Results in Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy: 169
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Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 93-107; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176655
Introduction: Nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent kidney problems and happens when the body becomes exposed to medicine or toxin. Because renal tubular cells have metabolic activities, nephrotoxin can produce toxic components and cause damage. Paracetamol drug is safe when taken in therapeutic doses as an antipyretic and analgesic agent but its excessive doses may result in life-threatening renal impairment due to the generation of reactive-toxic metabolites. Scientific efforts are concentrated on discovering preventative or therapeutic medications to shield against the toxicity brought on by paracetamol due to nephrotoxicity. Silymarin, a medicine, is extracted from polyphenolic compounds found in the milk thistle plant. This plant has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, and other properties and is the most commonly used drug for hepatic illnesses. Also, it has renal-protecting effects. Objective: This review research highlights the nephroprotective of silymarin against paracetamol-induced renal damage.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 74-83; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176653
Background: Many drugs can have significant deleterious side effects on the different organs of the body which can change normal physiology to different pathologies. Recent research have been focusing on valuable methods to preserve the normal healthy testis from the medications’ adverse effects. The study aims to investigate the role of beta-carotene in the protection against potential amikacin’s testicular toxicity. Materials and methods: Male rats were involved in the study. Rats have divided into four groups: the first group was control, the second group has been given amikacin as an inducer of testicular toxicity; the third group has been given both amikacin and beta-carotene, and the fourth group has been given beta-carotene as prophylaxis before induction of the toxicity. The histological architecture of the testis was investigated for all the rats. Results: Amikacin caused a significant deleterious effect which included degeneration and necrosis of cells of seminiferous tubules as well as atrophy and congestion of blood vessels. Co-administration of both beta-carotene and amikacin resulted in a partial improvement in the testicular tissue while using beta-carotene as prophylaxis succeeded in protecting and preserving the normal histological features of the testis completely. Conclusion: The study concluded that beta-carotene can preserve the normal physiological testis and protect it against the amikacin’s deleterious effect on the testis.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 63-73; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176652
Background: A key public health intervention strategy to stop the spread of infectious diseases, such as the present COVID-19 pandemic, is vaccination. Nearly 190 COVID-19 vaccines are now being developed at various phases of pre-clinical and clinical testing, with a few vaccines recently receiving Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) and being accepted by the WHO in several regions of the world. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted to conduct the study which involve all medical staff who attends to Covid-19 vaccination center at Al-Mosul General Hospital during the period from 1st July 2021 to 31st November 2021. The study sample was 200 participants of different specializations who attend to take the 1st or the 2nd dose of the Covid-19 vaccine. The interview was done by the researchers directly through a checklist. The statistical analysis was done with IBM-SPSS-26. Results: The mean age of the study sample is 34.8 years, 56.5% of them are males and 43.5% are females, fever is the most frequent side effect representing 49.0%, and the inflammatory reaction at the site of injection whether mild or severe represents 35.0%, pain at the injection site occurs in 28.5%, and headache occurs in 9.5%, shows that 69.7% are females and 30.3% are males. The Pfizer vaccine of batch no. FJ8198, FM3444, and FJ1966 were associated with side effects more than others. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine showed that the safety of the vaccine with no major side effects emerging and females were more prone to experience side effects. The Pfizer vaccine of batch no. FJ8198, FM3444, and FJ1966 were associated with side effects more than others.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 84-92; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176654
Background: The steady increase in microbial resistance is a global health problem as a result of uncontrolled use of antimicrobial drugs, In order to overcome the challenge, there is a continuous need to search for new antimicrobials by either investigate novel compounds or repurposing drugs i.e. identifying new clinical use for existing approved agent thus saving time and cost required to develop a new antimicrobial therapy. Aim: This study aimed to assess the in vitro antimycotic activity of different concentrations of rosuvastatin against 4 different fungi isolated from patients with malignancies 1 mold of genus Aspergillus, of 3 spices (A. flavus, A.niger, and A. fumigatus) and 3 yeast of genus Candida of2species (C. albicans , and C. glabrata), one genus and species from each Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and Rhodotoryoa rubra by disc diffusion method. Materials and Methods: Sputum was taken from 30 patients with malignant disease, different micro and macroscopical tests were used to identified the 14 isolated fungi from them 1 genus from mold of Aspergillus, and 3 genus from yeast, from genus Aspergillus 3 species recognized as tailed, A. flavus, A. niger, and A.fumigatus. On the other handfrom yeast of genus Candida, C.albicans and C.glabrata, whereas from genus Saccharomyces, and Rhodotoula, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotoula rubra were recognized. Results: Antimycotic susceptibility test exhibited zone of inhibition against yeast ranged from (30-20), (30-15), (30-15), and (25-15) against C.albicans, C.glabrata Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotoula rubra respectively, while mold show zone of inhibition ranged from (25-10), (10-0), and (30-10) against A.flavus, A.niger, and A.fumigatus respectively, although rosuvastatin show an antifungal activity only at dose 0.6 mg/ml against A. niger. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin has antifungal activity apart of its pleiotropic activity of statins.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176649
