside to combat infectious diseases. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally has made most chemotherapeutic agents less efficient to target pathogens. Aim: This research was done to determine the efficacy of some disinfectants and conventional antibiotics used against ESKAPE pathogens. Methodology: The in vitro efficacy of the disinfectants and antibiotics were compared using the disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Results: Inhibition zone diameters were observed in all of the disinfectants and conventional antibiotics at concentration-dependent for the tested pathogenic isolates. Chloroxylenol was effective at higher concentrations and showed a progressive decrease in zones of inhibition as the concentration decreases. Ethanol was effective at 70% and 35% concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus. Hypochlorite was effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli at a 100% - 25% concentration and effective against Staphylococcus aureus at 100% and 50% concentrations. Therefore, the efficacy of disinfectants and antibiotics arise to be crucial however concentration-dependent. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study may be used as an alternative for medical applications. However, inappropriate disinfectant and conventional antibiotic use resulted in emergence of resistant microorganisms; hence these therapeutic agents should be used properly at a sufficient concentration to prevent diseases caused by these pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the need to compare the efficacy of these disinfectants and conventional antibiotics against ESKAPE pathogens in vivo is very important.
Published: 30 September 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1203
The aim of this work was to evaluate the lipid profile of Plasmodium berghei infected rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis. Twenty five (25) adult male wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats per group. Group I was the normal control fed only rat chow and water, Group II was infected with the parasite without treatment. Groups III and IV were infected with Plasmodium berghei and afterwards treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis respectively, while Group V was infected and treated with a standard drug (chloroquine). Treatment lasted for 7 days after which animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected. Evaluation of lipid profile was performed by standard procedures. Plasmodium berghei infection significantly (P<0.05) increased Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglyceride (TG) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly (P<0.05) decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) an observation which was reversed following treatment with the aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, extract of the said plant wields the potential to recover a stable lipid profile in Plasmodium berghei infected rats.
Published: 16 September 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130262
Introduction: In order to keep their dentures clean and properly stored, patients generally soak them in water at night. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast fungus that colonizes dentures, and in some conditions, it becomes an opportunistic pathogen and causes fungal infections known as candidiasis. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of distilled water on Candida albicans colonizing dentures. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women; age range 40-75 years) with complete maxillary dentures infected by Candida albicans were included in this study. The dentures of these patients were soaked in distilled water for 4 days (8 hours at night). Swab samples from the dentures were collected before and after distilled water use and examined mycologically. Results: The Candida albicans colony counts increased after soaking the dentures in distilled water for 8 hours for 4 days. Conclusion: Patients should be dissuaded from soaking their dentures overnight in distilled water as the result is a significant increase in fungal colonization.
Published: 6 September 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130261
Aims: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan- and to evaluate the sensitivity of RBPT, mRBPT, and milk ring test for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Study Design: Collect serum and milk samples and apply the recommended tests for diagnosis. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Al Gadarif state regional laboratory and Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) in 2015. Methodology: A total of 367 serum samples were collected from 12 localities which include: Al Fao, Fashaga, Baldiat Al Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, West Gadarif, Basonda, Al Gorisha, Al rhad,Mafaza , Butana, East Galapat and Gla nahl. Also, 100 bulk milk samples have been collected from Baldiat Al Gadarif, West Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, and Fashaga and subjected to the milk ring test. All collected sera samples were tested for Brucella antibodies using the following serological tests: Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), modified Rose Bengal Plate test (mRBT 1:2 and 1:3) and, c.ELISA test, the last test was done for 143 serum samples only. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 35.7%, 38.4%, 42.2% and 8.4% using RBPT, mRBPT (1:2), mRBPT (1:3) and c.ELISA tests respectively. According to this study the lowest seroprevalence was observed in Al Fao locality (11.1%), and the highest seroprevalence was in Al Gorisha Locality (71.4%).There was similarity in seroprevalence rate results using RBPT (1:2) and RBPT (1:3) in Al rahd (43.6%), Al Gorisha (85.7%) and Mafaza (50%) localities. Seroprevalence rate showed 10.9% and 9.1% in males and females respectively. There was no association between sex-as risk factor- and cattle brucellosis. Using the milk ring test the overall prevalence of positive milk samples was 39% (39/100). The highest prevalence was in Fashaga (60%), followed by Wasat Gadarif (46.7%). Baldiat Al Gadarif showed the lowest prevalence (22.9%). Conclusion: The serological investigation proved the occurrence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan - using the recommended tests.
Published: 3 September 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130260
Women has been reported to be more susceptible to malaria parasites infection during pregnancy. The disease causes severe anemia in pregnancy sometimes resulting to maternal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world including Nigeria. A study to determine malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending General hospital Enugwu-Ukwu, Anambra State, Nigeria, was conducted between July and December, 2019. The specific objectives were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and anemia among the pregnant women as well and the relationship between malaria and anemia. Two milliliters of venous blood were collected from 408 pregnant women during antenatal visits. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with 10% Giemsa stain and examined under the microscope for malaria parasites. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was estimated using cyanmethemoglobin method. Hemoglobin concentration below 11.0g/dl was regarded as anemia in pregnancy. Of 408 blood samples collected, 112(27.5%) were positive for malaria parasites. The age group 15–20 years had the highest prevalence 8(40%) while the age group 36–40 years had the least 24(23.1%). The primigravidae had the highest malaria prevalence 72(36%), while the multigravidae had the least 40(19.2%). The pregnant women in first trimester had the highest malaria prevalence 48(50%), while those in third trimester had the least 24(16.7%). Malaria parasitaemia in relation to trimester was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 248(60.7%) pregnant women had a Hb value less than 11g/dl. The multigravidae had the highest Hb 128(61.5%), while the primigravidae had the least 120(60%). Health education and proper administration of Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPT) during pregnancy is recommended for malaria prevention and control in pregnancy.
