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Published: 24 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
It is essential to understand the mechanism of action of ultrasound synergistic free radical oxidation to promote covalent reactions between proteins and polyphenols. (−)-epigallo-catechin 3-gallate (EGCG) with rich bioactivity could be used to increase the functional properties of cereal protein—gliadin (GL). This study systematically explored the role of ultrasound treatment (US) on the binding mechanisms of GL and EGCG. Electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the greater molecular mass of the covalent complexes in the ultrasound environment. Quantitative analysis by the phenol content revealed that the ultrasound environment increased the EGCG content in the covalent complex by 15.08 mg/g of protein. The changes in the spatial structure of the proteins were indicated by Fourier infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) found that US disrupted the aggregation of GL and the clustered structure of the covalent complexes. The results demonstrated that the water solubility of ultrasonic conjugates was significantly increased by 8.8–64.19%, the digestion rate was more efficient, and the radical scavenging capacity was twice that of GL. This research contributes to the theoretical basis for broadening the application of polyphenols in modifying protein.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
In the context of dietary transition, blending animal-source protein with plant-source protein offers a promising way to exploit their nutritional complementarity. This study investigates the feasibility of formulating an iron-rich hybrid food product blending plant-source and animal-source protein ingredients for iron-deficient populations. Using a commercial 3D-food printer, two different-shaped products composed mainly of pork and chicken liver and red lentils were designed. After baking at 180 °C with 70% steam, the 3D-printed products were packed under two different modified atmospheres (MAP): O2-MAP (70% oxygen + 30% carbon dioxide) and N2-MAP (70% nitrogen + 30% carbon dioxide) and stored at 4 °C. pH, water content, aw, lipid oxidation, heme iron and non-heme iron contents and textural properties were measured after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days in storage. After 21 days in storage, the 3D-printed hybrid products had an iron content of around 13 mg/100 g, regardless of the product form and packaging method. However, O2-MAP products showed significant (p < 0.05) time–course changes from day 0 to day 7, i.e., an increase in lipid oxidation, a decrease in heme iron content and an increase in product hardness, gumminess and chewiness. This work opens prospects for developing hybrid food products that upvalue animal by-products.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Herein, the effect of direct and indirect barbecue cooking processes, including different cooking degrees (medium and well done), on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on certain quality parameters (water content, cooking loss, pH, lipid oxidation) of beef meat was examined. While no significant effect (p > 0.05) of the cooking method was detected on the water content, cooking loss, ∑PAH4 [the sum of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysen (Chry), and benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF)], and ∑PAH8 [the sum of BaP, BaA, Chry, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (Bghip), and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IncdP)] content, it was determined that it had a significant effect on pH (p < 0.05) and lipid oxidation (TBARS, p < 0.01). While the cooking degree did not have a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the TBARS value, it had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the water content and pH value, and a very significant effect (p < 0.01) on the cooking loss. While BaA and BaP compounds were detected in all barbecued samples, the DahA compound could not be detected in any of the samples. Varying levels of BaA (up to 5.62 ng/g), Chry (up to 0.43 ng/g), BbF (LOD-..-LOQ), BkF (LOD-..-LOQ), BaP (up to 0.49 ng/g), BghiP (up to 0.82 ng/g), and IncdP (up to 4.99 ng/g) compounds were determined in the samples. While the ∑PAH4 contents varied between 0.71 and 6.35 ng/g, the ∑PAH8 contents varied between 1.12 and 11.34 ng/g. While the increase in cooking level did not affect the ∑PAH4 content, it caused a significant increase in the ∑PAH8 content. The highest BaP (0.49 ng/g), ∑PAH4 (6.35 ng/g), and ∑PAH8 (11.34 ng/g) contents were detected in the meat samples that were well cooked on the barbecue by the direct method. The results have proven that PAHs are formed at varying levels in both meat samples cooked on the barbecue by the direct method and the indirect method. On the other hand, it has been determined that even if 100 g of the meat with the highest BaP and ∑PAH4 content is eaten, the exposure amount remains far below the limit values specified for PAHs. However, paying close attention to the barbecue cooking process is still recommended.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Grape pomace is a commonly discarded by-product characterized by high extractable (EPP) and non-extractable (NEPP) polyphenol contents which exhibits anti-obesogenic effects. However, the relevance of each fraction needs to be elucidated. In this work, we examined the effects of three pomaces with different concentrations of EPPs and NEPPs on metabolic alterations associated with obesity. The NEPP:EPP ratio of the grape pomaces was 1.48 for Malbec, 1.10 for Garnacha, and 5.76 for Syrah grape varieties. Rats fed a high-fat high-fructose diet supplemented with Malbec grape pomace (HFFD + MAL) Syrah grape pomace (HFFD + SYR) or Garnacha grape pomace (HFFD + GAR) showed significantly less weight gain: 20%, 15%, and 12% less, respectively, compared to HFFD controls. The adiposity index was also significantly decreased by 20% in the HFFD + MAL and HFFD + SYR groups, and by 13% in the HFFD + GAR group. Serum triglycerides were significantly decreased by 46% in the HFFD + MAL group and by 31% in the HFFD + GAR group, compared to the HFFD group, but not in the HFFD + SYR group. All pomace supplementations regulated postprandial glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test. Therefore, grape pomaces containing both EPPs and NEPPs exert beneficial effects on body weight and glucose homeostasis, while EPPs seem to control triglyceride levels more effectively.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey, a perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a unique medicine food homology species from China. S. grosvenorii can be used as a natural sweetener in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for moistening the lungs, quenching a cough, smoothing the intestines, and relieving constipation. Additionally, the fruits, roots, stems, and leaves of S. grosvenorii are rich in active ingredients, and have pharmacological effects such as immune regulation, hypoglycemia, and antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antitumor effects, etc. Therefore, S. grosvenorii has broad application prospects in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper reviews the bioactive components, pharmacological effects, and extraction methods of S. grosvenorii, summarizes them, and proposes their future development directions. This current overview highlights the value of S. grosvenorii. By documenting the comprehensive information of S. grosvenorii, the review aims to provide the appropriate guidelines for its future in-depth development and the utilization of S. grosvenorii resources for their roles as active ingredient (triterpenoids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides, etc.) sources in the food industry and in the development of functional foods.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Online microwave drying process monitoring has been challenging due to the incompatibility of metal components with microwaves. This paper developed a microwave drying system based on online machine vision, which realized real-time extraction and measurement of images, weight, and temperature. An image-processing algorithm was developed to capture material shrinkage characteristics in real time. Constant-temperature microwave drying experiments were conducted, and the artificial neural network (ANN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were utilized to model and predict the moisture content of materials during the drying process based on the degree of material shrinkage. The results demonstrated that the system and algorithm operated effectively, and ELM provided superior predictive performance and learning efficiency compared to ANN.