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Results in Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal: 135

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Ibrahim Abubakar Aliyu, Alhassan Idris Gabasawa
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 134-142;

Rhizosphere is a bio–influenced zone of soil where the interaction of microorganism and plant roots occurred tailored by the activity of soil enzymes. The activity of the enzymes depends largely on the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil environment. Experiment was carried out to examine the activity of phosphomonoesterases in the rhizosphere of cassava planted in two sites (Samaru and Minjibir) located in savanna ecologies of Nigeria. Soils from rhizosphere of the cassava were sampled from each treatment in an experiment involving split plot design. The treatments included 3 main plots (phosphorus rates at 0, 17.5 and 35 kg P2O5 ha–1) and 3 sub–plots (mycorrhizal inoculants: Glomygel and Mycodrip; and a Control). The Result of the analysis indicated higher activities of the phosphomonoesterases (acid and alkaline phosphatases) in Samaru site than Minjibir. The former recorded higher acid and alkaline phosphates activities over the latter with a magnitude of 96.84% and 43.65% respectively. This is attributed to the variability in the soil characteristics between the two sites. The main effect of P fertilizer indicated that 0 kg P2O5 ha–1 recorded a significantly (p<0.05) higher phosphomonoesterases activity than application of 17.5 and 35 kg P2O5 ha–1. Inoculation with mycorrhizae also increased the activities of the phosphomonoesterases in both sites which indicate increase mycorrhizal colonization as a result of inoculation. It is concluded therefore, that the activity of phosphomonoesterases in the rhizosphere can be affected by fertilization as well as enhanced by inoculation with the influence of soil characteristics.
Nafisat M. Obulamah, Emmanuel S. Salau, Ezra G. Luka, Haruna S. Umar
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 165-174;

The study identified the factors affecting the adoption of agrochemical safety measures among crop farmers in the Southern Agricultural Zone of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study include; identifying the rate of awareness of agrochemical safety measures, to identify adoption level of agrochemical safety measures and to determine the effect of socio-economic characteristic on the adoption of agrochemical safety measures. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 220 crop farmers for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Result of the study revealed that farmers in the area were aware of the following agrochemical safety measures: avoid eating and drinking when using agrochemicals/bathing after spraying (85%), washing spraying clothes separately from other clothes (74%), and danger of ingestion/inhalation of agrochemicals (70%) among others. Also, results on the adoption of agrochemical safety measures show that 50% of the respondents adopted on a high scale level, 38% adopted on a medium scale and 12% adopted on a low scale. Level of education, extension contact, farm size, and household size were the socio-economic characteristics that had un influence on the adoption of agrochemical safety measures in the area. It is therefore recommended that extension workers should intensify un enlightenment campaign on the danger of exposure to agrochemicals in order to achieve full adoption of agrochemical safety measures by crop farmers.
Dlkhwaz Ahmed Hama, Ali Muhi Aldeen Omar Aljabary, Alan Abdulrahman Othman, Huda Jamal Mhamad
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 152-164;

The drying process plays an important role in heat-sensitive product dehydration. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of three species of mulberry fruit (Morus nigra L. (Black mulberry), Morus alba L. (White mulberry), and Morus alba L. (White shahtoot) grown in Halabja, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Four levels of ascorbic acid treatment at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% lthen, divided into two groups; the first dried under solar radiation the second dried by one of the very high-quality machines (oven) for drying all kinds of vegetables and fruits. The mulberry fruits were harvested at the ripening stage by hand in April 2021 from the trees 10 years old. The results appeared that black mulberry is significantly superior that has higher moisture and total sugars content while having the lowest ash content and polyphenol oxidase activity on the two other species. Additionally, the ascorbic acid treatment significantly decreased total sugars content and peroxidase activity, while significantly increasing moisture content and polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits as compared to untreated fruits. Furthermore, sun drying significantly increased the fruits content of moisture, ash, total sugars, and polyphenol oxidase activity as compared to oven drying.
John O. Ifabiyi, G. Opeyemi, Ibrahim K. Banjoko
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 87-99;

This study examined the status of climate smart small ruminant production practices in Kwara State, Nigeria. About 105 small ruminant breeders were selected for the study. The data were analysed the use of frequency count, percentage, mean score, Binary Logistic Regression and Pearson product moment correlation. The result revealed that about 60% of the breeders were females and the mean years of experience in small ruminant production was 7 years. The result of most of the frequently used climate smart small ruminant production practices of the respondents showed that provision of medication to sick animals and cultivation of crops along with rearing of animals (90.5%), feeding with supplementary feeds, isolation of sick animals and vaccination of animals (92.4%); provision of shade through Planting of trees to reduce heat stress (93.3%); feeding with crop residues and building and maintenance of pens (96.2%) and grazing on pasture/grassland (97.1%). About 90.5% of the breeders have high status on the use of climate smart small ruminant production practices. Disease outbreak and high mortality (mean=2.07) was the highest ranked factors affecting the small ruminant breeders. The result of Binary Logistic Regression showed that educational level (B=3.985), membership of social group (B=6.083), access to extension services (B= 13.941) and years of experience (B= -0.544) were the determinant factors of the use of climate smart small ruminants production practices. This study therefore recommends that breeders should be provided with veterinary services and extension services.
Abera Fekata Dinkissa,
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 73-86;

The objective of this review paper was to assess the effect of aflatoxin contamination in dairy products and its toxicity on public health in the Ethiopian dairy sector. Feed contamination by mycotoxins causes serious issues with the economy, food security, and safety. The economic impact can take different forms, direct market costs of missed trade or lower profits resulting from the rejection of contaminated animal products, reduced productivity, animal death, particularly in more sensitive calves, and increased treatment. Nougcake, which is often used as feed for dairy animals, is a significant source of aflatoxin contamination in the peri-urban dairy value chain in Addis Ababa. Aflatoxin AFM is the primary hydroxylated AFB metabolite in milk from cows that were discharged after consuming a meal contaminated with AFB for 12 hours. Prolonged or chronic exposure to aflatoxins has a number of harmful effects on health, including potent carcinogens and may affect all organ systems, especially the liver and kidneys; that cause liver cancer, mutagenic, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects on cattle. According to Brazilian law, the maximum permitted levels for liquid milk, milk powder, and cheese are 0.5mg/kg,5.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. As a result, there is increased aflatoxin contamination in both humans and animals. In conclusion, as compared to other countries, the effect of aflatoxin contamination and its toxicity was higher in Ethiopian dairy sector. In order to regulate aflatoxin contamination all coordinated efforts from all relevant groups should work together and further intervention should be implemented via policymakers, dairy sectors, Government and non-Governmental organizations.
John Oluwaseun Ifabiyi, Rashid Solagberu Adisa
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 143-151;

The study identified the fisherfolks’ perception of artisanal fishing enterprises in North-Central, Nigeria. Information were collected with the use of questionnaire and analysed using frequency count, percentage, mean score and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result revealed that 68.4 % of the respondents preferred fishing grounds, about 59.4 % of the respondents preferred group discussion and visit by extension agents and about 61.5 % of the respondents preferred radio. About 38.9 % of the respondents indicated the evening as the preferred time to acquire training. The result showed that 92.8 % of the respondents had knowledge of the basic safety and precaution measure. Fish products should be free of any chemical (x ̅=4.47) was the highest-ranked perception statement. The result revealed that there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ perception of fishing enterprise and knowledge of sustainable fishery practices (r= 0.119; p= 0.001) at 1 percent level of significance. The study recommended that there should be the provision of training in the low knowledge areas on sustainable fishery practices and extension service delivery should be timely.
Oluwatoyin Olatunde Olagunju, Oreoluwa Adesewa Alomaja, Isah Shehu Nabara, Oluwaseun Adetarami, Oluwafolakemi Ayo Olaniyan, Adeyose Emmanuel Akinbola
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 118-133;