Background: Mean platelet volume is an important marker that shows the activation and function of the platelet which is effective in the inflammatory process. Aim of the study: To show the relationship between mean platelet volume and disease activity score in psoriatic arthritis patients (PsA). Methods: a cross-sectional study was done. A total of 90 patients participated in the study. The sample was collected over 6 months. Mean platelet volume was measured and correlated with disease activity score, and the relation between mean platelet volume with other disease activity markers like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive proteins (CRP)was determined. The serum of (cholesterol, tri-glycerides, low density lipoproteins, and high density lipoproteins) were estimated and correlated with DAPSA scores. Results: The mean (SD) of MPV was 10.4fl .It is evident in Psoriatic arthritis patients that around two thirds (64.9%) of patients were with high MPV and 39.4% of patients were with normal MPV. There is statistically significant positive correlation between the MPV and the DAPSA score, and the positive significant correlation between disease activity score with ESR, and CRP. Also, there was a positive correlation between s. cholesterol, s. triglyceride, LDL and DAPSA score while a negative significant correlation was found between DAPSA score and HDL. Conclusion: Higher disease activity in PsA patients is associated with correspondingly high MPV and high level of inflammatory markers like ESR and CRP, and lipid profiles.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 55-62; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176651
Background: Rubella or German measles is a viral disease transmitted via aerosol droplets affecting mainly children, Mostly, rubella is a simple and self-limiting disease with no chronic consequences, except in infected pregnant women which may result in devastating outcomes depending on the trimester of pregnancy. Materials and methods: the study enrolled 1004 women suffering from spontaneous miscarriage tested for rubella IgM antibodies using ELISA. The sampling was conducted in two different seasons, summer and winter. Results: Test reading showed that 15.23% of all tested women were positive for rubella IgM antibodies i.e. 153 out of 1004 women. Seasonal change showed no significant variation in the percentage of the infection, where 15.8% of all participants were positive in summer versus 14.35% seropositive in the winter season (p˃ 0.05). Conclusion: Rubella infection is affecting a relatively high number of women suffering from a spontaneous miscarriage in Mosul city, and there was no seasonal variation in the rate of infection.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 33-45; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176647
Natural plant products have been widely used as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections to overcome issues of antibiotics-associated side effects and the emergence of resistant pathogens. One of the most popular infections causing significant morbidity and death toll is urinary tract infection. This study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of four commercial herbal products against five uropathogenic clinical isolates. In vitro, well diffusion assay and crystal violet staining techniques were used to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects respectively. Antimicrobial effect was reported for Renalka™ against Enterococcus faecium, ROWAtinex® against Staphylococcus aureus and E. faecium and UROCLEAR against Candida albicans. A significant antibiofilm effect, semi-quantified by stained biomass, was reported for all of the products included in the study against the tested pathogens but to a varying degree. Medicinal herbal products can exert a substantial prophylactic antibiofilm effect in addition to their beneficial health effects in treating urological pathologies.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 18-32; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176646
Background: Cutaneous warts are treated primarily with destructive methods such as cryotherapy or electro-cautery. These modalities of treatment are time‑consuming and may be associated with scarring in multiple warts. Immunotherapy is emerging as a new modality of treatment that acts on enhancing cell‑mediated immunity against human papillomavirus for clearance of both treated and distant warts. Aim of the study: To show the efficacy of Intralesional vitamin D3 in treating cutaneous warts. Methods: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. They were injected with vitamin D3 300000 IU (up to 0.5 ml for each wart) at two weeks intervals for maximum of 4 sessions. The clinical response was assessed by photographic measurements at baseline, before each session, and after the completion of treatment and they were followed after 6 months for discovering any recurrence. Results: in this study among 50 patients the response rate to vitamin D3 intralesionally was 94% in general, the mild response was seen in 20(40%) patients and moderate response was seen in 16 (32%) patients while the complete response was 11 (22%) patients. No serious side effects were observed except for pain at the site of injection which most of the patients had. Limitation: small sample size with lack of control group. Conclusions: Intralesional vitamin D shows a good response in the treatment of viral warts.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176644