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Rice bran, rich in feruloyl arabinoxylan, is a good source of feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs). To prepare FOs, bran was often hydrolyzed by amylase and protease to remove starch and protein and then hydrolyzed by xylanase, which was time-consuming and had a low yield. To solve the above problems, enzymatic extrusion was used to treat rice bran, and the effects of traditional hydrolysis, a combination of traditional extrusion and hydrolysis (extrusion-hydrolysis) and enzymatic extrusion on the yield of FOs were investigated and compared in this study. It was found that traditional extrusion and enzymatic extrusion significantly increased the yield of FOs. Particularly, the yield of FOs resulting from enzymatic extrusion was increased to 5.78%, while the yield from traditional hydrolysis was 4.23%. Microscopy analysis showed that extrusion damaged the cell wall of bran, which might increase the accessibility of xylanase to arabinoxylan and the yield of FOs. Spectroscopy analysis suggested that FOs obtained by different pretreatments had similar structures. It was obvious that enzymatic extrusion saved the time for removal of starch and protein and increased the yield of FOs. In addition, the highest yield of FOs was found at the moisture content of 30% and the screw speed of 50 rpm. This study provided an efficient method for the preparation of FOs that is suitable for industrial production.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The Allium plant is widely used in cuisines around the world for its characteristic flavor. The general profile of the plant changes a lot and presents quite different smells after the frying process. In this work, five Allium plants and their fried oils were compared to find out how the frying process impacts the general flavor profile. The results of sensory analysis indicated that the frying process could substantially increase the flavor acceptability of fresh Allium plants. Meanwhile, according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, fewer volatile compounds were detected in fresh Allium plants than in their fried oils. Furthermore, contents of nitrogen-containing compounds (ranging from 0.17 μg/g to 268.97 μg/g), aldehydes (ranging from 71.82 μg/g to 1164.84 μg/g), and lactones (ranging from 0 μg/g to 12.38 μg/g) increased significantly. In addition, more aroma-active substances were identified in the fried Allium oils revealed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis. Sulfur-containing compounds were the most abundant in fresh Allium plants, whereas nitrogen-containing compounds dominated in fried oils. The thermal degradation of sugars, amino acids and lipids as well as interactions between carbohydrates, proteins, and fats during the frying process were thought to be the main contributors to these variations. Therefore, this research provides a theoretical basis for the quality control of onion oil flavor and promotes the further development of the onion plant industry. Consequently, the research provided a theoretical basis for the quality control of Allium oils’ flavor and promoted the further development of Allium plant industries.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Free short-chain fatty acids (FSCFAs) are a momentous contributor to the flavor of the raw cow milk. Hence, the purpose of this research was to build an approach for the quantification of 10 FSCFAs in raw cow milk. Raw cow milk samples are acidified by hydrochloric acid ethanol (0.5%) solution pretreatment and then processed on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. With the exception of iso C5:0 and anteiso C5:0 co-flux, the remaining eight FSCFAs were effectively separated by chromatography. The methodological validation data revealed that the linear relationship satisfied the assay requirements (coefficient of determination >0.999), the limits of quantification were 0.167 to 1.250 μg mL−1, the recoveries ranged from 85.62% to 126.42%, the coefficients of variation were 1.40~12.15%, and no SCFAs in the triglyceride form were potential degradation, and the precision ranging from 0.56% to 9.09%. Our easy, fast, and robust method successfully determined three FSCFAs in raw cow milk without derivatization. Some characteristic features of FSCFAs have been discovered in raw cow milk such as its higher percentages of C4:0 and C6:0. Our research has provided a very valuable method for the future quality and safety control of raw milk and nutritional studies.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds belonging to the flavonoid class which are commonly applied in foods due to their attractive color and health-promoting benefits. However, the instability of anthocyanins leads to their easy degradation, reduction in bioactivity, and color fading in food processing, which limits their application and causes economic losses. Therefore, the objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the published research on modified methods of anthocyanin use. Modification technology of anthocyanins mainly includes chemical modification (chemical acylation, enzymatic acylation, and formation of pyran anthocyanidin), co-pigmentation, and physical modification (microencapsulation and preparation of pickering emulsion). Modification technology of anthocyanins can not only increase bioavailability and stability of anthocyanin but also can improve effects of anthocyanin on disease prevention and treatment. We also propose potential challenges and perspectives for diversification of anthocyanin-rich products for food application. Overall, integrated strategies are warranted for improving anthocyanin stabilization and promoting their further application in the food industry, medicine, and other fields.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
There are increasing demands for fast and simple detection of pathogens in foodstuffs. Fluorescence analysis has demonstrated significant advantages for easy operation and high sensitivity, although it is usually hindered by a complex matrix, low bacterial abundance, and long-term bacterial enrichment. Effective enrichment procedures are required to meet the requirements for food detection. Here, boronate-functionalized cellulose filter paper and specific fluorescent probes were combined. An integrated approach for the enrichment of detection of Staphylococcus aureus was proposed. The modification of polyethyleneimine demonstrated a significant effect in enhancing the bacterial enrichment, and the boronate affinity efficiency of the paper was increased by about 51~132%. With optimized conditions, the adsorption efficiency for S. aureus was evaluated as 1.87 × 108 CFU/cm2, the linear range of the fluorescent analysis was 104 CFU/mL~108 CFU/mL (R2 = 0.9835), and the lowest limit of detection (LOD) was calculated as 2.24 × 102 CFU/mL. Such efficiency was validated with milk and yogurt samples. These results indicated that the material had a high enrichment capacity, simple operation, and high substrate tolerance, which had the promising potential to be the established method for the fast detection of food pathogens.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Bread wheat has traditionally been selected for whitish derived flours. As a consequence, the current varieties carry carotenogenic alleles associated with low grain carotenoid. In contrast, high grain yellow pigment content (YPC) has been a major target in durum wheat programs since yellow colour is an important aesthetic factor for pasta production. Phytoene synthase 1 (Psy1) genes have an important role in the determination of the carotenoid content in wheat. In this work, we have transferred the genes Psy1-A1 and Psy1-B1 from durum to bread wheat by inter-specific hybridization in order to evaluate the combined effect of these genes for the improvement of grain carotenoid content, as well as the development of carotenoid-enriched bread wheat lines. Inter-specific breeding coupled with a MAS approach based on Psy1-A1 and Psy1-B1 alleles has allowed the development of bread wheat pre-breeding lines with enhanced grain carotenoid content (16–23% mean). These biofortified lines have the potential to become new varieties or to be used as recurrent parents in bread wheat breeding programs.