The research assessed farmers of arable crops in Akoko southwest local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria on their adaptation strategies to perceived climatic unpredictability. Using a multistage sampling, cross-sectional data were collected from 150 farmers in rural areas of all the local governments using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were utilized to analyses the study's data. The study revealed a significant relationship between household size (χ2=179.3, p<0.05), farm size (χ2=136.4, p<0.05) and adaptation strategies. Also, there was a significant influence of gender (t=3.001), access to credit (t=2.459), and other sources of income (t=2.384) on adaptation strategies to be adopted by farmers at p<0.05. The findings indicate that the farmers are severely constrained by a lack of suitable irrigation infrastructure and insufficient government support, which has decreased production and may result in lower profits and more poverty. According to the results, farmers' perceptions of climatic unpredictability have a significant impact on their adaptation techniques. A better understanding of climatic variability would help farmers develop better adaptation strategies, which will enhance their livelihoods and lower poverty levels in rural regions. The government should launch awareness and sensitization programmers at all levels to create a community where farmers are well-versed in the causes and impacts of climatic variability.
Aliyu Ahmad Mahmud, , Gautam Singh Dhaked, ,
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 100-117;

Inoculation of important microbial strains in a modern intensive crop production is a critical step for the improvement of hybrid crop production. This study evaluated the impact of NPK consortia biofertilizer (NPK CB) and mineral fertilizer on growth and yield of two maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids at Mewar University research farm, India. The research was conducted during 2020/2021 Kharif cultivation season. The split-plot design was adopted in three replications, each consisting of six treatments combinations; (T1 = control, T2 = 50% Recommended Dose of Fertilizers (RDF), T3 = 100% RDF, T4 = NPK CB, T5 = 50% RDF + NPK CB and T6 = 100% RDF + NPK CB) and two maize hybrids (i.e., N.K-30 and N.K-30 plus). The result obtained revealed that the growth attributes, and yield attributes increased due to the combined application of NPK CB and mineral fertilizers. But there is no significant difference (p>0.05) observed between the studied hybrids, except for the 1000 kernels weight. Although the highest grain yield (1987.39 kg ha-1) obtained from the application of T6 (100%RDF + NPK CB) was comparable with the grain yield (1957.64 kg ha-1) obtained from the application of T3 (100% RDF). However, inoculation with NPK CB had superior effects on growth and yield attributes over the sole application of mineral fertilizers below the RDF. Hence, NPK CB could be a potent fertilizer input for hybrids maize production while reducing the level of chemical fertilizers below the RDF.
Aya A. Muhammed Saeed, Alan A. Othman, Kaihan H. S. H Karim, , Farhang H. Awlqadr
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 52-61;

The study of heavy metals in the human diet is important due to their dual effects as either essential or toxic to the human body. In this study, we determined the concentration of selected heavy metals in common potato and corn chips brands in Iraq markets. Ten common brands were selected and analyzed for their concentrations of the studied heavy metals by ICP-MS. The results shown that the average heavy metals level in potato and corn chips in (mg kg-1±SD) were 2.68±0.67 and 2.96±3.00 for Mn, 4.64±1.99 and 5.82±5.45 for Fe, 0.29±0.33 and 1.36±0.95 for Cu and 2.84±1.26 and 6.26±1.67 for Zn respectively. Corn chips were found to contain higher heavy metals than potato chips. The daily consumption of heavy metals from potato and corn chips (20 g daily intake) is lower than the recommended level set by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization. Also, Daily intake of these metals is lower than the oral suggested amount and the upper tolerable daily intake set by the US. The contamination risk for the Iraqi population especially children from heavy metals exposure by this study performs to be non-significant, emphasizing the need to conduct more studies and confirm examining of heavy metals in foodstuffs especially chips brands.
Lotfie A. Yousif, Mohamed Y. Mohamed, Mohammed Ahmed AbdElmowla Ahmed
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 43-51;

The objectives of this study were to analyze energy input-output and to identify the energy use patterns for sunflower production in the mechanized rain fed agricultural schemes eastern Sudan. The results revealed that the total energy input used to produce sunflower was 1671.33 MJ ha-1 and the total energy output was 11882.83 MJ ha-1. Sunflower production was efficient in energy consumption. The result showed that the energy ratio of output to input was greater than seven. The results indicated that the average net energy, the energy productivity and the specific energy was 10211.5 MJ ha-1, 0.28 kg. MJ-1 and 3.52 MJ kg -1, respectively. Fuel energy input was the highest among the energy input items while hand labor energy input was lower. These results indicate the dependence of sunflower production in rain fed agricultural schemes eastern Sudan on machinery. This necessitated the availability and readiness of the relevant and appropriate machineries as well as sufficient amount of fuel. The results also revealed that the energy profitability was 6.11 and human energy profitability was 1165.83 MJ h-1.The direct energy input was greater than the indirect energy input. Similarly, non-renewable energy was much greater than renewable energy. The established information is useful to manage and to sustain the productivity of sunflower crop in the mechanized rain fed schemes eastern Sudan.
Ban Saeed Abbas Al-Azzawi Abbas Al-Azzawi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 1-9;

This experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of Mineral fertilizer and Sorbitol Sugar on the growth, and yield produced by chili pepper plant Barbarian F1, A factorial experiment with two factors, Mineral Fertilizer concentration 0, 0.5, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 g L-1 and Sorbitol Sugar 0 and 10 g L-1 was used in the term of (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed significant superiority of Mineral Fertilizer at 1.5 ml-1 in the plant height (59.62 cm plant-1 ), number of main branches plant-1 (5.600 branch plant-1), total leaf area (21.100 dm2 plant-1), number of fruits plant (88.25 fruit plant-1). One plant yield (0.718 kg plant-1) and total yield (23.94 tons hectare-1). The result also showed a significant increase of Sorbitol sugar in concentration 10 g L-1 in the plant height, number of branches1, total leaf area by balance, number of fruits, (58.63cm, 5.493 branch plants-1, 21.98dm2, 84.78 fruit plant-1, 0.685 kg plant-1, and 23.03 ton hectare-1 respectively). The interaction indicated that both variables were significant for all the studied traits, indicated that the response of pepper to the first variable is related to the second one. Thus, the research has concluded that the Interaction of variables, mineral fertilizer (1.5 g L-1) and Sorbitol Sugar 10 g l-1 has a great combination to increase the growth and the yield of chili pepper.
Abera Fekata Dinkissa, Ulfina Galmessa Girgo
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 10-23;

The aim of this study was to assess the lactation, reproductive performance, and disorders of dairy cows in Waliso and Ilu districts. A total of 122 respondents who participated in the production of dairy cattle were chosen at random and proportional to their size. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version20. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results such as overall means, standard error (SE), graphs, tables, frequency, and percentage. Daily milk yield of local breed cow was1.890±0.05liters/per/cow/day, while cross breed dairy cows7.410±0.31liters/ cow/day. Cross breed dairy cows produced (1978.4597±0.98) liters/ lactation/cow and native breed cows produced (429.78±17.10) liters /lactation/cow on average. Results showed that local and cross breed dairy cows had lactations length of 7.58±0.05 and 8.90±0.29 months per lactation per year. The average reproductive performance of local and cross breed dairy cows was (AFS) 44.88±0.57and 24.43±0.29 months, (AFC)53.94±0.56and 33.43±0.29 months, (CI)14.35±0.41) and 14.35±0.41months, (DO)161±0.41 and 140±0.49) days, and (NSPC)1.69±0.06 and1.70±0.10 times, respectively. Daily milk yields, average milk yields, and lactation lengths were significantly (P0.05) different between the two Districts. The overall percentages of stillbirths, dystocia, retained fetal membranes, abortions, and mastitis were 8%, 6.35 %, 6.66 %, 12.15 %, and 11.8%, respectively. In inclusion, it could be concluded that the productive lactation, reproductive performance and disorder are relatively low. Thus, indicating that it is an urgent need for well-coordinated efforts of all concerned bodies to boost the productive and reproductive performance there by enhances the livelihood of the dairy farmers.
, , Nuruddeen Isa
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 62-72;