Introduction: Anxiety and depression considered as the risk factors for diabetes, as well as they are two of its complications. This study was conducted to explain the prevalence of depression and anxiety among T2DM and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Al-Wafaa (Diabetes Center in Mosul). Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ - 9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD - 7) were used to evaluate all patients for anxiety and depression. Results: In this study 380 patients participated their mean age was 55.47 ± 8.35 ranging between 35 – 82 years and the mean BMI was 29.69 ± 5.04. More than half of these patients (54.7%) were men and (98.7%) of them were married. The mean HbA1c level was 8.68 ± 1.47 and the mean duration of diabetes was 10.18 years. The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety were 79.5% and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common problems among diabetic patients, more than two third of the study population had varying degrees of anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression in diabetic patients were significantly related to HbA1c, gender, educational level, employment, and monthly income.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 108-116; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.176656
The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has been gathered, allowing a better understanding of iron status in children with thalassemia. Children with thalassemia major typically have severe anemia during the first two stages of life and receive regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. The results show that individuals with thalassemia major who are overtly or inadequately transfused have significant body changes that affect physical growth retardation, hostility, weak musculature, leg muscle fitness, extramedullary development of hematopoiesis, and bone expansion, as seen in some developing countries. Cases of thalassemia intermedia occur late and have mild anemia, and cannot tolerate regular blood transfusions. Treatment for thalassemia major includes regular red blood cell transfusions, iron chelating drugs, and bone marrow surgery. In addition, spleen scanning may be necessary in some cases. Also, a bone marrow transplant is the only definitive treatment currently available. The prognosis for patients with beta-thalassemia has improved most over the past 25 years, mostly due to recent medical advances in blood transfusions, iron-chelating drugs, and bone marrow transplants. However, heart disease (heart disease) has been found to remain the leading cause of death in iron-related cases.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 80-89; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174803
Background: Nephrotoxicity is referred to as rapid degeneration in kidney functioning due to the toxic effects of medications. The glomerulus and proximal renal tubule are the fundamental portions of the nephron to be affected by drugs leading to nephrotoxicity. Prescribed medications like antibiotics (aminoglycoside, and vancomycin), amphotericin B, antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine), acyclovir, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cocaine, statins, antihistamines (Diphenhydramine), and sulfonamides can result in specific outcomes relative to nephrotoxicity, such as renal injury, inflammation, platelet aggregation, cell cytotoxicity, thrombosis, reduced renal blood flow, and crystal precipitation result in nephrotoxicity. Objective: we aimed to review the various pathogenic mechanisms responsible for drug-induced nephrotoxicity including, altered intra-glomerular hemodynamics, tubular cell toxicity, renal inflammation, crystal nephropathy, rhabdomyolysis, and thrombotic microangiopathy. The review also highlights risk factors related to the patient and the drugs being prescribed. The majority of the nephrotoxicity risk factors depend on the patients' age, gender, pre-existing renal insufficiency, drug dosage, and hypersensitivity to drug toxicity. Methods: We have searched the different databases to recruit published material mainly focusing on Pubmed, GoogleScholars, and Iraqi Virtual Science Library. Conclusion: To sum up, the review explains the necessity of evaluating nephrotoxicity, drug dosage, and risk factors as primary preventive measures to avoid drug-induced Nephrotoxicity.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 134-146; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174808
Introduction Contraception is a method of avoiding unplanned pregnancy. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have become a prominent birth control method due to their contraceptive efficacy and acceptability profile. The use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is linked to several health advantages as well as problems. Oral contraceptive pills can alter carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, including increased in blood glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein LDL and total cholesterol. However, these changes may be affected by modification in type of progesterone used in oral contraceptive formulation.Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives on glucose levels and lipid profile by emphasizing many studies that show the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the metabolic parameters such as (Fasting serum glucose, HbA1c%, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride level).