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Pomegranate is a sensitive fruit to chilling injury (CI) during storage at temperatures below 7 °C. However, sensitivity of pomegranate to CI is dependent on cultivar and exposure times to low temperatures. In this work, the sensitivity to CI of six pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) ‘Wonderful’, ‘Kingdom’, ‘Bigful’, ‘Acco’, ‘Purple Queen’, and ‘Mollar de Elche’, was evaluated after 30 d at 2 °C plus 2 d at 20 °C. Among cultivars, there was a great variability in the sensitivity to the appearance of CI symptoms. ‘Kingdom’ cultivar was the most CI sensitive and ‘Mollar de Elche’ cultivar was the least sensitive cultivar. CI symptoms were greater in the internal part of the skin than in the external part, although no correlation was found between ion leakage (IL) and CI severity after cold storage. However, both, external and internal CI index were correlated with the IL at harvest, with Pearson correlation of 0.63 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, this variability to CI among cultivars could also be due to composition and tissue structures in arils and peel. The solute content of the arils (anthocyanins, sugars, and organic acids, in particular citric acid), showed high correlations with CI sensitivity, with Pearson correlations (r) of 0.56 for total soluble solids, 0.87 for total acidity, 0.94 for anthocyanins, −0.94 for oxalic acid, 0.87 for citric acid, 0.62 for tartaric acid, −0.91 for malic acid, 0.8 for sucrose, and 0.71 for glucose, which can leak to the inner surface of the peel causing browning reactions. In addition, the high peel Ca/K ratio could play an important role on increasing fruit tolerance to CI, since it was negatively correlated with the internal and external CI indexes.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
L-Ascorbic acid (LAA) is a key vitamin, implicated in a variety of physiological processes in humans. Due to its free radical scavenging activity, it is extensively employed as an excipient in pharmaceutical products and food supplements. However, its application is greatly impeded by poor thermal and aqueous stability. Herein, to improve the stability and inhibit oxidative degradation, we prepared LAA-cyclodextrin inclusion complex-incorporated nanofibers (NFs). The continuous variation method (Job plot) demonstrated that LAA forms inclusions with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) at a 2:1 molar stoichiometric ratio. The NFs were prepared via the single step electrospinning technique, without using any polymer matrix. The solid-state characterizations of LAA/HP-β-CD-NF via powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 2D-NOESY) spectroscopy, reveal the effective encapsulation of the LAA (guest molecule) inside the HP-β-CD (host) cavity. The SEM micrograph reveals an average fiber diameter of ~339 nm. The outcomes of the thermal investigations demonstrated that encapsulation of LAA within HP-β-CD cavities provides improved thermal stability of LAA (by increasing the thermal degradation temperature). The radical scavenging assay demonstrated the enhanced antioxidant potential of LAA/HP-β-CD-NF, as compared to native LAA. Overall, the study shows that cyclodextrin inclusion complex-incorporated NFs, are an effective approach for improving the limitations associated with LAA, and provide promising avenues in its therapeutic and food applications.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Biofilms are microbial communities that represent a high abundance of microbial life forms on Earth. Within biofilms, structural changes during clearance processes occur in three spatial and temporal dimensions; therefore, microscopy and quantitative image analysis are essential in elucidating their function. Here, we present confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with ISA-2 software analysis for the automated and high-throughput quantification, analysis, and visualisation of biofilm interiors and overall biofilm properties in three spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper discusses the removal process of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) biofilms using slightly acidic electrolytic water, non-electrolytic hypochlorite water, and alternating the use of strongly acidic and strongly alkaline electrolytic water. The results show that the biofilm gradually thins and gutters from the initial viscous dense and thick morphology under the action of either biocide. This process is consistent with first-level kinetics. After CLSM filming to observe the biofilm structure, analysis software was used to process and quantify the biovolume, average biofilm thickness, biofilm roughness and other indicators; fluorescence enzyme markers were used to verify the remaining amount of extracellular nucleic acid. In this study, we proposed and validated the theory of layer-by-layer elimination of LM biofilm.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Citrus fiber has a high water absorption capacity, and its properties can be modified by shearing. In this study, the influence of the addition of normal or shear-activated citrus fiber was analyzed in two gluten-free bread formulations. Citrus fiber increases bread optimal hydration and breadcrumb alveolus size due to this high water retention capacity. However, results are negative in the formula based on starches and rice flour because specific volume is significantly reduced, while bread quality improves in the formula based on starches (corn and tapioca). In this case, the breads become less hard and more cohesive, elastic, and resilient, reducing staling. Baking yield also increased due to a greater hydration and a reduced weight loss during baking, without losing acceptability. The mechanical pre-activation of the fiber further increases optimal hydration, without major changes in the quality of the final bread. These effects are associated with cell rupture, and thus the formation of a three-dimensional network, including the increase of surface area and its interaction with water. Citrus fiber increases the hydration of the dough, as well as the cohesiveness, resilience, and elasticity of the crumb, reducing the increase in hardness during storage without affecting acceptability or increasing it.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a pulse with historical importance in Portugal, but that was forgotten over time. Previous to this work, an innovative miso was developed to increase grass pea usage and consumption, using fermentation as a tool to extol this ingredient. Our work’s goal was to develop a new vegan emulsion with added value, using grass pea sweet miso as a clean-label ingredient, aligned with the most recent consumer trends. For this, a multidisciplinary approach with microbiological, rheological and chemical methods was followed. Grass pea sweet miso characterization revealed a promising ingredient in comparison with soybean miso, namely for its low fat and sodium chloride content and higher content in antioxidant potential. Furthermore, in vitro antimicrobial activity assays showed potential as a preservation supporting agent. After grass pea sweet miso characterization, five formulations with 5–15% (w/w) of miso were tested, with a vegan emulsion similar to mayonnaise as standard. The most promising formulation, 7.5% (w/w) miso, presented adequate rheological properties, texture profile and fairly good stability, presenting a unimodal droplet size distribution and stable backscattering profile. The addition of 0.1% (w/w) psyllium husk, a fiber with great water-intake capacity, solved the undesirable release of exudate from the emulsion, as observed on the backscattering results. Furthermore, the final product presented a significantly higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in comparison with the standard vegan emulsion.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The production of cooked ham has been gaining popularity in recent years in Spain. In general, the production process carried out by the companies remains traditional, and different production methods are therefore being sought to innovate and improve the quality of the product. This is either through pig crossbreeding, varying additives and ingredients, improving some stages of the production process, or providing nutritional and health claims that are useful to guiding the purchasing decision of consumers. Obviously, this series of changes must be subject to Spanish and European regulations in order to be marketed inside and outside the country.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
