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Results in Hyperscience International Journals: 27

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Stéphane H. Maes
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp136-219

Abstract:
We start from a hypothetical multi-fold universe UMF , where the propagation of everything is slower or equal to the speed of light and where entanglement extends the set of paths available to Path Integrals. This multifold mechanism enables EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) “spooky actions at distance” to result from local interactions in the resulting folds. It produces gravity-like attractive effective potentials in the spacetime, between entangled entities, that are caused by the curvature of the folds. When quantized, multi-folds correspond to gravitons and they are enablers of EPR entanglement. Gravity emerges non-perturbative and covariant from EPR entanglement between virtual particles surrounding an entity. In UMF, we encounter mechanisms that predict gravity fluctuations when entanglement is present, including in macroscopic entanglements. Besides providing a new perspective on quantum gravity, when added to the Standard Model as (SMG), with non-negligible affects at its scales, and to the Standard Cosmology, UMF can contribute explanations of several open questions and challenges. It also clarifies some relationships and challenges met by other quantum gravity models and Theories of Everything. It leads to suggestions for these works. We also reconstruct the spacetime of UMF, starting from the random walks of particles in an early spacetime. UMF now appears as a noncommutative, discrete, yet Lorentz symmetric, spacetime that behaves roughly 2-Dimensional at Planck scales, when it is a graph of microscopic Planck size black holes on a random walk fractal structure left by particles that can also appear as microscopic black holes. Of course, at larger scales, spacetime appears 4-D, where we are able to explain curvature and recover Einstein’s General Relativity. We also discover an entanglement gravity-like contributions and massive gravity at very small scales. This is remarkable considering that no Hilbert Einstein action, or variations expressing area invariance, were introduced. Our model also explains why semi classical approaches can work till way smaller scale than usually expected and present a new view on an Ultimate Unification of all forces, at very small scales. We also explore opportunities for falsifiability and validation of our model, as well as ideas for futuristic applications, that may be worth considering, if UMF was a suitable model for our universe Ureal  .
, Misha Nikouravan
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 128-135; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp128-135

Abstract:
Lagrangian method applied as well as tensor method, for a linear transformed geodesic line element of Schwarzschild-like The ‎Lagrangian method was applied for a linearly transformed geodesic line element of a Schwarzschild-like solution instead of ‎the tensor method. The solution shows that it is not only valid for spherical objects but also it is more comprehensive for ‎elliptical celestial objects. Two types of kinetic and potential energy are the basis of the calculation. Hamiltonian and ‎Lagrangian equality show that the problem has no potential energy. With this transformed geodesic line element, we obtained ‎a new coefficient for the meridional advance of an experimental particle in Schwarzschild spacetime in terms of period, ‎eccentricity, and mean distance. This new perigee equation is not only valid for the Schwarzschild metric (for a spherical ‎object), but also more accurate for the Schwarzschild-like metric (for elliptical objects).‎
, Misha Nikouravan
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 209-216; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp209-216

Abstract:
Lagrangian method applied as well as tensor method, for a linear transformed geodesic line element of Schwarzschild-like The ‎Lagrangian method was applied for a linearly transformed geodesic line element of a Schwarzschild-like solution instead of ‎the tensor method. The solution shows that it is not only valid for spherical objects but also it is more comprehensive for ‎elliptical celestial objects. Two types of kinetic and potential energy are the basis of the calculation. Hamiltonian and ‎Lagrangian equality show that the problem has no potential energy. With this transformed geodesic line element, we obtained ‎a new coefficient for the meridional advance of an experimental particle in Schwarzschild spacetime in terms of period, ‎eccentricity, and mean distance. This new perigee equation is not only valid for the Schwarzschild metric (for a spherical ‎object), but also more accurate for the Schwarzschild-like metric (for elliptical objects).‎
Naohiro Ozawa
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 108-114; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp108-114