Published: 2 September 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430259
Objective: Present studies were carried out to examine the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) from laboratory and field populations of Lahore city against four major groups of commonly used insecticides; Imidacloprid 5% SC, phenyl-pyrazoles* (fipronil 2.5% EC), pyrethroids (Deltamethrin 2.5% SC) and organophosphates (DDVP 50% EC) world health organization standard procedures were observed. Methods: For laboratory strain, adults and larvae were collected from the Insectary of the National Institute of Malaria Research and Training (NIMRT), Lahore, Pakistan. Insecticides of four major groups. Larval bioassays were conducted according to the World Health Organization procedure with minor modifications. Larval mortality was finalized after 48 hours for Deltamethrine, Imidacloprid, DDVP, and 72 hours for Fipronil. Results: Larval and adult toxicity results were different for wild and laboratory strains exposed to different groups of insecticides. Regression analysis showed non-significant trends in mortality. Imidacloprid proved to be the most toxic to wild larval strains of Ae.aegypti collected from different localities of Lahore while Fipronil was also active for wild larval samples. Conclusion: Deltamethrin showed the least activity against both adults and larval strains. The susceptibility of the field strains was lower than laboratory strains; the ratio varies from insecticide to insecticide.
Published: 29 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430258
Trichomonas vaginalis is transmitted sexually in humans affecting both male and female genital tracts. A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection among women attending Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Awka, Anambra State was conducted between November 2021 and January 2022. A total of 200 apparently healthy women between the ages of 19 – 42 years volunteered and participated in the study. The study participants included pregnant and non-pregnant women, married, singles and widows from various occupations. Their urine samples were collected, centrifuged and examined under the microscope within 2 hours of collection. Diagnosis was made by detection of T. vaginalis in the wet preparation of urine deposits. An overall prevalence of 3.0% was observed among the study participants. Prevalence of T. vaginalis was highest (5.9%) among the age group 25-30 years and no infection was observed among the age group 37-42 years. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the age groups (P>0.05). Highest prevalence of 3.2% was observed among pregnant women while the least (2.7%) was observed in non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between pregnant and non-pregnant groups (P>0.05). The highest prevalence (7.5%) was observed among the students while no infection was observed among the civil servants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the occupational groups (P>0.05). Married women recorded the highest prevalence (3.3%) and no infection was observed among the widows. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection in different marital status (P>0.05). Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnant women. Routine screening for this infection during pregnancy is recommended in order to reduce potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Published: 29 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430257
Aims: TheoCcurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of enteric bacteria isolated from well water sources and their physicochemical profile was ascertained in this study. Molecular analysis of the bacterial isolates from well water samples was conducted via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification. Study Design: Experimental design. Methodology: A total of 12 wells were collected in triplicates from groundwater sources (wells), and mean values were obtained. The first batch of samples were collected during the dry season in January and February, 2020. The second batch of samples were collected during the rainy season in July 2020. The detection of coliforms and other enteric bacteria were conducted via the most probable number (MPN) method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and characterization of bacterial isolates were employed. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The determination of the physicochemical properties of the well water samples were conducted following customary protocol. Results: Well water sample 7 had the highest count at 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 200 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, while well water sample 4, 10, and 11 had 14 bacterial counts/100ml in dry season, well water sample 2 had 140 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, whilst sample 11 had 7 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season. Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentariae were the Gram-negative organisms enumerated and molecularly-identified as Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. Pnuemoniae HS11286, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar typhimurium and Shigella dysentariae HNCMB 20080 from the well water samples with percentage identity of 97.19%, 87.44%, 80.45% and 96.19% respectively. Klebsiella pnuemoniae showed high resistant rate in augmentin at 67% in dry season and 100% in the rainy season. Shigella dysentariae showed 8.3% resistance to augmentin in the dry season and 75% in the rainy season. E. coli showed 67% and 58% resistance in the dry and rainy season respectively. Water hardness had the highest mean of 98.5 and 99.5 mg/L in dry and rainy season respectively while turbidity, and alkalinity had the least mean value at 1.2 (NTU) and 0.62 mg/L, 1.4 (NTU) and 0.7mg/L in both dry and rainy seasons. Conclusion: Findings provided information on the poor quality of the well water, which will be useful in groundwater treatment strategies and policy formulation by appropriate groundwater source protection bodies.