In the coming decades, feeding the growing world population is going to become a global food-supply challenge for our existing food systems
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Colored wheats such as black, blue, or purple wheat are receiving a great interest as healthy food ingredients due to their potential health-enhancing attributes. Purple wheat is an anthocyanin-pigmented grain that holds huge potential in food applications since wheat is the preferred source of energy and protein in human diet. Purple wheat is currently processed into a variety of foods with potent antioxidant properties, which have been demonstrated by in vitro studies. However, the health impacts of purple wheat foods in humans still require further investigations. Meanwhile, anthocyanins are vulnerable molecules that require special stabilization treatments during food preparation and processing. A number of stabilization methods such as co-pigmentation, self-association, encapsulation, metal binding, and adjusting processing conditions have been suggested as a means to diminish the loss of anthocyanins in processed foods and dietary supplements. The present review was intended to provide insights about purple wheat food product development and its roles in human health. In addition, methods for stabilizing anthocyanins during processing were briefly discussed.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold et Zuccarini belongs to the Rutaceae family and has been widely used as a spice in East Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. The present study focused on developing and validating a simultaneous analytical method for marker substances (bergapten and schinifoline) in Z. schinifolium seeds. This was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) systems. In the regression equation, all markers showed a coefficient of determination of ≥0.9990. Marker recovery was 96.90–105.16% (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.23), and the intra- and interday precision was RSD < 3.00. Bergapten and schinifoline were detected in the seeds at 1.70–2.85 mg/g and 0.19–0.94 mg/g, respectively. This analytical method will improve quality control of Z. schinifolium seeds. Additionally, this assay will provide basic data and quality assurance for future biological activity experiments or clinical applications.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Tartary buckwheat is a common functional food. Its grains are rich in flavonoids and phenols. The rapid measurement of flavonoids and phenols in buckwheat grains is of great significance in promoting the development of the buckwheat industry. This study, based on multiple scattering correction (MSC), standardized normal variate (SNV), reciprocal logarithm (Lg), first-order derivative (FD), second-order derivative (SD), and fractional-order derivative (FOD) preprocessing spectra, constructed hyperspectral monitoring models of total flavonoids content and total phenols content in tartary buckwheat grains. The results showed that SNV, Lg, FD, SD, and FOD preprocessing had different effects on the original spectral reflectance and that FOD can also reflect the change process from the original spectrum to the integer-order derivative spectrum. Compared with the original spectrum, MSC, SNV, Lg, FD, and SD transformation spectra can improve the correlation between spectral data and total flavonoids and total phenols in varying degrees, while the correlation between FOD spectra of different orders and total flavonoids and total phenols in grains was different. The monitoring models of total flavonoids and total phenols in grains based on MSC, SNV, Lg, FD, and SD transformation spectra achieved the best accuracy under SD and FD transformation, respectively. Therefore, this study further constructed monitoring models of total flavonoids and total phenols content in grains based on the FOD spectrum and achieved the best accuracy under 1.6 and 0.6 order derivative preprocessing, respectively. The R2c, RMSEc, R2v, RMSEv, and RPD were 0.8731, 0.1332, 0.8384, 0.1448, and 2.4475 for the total flavonoids model, and 0.8296, 0.2025, 0.6535, 0.1740, and 1.6713 for the total phenols model. The model can realize the rapid measurement of total flavonoids content and total phenols content in tartary buckwheat grains, respectively.
Published: 23 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda calls for all social actors to contribute to significant societal and environmental issues
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The appearance quality of apples directly affects their price. To realize apple grading automatically, it is necessary to find an effective method for detecting apple surface defects. Aiming at the problem of a low recognition rate in apple surface defect detection under small sample conditions, we designed an apple surface defect detection network (ASDINet) suitable for small sample learning. The self-developed apple sorting system collected RGB images of 50 apple samples for model verification, including non-defective and defective apples (rot, disease, lacerations, and mechanical damage). First, a segmentation network (AU-Net) with a stronger ability to capture small details was designed, and a Dep-conv module that could expand the feature capacity of the receptive field was inserted in its down-sampling path. Among them, the number of convolutional layers in the single-layer convolutional module was positively correlated with the network depth. Next, to achieve real-time segmentation, we replaced the flooding of feature maps with mask output in the 13th layer of the network. Finally, we designed a global decision module (GDM) with global properties, which inserted the global spatial domain attention mechanism (GSAM) and performed fast prediction on abnormal images through the input of masks. In the comparison experiment with state-of-the-art models, our network achieved an AP of 98.8%, and a 97.75% F1-score, which were higher than those of most of the state-of-the-art networks; the detection speed reached 39ms per frame, achieving accuracy-easy deployment and substantial trade-offs that are in line with actual production needs. In the data sensitivity experiment, the ASDINet achieved results that met the production needs under the training of 42 defective pictures. In addition, we also discussed the effect of the ASDINet in actual production, and the test results showed that our proposed network demonstrated excellent performance consistent with the theory in actual production.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The dry heat treatment (DHT) of starch and hydrocolloid mixtures is gaining acknowledgement since hydrocolloids can enhance the efficiency of DHT. However, the DHT of a starch–protein mixture has been less investigated. In this study, the effects of different proteins including sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin, and whey protein isolate (WPI) added to high amylose and waxy corn starches (HACS and WCS, respectively) prepared by the dry mixing and wet method before and after DHT were studied. The DHT of both starches with WPI and SC prepared by the wet method increased the peak viscosity, but no change was observed when gelatin was added. Dry mixing of HACS with the proteins did not affect the peak viscosity before and after DHT. The gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy of both starches showed a slight decrease with the addition of all proteins and reduced further after DHT. The firmness, gumminess, and cohesiveness of the samples decreased upon DHT. The SEM results revealed that the granules were coated by proteins and formed clusters. Particle size analysis showed an increase in the particle size with the addition of proteins, which reduced after DHT. Under the conditions used, the wet method was more successful than dry mixing and the effects of WPI > SC > gelatin in enhancing the physicochemical properties of the tested starches after DHT.