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174804
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic condition characterized by a persistent rise in blood glucose and a disturbance in the body metabolic state. Sleep is essential for survival and the proper functioning of the body. In diabetes, appropriate sleep is important for handling insulin levels, preventing the build-up of inflammatory cytokines and maintaining body caloric intake.Objective: This review was conducted to focus on currently available information on sleep changes in diabetic patients.Methods: An extensive search was conducted on websites, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, to identify studies that examine the link between sleep quality in patients with type 2 diabetes from 2012 to 2022. Electronic database searches revealed a total number of 24 out of 87 articles that fulfilled the aforementioned criteria for review.Conclusion: Patients with impaired glucose tolerance have poorer sleep performance which is linked to cognitive impairment. It's well worth looking into if sleep optimization can help those sufferers improve their overall cognitive performance. Support and taking care of patients with diabetes and cognitive impairment is going properly past clinical remedy.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 147-158; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174809
Whatever the etiology of wounds, some heal without difficulties, however in chronic wound the ultimate goal in wounds healing are to control symptoms and prevent complication like infection. The latter occurs when microorganisms of different kinds grow within damaged skin. The sign and symptoms vary according to wounds type, severity of infection and immune system, generally simple wound infection can be treated at home. However medical attention should be needed in severe wounds infection. Clinical and laboratory examination play an important role in diagnosis wounds infection. Different kinds of wounds managements are required as antibiotics, antiseptics, depressing and debridement. Hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling are the main four stages involves in wounds healing.The aims of this review are highlight the types of wounds, the microorganisms involved, causes and management, and the effective preventive procedures of wound infection.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 125-133; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174807
Introduction: Drug-induced adverse effects are the major challenging issue in the clinical setting of chemotherapy. Kidneys are responsible for the elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents which makes them a common target for adverse effects. Nephrotoxicity is a deleterious adverse effect carrying a great negative impact on body homeostasis and maintenance of cellular functions.Aim: The present review aims to focus on anticancer-induced nephrotoxicity including the causes and mechanisms of toxicity.Methods: Different databases of published materials are recruited mainly from PubMed, Google Scholars, and Iraqi Virtual Science Library.Results: The review shows that the recurrent use of many anticancer drugs can cause different types of kidney damage via different mechanisms.Conclusion: Anticancer-induced nephrotoxicity is a crucial problem which needs more research to clarify the mechanisms of kidney damage and the methods to prevent them. Maintaining appropriate and enough hydration, electrolyte replacement, and avoiding concomitant medications are useful steps in overcoming the nephrotoxicity.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 112-124; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174806
Background and objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a more common disease that effects the joints in the world and it is more prevalent with increasing age, and is most common in old people. Quality of life (QoL) is defined as a set of values and culture that is aligned with an individual's aim and in accordance with their expectations, living standards, and hobbies. This work aimed to review the literature measured on QoL and the relationship of its variables with osteoarthritis.Method: These articles are introduce depending on random electronic research that take place in certain databases like MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane. Only published works for the last twelve years between 2010 and 2022 years were included.Result: Only 20 published works were included after abstract screening. The OA is one of the chronic diseases that affect QoL in term of disability, loss of physical activity, impair daily activity, and loss of social life. The WHOQOL and WHOQOL-BRIF are more appropriate to detect the QoL. The body mass index is one of the importance indices related to the patients with osteoarthritis.Conclusion: OA is affecting the QoL and common in elderly female. They are many scales for detect the QoL, they are either related to the global QoL as in WHOQOL and WHOQOL-BRIF or to the health QoL. The global scales are more significant and valid in dealing with QoL in chronic disease.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 98-111; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174805