Over the decade many villages in Zamfara State Nigeria were known for artisanal gold mining which caused pollution of vast water bodies and area of land. This makes it imperative to analyze heavy metal contamination in wells and surface water. The present study evaluated the concentrations of heavy metals (iron, lead, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium) in the ore processing water and well-water in some selected villages of Anka local government area in Zamfara State where mining is taking place. Anka town served as control due to absence of mining activities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the water samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of Fe, Pb, and Cd ranged from 23.3 – 921.46, 0 – 132.8, and 3.3 – 4.1 ppm respectively. While Zn, Ni, and Cr were not detected in the water samples. Virtually all the detected heavy metals in the water samples exceeded the international organizations (WHO, USEPA, and EPA-EUC) maximum permissible limit of 0.3 – 1.00, 0.01 – 0.05, and 0.03 – 0.05 ppm of Fe, Pb, and Cd in water samples respectively. Interestingly, all the well-water from all the study locations was not contaminated with Pb despite its high concentrations in the processing water. Meanwhile both the processing water and well water were contaminated with Fe and Cd. These revealed that artisanal gold mining is contributing to the pollution of surface water bodies (used for irrigation and drinking) with Pb, while Fe and Cd may be in addition to their abundance in natural soil deposits.
Mohammed Ahmed AbdElmowla Ahmed, Abu Bakr Al-Sayed
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 33-42;

This study was conducted by the faculty of Agriculture - University of Nile Valley during winter 2018/2019 to study the effect of three tractor forward speeds (5,7 and 9 km/h) on the performance parameters of the tractor (the draft force, wheel slippage, fuel consumption, field capacity and field efficiency). Tractor performance test was carried out when linked to three implements, which are disc plow, a disc harrow and ridger. The study was carried out on two different locations, location one has a sandy clay soil while location two has a clay texture. The results showed that the draft force, wheel slippage, effective field capacity and fuel consumption increased with an increase in speed. The disc plow with speed (9 km/hr) recorded the highest values of draft force and wheel slippage, while the ridger recorded the lowest values of these parameters for the same speed, except for effective field capacity. The ridger with speed (9km/hr) recorded the highest values of effective field capacity, while the disc plow recorded the lowest values of this parameter for the same speed. The Three implements with speed three (9 km/hr) recorded different values of fuel consumption. The statistical analysis showed that, the effect of forward speed was significant at a 1% level, while the effect of the implementing type showed no significant differences. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.
Boualem Boumaaza, Abdelhamid Gacemi, M’Hamed Benada, , Ibrahim E. Benzohra, Hakima Belaidi, Omar Khaladi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 24-32;

Plant extracts and essential oils are promising new sources of non-toxic alternatives to chemicals substances. They are used for their antimicrobial properties against plant diseases of fungal origin, against bacterial, and those of virus origin. This study was carried out to study the antifungal activity of Artemisia herba-alba, Foeniculum vulgare and Citrus sinensis essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. Essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. Antifungal activity of essential oil was investigated by macro-broth method of dilution by a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against this pathogen. The yield of essential oil obtained by steam distillation of Foeniculum vulgare samples was 2.31% greater than that obtained from Citrus sinensis sample which was 1.8%, followed by Artemisia herba alba samples 1.22%. Regarding antifungal activity, the results revealed a better inhibitory activity of Artemisia herba alba against the tested strainsat the lowest LC50 values (0.1 µl/ml). On the other hand, Foeniculum vulgare, Artemisia herba alba and Citrus sinensis essential oils show similar MICs of mycelial growth against this pathogen. The value of the MIC and CMF is greater than 50 µl/ml for the three essential oils
Laylan H. Fadaladeen, Rafail S. Toma, Ahmed A. Saheen, Huda B. Ahmed
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 31-39;

A rapid and reliable micropropagation protocol was developed for two sweet potato varieties, Mangawy and Mabrokat Al-Shimal, by testing various growth regulators and different carbon sources. Healthy cultures were taken from nodal segment explants taken from potted plants. Adding BA was more effective than Kinetin when used at the same concentration. The highest number of leaves per explant (5.22 leaves/ explant) and the longest shoots (2.88 cm) were achieved when 2 mg L-1 BA was added to the culture medium. For Mabrokat Al-Shimal, the highest mean length of shoots (3.77 cm) was obtained when 1 mg.l-1 kinetin was used, and the highest leaves number (10.33 leaves/ explant) was obtained when 0.5 mg.l-1 kinetin was used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for the multiplication of this Mangawy variety, followed by fructose then glucose. On the other hand, fructose and sucrose showed the best results for the Mabrokat AlShimal variety. A 100% rooting was achieved for all tested treatments. IBA was better than NAA Mangawy root formation by giving the best rooting parameters. The highest number of roots per explant (22.33 roots/ explant) was achieved when 1.5 mg.l -1 IBA was used. While the highest mean length of roots (12.87 cm) was achieved when added 0.5 mg.l-1 NAA. A hundred percent success was achieved at the acclimatization stage for both tested varieties. Both varieties were excellent and tasty, especially from Mabrokat Al-Shimal at open-field cultivation
Prabhasha Jayasundara
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 40-46;

Water is vital for humans and other living things, but water pollution has become a significant issue today. Various anthropogenic agricultural, industrial, and home activities produce multiple organic and inorganic substances dissolved or suspended in water. The goal of wastewater treatment is thus twofold: to reduce water pollution while also maintaining the water supply to demand. It is based on the three 3 Rs: reduce, reuse, and recycle. However, many of the methods used are ineffective or expensive. As a result, water purification is a matter of great interest. Eco-friendly approaches are essential among the new technologies and techniques tested in wastewater treatment. Aquatic macrophytes treat water by accumulating harmful metals and nutrients. Like water filters, a variety of aquatic floats can be suggested. Azolla is one among them, and it has been used for decades. Researchers have discovered that Azolla can reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metal concentrations in wastewater; therefore, it can be utilized for wastewater treatment. Azolla also produces a lot of biomasses in wastewater. The use of Azolla in reducing eutrophication in lakes and streams and other benefits is discussed in this study. According to the literature, Azolla has a high growth rate, with a doubling date of 2-4 days. Azolla's cell wall is composed of pectin, which has a high affinity for the adsorption of organic substances. Azolla serves as a "biofilter" during wastewater treatment in this way.
Pakiza Hamira Wasman
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 47-53;

This experiment was conducted in Erbil, Iraq, from July 7 to August 17, 2021, for determine the effects of L-Threonine supplementation on several productive and physiological traits Under heat stress conditions (36.04 ± 2 °C), A total of 200 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments: T1 control treatment, T2, T3, T4 and T5 standard diet with L-Threonine 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the addition of L-Threonine to the ration improved broiler production performance under heat stress conditions such as body weight it increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T3 and T5 and reached 2187 and 2235 g, respectively compared to 2145 g in the T1 and reduce H/L ratio in T4 and T5 compared with T1 and did not affect effect (P≥0.05) on physiological traits such as red and white blood cell count, hematocrit, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities
Abdulmuttaleb Hazim Khaleel, Salih Hassan Al-Azzawi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 21-30;