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Strawberries are appreciated by consumers for their characteristic taste and health benefits, which enhance their demand throughout the year. Everbearing strawberries can produce fruits for a longer period and could thus meet this demand, but the fruit quality depends on environmental factors and the cultivar. This study focused on the effect of environmental conditions on the physical attributes and the composition of everbearing Capri cultivar fruit harvested from the end of June to the end of October. A positive correlation was observed between temperature and organic acid content (r = 0.87), and a positive correlation was observed between sunshine duration, anthocyanin (r = 0.87) and phenolic compound contents (r = 0.89). Additionally, the composition of sugars was affected by the environmental conditions. While strawberries harvested towards the end of October, when lower temperatures predominated, were larger in size and had a higher sugar/acid ratio, fruit harvested in the middle of August, when there were longer periods of sunshine, had higher anthocyanin and phenolic compound contents. In conclusion, strawberries with higher sugar/acid ratios are obtained when temperatures are lower, while strawberries exposed to longer periods of sunshine are richer in health-promoting compounds.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
“Avanzi 3-Grano 23” (G23) is an old variety of Triticum aestivum from the mountain areas of Lunigiana (north Tuscany, Italy), where traditional farming communities have contributed to its success and on-farm conservation. G23 flour, traditionally used for typical food products, is characterized by particular nutritional and sensory traits but has technological properties which limit its suitability for breadmaking. The aim of this work was to evaluate how to promote the use of G23 through the optimization of bread formulation by leveraging both flour blending and the leavening system. During the preliminary test, three different mixes of G23 flour and a strong flour (C) were tested in terms of their leavening power as a function of leavening agent (baker’s yeast or sourdough). The selected M2 flour, composed of G23:C (1:1 w/w), was used for further breadmaking trials and 100% C flour was utilized as a control. The sourdough bread obtained with the M2 flour (SB-M2) showed an improved sensory profile compared with the related control (SB-C). Furthermore, SB-M2 exhibited the best aromatic (high content in aldehydes, pyrazines and carboxylic acids) and phytochemical profile (total polyphenols and flavonoids content and antioxidant activity). In contrast, the use of baker’s yeast, although optimal from the point of view of breadmaking, did not result in the same levels of aromatic complexity because it tends to standardize the product without valorizing the sensory and nutritional qualities of the flour. In conclusion, in the experimental conditions adopted, this old wheat variety appears to be suitable for the production of sourdough bakery products.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Background: The aim of this study was to determine changes in the mineral composition of the bones of rats with chemically induced mammary gland cancer and to attempt to establish whether a specific diet modification involving the inclusion of zinc ions in two forms—nano and micro—will affect the mineral composition of the bones. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were used for the research. The animals were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. All animals were fed a standard diet (Labofeed H), and selected groups additionally received zinc nanoparticles or microparticles in the amount of 4.6 mg/mL. To induce mammary cancer, the animals were given 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene. The content of Ag, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, and V was determined using ICP-MS, while that of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn was determined using FAAS. Results: The use of a diet enriched with zinc nano- or microparticles significantly influenced the content of the elements tested. In the bones of rats fed a diet with zinc nanoparticles, changes were found in the content of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cd, U, V, and Tl, while in the case of the diet supplemented with zinc microparticles, there were differences in six elements—Ca, Mg, B, Cd, Ag, and Pb—compared to animals receiving an unsupplemented diet. Conclusions: The content of elements in the bone tissue of rats in the experimental model indicates disturbances of mineral metabolism in the tissue at an early stage of mammary cancer.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The waste of food presents a challenge for achieving a sustainable world. In Germany alone, over 10 million tonnes of food are discarded annually, with a worldwide total exceeding 1.3 billion tonnes. A significant contributor to this issue are consumers throwing away still edible food due to the expiration of its best-before date. Best-before dates currently include large safety margins, but more precise and cost effective prediction techniques are required. To address this challenge, research was conducted on low-cost sensors and machine learning techniques were developed to predict the spoilage of fresh pizza. The findings indicate that combining a gas sensor, such as volatile organic compounds or carbon dioxide, with a random forest or extreme gradient boosting regressor can accurately predict the day of spoilage. This provides a more accurate and cost-efficient alternative to current best-before date determination methods, reducing food waste, saving resources, and improving food safety by reducing the risk of consumers consuming spoiled food.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance is an existential threat to the health sector, with far-reaching consequences in managing microbial infections. In this study, one hundred and ninety-four Listeria monocytogenes isolates were profiled for susceptibility using disc diffusion techniques. Possible foodborne listeriosis risk associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (RTEF) and the risk of empirical treatment (EMPT) of L. monocytogenes infections, using multiple antimicrobial resistance indices (MARI) and antimicrobial resistance indices (ARI), respectively, were investigated. Twelve European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) prescribed/recommended antimicrobials (EPAS) for the treatment of listeriosis and ten non-prescribed antimicrobials (non-PAS)] were evaluated. Antimicrobial resistance > 50% against PAs including sulfamethoxazole (61.86%), trimethoprim (56.19%), amoxicillin (42.27%), penicillin (41.24%), and erythromycin (40.21%) was observed. Resistance > 50% against non-PAS, including oxytetracycline (60.89%), cefotetan (59.28%), ceftriaxone (53.09%), and streptomycin (40.21%) was also observed. About 55.67% and 65.46% of the isolates had MARI scores ranging from 0.25–0.92 and 0.30–0.70 for EPAs and non-PAs, respectively. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the MARI scores of the isolates for EPAs and non-PAs (means of 0.27 ± 0.21 and 0.31 ± 0.14, respectively). MARI/ARI scores above the Krumperman permissible threshold (>0.2) suggested a high risk/level of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes. The MARI risks of the non-success of empirical treatment (EMPT) attributed to EPAs and non-PAs were generally high (55.67% and 65.463%, respectively) due to the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. MARI-based estimated success and non-success of EMPT if EUCAST-prescribed antimicrobials were administered for the treatment of listeriosis were 44.329% and 55.67%, respectively. The EMPT if non-prescribed antimicrobials were administered for the treatment of listeriosis was 34.53% and 65.46%, respectively. This indicates a potentially high risk with PAs and non-PAs for the treatment of L. monocytogenes infection. Furthermore, ARI scores ≤ 0.2 for EPAs were observed in polony, potato chips, muffins, and assorted sandwiches, whereas ARI scores for non-PAs were >0.2 across all the RTE food types. The ARI-based estimate identified potential risks associated with some RTE foods, including fried fish, red Vienna sausage, Russian sausage, fruit salad, bread, meat pies, fried chicken, cupcakes, and vetkoek. This investigation identified a high risk of EMPT due to the presence of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes in RTE foods, which could result in severe health consequences.