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the presence of signs and symptoms that are suggestive of neuropathy in diabetic patients, after excluding other possible causes of nerve damage. Diabetic neuropathy and its complications affect the quality of life, sleep patterns, and daily activities of the patient. Up to date no FDA-approved reversing treatment was found. Studies showed that neurotropic B vitamins (vitamin B1, B6 and B12) had an important role in nerve regeneration and included in prescriptions of DN. However, these vitamins were not included in the guidelines of DN management. The aim of this review is to explore the role of neurotropic B vitamins in the treatment of DN including the mechanism of action and the evidence supporting their use. Review of the literature revealed many clinical trials examining the effect of these vitamins (alone or combined) for DN. These vitamins and/or their derivatives had well-illustrated disease-modifying mechanisms on DN. However, larger randomized clinical trials for longer periods are needed to approve their use in DN and to be included in national and international guidelines. This was hindered by the fact that vitamins are non-patentable and therefore fewer funds would be allocated for large randomized clinical trials.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 54-64; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174801
Background: Melasma is a common acquired skin disorder that presents as a bilateral, blotchy, brownish facial pigmentation due to a dysfunction in melanogenesis. It is most common in people who tans easily or have naturally brown skin (Fitzpatrick’s skin phototypes III, IV). Although several treatments are currently used, it remains a great challenge. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy of intradermal injection of tranexamic acid (TA) combined with topical hydroquinone cream versus hydroquinone (HQ) cream in the treatment of melasma. Materials and Methods: In thisinterventional prospective comparative clinical trial study, 31 patients with facial melasma were divided randomly into 2 groups, A (16 patients) and B (15 patients). Group A received the combination treatment of intralesional tranexamic acid and topical hydroquinone cream, while group B received topical hydroquinone cream alone. Both groups were assessed by MASI score at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: Thirty-one patients (16 in group A and 15 in group B) completed the study. According to the decline in MASI score, the combination of tranexamic acid and hydroquinone was more effective than hydroquinone alone in the treatment of melasma. Conclusion: Injection of TA intradermally combined with topical HQ cream can be an effective treatment for melasma.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 65-79; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174802
Background: Warts are considered the foremost common infectious diseases affecting the epidermal keratinocytes, the causative agent is the human papilloma virus (HPV). Diagnosis usually can be confirmed depending on both the clinical features and family history. Although these viruses create no acute signs or symptoms, they induce slow growth of lesions that can remain for a long period. Aim: This study aims to assess the efficacy of topical imiquimod 5% cream in treating cutaneous warts and compare it with the effects of salicylic acid on cutaneous warts. Method: In this study a total of 68 patients were allocated randomly into two groups; one group treated with Imiquimod cream 5% (n=35) and the other group treated with salicylic acid 30% cream (n=33) to evaluate the difference between these two groups. The response to treatment is evaluated through pictures of the lesions taken before, during, and after treatment. Conclusion: Both topical imiquimod 5% cream and salicylic acid 30% cream can be used safely for the treatment of common warts. Topical salicylic acid cream 30% may show better efficacy but also has more risk of irritation.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 34-46; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174799
Background: Hirsutism is a common clinical problem that cause great distress to the patient, and which true incidence is unknown. However, it is more common among Mediterranean women. Hirsutism is excessive terminal hair growth in women in androgen-dependent. Often the cause of it is hyperandrogenism but it can be also idiopathic. In hyperandrogenic states like in cases of PCOS, it can associate with other cutaneous clinical signs of this endocrine disorder like acne and AGA.Aim of the study: To evaluate the prevalence of non-scaring hair loss (alopecia) among female patients complaining of hirsutism.Patients and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 90 patients who have hirsutism within reproductive age (married and UN married) and complained of hair loss A special questionnaire design was developed to record all their data. Hair loss was diagnosed and assessed by visual overview examination by the naked eye and trichoscopic examination, by using Dermatoscope Foto finder stationary mode. The photo of the trichoscopic examination was saved and the features of each type of non-scaring alopecia were assessed.Results: In our study, there are three types of non-scaring hair loss associated with hirsutism (Androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium, androgenic alopecia with telogen effluvium). The most common type of hair loss associated with hirsutism is (Androgenetic alopecia with telogen effluvium) 55.6%. The most common trichoscopic features found in (Androgenetic alopecia with telogen effluvium) hair shaft heterogeneity 100%, HF with only one hair 74%, peripilar sign 82%, empty hair follicle 96%, up right re-growing hair 92% and black dots 36%, while these findings present in a lesser ratio in other groups.Conclusions: Androgenetic alopecia with telogen effluvium most common non-scarring alopecia associated with hirsutism.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174796