Published: 23 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430255
The crude extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis were investigated with the aim of determining the antibacterial activity, qualitative and quantitative properties, the best solvent used for extraction, the most active ingredients and the organism that is most susceptible to them. Ethanol, petroleum ether and water (warm) were used as solvents. Agar well diffusion method was used for the susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the extracts, with streptomycin as positive control and sterile water as negative control. Ethanol extracts of the plant showed most activities, whereas petroleum ether and water (warm) extracts had no activity on the test organisms. The ethanol extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with inhibition zone of 6.0±0.04 mm, 5.5±0.70 mm and 7.5±0.70 mm respectively. This study reveals that the ethanol extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis have antimicrobial effect on three test pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Published: 22 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430254
Health care is a basic need to humans which can only be achieved with medicines with high efficacy against disease causing pathogens. Globally, gastrointestinal infections are major health concern particularly to travelers since over 60% visiting tropical and subtropical regions develop diarrhea. Herbal plants have been used for decades to treat gastrointestinal infections globally including Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya. However, there is little information on the demography of herbalist and the plants used in treatment of gastrointestinal infections such as typhoid, cholera and shigellosis. A cross sectional survey was carried out involving thirty herbalists to assess their demographic data and to establish herbs commonly used to treat typhoid, cholera and shigellosis in Tharaka-Nithi County. Data collected was subjected to Chi square test of association and descriptive statistics and presented in percentages. There were more male herbalists (65.52%) in the study than female herbalist (34.48%). Most of the herbalist (65.52%) were aged above 70 years. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between herbalists’ level of education and age (X2 (6, N = 30) = 17.349, p = 0.008). Most herbalists were found to have below primary education level 58.62%. Aloe vera, Aspilia pluriseta, Ficus sycomorus and Physalis peruviana were identified as commonly used plants for treatment of cholera with Aspilia pluriseta being most preferred (27%) by herbalist above the age of 70 years. Vangueria infausta, Eucalyptus globulus, Carissa edulis and Erythrina abysinnica were commonly used for treatment of shigellosis with Eucalyptus globulus being most preferred (58.6%) by herbalist above the age of 70 years. Erythrina abysinnica, Carissa edulis, Vangueria infausta and Eucalyptus globulus were commonly used for treatment of typhoid while 50.0% of herbalist above the age of 70 preferred Erythrina abysinnica. Most of the herbalists had below primary education level. In conclusion, herbal medicine is mostly dispensed by older people in Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya. Different herbal plants are used in the treatment of cholera, shigellosis and typhoid.
Published: 10 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330252
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by distinct species of a single-celled parasite called Plasmodium sp. However, an infected adult female Anopheles sp. mosquito that feeds on blood is responsible for the transmission of malaria. In the year 2020, approximately 241 million malaria cases and 627 thousand malaria deaths were recorded globally. In most tropical and subtropical regions of the world, malaria is one of the leading causes of death. Its transmission cuts across 86 countries with African continent recording approximately 95% deaths in 2020. Africa is mostly affected due to its weather conditions that support the easy spread of Plasmodium falciparum. Over time, relevant interventions have been made by researchers in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of malaria. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to its treatment and management globally. This review article is focused on the therapeutic intervention on malaria globally. Thus, published primary literatures reporting several relevant and new therapeutic interventions in malaria, as globally attained in the past years were collated and vital information critically reviewed. It is important to note that, the risk of contracting malaria is dependent on the region visited, length of stay, immunity, exposure and compliance with prophylaxis. Hence, to select treatment best suitable as a first-line therapy, combination antimalarial therapy, which consists of two or more antimalarial agents with different mechanisms of action was introduced and has been widely accepted and endorsed to prevent the development of drug resistance. Yet, immunization still remains the best measure for the eradication of malaria.
Published: 9 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330251
Background: Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and non-developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae—can cause several eye infections. This study was aimed to isolate contaminating bacteria from eye lenses solution. Methods: The samples were collected from solution bottles of eye lenses with the help of sterile cotton tipped swabs that were pre- moistened with sterile normal saline, then sample directly cultured on solid media. All samples were inoculated on to blood agar, MacConkey’s agar were incubated at 37oC for 24-48 h, Cultures were considered negative if no growth was detected within 48 hours of incubation. Bacterial culture obtained was identified using Gram’s staining, on the basis of culture diagnosis by growing on media and performing biochemical test. Results: A total of 150 samples from aqueous solution of contact eye lenses were used to isolate bacteria from it. Out of these samples 84 bacteria were isolated from aqueous solution while 66 were without growth. The most frequent isolated bacteria were P.aeurogenosa 39(46%) followed by S. epidermidis 27 (32%) then S. aureus 12 (14%) and E. coli 6(7%) respectively which is significant result (P-Value of 0.005). Conclusion: The study revealed that contact lenses solution under investigation contains different types of bacteria and pseudomonas is more frequent bacteria. Furthermore the contact lenses with multiple use and users which not have difference types of bacteria growth.
Published: 8 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 17-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330250
The epidemiology of animal rotaviruses infection and their association with illnesses in humans remains unknown in Central America and the world. In this study, we performed a genotyping of rotavirus strains by RT-PCR for-G (VP7) and P (VP4), in samples of diarrhea in calves and piglets, in Honduras and Panama. Mixed infections and combinations of genotypes G (VP7) and P (VP4) were identified in calves in Honduras: 3 (4%) G2P , 2 (2%) G2P , in piglets: 4 (5%) G4P , and in calves in Panama: 63 (72%) G10 P , 12 (13%) G8 P , 9 (10%) G6 P  and 3 (3%) G10 P .This investigation represents the first report of bovine and porcine rotavirus strains in Honduras and Panama.