Abstract:
The view of the Standard Model on the β decay of neutrons through weak interaction is that neutrons break down ‎to form ‎protons P and weak bosons W^- and finally into protons‎, electron and anti-electron neutrinos. The three ‎quarks (U,d,d) that ‎compose neutrons are joined by strong interaction, so bonds formed by strong interaction ‎supposedly cannot be broken ‎by weak interaction, which is far weaker than strong interaction. Nevertheless, ‎neutrons do decay. Further, the three ‎quarks (U,d,d) that form neutrons are fundamental particles, and it should ‎not be possible for other fundamental particles to ‎emerge from these three fundamental particles. Nevertheless, not ‎only does (U,d,d) change into (U,U,d), but electrons ‎and anti-electron-neutrinos, which are fundamental particles, ‎also emerge. This must not have a double meaning. As shown ‎here, there are multiple contradictions in weak ‎interaction of the Standard Model.‎ In this paper, weak interaction is mediated by the π‎-ons group that results from ‎the working of strong interaction step 1 ‎that was described in a previous paper and acts on the nucleons group ‎‎(‎‎P‎ ‎,P ̅ ‎‎,n,n ̅ ‎ ‎) that resulted from step 2. In other ‎words, at the point immediately prior to the emergence of weak ‎interaction, all the particles that existed in the universe were ‎used in order to make weak interaction emerge. The ‎weak interaction in this paper refers to the strong interaction bonds ‎composed of neutrons and ‎π^±‎-ons first being ‎dissolved by strong interaction. As such, the reason why neutrons change to ‎protons is just because the ‎‎d-quark of ‎the neutron is replaced with the ‎U‎-quark of the‎ π^±‎-on.‎
Naohiro ‎ Ozawa
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 122-127; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp122-127

Abstract:
The interpretation of the universe put forward in this series of research papers (30 papers in total) explains ‎how the ‎universe has emerged, developed, and will end in a causal and autonomous manner according to a ‎single principle ‎from start to finish. In other words, the emergence of all particles such as neutrinos, quarks, ‎‎[the π‎-on group ( π^+,π^-,π^±,π^0 ) and the nucleon group (‎‎p‎ ‎,p ̅ ‎‎,n,n ̅ ‎ ‎)], and the 120 types of atomic ‎nuclei as well as ‎motive forces by which work physical forces such as "strong interaction," "weak ‎interaction," the "electromagnetic ‎force," and "gravity" are without exception the result of the causality ‎between the 4 types of entities that existed in ‎a single point at the emergence of the universe. Furthermore, ‎this series of research papers will make clear how the ‎universe has continuously developed according to ‎causality and, in this way, has formed the entirety of today's ‎universe, including all physical matter.‎ This research will begin by proving the insight that there was nothing outside ‎of the single point at the start ‎of the universe. A consideration of the types of entities that existed in a single point at ‎the start of the ‎universe and of the causality between these entities will follow. If we assume that not even space ‎existed ‎outside of the universe, it is not possible for neutrinos and quarks to suddenly emerge, although the ‎‎Standard Model advocates it is possible. As such, this research paper believes that the universe began by ‎‎constructing space. That is, this series of research papers splits from the Standard Model right from the start ‎of the ‎universe.‎
Albert V. ‎ Herrebrugh, Netherland
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 115-121; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp115-121

Abstract:
A mathematical model for the slit experiments in the heart of quantum mechanics is developed to gain insight into quantum ‎theory. The proposed system-theoretical model is entirely based on commutative mathematics, i.e. convolution, and integral ‎transformations, and starts with spacetime functions with inherent energy-based cause and effect relations of the state-‎function Ѱ in the complex Hilbert space. The benefits of his approach are as 1-Invariance in time reversal. 2-Deterministic ‎result functions in the model in line with the outcome of slit experiments. 3- Separation of causality and cross-correlations of ‎attained states. 4- Disappearance of a posteriori probability of quantum states. 5- Quantum a priori fixed states after ‎causality interactions have ended, (even) when quanta are (light-years) separated. The model predicts the patterns in the ‎experiments with mathematical functions of the energy distributions. The quantum mechanical counterpart description of the ‎physical reality of slit experiments thus may be considered complete in A. Einstein’s definition. The patterns in double slit ‎experiments are found to be an effect of energy (amplitude-) modulation. An equivalent double-slit pattern can be retrieved ‎from an input modulated 1-slit experiment excluding interference interpretations. The system-theoretical model uses generic ‎properties of quanta and evolves into determinism in ‎quantum mechanics slit experiments. The mathematics in the model ‎handles beables by treatment ‎of momentum p in system theoretical I/O relations of the transformed functions and allows the ‎proposed description by the avoidance of a direct addressing of the individual quanta through variables. The following ‎method yields exact, non-probabilistic results.‎
Andreas Martin ‎
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 97-102; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp97-102