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] flour is a gluten-free cereal rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants, which offers a promising alternative for new food development. This study investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MW) on the techno-functional, thermal, rheological and microstructural properties of tef flours. White and brown tef grains were milled and microwaved at different moisture contents (MC) (15%, 20% and 25%) for a total irradiation time of 480 s. The morphological structure of tef flours was affected by MW treatment, and its particle size and hydration properties increased after the treatment. Lower peak, breakdown, and setback viscosities, up to 45%, 96%, and 67% below those of the control (untreated) samples, and higher pasting temperature, up to 8 °C in the 25% MC samples, were observed. From FTIR analysis a disruption of short-range molecular order was concluded, while DSC confirmed an increased stability of starch crystallites. Rheological analysis of the gels made from the treated samples revealed that MW had a structuring and stabilizing effect on all samples, leading to higher viscoelastic moduli, G′ and G″, and the maximum stress the gels withstood before breaking their structure, τmax. The MC of the flours during the MWT drove the modification of the techno-functional properties of the tef flours and the gel rheological and thermal characteristics. These results suggest that MW-treated tef flours are potential ingredients for improving the technological, nutritional and sensory quality of food products.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of edible coating (EC), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and edible coating + modified atmosphere packaging (EC + MAP) treatments on the quality of fresh-cut pineapples during storage at 4 °C. The quality differences were analyzed by measuring the quality, physiological indicators, and total microbial counts. After 8 d of storage, the brightness (L*) values of the EC + MAP and control samples were 72.76 and 60.83, respectively. The water loss and respiratory rate of the EC + MAP were significantly inhibited from 0% and 29.33 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1 to 4.13% and 43.84 mg CO2 kg−1 h−1, respectively. Furthermore, the fresh-cut pineapples treated with EC + MAP presented a good appearance, with lower total soluble solids (TSS) and relative conductivity and higher titratable acid (TA), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenol content, and firmness compared to the other treatment groups. At the end of storage, the EC + MAP samples exhibited the lowest polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 28.53 U, 60.37 U, and 1.47 nmol·g−1, respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of EC + MAP treatment exceeded that of EC or MAP alone, preventing key problems involving the surface browning and microbiological safety of the fresh-cut pineapples. The results showed that EC + MAP treatment was more successful in maintaining the storage quality and extending the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapples.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The present study evaluates the effect of purple potato (PP) powder and citric acid (CA) on the regulation of the colour change of 3D (three-dimensional) printed mackerel mince (Scomber scombrus). In addition, the effects of PP and CA content on the 3D-printability and quality of mackerel mince were also investigated. The results showed that an increase in PP and CA concentrations gradually brightened the product colour and turned it pink. Furthermore, an increase in PP concentration and added CA reduced the fluidity and loss of water in mackerel mince. Proper PP and CA concentrations moderately increased the storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and yield stress of mackerel mince, making it suitable for 3D printing. At the same time, an increase in PP and CA concentrations enhanced the umami and sweet taste of mackerel mince but reduced the fishy and sour taste, and the degree of preference was within the acceptable range, except for PP1%-CA0%. It was found that, when the 3D-printing accuracy of mackerel-mince samples reached more than 97% and was acceptable, the optimal PP and CA concentrations for realizing the regulation of L*, a*, and b* were 1.00~3.00% and 0.09~0.32%, respectively.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
This article provides a summarization of present knowledge on the fabrication and characterization of polymeric food packaging materials that can be an alternative to synthetic ones. The review aimed to explore different studies related to the use of phenolic acids as cross-linkers, as well as bioactive additives, to the polymer-based materials upon their application as packaging. This article further discusses additives such as benzoic acid derivatives (sinapic acid, gallic acid, and ellagic acid) and cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid). These phenolic acids are mainly used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant agents. However, their presence also improves the physicochemical properties of materials based on polymers. Future perspectives in polymer food packaging are discussed.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Game meat contains bioactive compounds that directly influence the formation of a rich reservoir of flavor precursors that produce specific sensory properties. Quality is considered one of the most influential determinants of consumer behavior, but the interpretation of this concept differs between consumers. Although recognized for its quality, its unique sensory characteristics (smell, taste, aroma) may have a major impact on consumer perception. The aim of this review is to describe the consumer behavior regarding game meat through elements of neuroperception, using methods of analysis, observation, and interpretation of scientific information from the literature. Following the analysis of published papers on this topic, it was shown that external factors influencing the biological basis of behavior could provide explanations for the acceptance or rejection of this type of meat and solutions. Neuroperception can explain the mechanism behind consumer decision-making. The influence of extrinsic factors (environment, mood, emotions, stress) shapes the perception of the quality attributes of game meat, the unique sensory characteristics of game meat passing through a primary filter of sensory receptors (eyes, nose, tongue, etc). Game meat is darker and tougher (compared to meat from domestic animals), and the taste and smell have the power to trigger memories and change the mood, influencing consumer behavior. Understanding consumer attitudes towards game meat in relation to quality attributes and the physiology of sensory perception can provide important insights for food industry professionals, processors, sensory evaluators, and researchers.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Eggshell strength is a critical quality factor for consumption eggs as it affects the probability of breakage in practice. In this study, a fast and low-cost methodology for the non-destructive determination of eggshell strength is presented. The method utilized a small steel ball to impact the egg and a microphone to analyse the impact characteristics. Hertz contact theory was applied to relate the measured impact characteristics to the local stiffness of the eggshell. Therefore, a total of 150 eggs were studied on which eight consecutive measurements per egg were taken around the equator at equidistant places. The results showed a strong correlation of 0.93 between the traditional static stiffness measured during quasi-static compression tests and the average stiffness obtained from the new methodology. This paves the way towards fast, low-cost and non-destructive in-line shell strength measurements to reduce the number of cracked eggs reaching the consumer.