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a vital gene affecting semen quality traits. The study aimed to estimate the breeding values additive dominance variance of Iraqi black goat semen quality and investigate the effect of allele substitution in heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70) carpine on some semen quality traits (volume, mass motility, a live sperm, and sperm concentration). DNA isolated from 15 Iraqi black goats was subjected to PCR amplification of the caprine HSP70 gene. Used Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to detect the variant DNA fragments that were sequenced. Synonymous Genotypes were detected on mutation locus (1528C/T). Results showed three genotypes (CC, CT, TT) frequencies of 0.53, 0.40, and 0.07, respectively, and gene frequency of 0.73 and 0.27 C and T, respectively. The population was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed a high level of concentration sperm for CC and CT genotype compared with TT genotype. The CC genotype was associated with negative B.V for volume ejaculate, mass motility, and live sperm percentages and was positively associated with sperm concentration. CT and TT genotypes showed positive B.V for volume ejaculate, mass motility, and live sperm but negative for sperm concentration. CC and TT genotypes showed negative dominance deviation for all traits studied, while heterozygous genotype CT showed positive dominance deviation for all semen quality traits. The highest genetic variation for live sperm (0.816) but most of this variation is from dominance variance (0.653), followed by Genetic variance for mass motility (0.481), most of it from Additive variance (0.39).
Amal Hamdi Jassim, Salih Hassan Al-Azzawi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 14-20;

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the TGFß superfamily that plays a critical role in females' ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. However, its role in the testis has not been elucidated in Goats. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of GDF9 mutations on the quality of fresh semen in Bucks. Direct sequencing was used to screen possible SNP loci in the goat GDF9 exon one, one SNP locus site 2006 CTC < CTA ( leu < leu ) was identified positively in 15 local Iraqi Bucks. Analysis of variance revealed that significant effect of breeding value for concentration, individual ( p > 0.05) movement, and Acrosome integrity, in All, so of dominance effects of volume, Individual movement, and Acrosome integrity. All traits have low genetic variation, which means that the environment varies high. This study is the first to show a significant association of GDF9 in the initiation or maintenance of spermatogenesis in male goats.
Dara A. Kalhory, Tahir Mohammed Layeeq, Mohammad Omer Sakinaa
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 1-13;

The research aims to the role of agricultural extension in facing agricultural risks by diagnosing the personal and functional variables of the respondents, determining the reality of agricultural risks, and preparing an extension program to confront agricultural threats in the Sulaymani governorate. The research included (agricultural colleges and institutes, agricultural extension centers, and the Directorate of Agriculture). A proportional stratified random sample of (15%) was drawn for each lecture and agricultural extension worker, respectively. The research sample reached (111) respondents by selecting all agricultural directors in the Directorate of Agriculture. The indicative Program was prepared according to the following procedures: field visits to farmers' fields, records and documents in the Directorate of Agriculture, review of articles and research in agricultural research, agricultural literature, models and books, and expert notes in agricultural colleges and institutes, and in light of this, seven elements and 61 items were developed that make up the copy Initial Program. The questionnaire was presented in its initial form to a group of experts in agricultural extension and management. After taking their observations, the questionnaire consisted of 7 elements and 52 items. The research found several agricultural risks in the Sulaymani governorate and the approval of all the respondents on the terms of the extension program and the recommendation to apply it in the reality of agricultural work in the Sulaymani governorate
Ifabiyi O. John, , Adisa R. S.
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 54-65;

The aim of the study is the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) Model Analysis of Training Needs of Artisanal fishers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire and analysed using frequency count, percentages, mean score and Binary Logistic Regression. The food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Needs Assessment Model was used to determine the areas of training needs. Any task or skill that had a threshold score above 6.13 requires training intervention. The results revealed that all the respondents were male (100 %), 41.7 years was the average age of the fishers. about 89.3 % of the respondents were married, 45.4% had no formal education, the average years of experience was 26.9 years and 59.7 % of the respondents practiced farming as a supportive occupation. 19.2 kg was the mean quantity of fish caught per day and the mean household size was 8 persons. The fisherfolks required capacity building identification and sorting of fish (x ̅=6.26), handling and transportation of captured fish (x ̅=7.46), canoe use and maintenance (x ̅=6.76), use of chorkor smoker (x ̅=6.7), maintaining personal and environmental health hygiene (x ̅=7.29) and local weather forecasting (x ̅= 6.62). The determinants of training needs on Artisanal Fishing practices were years of fishing experience (p<0.05), income (p<0.05), household size (p<0.10), and membership of a fishing association (p<0.01). The highest ranked constraint affecting artisanal fishing practices was the of storage facilities (x ̅=2.62). The recommendations of the study are that there should be provision of training in the identified areas and provision of supports to the artisanal fisherfolks inform of inputs and credit facilities..
Ifabiyi O. John
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 73-84;

The study analyzed the capacity building needs of artisanal fisherfolks in North Central, Nigeria. The Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire and analysed using frequency, percentages, mean score and Correlation. The results showed that about 99.2% of the fishers were male and the mean age of the fishers was 43.9ears. The mean years of experience were 24.3. The mean quantity of catch per day was 17.9 Kg and 6 persons was the average household size. About 47.33 % of the respondents has a high knowledge level on improved fishing practices. The fisherfolks required capacity building in handling and transportation of captured fish (x ̅=6.59), use and repair of nets, cages and traps (mean=6.29), use and maintenance of multiple hooks on a line (x ̅=6.71), canoe use and maintenance (x ̅=6.74), use of chorkor smoker (x ̅=6.68), fish marketing and distribution (x ̅=6.65), credit acquisition (x ̅=5.92), maintaining personal and environmental health hygiene (x ̅=6.0) and local weather forecasting (x ̅=6.32). The highest ranked constraints affecting artisanal fishing practices were the high cost of fishing inputs and inadequate access to credit facilities (x ̅=2.72). The study therefore recommends the provision of training in the identified areas of capacity building needs and the provision of more frequent and effective extension services to the fisherfolks.
Watban J. Al-Zobaay, Amir H. Al-Zobaay
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 85-94;

This study was aimed to enhance the flavor and some microbial, physiochemical and sensorial properties of yogurt by threonine and glycine. This study included the estimation (acetaldehyde, acetone and ethanol), acetaldehyde content was 13.46, 13.9, 19.52, 13.99, 28.76, 27.31 and 18.52 mg L-1 for (A) control treatment, (B) glycine 1g /L , (C) threonine 1 g/ L, (D) glycine 3 g/ L, (E) threonine 3 g/ L, (F) threonine 3g + glycine 1g / L and (G) glycine 3g + threonine 1g / L treatments respectively. Acetone content was 8.38, 8.26, 5.71, 8.12, 3.84, 3.11 and 5.49 mg L-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Ethanol content was 10.25, 10.17, 6.39, 10.16, 4.56, 4.16 and 6.21 mg L-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Lactobacillus bulgaricus count after the first day of manufacture were 7.38, 7.34, 7.49, 7.39, 7.70, 7.68 and 7.50 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively, after 28 days of manufacture was 6.25, 6.23, 6.32, 6.27, 6.51, 6.47 and 6.38 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Streptococcus thermophilus count after the first day of manufacture were 9.20, 9.14, 9.38, 9.30, 10.62, 10.53 and 9.47 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively, after 28 days of manufacture were 8.25, 8.11, 8.34, 8.27, 9.17, 9.11 and 8.36 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively after 28 days. The chemical composition did not change, there were no significant differences compared with treatments. Sensory evaluation score showed significant differences (P≤0.05) among the treatments.
Mona. A. Allafe, Asmaa R. Adam
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 66-72;