Published: 3 August 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330249
The study aimed at controlling the mycelial growth and germination of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Petri dish by using three plant defense stimulators. Approximately, 2 mL of each stimulator (Vacciplant®, Callel® and calliete®) were added to the different M. fijiensis culture media. The results obtained show that Vacciplant® and Callel® promote the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis contrary to calliete® which inhibits it. Indeed, it causes total mortality (100%) of conidia at the sporulation stage.
Published: 15 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330248
Listeriosis is an emerging infection with major public health concerns worldwide because of occurrence of associated food-borne outbreak and significant risk of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to isolate Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat samples in selected markets in Nasarawa State, determine the level of contamination, as well as the antibiogram of the isolates. A total of 60 samples of raw meat were collected from different animals, including 4 samples of cow meat, 4 samples of goat meat and 4 samples of chicken meat, from each market. In all, 60 raw meat samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically using the method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2009). Out of the 60 samples analyzed Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 32 samples, giving an overall prevalence of 53.5%. Sixteen out of 20 (80%) of cow meat samples, 10 out of 20 (50%) of goat meat samples, and 6 out of 20 (30%) of chicken meat samples were infected with Listeria monocytogenes. All the isolates were further subjected to biochemical analysis for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in over 50% of the raw meat samples analyzed. The 53.5% prevalence was considered high and indicated the hazard linked to the consumption of the raw meats sold in Nasarawa State if not properly cooked. The susceptibility tests were also conducted using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics such as Septrin, Ampiclox, Erythromycin, Zithromycin, Amoxillin, and Pefloxacin. However, some of the isolates were relatively sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Sreptomycin, Gentamycin, and Rifampicin. The results signal a chemotherapeutic problem in case of any outbreak of the infection.
Published: 14 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 44-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230247
Aim: To assess the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) resistant genes in Salmonella spp isolated from ready-to-eat foods and food handlers in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in selected places in Port Harcourt, between November 2019 and June 2021. Methodology: A total of 350 food specimens and 230 food handlers were collected and the social demographic information were collected using a questionnaire survey. The samples were analysed for contamination with Salmonella species using conventional and molecular methods. Salmonella species were isolated from samples using Salmonella-Shigella agar (SSA), Xylose-lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), MacConkey agar (MA), Blood agar (BA) after pre-enrichment and enrichment method has been done using peptone water broth and Selenite F. Salmonella Chromogenic medium (SCM) was also used to confirm the isolate. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase genes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM) in the Salmonella isolates were screened using double disc synergy method and also investigated using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results: Results showed that of the 11 Salmonella species isolated from the food handlers, 7(63.6%) harboured extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes while 18 (64.3%) out of 28 Salmonella isolated from street vended food sample were positive for ESBL genes. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of ESBL producers observed in the street vended food and those in food handlers’ sample (P= 0.964) PCR result revealed the presence of genes encoding for TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Conclusion: Street vended foods such as white rice/stew, jollof rice, rice/beans stew, porridge beans, beans/stew, moi moi, abacha, and roasted plantain in Port Harcourt harbour Salmonella species that possess the following Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) genes as CTX-M, SHV and TEM. This should receive particular attention, as the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes isolated, indicate public health hazard and gives a warning signal for the possible occurrence of food borne diseases and multi-drug resistance.
Published: 8 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230246
Background: The Plant of Jatropha gossypiifolia is known for their many biological activities including anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and other. Aim: To carry out recent informations regarding phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, bioactivities, toxicology, antiviral and medicinal activities of the plant. Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge. Results: After literature review, we could notice that Jatropha gossypiifolia has antibacterial, and antiviral properties on different types of viruses. Leaves, roots, latex, seeds, fr,uits and other parts have been reported to have different compounds which have interesting bioactivities and medicinal properties. Conclusion: This work can orient or guide scientifics research for the development of anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-Hepatitis B virus, and anti-Covid-19 herbal drugs also nutritional values from Jatropha gossypiifolia for the benefit the of human beings.
Published: 7 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230244
The aim of this study was to assess the microbial indoor air quality of primary and secondary schools in Obio- Akpor and Emohua Local Government Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria. Three public and three private schools were sampled. Air samples were collected using the gravitational sedimentation method. The samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria and fungi, using Nutrient agar and Potato dextrose agar respectively. The bacterial population in the classroom and toilets ranged from 983-5899 CFU/m3 and 786-2751 CFU/m3 respectively, while the fungal population ranged from 1336-2319 CFU/m3 and 786-2637 CFU/m3. The bacteria isolated were identified as belonging to eight genera: Bacillus, Chromobacter, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Staphylococcus, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus occurring more frequently. The fungal isolates were identified as belonging to eight genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Microsporum, Mucor, Penicillium, with Rhizopus; Aspergillus and Mucor occurring more frequently. Some of the isolates identified in this study are of public health significance capable of causing respiratory disorders, bacteremia, pulmonary allergic diseases and gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should maintain proper sanitary practices, maintain good ventilation systems and have less populated classrooms.
Published: 6 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230243
This study summarizes the importance of melatonin in different plants and fungi. In this review, we discussed the biosynthetic pathway of melatonin, its metabolites, and its oxidative reduction. Melatonin is a molecule derived from tryptophan, with pleiotropic activity. It is present in nearly every organism. Its synthetic course depends on the organism in which it resides. The tryptophan to the melatonin pathway, for example, varies in plants and animals. It is thought that the synthetic mechanism for melatonin was inherited in eukaryotes from bacteria caused by endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, the synthetic pathways of melatonin in microorganisms are unknown. The metabolism of melatonin is exceptionally complex with these enzymatic processes developed out of cytochrome C. As well as the enzymatic degradation, melatonin is metabolized by interactive pseudoenzymes and free radicals processes.