Published: 22 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Natural compounds are a suitable alternative to synthetic food preservatives due to their natural origin and health-promoting properties. In the current study, phenolic–phenolic and phenolic–synthetic combinations were tested for their antibiofilm formation, anti-planktonic growth, and anti-adhesion properties against Debaryomyces hansenii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala), Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenolics were vanillin and cinnamic acid, while the synthetic preservatives were sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium diacetate. The vanillin–cinnamic acid combination had synergistic effect in all the tested yeasts for the biofilm inhibition with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.19 for W. anomalus, 0.25 for S. pombe, 0.31 for S. cerevisiae, and 0.5 for D. hansenii. Most of the phenolic–synthetic combinations had indifferent interaction regarding biofilm formation. The vanillin–cinnamic acid combination also had higher activity against spoilage yeasts adhesion on the abiotic surface and planktonic growth compared to the phenolic–synthetic combinations. For the phenolic–synthetic anti-planktonic activity, synergistic interaction was present in all the vanillin–synthetic combinations in S. pombe, vanillin–sodium benzoate and vanillin–potassium sorbate in S. cerevisiae, vanillin–sodium benzoate in W. anomalus, and cinnamic acid–sodium diacetate in S. pombe. These results suggest a novel antimicrobial strategy that may broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and reduce compound toxicity against food spoilage yeasts.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
A method was developed for the determination of matrine residues in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants and soil by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with QuEChERS clean-up. Matrine from soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds was extracted with 25% ammonia, 20 mL acetonitrile/methanol, salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) and purified with anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). Then a chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (75 mm × 2.0 mm, i. d., 2.2 µm) column with a gradient elution of 5 mmol/L ammonium formate-methanol as the mobile phase and monitored in multiple reaction monitoring modes (MRM) in electrospray positive ionization mode. The results showed that in the range of 0.005~1 mg/L, the linear correlation coefficients of matrine in the five matrices were all above 0.999. The LOQs for soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds were 0.005, 0.005, 0.01, 0.01 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 74.42% to 98.37%, with RSDs of 1.25–6.84% at the three concentration addition levels. The average intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.92–92.36% and 78.56–90.18%, respectively, with RSDs below 8.72% and 9.43%. The recoveries and reproducibility of the method were superior. The method was used to determine the actual samples, which indicated that the half-lives of matrine in quinoa seeds, leaves, stems and soil were 1.28–1.32, 1.03–1.21, 0.81–0.92 and 0.93–0.97 d. It has a half-life below 30 d, which is an easily dissipated pesticide. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, reliable and applicable to a wide range of applications, and it can achieve the rapid multi-residue determination of matrine to a certain extent. Next Generation Sequencing was used to explore the effects of exposure to high and low doses of matrine on soil bacterial communities and the composition of the three soils in the Qinghai Province (Haixi, Haidong and Haibei). The results showed that the number of ASVs increased significantly after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 0.1 mg/kg than after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 5.0 mg/kg. Similarly, bacterial abundance was higher after 0.1 mg/kg of matrine treatment than after 5.0 mg/kg of matrine treatment. The inhibitory effect on some bacterial flora was enhanced with an increase in matrine application, while the inhibitory effect on bacterial flora was weakened with time. Applying a certain dose of matrine e changed the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial genera of the soil bacteria.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Papain, bromelain, and ficin are commonly used plant proteases used for meat tenderization. Other plant proteases explored for meat tenderization are actinidin, zingibain, and cucumin. The application of plant crude extracts or powders containing higher levels of compounds exerting tenderizing effects is also gaining popularity due to lower cost, improved sensory attributes of meat, and the presence of bioactive compounds exerting additional benefits in addition to tenderization, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects. The uncontrolled plant protease action could cause excessive tenderization (mushy texture) and poor quality due to an indiscriminate breakdown of proteins. The higher cost of separation and the purification of enzymes, unstable structure, and poor stability of these enzymes due to autolysis are some major challenges faced by the food industry. The meat industry is targeting the recycling of enzymes and improving their stability and shelf-life by immobilization, encapsulation, protein engineering, medium engineering, and stabilization during tenderization. The present review critically analyzed recent trends and the prospects of the application of plant proteases in meat tenderization.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The fresh-cut bulbs of the Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) experience browning problems during storage. To solve the problem of browning in the preservation of Lanzhou lily bulbs, we first investigated the optimal storage temperature and gas ratio of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of Lanzhou lily bulbs. Then, we tested the browning index (BD), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and other physiological activity indicators related to browning. The results showed that the storage conditions of 10% O2 + 5% CO2 + 85% N2 and 4 °C were the best. To further explore the anti-browning mechanism of MAP in fresh-cut Lanzhou lily bulbs, the integration of metabolome and transcriptome analyses showed that MAP mainly retarded the unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio in the cell membrane, inhibited the lipid peroxidation of the membrane and thus maintained the integrity of the cell membrane of Lanzhou lily bulbs. In addition, MAP inhibited the oxidation of phenolic substances and provided an anti-tanning effect. This study provided a preservation scheme to solve the problem of the browning of freshly cut Lanzhou lily bulbs, and discussed the mechanism of MAP in preventing browning during the storage of the bulbs.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The perceived level of risk associated with a food product can influence purchase and consumption decisions. Thus, current trends in food safety address an issue of general interest—the identification of healthy and economical alternatives to synthetic antioxidants that may have harmful effects on human health. Still, the processors’ target is to increase the shelf life of food products using preserving substances. Natural antioxidants can be extracted and used in the food industry from different plants, such as blueberry, broccoli, chokeberry, cinnamon, ginger, olives, oregano, etc. The identification of the main natural antioxidant types that have been used in the food industry is very important in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the researched topic. In this regard, the aim of this paper was to illustrate the positive aspects of using natural antioxidants with preservative roles in meat products, while, at the same time, highlighting the potential risks induced by these compounds. All of those aspects are correlated with the impact of sensorial attributes and the improvement of the nutritional value of meat products.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Essential oils possessing antimicrobial characteristics have acquired considerable interest as an alternative to chemical preservatives in food products. This research hypothesizes that mānuka (MO) and kānuka (KO) oils may possess antimicrobial characteristics and have the potential to be used as natural preservatives for food applications. Initial experimentation was conducted to characterize MOs (with 5, 25, and 40% triketone contents), rosemary oil (RO) along with kanuka oil (KO) for their antibacterial efficacy against selected Gram-negative (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli), and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria through disc diffusion and broth dilution assays. All MOs showed a higher antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration below 0.04%, compared with KO (0.63%) and RO (2.5%). In chemical composition, α-pinene in KO, 1, 8 cineole in RO, calamenene, and leptospermone in MO were the major compounds, confirmed through Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Further, the antimicrobial effect of MO and RO in vacuum-packed beef pastes prepared from New Zealand commercial breed (3% fat) and wagyu (12% fat) beef tenderloins during 16 days of refrigerated storage was compared with sodium nitrate (SN) and control (without added oil). In both meat types, compared with the SN-treated and control samples, lower growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in MO- and RO- treated samples was observed. However, for Salmonella and E. coli, RO treatment inhibited microbial growth most effectively. The results suggest the potential use of MO as a partial replacement for synthetic preservatives like sodium nitrate in meats, especially against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