Abstract:
This publication takes a mathematical approach to a general solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. The basic idea is a ‎mathematical analysis of the unipolar induction according to Faraday with the help of the vector analysis. The vector analysis ‎enables the unipolar induction and the Navier-Stokes equations to be related physically and mathematically since both ‎formulations are mathematically equivalent. Since the unipolar induction has proven itself in practice, it can be used as a ‎reference for describing the Navier-Stokes equations‎.
Mark Syrkin ‎, Usa‎ Federal Reserve Bank Of New York
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 103-107; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp103-107

Abstract:
In this Part II we focus on a few key elements of quantum mechanics essential for understanding of quantum technologies ‎and computing. We begin with a subtle but important similarity between classical and quantum mechanics which is typically ‎overlooked in favor of apparent differences. Further, it is reminded that classical motion can be obtained via averaging ‎over quantum distributions/wave functions and, conversely, quantum distributions can be recast as a superposition of virtual ‎classical paths. Relatedly, we emphasize the importance of the case intermediate between classical and quantum mechanics – ‎that is, quasi-classical mechanics. The above background facilitates additional insights and heuristics into the mechanisms of ‎widely acclaimed long-distance correlations in quantum mechanics and the origins of the coherency in quantum ensembles in the ‎context of wave-particle duality. ‎
Xiaohan Deng ‎, Zhiyong ‎ Deng
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 89-90; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp89-90

Abstract:
In this paper, the wave function is interpreted as space-time: under any representation, the real part of ‎the wave function ‎represents space and the imaginary part represents time. A wave function represents ‎the quantum entanglement (correlation) ‎between time and space. The unitary evolution process is the ‎mutual transformation of space-time. The imaginary time ‎indicates that it can entangle with space in a ‎nonlocalized way and dominate the integrity (unification) of a quantum, which ‎is the essence of ‎quantum entanglement.‎
Naohiro Ozawa
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 91-96; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp91-96

Abstract:
The conclusion of this paper is that the strong interaction that emerged as the universe developed through the ‎mediation of two pairs of four types of neutrinos (v_µ ,v ̅_µ ,v_e ,v ̅_e) acted on two pairs of four types of ‎quarks/anti-quarks (u,u ̅,d,d ̅) to form two particle groups each having an electrical charge composition of (+1, -1, ‎‎0, 0) (the π-on group (π^+,π^-,π^±,π^0 ) and the nucleon group ( P, P ̅, n, n ̅), which became the ‎constituent materials for 120 types of atomic nuclei/anti-atomic nuclei. That is, the emergence of strong interaction ‎is the physical force that shouldered the central role within the causal chain that was the development of the ‎universe: From neutrino and quark/anti-quark → nucleon/anti-nucleon → electron/positron, atomic nuclei/anti-‎atomic nuclei → elements/anti-elements and so on. The quark chromodynamics on strong interaction of the ‎Standard Model however accounts for the emergence of strong interaction as basically the result of the union of ‎three colors/anti-colors of quarks/anti-quarks and is, therefore, no more than the result of a random accident. Hence, ‎the principle of strong interaction according to the Standard Model is not a causal property that emerged in line ‎with the flow of the development of the universe. For that reason, it is not possible for this principle to organize and ‎connect the past, the present, and the future in a sophisticated manner.‎
Naohiro Ozawa
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 83-88; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp83-88