Published: 5 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230242
Foliar phytoplasma disease of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has a devastating socioeconomic impact on host crop species and a huge problem to farmers and scientists. Therefore, this study investigates the in vitro effect of alum on microorganisms associated with foliar phytoplasma disease (FPD) of Noni. Bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified by culture-dependent technique using standard microbiological procedures and susceptibility of species were evaluated by disc and agar well diffusion techniques and inhibition zones (IZs) were measured in millimeter (mm). The microbes identified were Bacillus subtilis, B. tequilensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia species as well as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus,A. niger and Penicillium species. Relative abundance (%) of bacterial species occurred in the order; S. aureus > B. tequilensis > B. cereus and least being Br. vesicularis whereas fungi were A. fumigatus (75%), A. niger and A. flavus (50%) respectively and Penicillium (25%) species. Susceptibility test efficacy of Alum was concentration dependent with Serratia sp. as (6.0mm) and S. aureus (4.0mm) whilst A. flavus (36.0mm), A. fumigatus (32.5mm), Penicillium (30.2mm) and A. niger (30.0mm) at 5.0% Alum concentrations as the largest IZs respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Alum against all the microflora were < 2.0gm/mL except for S. aureus which portends a good future prospects in agronomy. However, the higher concentrations of Alum compared favourably with Ketoconazole (control) but showed wide disparity with Ofloxacin (control). This study, however, may proffer solutions for the prevention and management of FPD or foliar related diseases by periodic spraying or fumigation with Alum.
Published: 2 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130241
Aim: The purpose of this research was to examine selected fruits sold within the state of Lagos and to assess their level of contamination by parasites. Methodology: It was carried out in Amuwo Odofin, Alimosho and Ojo Local Government Areas of Lagos State between April 2021 and July 2021. A total of hundred fruits were randomly purchased from three markets in the study areas. Samples collected included Apple (Malus domestica)(n =20), Grapefruit (Citrus maxima)(n =20), Golden melon (Cucumis melo)(n =20), Mango (Mangifera indica)(n =20), and Pear (Pyruscommunis)(n =20). Laboratory analysis was done by using a light microscope to examine sediments gotten from washing the fruits with saline solution. Chi- square test of independence was also calculated to determine the relationship between the fruit type and parasite occurrence. Results: Out of 100 samples collected, 74% were contaminated with 41% having a single contamination while 33% had multiple contamination. The apple was the most contaminated fruit with 85% of the fruit positive while golden melon was the least contaminated as only 60% of the fruit were positive. The parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (71%), Entamoeba histolytica (18%), Enterobiusvermicularis (10%), Giardia lamblia (16%), Hookworm species (44%), Strongyloidesstercoralis (4%), Taenia species(1%) Trichuris trichiuria (11%), and Toxoplasma gondii (3%). A chi-square test of independence could not determine any significant relationship between parasite occurrence and market as well as fruit type and parasite occurrence. Conclusion: The percentage of contaminated fruits in this study is high and this is strong evidence that fruit contributes to the spread of parasites within Lagos State. It is recommended that proper sanitation and hygienic practices should be observed from the cultivation of the fruits on the farm till they are put on display at the market. Fruits bought at markets should also be washed properly before consumption.
Published: 1 July 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130240
This study was carried out to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile and the production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) by Escherichia coli isolated from cow dung in Owo metropolis. The isolation of Escherichia coli was done using MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and was conventionally characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates were by disc diffusion method against ceftazidime (30 µg), cefuroxime (30 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), cefixime (5 µg), ofloxacin (5 µg), augmentin (30 µg), nitrofurantoin (300 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg). Detection of MBL producing isolates was by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test. The isolates showed highest resistance to augmentin (97.8%) and least resistance to nitrofurantoin (20.0%). Out of the 45 Escherichia coli isolated from cow dung, 8 (17.8%) produced MBL and were all multidrug resistant. The production of MBL and the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance observed among the Escherichia coli in this study infer that cow dung does not only serve as a reservoir for MBL-producers but also as source for the growth and dissemination of clinically significant antibiotic resistant species. Hence, the use of antibiotics as growth enhancers in cow production should be discouraged to help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and thus, preserve the efficacy of available antibiotics.