The study investigated the effect of colchicine (C) on seeds germination, as well as morph physiological traits of wheat, where dry wheat seeds were treated with colchicine at concentrations of (C) were (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 %) compared to soaking in distilled water (control). The variance analysis results of laboratory germination experiments as well as in field experiments under rain-fed conditions showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the mean of most of the studied quantitative traits: germination quality such as germination force (%), germination energy (%), and laboratory germination (%). Leaf area (cm2 ), root spread, stem diameter (cm), as well as wet and dry weight under the influence of the different concentrations of colchicine. Where the results showed that when used wheat seeds which pre-soaked with colchicine solution at a concentration of (0.06) % for 56 hours pre-sowing, led to an obvious significant increase in all studied traits morph physiological properties and seedling vigor when compared to the control (untreated seeds - treated with distilled water only) as well as when compared with other concentrations of colchicine.
Mohammed Inad Ghazwan
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 1-9;

The present study attempts to find out the effect of some fish preservatives in the laboratory, such as alcohol and dilute formalin, on some biological characteristics related to the body measurements of those fish preserved in these materials. The fish used in this study were the local Planiliza abu. The processes of expansion and contraction of the bodies of fish preserved in diluted formalin solution at a concentration of 10% and diluted ethyl alcohol solution at a concentration of 70%. As that the standard length of the specimens of this study, which are separately preserved in formalin 10% and alcohol 70%, in a completely isolated are fluctuating in change. Constant shrinkage in head length in both diluted formalin and alcohol. Most fish bodies preserved in formalin at a concentration of 10% gain significant weight gain, in contrast to alcohol preservation.
Mohammed Inad Ghazwan
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 10-15;

The present study attempts to shed light on some biological aspects and characteristics of Piaractus brachypomus, including some biometrics, phenotypic and feeding pattern that characterizes this species. Besides, the study touches upon the body shape and the Otolith. These fish species have recently been seen frozen in the Iraqi local market. The standard length of fish specimens in this study reach 26.55cm it exceeded the specimens of Pacu fish collected from other studies from other countries, As well the specimens weight was 632gm it exceeded other studies mentioned in this manuscript. As the irregularity in the distribution of teeth rows, especially in the lower jaw was clear in our specimens. The average weight of some skull bones of Piaractus brachypomus specimens is 2.25g, which gives evidence of the heaviness of the bones of this species.
Hawraa Al-Mohamadawi, Asaad Y. Ayied
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 32-37;

The origin of animals is usually determined by their paternal genotypes of the genes on the Y chromosome. In addition to the genes and their polymorphisms in the genome of mitochondria that are inherited through dams. In view of the lack of studies focusing on the genes of the Y chromosome in the world and their absence in Iraq. The aim of the present study was to identify the multiple genetic polymorphisms of the SRYM18 gene in the Arabi and Awassi sheep raised in Iraq. The study was conducted in the Genetic Engineering Laboratories - College of Agriculture, University of Basra, as well as in the Basra Genome Laboratory. The amplification of the SRYM18 gene showed genetic polymorphisms and gave a gene segment of (103-880) bp. The number of alleles of the SRYm18 gene was 13 alleles in the Arabi and 16 alleles in the Awassi breeds. The equilibrium test showed that the two breeds were under equilibrium. The two breeds were identical with nine alleles, while the number of special alleles for the Arabi breed was two, while the Awassi breed was distinguished by five. The number of rare alleles reached 20, of which seven were of the Arabi breed, and 13 of them were of the Awassi breed. Mean expected heterozygosity was 0.6386 with nonsignificant Fis for Arabi breed (0.1541) but significant for Awassi breed (0.2213). Mean neutrality was close to lower bound (0.1721) and (0.1270) for Arabi and Awassi breeds respectively
Zainab Hamed Abdul Rahim, Lamia Khalifa Jawad
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 24-31;

The research was conducted to investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the vegetative multiplication of the Stevia plant shoot and the induction of callus from it. The results indicated that the interaction between 2.0 mg. L-1 BA with 0.5 mg. L -1 Kin gave the highest rate number of shoot with 6.32 branches and the highest average of leaves number Were 9.60 leaves compared to the lowest average for the number of shoot and leaves Were 1.40 shoot and 3.80 leaves respectively. As for the length of the shoot, the interaction between (1.0 mg. L-1 BA and 0.5 mg. L-1 Kin) gave the highest average shoot length 4.31 cm compared to the control which gave 2.20 cm. in connection with the callus induction, the concentration 3 mg. L-1 of NAA gave the highest percentage of callus induction from leaves 100%, and the lowest mean of days that for callus initiation was 9 days compared to the control which reached to 20 days. As for the wet and dry weights of callus tissue, the interaction between 2.0 mg. L-1 NAA and 0.5 mg. L -1BA gave the highest wet weight rate 3.68 g and the average dry weight was 0.31 g compared to the control which gave the lowest rate 0.95 g, 0.08 g respectively.
Khalid Ismail Saleem, Khaleda Haji Abdullah, Karvan Faraj Saadallah, Hilbin Ibrahim Abdullah, Rand Omar Khalo
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 63-70;

The preferred livelihood assets for meat and nutritious milk in thousands villages of Kurdistan rejoin/Iraq are sheep and goats. They generally rely on free roaming in rangeland during the growing seasons. In order to maintain their livestock during the scarcity of forages at winter seasons, the leaves and twigs of (Quercus aegilops, Q. infectoria and Q. libani) are harvested and dried as (dry leaf faggots) at autumn season to use as major substitute of feed. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of those three oaks species’ leaves at the same time of collecting period. Gara Mountains were chosen due to the wide presence of all three species. Leaves samples were collected at late September 2015 at elevation about 1250 MASL. The results have shown differences in chemical composition. Q. libani recorded higher content of dry matter (DM), ash and crude protein (CP), and lower content of crud fiber (CF). Higher content of ether extract (EE) was recorded in both Q. aegilops and Q. libani. The higher content of nitrogen free extract (NFE) and potassium (K) were recorded in Q. infectoria. While Q. aegilops recorded higher (CF) content. All Quercus species can be used as alternative feed substitute for small ruminant especially with some additives (such as salt, vitamin, and water), but more nutritive value was Q. libani then Q. infectoria followed by Q. aegilops. Therefore, the priority should be for Q. libani in foremost followed by Q. infectoria when dry leaves faggot were made.
Azad A. Mayi, Naji Isam Barwary, Hasan Salim Nabi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 52-62;

This research was conducted on pomegranate transplants in a lath house during the growth season of 2020 of college of Agricultural engineering science, university of Duhok, to investigate the impact of spraying of Prosopis Farcta, Urtica Dioica and Disper root with 0,100, and 200 mg.L-1 concentration, with 0,100, and 200 mg.L-1 concentration and with (0, 75, and 150 mg.L-1) concentration respectively, on vegetative growth, nutrients contents of pomegranate transplants. The collected data indicate that the spraying of Prosopis Farcta extract, Urtica Dioica and Disper root especially at 200, 200, and 150 mg.L-1 respectively resulting in a considerable increase in the majority of the examined parameters. At high concentrations, the interaction of three examined components resulted in the maximum values of branches number 14.57, transplant height 143.67 cm, leaves number 157.33, Chlorophyll 48.97, Roots number 10, Root length 42.67 cm, leaf nitrogen content 2.507 %, phosphorus 0.267 % and potassium 1.433 %.
Yahya Harbi Abdul-Noor, Amad Falah Hassan
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 16-23;