Abstract:
In clarifying the entirety of the universe, the most important processes are the emergence of the universe and the ‎formation of quarks/anti-quarks. The entirety of the universe has emerged in a causal and consecutive manner. ‎According to the Standard Model, from the dawn of the universe, particles such as 3 pairs of neutrinos (v_µ ⁄ v ̅_µ , ‎v_e ⁄ v ̅_e , v_τ ⁄ v ̅_τ ) and 6 pairs of quarks (U/U ̅,d/d ̅ , s/s ̅ , c/c ̅ , b/b ̅ , t/t ̅ ) suddenly emerged with different ‎components not due to causality but due to "vacuum phase transitions" with no space existing in the universe. In ‎this research paper, we must first assume that quarks/anti-quarks are formed inextricably linked with the ‎organization of space-time/anti-space-time and in cooperation with 2 pairs of neutrinos (v_µ ⁄ v ̅_µ , v_e ⁄ v ̅_e ) in ‎the acting of the "strong interaction" and "weak interaction." We must also assume that quarks/anti-quarks are the ‎main body that composes the π- on group ( π^+, π^-, π^±, π^0 ) and the nucleon group ( P, P ̅, n , n ̅ ), and ‎that they play the leading role to compose not only 120 types of atomic nuclei, but also all the ‎particles/antiparticles that exist in the entire universe. In other words, the formed quarks/anti-quarks must clear any ‎and all problems in the above series without any contradictions. This research paper will make clear details such as ‎the fact that only 2 pairs of quarks (U/U ̅ , d ⁄ d ̅ ), were formed; that in the entirety of the universe, only these 2 ‎pairs of quarks were given electrical charges; and that the raw materials of space-time/anti-space-time are the same ‎as quarks/anti-quarks.‎
M Syrkin ‎, Usa Federal Reserve Bank Of New York
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 76-82; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp76-82

Abstract:
Speedy developments in Quantum Technologies mandate that fundamentals of Quantum Computing are well explained and ‎understood. Meanwhile, paradigms of so-called quantum non-locality, wave function (WF) “collapse”, “Schrödinger cat” and ‎some other historically popular misconceptions continue to feed mysteries around quantum phenomena. Arguing that above ‎misinterpretations stem from classically minded and experimentally unverifiable perceptions, recasting Principle of ‎Superposition (PS) and key experimental details into classical notions. Revisiting main components of general quantum ‎measurement protocols (analyzers and detectors), and explaining paradoxes of WF collapse and Schrödinger cat. Reminding ‎that quantum measurements routinely reveal correlations dictated by conservation laws in each individual realization of the ‎quantum ensemble, manifesting “correlation-by-initial conditions” in contrast to traditional “correlation-by-interactions”. We ‎reiterate: Quantum Mechanics (QM) is not a dynamical theory in the same sense the Classical Mechanics (CM) is – it is a ‎statistical phenomenology, as established in 1926 by Born’s postulate. That is, while QM rests on conservation laws in each ‎individual outcome, it does not indicate how exactly a specific outcome is selected. This selection remains fundamentally ‎random and represents true randomness of QM, the latter being a statistical paradigm with a WF standing for a complex-‎valued distribution function. Finally, PS is the backbone of a quantum measurement process: PS can be conveniently viewed ‎as a composition of partial distributions into the total distribution – similar to classical probability mixtures – and is ‎effectuated experimentally by the analyzer part of a measuring device. ‎
Xiaohan Deng ‎, Zhiyong Deng ‎
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 60-75; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp60-75

Abstract:
This paper aims to point out that a wave function is a description of a quantum spatiotemporal ‎entanglement and the ‎‎transformation between time and space. In any quantum mechanical ‎representation, the real part of the wave function ‎‎represents the space wave and the imaginary ‎part represents the time wave, and they are the space-time itself. Time wave is ‎‎not limited by ‎space and dominates the nonlocality and integrity of a quantum. Matter wave is a four-‎dimensional space-time ‎‎wave, and the basic unit of vacuum is a four-dimensional space-time ‎element stationary relative to the observer. The essence ‎‎of quantum measurement or interaction is ‎that a conjugate condensation equivalent to that determined by inner product ‎‎operation occurs ‎between Space-time waves. Particle property is only the localization effect of quantum global ‎collapse when ‎‎quantum position measurement or equivalent interaction is made.‎
Stéphane Wojnow
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 57-59; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij202257-59

Abstract:
Assuming an energy density of the cosmological constant in Quantum Field Theory, we propose a simple mathematical solution to the cosmological constant problem, i.e. the disagreement of the order of a factor 10122 between the theoretical and the measured value of the vacuum energy density. We try to give a non-exclusive route for our solution to make physical sense.
Stéphane Wojnow
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 57-59; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp57-59