Published: 30 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130239
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of extracts of some selected plant materials in the control of Powdery Mildew of Okra plant. Study Design: Completely randomized design. Place of Study: This study was carried out in the Biology Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology. Methodology: Three Okra farms showing symptoms of powdery mildew disease were surveyed, disease occurrence was recorded, and disease incidence was calculated. Leaves of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) showing symptoms of powdery mildew were collected from the farms. The disease incidence was recorded and the samples of infected leaves were collected from the farms and taken to the laboratory for microscopic examination. The fungus associated with the disease was isolated and cultured to obtain a pure culture. Pathogenicity test was carried out on a healthy okra plant. Extraction of the two plants were done using methanol and it was then diluted to different concentrations. The antifungal susceptibility test on Golovinomyces cichoracearum was carried out using the agar diffusion method and recorded at various concentrations of 50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, and 6.25 mg/ml under in-vitro conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and antifungal activity were recorded at these concentrations. Results: Results of phytochemical analysis showed that Alkaloids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, Flavanoids, Tannins and Resins were present in both Allium sativum (garlic) and Azadirachta indica (neem). These phytochemicals present are suspected to be responsible for the antifungal activity of the plants. Out of the two plants, neem leaf extract was found to be best in the inhibition of the fungus at 50 mg/ml with a significantly high inhibition of 26.77±0.50 after the treatment. At P<= 0.05 there was a significant difference in the antifungal activity of the extract of A. indica on Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Conclusion: The extracts of both Allium sativum (garlic) and Azadirachta indic (neem) possess antifungal properties, and may have the potential for the production of biopesticides, that can be used for the control of fungi.
Published: 27 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130238
Introduction: Environmental health encompasses the assessment and control of the environmental factors that can potentially affect health and is targeted towards preventing diseases and creating health-supportive environment. Although, the environmental health indicators are made up of intermediate and impact indicators; these indicators are most routinely used for monitoring the three most common environmental health problems faced in developing countries, which includes Malaria, ARI (Acute Respiratory Infection) and Diarrhoea. This study shows the interrelationship between environmental health condition and WASH diseases (Cholera, Typhoid fever, and Diarrheal). Materials and Methods: A pre-test on analysis of Environmental Health condition in Obio-Akpo LGA, multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting a total of 50 respondent who were women, questionnaires were used to elicit data from the respondents and the data was analysed using descriptive statistics, prevalence and correlation. Results: The women in the study area indicated their willingness to participate in the survey when compared to the men, with the women having 50(100%) and the men 0(0%) participation. It was common among the respondents that 37(74%) wash their hands with soap and water while others 13(26%) wash their hands at times with soap and water, and at times they just rinse their hands with water. The diseases related to WASH that occurred in the past 12months among the respondents were 6(12%) had Cholera, Diarrhoea occurred in 10(20%) of the respondents, Typhoid malaria occurred in 13(26%) of the respondents, also Skin Infection and COVID-19 were 1(2%) each. While 19(38%) of the respondents had none of the diseases related to WASH in the past 12 months. The type of toilet facilities had a negative relationship to the prevalence of diseases with a 0.01 level of significance. Discussion: There was prevalence of WASH disease among the respondents and it was above average, it is recommended that the government and non-governmental organisations should provide water in homes and public spaces due to the strong correlation between hand washing and prevalence of diseases.
Published: 27 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130237
Plants are a source of first-line treatment for most humans, particularly in Africa and offer nutrition for most terrestrial ecosystems. The world's attention have been called repeatedly to the therapeutic marvels of plants, one of which is Garcinia kola. This study aims to determine the antisalmonella efficacy of several Garcinia kola leaf and seed extracts. Extracts of leaves, seeds, and seed/leaf were obtained using methanol and ethanol as extraction solvents. Inoculated Salmonella typhi were observed for 24 hours using the well diffusion method to determine zones of inhibition. All extracts were found to be effective against S. typhi. 100/50 mg/ml methanol leave extract produced a 14/12mm zone of inhibition, whereas 100/50 mg/ml methanol seed extract produced a 13/11mm zone of inhibition. 100/50 mg/ml ethanol leave extract showed a 17/10mm inhibition zone, while 100/50 mg/ml ethanol seed extract showed a 16/14mm inhibition zone. The inhibition zone of methanol seed/leaf extract of 100/50 mg/ml was 17/12mm, while the inhibition zone of ethanol seed/leaf extract was 19/14mm. While all concentrations of plant extracts were effective against S. typhi, greater concentrations created larger zones of inhibition and the plant extracts outperformed the control. Seed/leaf extracts outperformed seed extract and leaf extract in most cases. The results showed that ethanol was a better extraction liquid and that the leaf extracts were more potent; however, this is not true in all cases. To stimulate local mitigation of illnesses caused by Salmonella typhi, more research on the antisalmonella effectiveness of Garcinia kola seed and leaf extracts should be done.
Published: 24 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430234
Aim: To determine the prevalent rates of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and non-O157 strains in of isolates from meat, human stool and abattoir waste water, collected from selected sources in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Study Design: Case-controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Selected places in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between November, 2020 to November, 2021. Methodology: Three hundred and forty -nine (349) samples were analyzed, 80 meat and 63 waste waters from five abattoirs cited in the city, 46 meat samples from five selected sites sold by roadside butchers, 109 patient stool samples and 30 stool samples from food sellers, in addition to 20 stool samples from healthy subjects and 1 commercial bottled water which served as control samples. Tryptone soya broth (TSB) as an enrichment media, selective agar media namely; Eosin methylene blue agar, cefixime tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC), Chromagar STEC were used to isolate STEC from the samples and serology done with O157 latex agglutinating kit to confirm E. coli O157:H7 serogroup. Results: The results showed that Isolation rates obtained for E. coli O157:H7 and non O157 respectively were: abattoir meat 11(13.8%);13(16.3%), roadside meat 5(10.9%); 10(21.7%), clinical stool 7(6.4%); 27(24.7%), food sellers’ stool 4(13.3%);6(20%), waste abattoir water 2(3%); 14(22.2%). Food sellers and abattoir effluents were found to be potential sources of STEC dissemination in Port Harcourt. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using chi- square which showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the rate of isolation of E. coli O157: H7 and non- O157 strain from the samples. Conclusion: The detection of E.coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains in raw meat (food), environment and clinical samples in Port Harcourt may give rise to a potential widespread public health hazard if strict adherence to proper hygiene management are not place to regulate food processing in other to reduce contamination and foodborne infections.