This study was conducted at the animal field of the Agriculture College / University of Basra / Karma Ali site for the period from 7/10/2019 to 1/5/2020 to investigation the effect of adding protected amino acids (methionine and lysine and their mixtures) on some physiological trails of male Arabi lambs. Sixteen male lambs with an average weight of (27.95) kg and an age of 5-6 months were selected, and randomly divided into four group (4 animals per group). The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the concentration of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, the number of red and white blood cells, cholesterol, triglycerides and the activity of the liver enzyme (ALT and AST) between the different treatments, while there was a significant (p <0.05) increase in the total protein and albumin concentration in the fourth treatment compared with the first treatment (control), while, there was a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the urea concentration for the fourth, third and second treatments compared with the first treatment. The concentrations of glucose, thyroxine and growth hormone increased significantly (p <0.05) in the fourth and second treatment compared with the first treatment. However, it can be concluded from the study that feeding the male lambs with 5g methionine or mixing it with lysine by 5g raises the concentration of glucose, growth hormones and thyroxine in the blood. Also, the levels of methionine and lysine used did not change the concentration of the studied biochemical parameters
Ammar Taleb Dhiab, Younus Abbas Khalaf Al-Saadi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 38-51;

The study aimed to know the effect of adding tartaric and salicylic acids alone and a mixture of water and diet on the egg quality characteristics of aged laying hens for brown Lohmann. 210 laying hens 60 weeks old were used The duration of the experiment, which lasted 112 days(16 weeks), was divided into four equal periods at a rate of 28 days for each period,, distributed in equal numbers to 21 ground hens, 10 laying hens for each hen, and distributed to seven treatments with three replications of the treatment, T1 was fed a standard diet without adding (control), T2 was fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.2% tartaric acid with water, T3 was fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.2% salicylic acid with water, T4 was fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.4% tartaric acid and salicylic acid was added with water, T5 was fed a standard diet supplemented with % 0.2 tartaric acid in the diet, T6 was fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.2% salicylic acid in the diet, T7 was fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.4% a mixture of tartaric and salicylic acid in the diet. The results of adding the two acids in the water and feed showed that there was a significant improvement (P≤0.01) in the quality characteristics of the eggs produced, as it significantly improved the shell weight, shell thickness, albumin height, albumin weight, Haugh unit, rate of yolk height, yolk weight, and the yolk diameter was significantly reduced for the coefficients of The addition compared with the control treatment.
Hashim Hadi Dakhel Aljebory, Saad A.H. Naji
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 41-57;

Lactobacilli, Bacillus subtills, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were applied to produce fermented feeds (FF), The FF was pelleted to investigated for its influences on egg quality for laying hens, the (FF) was ferment with 10 g / kg feed of the probiotic with a wetting ratio of half a liter/kg of feed for 48 hours where it was used at rates 0, 25%, 50 %, 75%, and 100% for the treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, and the duration of the study lasted for seven periods, each period was two weeks, as for the following study results: Significant superiority (P≤0.05) for all FF treatments during the second period and treatment T5 during the third and sixth periods, and for treatments T3, T4 and T5 during the fourth period in the shell weight. As for the shell thickness, a significant superiority (P≤0.01) was obtained for treatment T3 in the fourth period and for treatment T2 in the fifth, sixth, and seventh periods, and in the yolk height, there were a significant superiority (P≤0.01) for the treatment T4 during the first, second and seventh periods, and for the treatments T2 and T5 during the fourth and fifth periods, as for the yolk diameter, a significant superiority (P≤0.01)was obtained for the treatments T2, T3 and T4 in the fourth and fifth periods, and T2 during the seventh period, and in albumen height, a significant (P≤0.01) was increased for the treatments T3, T4, and T5 during the second period, and a significant superiority was obtained for treatment T5 in the fifth period and a significant superiority for the two treatments T1 and T2 in the seventh period.
Waad S. Faizy, Rafail S. Toma, Yousif S. Tamer, Wisam Khaza'Al
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 24-30;

A reliable and successful micropropagation protocol was developed for pepino plant (Solanum muricatum Aiton) from nodal segment explants grown on MS medium. The best values of shoot multiplication traits were recorded from the addition of 3 mg.l-1 kinetin by producing 2.3 shoots/explant, 3.6 cm and 9.6 leaves/ explant which was significantly superior upon the addition of BA at the same levels. In case of adding 3 mg.l-1 kinetin, the best root formation attributes were achieved from the use of 0.2 mg.l-l IAA that resulted a maximum number of roots (14.33 roots/ explant). The longest root length (15.33 cm) was achieved when 0.3 mg.l-l IAA was used. A 100% rooting percentage was recorded from the all tested auxins including IAA, IBA and NAA. The gradually moved plantlets from the heterotrophic phase in the lab to the autotrophic phase in the greenhouse showed 100% success. The plantlets did not show any abnormal growth or morphological changes. It is concluded that this important plant can be easily propagated by tissue culture technique through a reliable micropropagation protocol.
Emad Ada-Al Dhari, Waleed Yousif Kassim
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 31-40;

The study was established in local farm sheep in Muwafaqia / Wasit - Iraq, from 1/10/2018 until 15/1/2019, to evaluate the effect of adding selenium with or without Vitamin E on some of the physiological characteristics of Awassi male lambs. Sixteen lambs were selected after weaning with an average weight of (24.30) kg and aged (3-4) months. All lambs fed 2% of body weight with a concentrated diet and randomly divided into (4) groups. Control group (no additives), Selenium group (0.4 mg selenium), Vitamin group (100 mg vitamin E) and combination of selenium + vitamin E group (0.4 mg selenium + 100 mg vitamin E) per kg dietary dry matter for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, blood parameters (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (HB), mean concentration hemoglobin (MCH), and mean concentration hemoglobin count (MCHC) and stress parameters were measured. The result showed selenium + vitamin E and selenium treatments significantly increased (p <0.05) in PCV as compared with vitamin treatment and the control group. While treatment of vitamin significantly increased (p <0.05) in hemoglobin concentration compared to treatment of combination selenium + vitamin E. Stress parameters such as respiratory rate and heartbeat decreased significantly (p <0.05) in treatment of combination selenium + vitamin E compared to other treatments. There were no significant differences between the study treatments in the WBC count
Abdel-Aziz Hamid Madhas, Maher Ibrahim Dawood
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 100-109;

The research aims to identify the level of awareness of rural women in field health of the homestead in each field of study fields, the health of kids, the health of animals, and health of commons in Zummar region/ Nineveh Province, identify the correlation between awareness of rural women and variables of study age, the educational level, job of husband, number of family and number of kids in the field of health in Zummar region/ Nineveh Province, the research includes all the rural women in research region whose their number 115 respondents, were taken random samples from 20 respondents pre-test its excluded from the original sample, it became final study sample of 95 respondents, the data was collected from the study respondents by a questionnaire, that is consisted of two parts: the first part includes the personal variables, the second part included the dependent variable that is rural women awareness, it consists of 29 items. Statistical program -Spss- used in the analysis of the data, the results shows, that the level of general rural women awareness /in Jamroot village, in the Zummar region was low. There are significant relationships between the level of general rural women awareness and some of the studied variables. The researcher gives some conclusions, generally, weak of awareness of rural women, in Jamroot village, in Zummar region in the field of the home health and he recommends increase their knowledge and information through providing themselves with health bulletins of the animal's health, children health, and even adults health
Bashar Adham Ahmad, Wasan Jassim Al-Khazraji
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 93-99;