Abstract:
Assuming an energy density of the cosmological constant in Quantum Field Theory, we propose a simple mathematical solution to the cosmological constant problem, i.e. the disagreement of the order of a factor 10122 between the theoretical and the measured value of the vacuum energy density. We try to give a non-exclusive route for our solution to make physical sense.
Rezvan Saleh Ghafari, ,
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 46-56; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp46-56

Abstract:
HD 158259 (or HIP 85268) is one of the members of the main sequence in G0 group stars located approximately at 88 ‎light-years away in the constellation Draco, discussed with respect to the solar system. HD 158259 was discovered by the ‎SOPHIE échelle spectrograph using the radial velocity method. This system includes five confirmed planets orbiting HD ‎‎158259, together with one unconfirmed planet. The planets orbit in a near 2/3 (or 3:2) orbital resonance. Starting from the innermost pairing, the period ratios are with the period ratios ‎‎1.5757, 1.5146, 1.5296, 1.5128, and 1.4482, respectively, starting from the innermost pairing. Here we theoretically investigate the HD ‎‎158259 system for the Semi-major axis, planet's mass, star luminosity, ‎ inner,‎ ‏ ‏center, outer, and ∆(HZ) habitable zone. We account for radial ‎velocity amplitude, planet density, and Laplace’s resonance, theoretically. The existing possibility of the sixth and undetected ‎planet (HD 158259 g) was also investigated. The orbital period and semi-major axis of this planet, computed with 0.047726 years (17.420 ‎days) and 0.135 AU respectively, with ????2 = 0.9964. The radial velocity amplitude of this new and undetected planet was ‎computed to be about 1.625 km/s. The mass of planets in terms of Solar, Jupiter, and Earth have shown direct direct proportional ‎relation with an approximate increase in their semi-major axis. The lowest mass is closest to the star and the highest mass is farthest from the star. We compare the habitability zone to that of NASA, Kopparapu et.al, and the original Kopparapu estimate. The application of the relative mean motion ration (RMMR) for resonance in the triads of successive planets showed that the mode of RMMR is approximately 2/3 (or 3:2) orbital resonance, with the calculated period ratios shown above. we have also calculated the planetary equilibrium temperature (PET) in terms of the size, temperature, Albedo and distance planet to its parent star.
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 36-45; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp36-45

Abstract:
Electric power is an indispensable consumer commodity for a little over a century now as all electric equipment in dwellings, commercial, and industry sectors are essentially dependent on electricity. Heat recovery steam generator, HRSG is an important system in combined cycle power plants. Indeed, excess vibrations induced on such devices may gradually lead to fatigue failure that affect the process of power output. This work investigates, models, and simulates the vibrations response of a fluid carrier pipe housed inside the cavity of the system while experiencing highly pressurized nearly perpendicular external force of extremely hot flue gas on the outside and pressurized water and water vapour from the inside. Transient and steady-state vibrations from initial conditions and the forcing function analysis are performed to account for the variation of damping, amplitude, and frequency responses of the system. Initial parameters used in the systems’ model are from industry subsequent to the OEM instructions. However, we introduce a new set of parameter values so as to observe the vibrational behaviour by varying these parameters. The purpose of performing a parameter-based vibration analysis is that parameter variation may point to different responses in the system. Indeed, this in turn indicates which set of parameters are suitable for rectifying the primary causes of undesired vibrations. To account for the consequence of mass flowrate, the model covers low pressure, intermediate pressure, and high-pressure constituents. The results obtained from the model are for the relationships of amplitude and phase angle as functions of frequency of the system. From these data, different interactions of quantities such as force, damping ratio, and number of dampers and vibration supports are observed. These results implores the implementation of new set of parameters to improve the agility of the system and minimize the impact of excess vibrations.
Rahman Sharifi, Mohammad Khosroshahi, Samira Ali, Zahra Maleki, Mahdi Sadeghi Pour Marvi
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp26-35