Published: 24 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430235
Many malaria endemic nations are pursuing malaria elimination and these technical challenges require the development of integrated approaches, among which safe and effective malaria vaccines could be a crucial tool. Due to non-availability of malaria vaccine, the control efforts rely heavily on treatment with new antimalarial agents preferably acting on newer targets. In this study, the protected serum proteomics after garlic and arteether combination treatment of P.berghei infected mice has been analyzed by western blotting. One of the identified host parasites specific proteins, peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA) is known to catalyze the interconversion of the cis and trans and mediate certain protein folding events both in in vitro and in vivo conditions. This study hypothesizes that, overexpressed PPIA might lead to misfold of the parasite protein which are needed for parasite multiplication and in turn lead to the parasite death or in the protection of combination drug treated samples.
Published: 15 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430233
Background: Bacterial resistance is a more serious threat, and herbal medicines have been used as an alternative solution to this problem. Honey has been used to treat bacterial infections for decades. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Laboratory Medicine, Shendi, Sudan between October 2021 and November 2021. In this study, 50 different clinical samples were collected from different microbiology laboratories in Shendi City, and different Gram-positive cocci bacteria were isolated and identified by Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to the bee honey was determined using agar well diffusion technique. Results: Out of a total of 50 clinical specimens cultured the most frequent isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (46%), Streptococcus epidermidis (36%), Streptococcus viridian's (10%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4%), while the least isolated bacteria was Enterococcus fecalis (4%). On the other hand, 100% (v/v) honey was more effective than the tested antibiotics, inhibiting 74% of clinical isolates, while 38% of microorganisms were inhibited by only 50% (v/v) honey and 14% of organisms inhibited by 25% (v/v) Honey. Bee honey showed a clear effect on the isolated bacteria. Conclusion: Based on these results, we can conclude that honey has broad activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, honey can be considered as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. The medicinal use of Sudanese honey and the assumption that the possibility of local production of bioactive honey requires additional investigation.
Published: 8 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430232
Aim: This study is aimed at Isolating and Identifying the Toxigenic Aspergillus species Associated With Sorghum Grains and Locally Brewed Beer (Burkutu) in Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Methodology: Sorghum grains and locally brewed beer (Burkutu) were collected from three different locations; Gyel, Kugiya, and Doruwa Market of Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, and Screened for their fungal and total aflatoxin level. The grains were blended for 30 seconds using a high-speed blender. 1 gram of the blended sorghum and 1ml of the Burkutu sample (local beer) were cultured into freshly prepared PDA supplemented with 0.5mg/ml of gentamycin and streptomycin to suppress bacterial growth. This was then incubated at a temperature of 37°C for 72 hours after which various fungi colonies were observed and counted with a colony counter. The fungi isolated were further sub-cultured to obtain pure cultures after which they were classified using conidial morphology as obtained from microscopy. Lactophenol cotton blue mount was also carried out to identify the exact fungi with reference to a mycological atlas. The colony-forming unit for each sample was determined, and the Aflatoxin test was carried out using a Mycotoxin kit (the Rida Quick Scan method) to determine the Total aflatoxin level. Results: The Aspergillus species found in both Sorghum grains and Burkuru (local beer) were: Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusflavus, and Aspergillusfumigatus. For sorghum grains, Aspergillusniger had the highest frequency of occurrence (42.86%) while Aspergillusflavus & Aspergillusfumigatus occurred equally with (28.57%) respectively. Aspergillusflavus had the highest frequency of occurrence in Burkutu (50%), followed by Aspergillusniger (33.33%) and the least was Aspergillusfumigatus (16.67%). The highest aflatoxin level for grains was detected in Kugiya which had (3.6 parts per billion) followed by the grain sample from Gyel which had (3.0 Ppb) and the least was Doruwa (2.8 Ppb). Burkutu had the highest total level of aflatoxin (3.1Ppb) in the sample from Gyel, followed by Burkutu from Doruwa (2.6 Ppb) and the least was from Kugiya (2.4 Ppb). Conclusion: Both the sorghum grains and Locally Brewed Beer (Burkutu) collected from the Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, Nigeria were significantly contaminated by the toxigenic Aspergillus species. This indicates possible health hazards for humans and animals ingesting these substances. However, effective screening of these grains for aflatoxins is advocated to ensure the safety of both grains and their products.