This study was conducted at Taj Al-Nahrain cows station in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate / Al-Diwaniyah district, which is 180 km from the center of Baghdad, and the duration of the experiment was extended from 1/9/2018 to 1/9/2019, the number of cows used in the experiment is 64 of the Holstein cows imported from Germany. To study the relationship between Scalp color and production performance and heat tolerance coefficient, 64 Holstein cows used in this experiment, cows divided into three groups according to the color of scalp cows as the ratio of spotting as 90% black, 50% black-50% white and 90% white, The result of this study showed. The color of the scalp had a significant effect on the milk components, as the color of the scalp exceeded 50% black 50% white over the color of the scalp 90% black, and the color of the scalp 90% white, Was non-significant in other milk components, milk production, and heat tolerance coefficient.
Ahlam A. Hussein
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 81-92;

The experiment was carried out in open field of the research station at College of Agriculture / University of Diyala during two seasons 2018 and 2019. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of foliar spraying with water extract of Rocket at three concentrations of 0, 50,, and 100% in and ground addition of Organic solution at three concentrations 0, 15, 20 ml. L-1 in. The Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates. The results showed that spraying water extract of Rocket was superior in 100%. It was found that the highest values in stem height, number of external leaves, head diameter and head weight, and total yield for both seasons 13.36 cm, 12.57 leaf, 14.94 cm, 1.302 kg. plant-1 and 43.417 tons. H -1 For the first season, 10.92 cm, 12.64 leaves, 15.26 cm, 1.308 kg. Plant-1 and 43.618 tons. H-1) for the second season. Also, the ground addition of solution was superior at 20 ml. L-1 in all studied traits. They did not differ significantly from the 15ml.L-1 concentration. However, they differ significantly from the control treatment, which gave the lowest values for all traits and both seasons. As for the treatment of interaction which was (20 ml.L-1 and 100% of Rocket extract), it exceeded all treatments and for both seasons.were recorded 13.42 cm, 12.88 leaf, 15.77 cm, 1.351 kg. Plant-1 and 45.028 tons. H-1 for the first season, as well as 11.03 cm, 13.01 leaf, 15.80 cm, 1.383 kg. plant-1 and 46.096 tons. H-1 for the second season.
Dara. A.Salih Kalhory
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 58-68;

The study aims to identify the awareness level of Hunters related to making environmental mistakes in the Dukan lake - Sulaimaniyah Governorate. The study comminuted included all 177 respondents in the study area and the study sample included 62 respondents who randomly selected 35% of the study comminuted as well as the questionnaire by interview was used as a tool to collect the data then the questionnaire was shown to specialists in agricultural extension and fish breeders to achieve content validity. The data was collected and analyzed statistically by used statistical tools and SPSS version22. As well as the results showed that % 82.25 of respondents were aware related to making environmental mistakes in general within medium tends to low. Also, the awareness level of respondents related to fields of making mistakes that caused water pollution came the first rank in terms of relative importance with means of 30.11 degrees. Then comes Soil pollution with means of 19.88 degrees. Finally, Air pollution comes in the last rank with means of 19.45 degrees. Additionally, the results show that there is a correlation between the awareness level of respondents related to making environmental mistakes in the Dukan lake - Sulaimaniyah Governorate in general and variables: Age and Duration of fishing experience While there is no correlation between the awareness level of respondents related to making environmental mistakes in general and each of variables: Areas Used in fishing, Participation in training courses and Exposure to informational sources.
Majida Hadi Mahdi Alsaady, Hussein Ali Salim, Rakib A. Al-Ani, Hadi M. Aboud, Jamal Talib M Al Roubaie
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 69-80;

In this study, the antagonistic effect of five bacteria genera namely Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, and Streptomyces isolated from rhizosphere of wheat were evaluated against Fusarium graminearum as potential biocontrol agents in vitro. F. graminearum was molecularly diagnosed using the Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Each bacteria were tested for the production of catalase enzyme, oxidase enzyme, analysis of starch, analyze of gelatin, and the motility, where Azotobacter, Azospirillum, and Bacillus subtilis were positive for all tested. Fungal inhibition tests were performed by using the dual culture method and agar well diffusion technique. Among them, Streptomyces and Azospirillum exhibited potent inhibition to the growth of F. graminearum (72.14% and 66.42%) respectively, followed by B.pumillus, P.fluorescens, B. subtilis and Azotobacter ( 58.28%, 43.23%, 39.71% and 35.71%) respectively as compared with the control treatment (0.0%).The dry weight of the fungus biomass was decreased with bacteria P. fluorescens, Streptomyces sp, Azotobacter sp, Azospirillum sp, B. subtilis, and B. pumillus which reached (0.114, 0.103, 0.147, 0.101, 0.143, and 0.107 g) respectively compared to the control treatment that was 0. 665 g.
Samer Mohammed Ahmed, Ali Jabar Abdulsada, Naeem Saeed Deiab, GhalibKhudiar Abbas Khudiar Abbas, Raheem Saleh Ibrahim
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 10-23;

The effect of some biofertilizers and addition methods on growth, yield, and quality of sweet pepper were studied under greenhouse conditions. This research was conducted at ALLatifia Research Station(Located 35 km south of Baghdad), Agricultural Research Directorate, Baghdad- Iraq, during season 2016. The factors were methods of adding biofertilizers (A) included added to seeds (A1) and added to transplants (A2) and bio-fertilizers (T) included without adding any biofertilizers as control(T0), Pseudomonas fluorescence (T1), Azospirillim brasilense (T2), Bacillus subtillus (T3) and Azotobactor chroococcum (T4). Results showed a significant increase in plant height for treatment of Azotobacter chroococcum which recorded (79.00 cm) compared with (65.00 cm) in the control treatment. There is no significant influence of biofertilizers treatments in leaf area dcm2. Moreover, the treatment of Azotobacter chroococcum showed a significant increase for plant yield and total yield which recorded (1344.00 gm plant-1 and 1512.00 kg green house-1) respectively in comparison with the control treatment which recorded( 880.00 gm plant-1 and 989.00 kg green house-1) respectively
Fawzia Jassim Shalsh, Ahmed Mohammed Khalaf, Mohammed Hafiz, Imad Ibrahim Ali
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 13, pp 1-9;

Honey is one of the oldest natural medicines known with a very high therapeutic value. Nowadays, in the medical field, several important therapeutic effects of honey have been elucidated. This study was conducted to reveal the antimicrobial activity of the commercially available local Malaysian Trigona sp. honey towards different pathogenic bacteria specifically Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. The Minimum inhibitory concentration and Minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by the disc-diffusion test and agar well diffusion test. Different concentration of the honey was tested in the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion test. The results of these tests were in terms of Inhibition zone diameter. The results obtained from the current study are the dilution of different concentration of honey from Trigona sp. are very significant because the only net concentration of both of honey Trigon a sp. possessed antimicrobial properties in term of Minimum inhibitory concentration) and Minimum bactericidal concentration. The result also can say that Trigona sp. honey possessed antibacterial properties and can be used as alternative medicine in the veterinary field in the future
Hussein Ali Mutney Al-Anbaki, Iman Mohammed Al-Malo
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 33-39;

New record of two species of genus Psallopsis Reuter, 1901 belongs to Subfamily phylinae and to the Family Miridae and to the suborder of Heteroptera of order Hemiptera, these species as Psallopsis minimus (Wagner, 1967) and P. kalidiicola Konstantinov, 1997, which collected 23 twenty three insects from Baghdad / Al- Husayniya and Abu-Gharib, the other collected 20 twenty insects from Baghdad / Taji and Abu-Gharib and Al- Rashdiya, this species are a new record in Iraq during the study at 2018 – 2019. The insects Indented by used taxonomic keys depended on morphological characters and male genitalia. Used camera Lucida to draw bodies' part and picture by Dino- Lite microscope camera.
Mena M. Abdulwahab, Yazen N. Mahmood
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 25-32;