The demand of plant-based protein ingredients (PBPIs) in the food sector has strongly increased over recent years. These ingredients are produced under a wide range of technological processes that impact their final characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate acrylamide contamination in a range of PBPIs produced with different technologies and classified into four categories i.e., flours, dry-fractionated proteins, wet-extracted proteins, and texturized vegetable proteins. The results highlighted a remarkable variability in the acrylamide contamination in all the classes under investigation, with the flours showing the lowest mean acrylamide content (280 µg kg−1) compared with the wet-extracted proteins that showed the highest (451 µg kg−1). These differences could likely be associated with the different processing technologies used to obtain the protein ingredients. These findings suggest the need to monitor acrylamide formation during the processing of PBPIs and, consequently, to study mitigation strategies when necessary.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Meat aging is a process consisting of its storage in specific conditions which leads to an increase in its organoleptic qualities. The most common method of meat aging is the wet vacuum-bag based method, whereas the traditional method, called dry-aging, involves keeping meat at a low temperature for an extended time. However, this process is characterized by low repeatability of the results. Therefore, different approaches to stabilize the process are tested. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the Mucor flavus biostarter on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of dry-aged beef (DAB). We hypothesized that a fungal biostarter positively influences the quality of DAB and stabilizes the dry-aging process. Meat control samples (N = 7) and samples inoculated with the Mucor flavus biostarter (N = 7), originating from 14 individuals crossbred from Holstein-Friesian cows with bulls of meat breeds, were put into the dry-aging fridge (DryAger, Bad Saulgau, Germany) for 28 days. The physicochemical parameters (pH, color parameters, WHC, GP (glycolytic potential), chemical composition of muscle, the content of malondialdehyde, shear force), muscular protein proteolysis (SDS-PAGE), sensory quality, and microbial composition of DAB were assessed after aging. The results showed a significant effect of the fungal biostarter on pH increase (0.25 units), and light myosin chain proteolysis (approximately 16%) as well as improvement of sensory quality (e.g., acceptability was improved by one unit in an applied scale 1–9). All together, the M. flavus-based biostarter was shown to increase the quality of DAB.
Published: 21 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Shrimp fried in vegetable oil is a very popular food, so it is important to study the changes in the quality of the oil during frying. In order to more precisely study the nature of frying oil during the cooking process, this study investigated the quality changes of high-oleic sunflower oil during the frying of South American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The oxidation and hydrolysis products of frying oils were investigated by integrating the proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique with traditional oil evaluation indexes in an integrated manner. The results showed that the color difference as measured using the ΔE* value increased gradually during the process. Moreover, the acid value, carbonyl value, and total oxidation significantly increased with prolonged frying time. The major oxidation products formed during frying were (E,E)-2-alkenals, (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals, and E,E-conjugated hydroperoxides. This indicated that longer treatment times corresponded with an increased accumulation of aldehydes and ketones, and an increased degree of oxidative deterioration of the oil. However, the proportion of oleic acid in the frying oil increased with the frying of shrimp, reaching 80.05% after 24 h. These results contribute to our understanding of the oxidative deterioration of high-oleic oils during frying, and provide an important reference for the application properties of high-oleic oils.
Published: 20 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit is a rich source of carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, sugars, and organic acids. Although it is classified as a non-climacteric fruit, susceptibility to mechanical and physical bruising causes its rapid deterioration by moisture loss and postharvest decay caused by pathogens. Anthracnose, canker, and purple spot are the most prevalent postharvest diseases of loquat fruit. Cold storage has been used for quality management of loquat fruit, but the susceptibility of some cultivars to chilling injury (CI) consequently leads to browning and other disorders. Various techniques, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, hypobaric storage, modified atmosphere packaging, low-temperature conditioning, heat treatment, edible coatings, and postharvest chemical application, have been tested to extend shelf life, mitigate chilling injury, and quality preservation. This review comprehensively focuses on the recent advances in the postharvest physiology and technology of loquat fruit, such as harvest maturity, fruit ripening physiology, postharvest storage techniques, and physiological disorders and diseases.
Published: 20 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
This study aims to estimate the market value, or implicit prices, associated with the main craft beer attributes (e.g., beer style, organic, gluten-free, and package-related features) and support producers in detecting the more profitable marketing strategies. For this purpose, we conducted an empirical analysis employing sales data of craft beers from the Italian online market, and we estimated a hedonic price model via ordinary least squares. Results show that the type of package and cup only has moderate effects on price. Furthermore, a moderate premium price is found for gluten-free craft beers, while craft beers with organic labels and Italian origin do not benefit from the higher price. Instead, the beer style adopted strongly affected the product price: the highest premium prices were detected for Barleywine (+49.9%) and Italian Grape Ale (+39.6%) beer styles. Furthermore, relevant premium prices, higher than +25%, were estimated for other beer styles such as Sour, Fruit Beer, and Stout. Results suggest that artisanal breweries can effectively differentiate their product according to the beer style. To the best of our knowledge, the current study offers the first empirical evidence on how beer styles as well as other product characteristics affect the market price of craft beer by using secondary data.
Published: 20 March 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
Rapeseed meal (RSM), a by-product of rapeseed oil extraction, is currently used for low-value purposes. With a biorefinery approach, rapeseed proteins may be extracted and recovered for high-end uses to fully exploit their nutritional and functional properties. This study reports the application of RSM protein isolate, the main output of a biorefining process aimed at recovering high-value molecules from rapeseed meal, as a supplement to texture-modified (TM) food designed for elderly people with mastication and dysphagia problems. The compositional (macronutrients by Official Methods of Analyses, and mineral and trace element profiles using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry ICP-OES), nutritional and sensory evaluations of TM chicken breast, carrots and bread formulated without and with RSM protein supplementation (5% w/w) are hereby reported. The results show that the texture modification of food combined with rapeseed protein isolate supplementation has a positive impact on the nutritional and sensory profile of food, meeting the special requirements of seniors. TM chicken breast and bread supplemented with RSM protein isolate showed unaltered or even improved sensory properties and a higher nutrient density, with particular regard to proteins (+20–40%) and minerals (+10–16%). Supplemented TM carrots, in spite of the high nutrient density, showed a limited acceptability, due to poor sensory properties that could be overcome with an adjustment to the formulation. This study highlights the potentialities of RSM as a sustainable novel protein source in the food sector. The application of RSM protein proposed here is in line with the major current challenges of food systems such as the responsible management of natural resources, the valorization of agri-food by-products, and healthy nutrition with focus on elderly people.
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