Abstract:
In this study, according to the objectives and implementation method, climatic factors affecting ‎the dust phenomenon in active meteorological stations in Tehran province for a period of 30 years ‎were studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station, ‎temperature, humidity, rainfall, evaporation factors were directly related to DSI indices, wind ‎trend and dust storm changes, Lancaster, wind and storm diagrams, SPEI and the increase of ‎drought indices in the statistical period increased with temperature, evaporation and decrease. ‎Rainfall and humidity are proportional. DSI dust storm indexes were compared to 1 and ‎Lancaster drought index was compared to 50 and SPEI index was compared positively and ‎negatively in different years of the statistical period in the region and was classified in terms of ‎drought and wet season. The results of monthly and annual changes in wind trend and dust ‎storms showed that the region has no wind in all months and seasons with a speed of more than ‎‎20 meters per second. In terms of wind speed and frequency percentage, the highest wind speed ‎was related to late May and early June, and the lowest wind speed was related to late December ‎and early January. In addition, according to the changes in the wind trend and the documents of the ‎winds and thunderstorms, the prevailing wind direction in the region was from the west.‎
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 14-25; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp14-25

Abstract:
This work analyses the dynamic response of Tension Leg Platform, TLP under sea wave induced forces with the aid of fluid dynamics modified Morison equation, single degree of freedom mass spring damper theory, and the Runge-Kutta ode45. Specifically, we employ the modified Morison equation to calculate the sea wave forces acting on a cylinder hull of the TLP. Two types of sea wave characteristics are analysed including sea waves in the South China Sea to compute the waves loading on the hull. Evaluated results are incorporated into the equation of motion of the platform, modeled as a single degree of freedom mass-spring-damper system to obtain the platform displacement at x-axis direction. The results showed that the dynamic response of the platform under the influence of sea wave A exhibits a displacement of 0.02 m in the direction of wave propagation parallel to the x-axis of the platform. Meanwhile, sea wave B manifests a magnitude at least twenty times larger compared to sea wave A, resulting in 0.5 m displacement in the same axis direction. We further examine the consequence of velocity profile of sea waves on displacement and time taken for a complete vibrational cycle. A parameter-fed CFD simulation with Star-CCM+ shows clear dynamic response of the TLP when acted upon by sea wave A. Obtained results indicate the importance of materials selection for construction of the hull tendons based on the motion of the hull and gives a fair estimate for cyclic loading on the tendons throughout the life cycle of the platform.
Mohammadreza Yazdifar
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp28-33

Abstract:
There are many aspects that have direct effects on total hip replacement performance (THR), such as material properties, applied loads, surgical approach, femur size and quality, prosthesis design, bone-implant interface etc. One of the purposes to study different structures in THR is reducing the stress shielding. For the current study, an innovative hollow spherical structure is developed for femoral hip stems. The aim is to extract volume in the spherical shape from the stainless-steel hip implant stems, in order to focus solely on correlating with titanium behavior. Internal geometry for the femoral stem is optimized in order to transfer more stress onto the bone. Moreover, the approach involves extracting volume in the spherical shape from the internal structure to reduce stress shielding. A new novel implant is proposed that demonstrated a reduction in stress shielding. The sphered models have a smaller young’s modulus and strength than the solid stainless-steel sample. The spheres in hollowed structures reduce the stress shielding and they transfer more stress onto the bone when compared to the solid stainless-steel models. This approach also involves restructuring a hard material, such as stainless steel, to enhance osseointegration. The reduction of the young’s modulus and stress directly depends on the volume of the hollow spheres in the models; however, there is a certain volume that can be extracted from solid
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp8-12

Abstract:
In 2015, after the discovery of Kepler-186f, the fifth exoplanet in orbit of its star, Kepler-186, we investigated for three new undetected planets in the Kepler-186 system [1]. Of the planets which are owned by the Kepler-186, the first Earth-like planet and far from its star is Kepler-186f. Considering the order of these five discovered planets, there is a strong possibility for the existence of three new and undetected planets. Theoretically, we have recognized these three new planets locating before and after Kepler-186f. The first two new planets, orbit in the gap between Kepler-186e and Kepler-186f, and are called Kepler-186e(X1) and Kepler-186e(X2) respectively. The third planet also orbits in the exterior region of Kepler-186f is called Kepler-186f(X1). Now, after 6 years, we have reinvestigated these findings using the new information and data available.
Jitendra Jatashankar Rawal, The Indian Planetary Society
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp1-7