In the last few years in Kurdistan in general and in Erbil especially many fast-food restaurant opening, and they sales are rise up every day with increased customer turnout to these kind of restaurant .All that affect in badly way on working in these kinds of restaurant from cleaning, serving, safety, preparing the equipment for customer orders So, we depend the relationship between some diseases (Obesity, Diabetes, Heart disease, Blood pressure) and fast-food consumption to measure how these factors (diseases) impacting with fast –food. We distribute 80 questioners and get 65 in different fast-food restaurant at family mall-Erbil. The results and findings of this research are analyzed by SPSS to build analysis and draw conclusion. The research findings showed distinctive relation between measuring factors.
Abdulrazzak A. Jasim, Salam F. Saadoon
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 40-50;

The experiment was conducted at the fields of Agriculture College-University of Baghdad Al- Jadiriyah in 2015 in sandy loam soil in order to evaluate the effect of soil moisture level and pulverization implement on tillage appearance and some soil physical properties. Two levels of soil moisture included fist moisture level 14-16% and second moisture level 18-20% and pulverization implements included: disc harrow, Spring Spike tooth harrow and rotary harrow were used. Soil surface roughness, number of clods with diameter larger than 5 cm/m2, disturbed soil volume, and soil total porosity were measured. Split plot design under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates was used. The results were showed that Rotary harrow and 14-16% moisture level superior in obtained the best soil surface roughness, less number of clods > 5cm/m2 which was 7.56 clod/m2, while Spring Spike tooth Harrow and 18-20% moisture level was superior in record highest disturbed soil volume which was 761.56 m3/ hr and soil porosity of 55.78 %. Using locally manufactured ultrasonic device for measuring soil surface roughness was done successfully in this experiment with high performance efficiency.
Hasan Ali Majeed, Othman Nasif Jasim
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 719-730;

This study was conducted at the Field Crops Research Station in the college of Agriculture - University of Diyala at the Agricultural Season 2018-2019. The experiment was included two factors, the first factor three planting dates 1 / 8-15 / 8-1 / 9, the second spraying with Prix 0, 1 and 2 ml / L. The experiment was designed to study the effect of planting dates and spraying with Prix on the growth and yield characteristics of the mungbean plant. The experiment was applied using the Randomized Complete Block Design in the factorial experiment system with three replicates. The dates of cultivation had a significant effect on the studied traits. The first date 1/8 was recorded the highest rate of the growth characteristics Plant height 60.38 cm, number of branches 18.61 branches / plants, number of leaves 36.05 leaves / plants, dry weight of plant 37.07 g, number of pods 36.02 pods / plant and number of seeds / pod 12.37 seeds / And weight of 1000 seeds 30.57 g and leaf area 15.05cm and the plant yield ton / e 1.097 tons / h. The results of the experiment showed the superiority of the spraying with a concentration of 2 ml / L, which is significant for the traits Plant height 40.40 cm, number of branches 16.65 branches / plants, number of leaves 32.07 leaves / plant, dry weight of plant 30.80 g, number of pods 30.40 pods / plant, number of seeds in pods 12.36 seeds / pods and leaf area 14.42cm2.
Falah Hasan Issa, Naser Habeeb Mhaibes
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 731-740;

The experiment was carried in the Agricultural Research and Experiment Station - Faculty of Agriculture - Al Muthanna University for the summer agricultural season 2019 to study the effect of mycorrhiza and spray with plant extracts on some morphological and physiological characteristics of the indigenous cultivar of Okra Hassinawi Varity. The study included two factorials , first one : 2 Varity of mycorrhiza with control (M0,M1,M2) , At 5 gm for each one and second factorial content four levels of licorice root extract 0 , 5 , 7.5 and 10 g.L-1 Randomized Completely Block Design (R.C.B.D) were used with three replicates. The means were compared according to L.S.D test at the level 0.05. The results showed the superiority of M2 in plant height 103.00 cm, number of leaves 72.25. Plant 1 -, leaf area 0.800 m 2 , fresh weight of the vegetative growth 577.67 g, single plant yield 426.362 g and the percentage of fiber in fruits is 8.91%, L3 treatment was significantly creased the traits studied above 107.30 cm, 65.54 leaves. Plant -1 , 0.784 m2 , 584.25 g, 372.065 g, 8.15% respectively. The interaction between Mycorrhiza and licorice root extract was affected significantly on all characters .
Wisam Malik Dawood, Nidhal Y. Abbas
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 697-707;

A research study was conducted on sugarcane crop in the fields of the College of Agriculture, University of Diyala during the 2018 season to obtain three seedlings ages (30, 45 and 60 days) for three American varieties (CP72- 2086, CP89-2143 and CP81-325) in order to determine the effect of seedlings ages on some phenotypes of sugarcane varieties. The 30 days age of cultivar CP89-2143 recorded the highest percentage of germination of buds by 99.8% compared to all other treatments. The 60 days age of cultivar CP89-2143 recorded the highest root length of 16.6 cm, while the 30 days of all cultivars recorded the least values of 9.2, 10.6 and 9.5 cm for the varieties CP72-2086, CP89-2143 and CP81-325 respectively. The 60 days age for CP89-2143 recorded the highest value in stem length of 11.0 cm, while the 30 days age for all varieties recorded of 8.6, 7.8 and 8.2 cm for the CP72-2086, CP89-2143 and CP81-325 respectively. The 71.days age for CP89-2143 recorded the highest mean of 7.3 leaves, while 30 days age for all varieties recorded the highest mean reached 5.0, 5.3 and 5.3 leaves of varieties CP72-2086, CP89-2143 and CP81- 325, respectively. The CP89-2143 variety for all ages recorded the highest value of 2.3, 2.7 and 2.7 tillers respectively , while CP81-325 variety for all ages recorded the highest value reached 1.0 tillers for each one of them. The 54 days age for CP89-2143 recorded the highest mean of dry weight reached 22.7 gm, while 30 days age for all varieties recorded the least value reached 15.3, 16.5 and 14.0 gm for the CP72-2086, CP89-2143 and CP81-325 respectively. .
Falah H. Darweesh, Mahmood H. Jasim
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 12, pp 708-718;

The study aimed to measurement the level of application of palm groves owners to scientific recommendations related to combating pests trees of palm trees in Al-Husayniyah district/Karbala governorate in general, which includes the fields (pests control and spider dust, disease control, and weeds control)as well as finding the correlation between the level of application of palm groves owners to scientific recommendations and some personal variables in addition to identifying the important problems facing palm groves owners in the field of pest control of palm trees ,the sample included 149 the owner of a grove , the data were collected in the personal interview by questionnaire form , it was verified by its authenticity by presenting it to the experts of the validity face and authenticity of the validity, and the reliability of coefficient of the test(0.81), and the researcher has used many statistical methods such as(the medium range, pearson correlation, test (t). The results showed that the level of application of palm grove owners to scientific recommendations in combating the most important pests palm trees were medium to low, and the results showed a significant correlation At the level of (0.01) between the level of application scientific recommendations and each of the variables (number of palm tree, possession of control requirements, attitudes towards pest control of palm trees, exposure to agriculture information sources), and the problem of there is no of a clear and binding plan for the state in the field of air control and a problem lack of government support for the owners of palm groves in the first and second rank respectively for the problems experienced by the owners of palm groves, the researcher recommends the need to intensify and organize guidance efforts provided by the ministry of agriculture and its various formations for the purpose of increasing the level of knowledge and skills of palm grove owners, and dissemination of scientific recommendations in the control against palm pests .
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