Published: 8 June 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430230
Background: Cryptosporidium is an etiologic agent of gastro-intestinal disorders and severe, profuse watery diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients, such as people living with HIV/AIDS. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium parvum among HIV patients who usually received antiretroviral therapy (ART) in four selected hospitals in Maiduguri Metropolis. Study Design: This is a clinical laboratory study of opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS Patients. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, the University of Maiduguri in collaboration with the Biological Sciences Department, ATBU Bauchi, Nigeria, between March 2021, and February 2022. Methods: A total of 400 faecal specimens were collected from confirmed HIV-positive patients and screened for Cryptosporidium-specific antigen by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Genomic DNA Extraction was done by Quick-DNATM Faecal Microbe Miniprep with PCR amplification and sequencing of 18s SSU rRNA gene using specific reference primers. Results: Out of the 70 HIV/AIDS and Cryptosporidium co-infected patients, 20 of the samples contained 18s SSU rRNA genes, with the highest frequency (45.0%) found in patients from the University Teaching Hospital. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that there is signiﬁcant intra-species diversity in the genus Cryptosporidium. The four human C. parvum isolates differ from the bovine and the two avian isolates in three regions of the 18s rRNA gene. Conclusion: The human genotype (genotype I) found in this study is exclusively human and in a single non-human primate, in bovine genotype (genotype II) has proved to be anthroponotic and zoonotic to the livestock. The study, therefore, advocates further genotyping of Cryptosporidium from both HIV-infected patients and immunocompetent hosts from various regions together with surveillance of animal and environmental reservoirs is highly recommended.
Published: 19 May 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 47-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330229
Aims: In this study, the antibiofilm activity of citric acid on P. fluorescens isolated from raw milk samples was studied. Background: Due to the resistance it gives to Pseudomonas bacteria, the presence of biofilm has been mentioned in recent studies. Biofilm is defined as the irreversible mucoid layer that microorganisms form on any surface and milk biofilms, which are the cause of contamination in milk, are a major concern in the dairy industry. Methods: In this study, antibiofilm activity of citric acid and chlorine was investigated in 16 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from raw milk samples. For this purpose, the prevention and removal of biofilm formation of P. fluorescens strains was determined comparatively after treatment with microtitration plates with chlorine or citric acid. Results: It was found that after treatment of microplates with citric acid, biofilm formation in P. fluorescens isolates was prevented by 52% and eliminated by 71-78%. It was also found that after the microplates were treated with chlorine, biofilm formation was prevented by 48% and eliminated by 61%. Conclusion: This study showed that it was observed that citric acid can be used as an antibiofilm against biofilms produced by P. fluorescens bacteria.
Published: 17 May 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330228
Background: The Plant of Jatropha curcas is known for their many biological activities including antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial. Aim: To provide update knowledge on the phytochemistry, toxicology and antiviral activity of some medically interesting Jatropha curcas. Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge. Results: The literature review shows that Jatropha curcas have antiviral properties on different types of viruses. Different parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, latex, seeds, fruits and other parts have been reported to have different compounds which have interesting bioactivities and antiviral properties. Conclusion: The present mini-review can therefore help inform future scientific research towards the development of anti-Hepatitis B virus and antiCovid-19 herbal drugs of relevance as well as nutraceuticals from J. curcas for the improvement of human health and wellbeing using reverse pharmacology approach. Molecular docking of some naturally occurring isolate compounds against anti-Hepatitis B virus protease is in progress.
Published: 30 April 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330227
The SARS-CoV-2 virus’s prominence, severity, and unique characteristics—including its ability to mutate quickly and cause idiosyncratic symptoms—has prompted researchers to fully focus on understanding the pathological process behind infection and developing an effective vaccine. To achieve this objective, several animal models, from small animals to non-human primates (NHPs), have been developed to identify different immunizing agents, which can provide protection against coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this review, we discuss the possible advantages and drawbacks of these animal models including their susceptibility to infection, and pathological manifestations. While vaccination efforts have been successful, there still remain several limitations and areas for improvement. The individuals at the high risk of contracting viral infection may need individualized immunization plans and newer antigenic targets must be discovered to combat the virus’s mutations. Animal models can serve as a valuable tool to develop better vaccines that can provide protection against COVID-19.
Published: 11 April 2022
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330226
This study was designed to investigate the possibility of infection via food with pathogenic organisms. It was carried out in the city Omdurman in Khartoum States during the period from December 2015 to November 2019. The objectives of the study were to identify the causative intestinal parasites in the examined individuals. A total of 600 stool specimens and 256 vegetables samples were examined. fecal samples were observed macroscopically for the consistency and presence of mucus, blood, worm larvae and cestodes segments. The samples were then examined by wet smear and formal - ether concentration technique. A bout 200 -300 grams of each vegetable and fruit were washed in 50 ml of sterile normal saline and filtrate was centrifuged then sediment was examined microscopically. Result showed that the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites microscopically was found to be 179/600(29.8%). Entamoeba histolytica cyst was reported in mothers 28 (62.2%) as twofold as in children 13 (28.9%), while in food handlers was recorded in 4(8.9%). Gardia Lamblia was more dominated in mothers 48(58.5%) as twice as seen in children 24 (29.3%), whereas in food a handler was noted in 10(12.2%). Taenia spp was found only in mothers 5 (71.4%) and children 2 (28.6%). Moreover, Ascaris lumbricoides was also seen in mothers 11(61.1%) and children 7 (38.9%). Among the examined vegetables and fruits samples, G.lamblia found to be the most dominated parasite 26 (66.7%), followed by E. histolytica 8 (20.5%) and A.lumbrucoides 5 (12.8%) respectively. In conclusion, the overall of the prevalence intestinal parasites was more pronounced among mothers and their children's. G. Lamblia and E. histolytica were the most predominated parasites seen microscopically among participants. Mothers should be examined periodically for their health status regarding intestinal parasites to increase the awareness prompt detection.