Abstract:
Schwarzschild's external solution of Einstein’s gravitational field equations in the general theory of relativity for a static star has been generalized by Vaidya [1], taking into account the radiation of the star. Here, we generalize Vaidya’s metric to a star that is rotating and radiating. Although, there is a famous Kerr solution [2] for a rotating star, but here is a simple solution for a rotating star which may be termed as a zero approximate version of the Kerr solution. Results are discussed.
M Nadjafikhah
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 7-13; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp7-13

Abstract:
In this paper, we will calculate an integrating factor, first integral, and reduce the order of the non-Linear second-order ODEs , through the λ-symmetry method. Moreover, we compute an integrating factor, first integral and reduce the order for particular cases of this equation.
Mehdi Nadjafikhah
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2022pp1-6

Abstract:
The Lie symmetry group of the Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov equation has been seriously studied, earlier than this. Eventually, it has been endowed with a general model by N.J.C. Ndogmo, in 2008. This research is devoted to introducing the algebra, the group, and the reductions of a new symmetry which is an exception of that model.
Rahman Sharifi, Farshid Yazdanfar, Kheirollah Noroozi
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp34-43

Abstract:
One of the most important geotechnical issues is the stabilization and deep excavation of the city, which many research has been done about it., especially in recent decades. One thing that adds to the complexity and challenge of such projects is the existence of cavities and empty spaces in the vicinity of the excavation. Therefore, careful study and in-depth analysis play a crucial role in such projects. In this research, we try to examine this issue from different aspects and its practical result use in future projects. Due to the fact that the two methods of anchorage and nailing are the most widely used methods in strengthening and stabilizing the excavations, these two methods were selected also interaction of excavation-underground cavities were investigated. parameters such as the cavity depth, the distance of the cavity from the excavation, the diameter of the cavity, and the thickness of the cavity cover, have been investigated in this research. In this research, for analysis and modeling, PLAXIS 2D finite element software has been used with the assumption of plain strain and hardening soil model which is suitable for drilling. The results of the analysis showed that the horizontal displacement of the excavation increases due to the presence of cavities and the sensitivity of the cavities stabilized with the anchorage method is greater than the nailing method. The greatest effect of the cavity on the behavior of excavation, on the one hand, is special critical distances and depths. Studies have also shown that the field of soil deformation changes despite the cavity, but it will not have a significant effect on the forces created in consolidating elements. On the other hand, drilling operations near cavities can lead to changes in the internal stresses of the cavity covering elements that must be considered in the design.
H. Faridyousefi
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 13-21; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp13-21

Abstract:
In the IR-T1 Tokamak the effect of a resonance helical magnetic field (RHF) on plasma confienment are presented using Hilbert-Huang Transform method.Mirnov coil data analyzed by Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and decomposed to the main intrinsic mode functions(imfs) and their instantanous frequencies (IFs). We find that, HHT method can extract MHD activities with different amplitudes in the different times. Then, the IFs of these modes can be calculated by Hilbert Transform (HT). As a comparison of WT and HHT analysis the Hilbert spectrum has much better frequency definition. Amplitude modulation of Mironov oscillations in IR-T1 tokamak plasma generate intra-wave frequency modulation, In the Hilbert spectrum analysis this effect is small compared to the STFT and WT spectrums. In our study, Magnetic islands with frequency around 40 kHz can be seen in wavlet Transform(WT) and HHT results in ohmic and RHF discharges. The HHT results after application of l=2/n=1 resonant field show that, the amplitude of m=2 poloidal MHD mode are amplified and then suppressed for a few milliseconds after amplification. Similarly, the amplitude of the m=3 MHD mode are amplified and then strongly suppressed by the start of the l=3/n=1 resonant field.
Mohammad Kazem Salem, Hadi Yusefnejad, Hadi Zakri-Khatir, Mahmoud Ghorannevis
Hyperscience International Journals, Volume 1, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.55672/hij2021pp22-27

Abstract:
Rapid plasma formation and evolution during microwave gas discharge device produce a macroscopic plasma shield to the microwave transmission, which can severely limit the performance of the device. In this paper, the electromagnetic (TE)- plasma interaction and the chlorine Discharge Global modeled in a standard rectangular waveguide WR 284 (72.14 mm× 32.04 mm) by COMSOL multiphysics provide to be a very good compromise between flexibility and work efficiency.
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