Background: 1,3-oxazolidinones are an important class of antibiotics that are recognized with higher activities against Gram-positive bacteria. linezolid, tedizolid phosphate, and radezolid are important examples of this group. Aim: The aim of this review is to study the effect of 1,3-oxazolidinone derivatives as Gram-positive antibacterial agents. Results: There are many methods for preparing the oxazolidinone derivatives. Many patents Three new antibacterial oxazolidinones are linezolid, tedizolid phosphate, and radezolid. They differ in the side chain according to their structure-activity relationship. Conclusion: Study the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of oxazolidinone derivatives as new antibacterial agents.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174800
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring telogenic alopecia of autoimmune etiology. Clinically, the disease is characterized by the appearance of alopecic patches or plaques of varying size and number on the scalp with peak incidence 2% in the general population, can involve any age group with higher prevalence in younger patients. Aim: The purpose of this study is to estimate serum zinc level in patient with alopecia areata comparing to age, sex match healthy controls. Method: A case-control study was conducted on total number of 120 subjects;60 patients with AA and 60 age- and sex matched healthy controls. Serum zinc levels were assessed in all subjects. Comparison of mean serum zinc levels was done between all patients and controls. A significantly lower serum zinc level was found in patients with AA compared with controls and the significant inverse correlations existed between serum zinc level and severity of AA.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174794
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are popular recreational drugs. It has been suggested that indole-containing SCRAs may have activity at several serotonergic targets, owing to their structural similarity to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). This similarity may be responsible for features of toxicity similar to serotonin syndrome observed in cases of SCRA intoxication. To determine whether indole-SCRAs have activity at serotonergic targets we investigated the effect of JWH-018, an indole-containing SCRA, with a non-indole-containing SCRA (CP55,940) and an endocannabinoid (anandamide) on 5-HT neuronal functions in rat brain slices; 5-HT neuronal activity was examined using in vitro extracellular single-unit electrophysiology in the dorsal raphe nucleus and 5-HT presynaptic uptake was examined using radiolabeled 5-HT(3[H] 5-HT) in the hippocampus. 5-HT (50µM) inhibited the 5-HT neuronal firing rate but JWH-018 (50µM) had no effect on the basal or NMDA (30µM) augmented firing rate. In contrast, anandamide (10uM) increased the NMDA-augmented firing rate of 5-HT neurons, but not the basal rate. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (0.001 – 10 µM) inhibited 5-HT reuptake but JWH-018 (0.001 – 10 µM) had no effect on serotonin uptake. Our data suggest that indole-SCRAs and non-indole SCRAs do not directly interact with serotonergic targets in either the dorsal raphe nucleus or hippocampus. Further mechanistic studies are needed to determine if SCRAs affect serotonergic neurotransmission through modulation of afferents to 5-HT neurons.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 17-22; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174797
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between serum lipid profile and breast cancer disease.Patients and methods: One hundred breast cancer women and 75 women with benign breast mass as a control group were included in the study. The control and the patient groups were aged matched. The age range of the control group was between 25 to 70 years (mean ± SD: 50.4 ± 15.1 years). The age range of the patient group was between 25 to 71 yeas (mean ± SD: 49.1 ± 14.6 years). The patients were undergone radical modified mastectomy, then treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy after the operation. Five mL of blood samples from the patient and control groups were taken, and the patient samples were taken before the operation. The blood samples were analyzed for serum lipid profile. The patients and the control groups were advised to fast for 14 hours before taking the blood samples. Body mass index was measured for the patients and controls. The stage, lymph involvement, and metastasis of the cancer were also included.Results: Body mass index (BMI) in patients was significantly higher than controls. However, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index (AI), in the patients were significantly lower than controls. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HLD-C) was higher in the patients compared with the controls but not significant.Conclusion: a significant decrease in TC, TGs, and LDL-C with no significant increase for HDL-C was noticed in breast cancer women. Serum lipid profile may not be considered as a risk factor for breast cancer.
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 19, pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.174798
Introduction: Alopecia areata is a common, inflammatory, non-scarring type of hair loss that affects persons of both sexes and all age groups, with prevalence in the general population of approximately 0.1–0.2%. It is characterized by variable clinical presentations, ranging from single or multiple well-circumscribed patches of hair loss to extensive involvement with complete absence of body and scalp hair. Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease of the hair follicle. Its pathogenesis is associated with loss of follicular immune privilege and T-cell mediated inflammatory response, leading to interruption of the hair growth cycle. The diagnosis of alopecia areata is usually based on clinical manifestations in addition to using severity of alopecia tool score. Currently, there is no treatment for alopecia areata approved by the US Food and Drugs Administration. However, several treatment modalities for alopecia areata have been introduced with variable outcomes. Although topical and systemic immunomodulators are the mainstay options, there is still a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials supporting these treatment modalities. Topical Corticosteroids are considered the first-line therapy for patch-type alopecia areata. Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid, derived from the fungus Pityrosporum ovale and is regarded as an effective topical therapy for patchy alopecia areata. Aim of study: The present study aims to measure the efficacy of topical azelaic acid cream 20% in the treatment of alopecia areata. Patients and Methods: The all 30 patients were collected from Erbil Dermatology Teaching Center. They were divided into two groups: group A includes fifteen patients on topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream; group B includes fifteen patients on topical azelaic acid 20% cream. Both treatment groups were followed up for period of around twelve weeks with monthly check up visits. Both drugs were applied topically once daily at night. Results: the comparison between the baseline and 12 weeks visits for each study group concerning severity of alopecia tool score shows that the mean of the score for both groups at 12 weeks visit is lower than that of baseline visit in a statistically significant way (group A, p=0.007, group B, p=0.036). Conclusions: This study showed that topical azelaic acid cream 20% has an acceptable efficacy in comparison to topical clobetasol ointment 0.05% in the treatment of localized alopecia areata of scalp and can be considered as a therapeutic option for this condition.
Published: 11 January 2022
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 84-96; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170408
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 10-21; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170393
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170401
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 162-179; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170405
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 194-202; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170407
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 64-72; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170398
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 126-138; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170403
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 139-161; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170404
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 73-83; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170399
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 22-38; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170395
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170390
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 39-52; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170396
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 180-193; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170406
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 53-63; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170397
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 104-125; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2022.170402
Published: 27 August 2021
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 44-56; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168843
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 33-43; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168800
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168798
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 78-92; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168803
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 67-77; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168802
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168801
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 93-107; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168804
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 108-117; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168805
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 18, pp 20-32; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2021.168799
Published: 31 December 2020
Iraqi Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 17, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.33899/iphr.2020.167595