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Lorenzo Sestini, Ivano Sarra, Paolo Andreetto, Alessio Gianelle, Donatella Lucchesi, Laura Buonincontri, Davide Zuliani, Massimo Casarsa, Nazar Bartosik, Nadia Pastrone, et al.
Proceedings of The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics — PoS(EPS-HEP2021), Volume 398; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.398.0776

Abstract:
A muon collider is being proposed as a next generation facility. This collider would have unique advantages, since clean events as in electron-positron colliders are possible, and high collision energy as in hadron colliders could be reached due to negligible beam radiation losses. The beam-induced background, produced by the muon decays in the beams and subsequent interactions, reaches the interaction region and the detectors and presents unique features and challenges with respect to other machines. As an example, a diffused flux of photons and neutrons passes through the calorimeter system, which thus requires a design to avoid this substantial background. In this talk an overview of the calorimetry at the Muon Collider is given, with a particular focus on the reconstruction and measurement of hadronic jets, that are studied with the full simulation of the detector. R&D for new calorimeter technologies, developed specifically for the Muon Collider, will be also presented.
Anders Eller Thomsen, Admir Greljo, Peter Stangl
Proceedings of The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics — PoS(EPS-HEP2021), Volume 398; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.398.0560

Abstract:
Significant deviations from Standard Model (SM) predictions have been observed in $ b \to s \mu^+ \mu^-$ decays and in the muon $g-2$. Scalar leptoquark extensions of the SM are known to be able to address these anomalies, but generically give rise to lepton flavor violation (LFV) or even proton decay. We propose new muon-flavored gauge symmetries as a guiding principle for leptoquark models that preserve the global symmetries of the SM and explain the non-observation of LFV. A minimal model is shown to easily accommodate the anomalies without encountering other experimental constraints. This talk is mainly based on Ref. [1].
J.S. Rankin
Proceedings of 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference — PoS(ICRC2021), Volume 395; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0032

Abstract:
In 2012, the centennial year of the discovery of cosmic rays, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause and began making the very first in-situ measurements of the surrounding interstellar medium. Joined by Voyager 2 in 2018, these twin spacecraft continue to provide critical data of cosmic rays in a surprising, previously-unexplored plasma regime. Here, we highlight some of the discoveries and insights that have emerged from nearly a decade of cosmic ray observations in the very local interstellar medium, addressing topics such as: i) the behavior of cosmic rays at the heliopause boundary, ii) the characteristics of the low-energy spectrum (down to a few MeV/nuc), iii) the discovery of a time-varying, species-dependent anisotropy, and iv) their relationship to solar-transients that pass through the heliosphere and transmit pressure waves into the VLISM.
Lorenzo Pezzotti, Alessandro Villa
Proceedings of The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics — PoS(EPS-HEP2021), Volume 398; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.398.0777

Abstract:
The IDEA Experiment envisaged at future $e^+$$e^-$ circular colliders (FCC-ee and CEPC) is currently under design and optimization with dedicated full-simulation investigations. We review the design of the IDEA fully-projective fiber-based dual-readout calorimeter simulation. Particular attention is given to general and fundamental limitations of calorimeters operating at colliders, together with the path for the reconstruction of events with complex topologies. Through the study of the distinction between $\gamma$ and $\pi^0$, we illustrate the outstanding particle identification capabilities given by a millimeter shower sampling coupled to modern convolutional neural networks.
Jia Liu, Xiaopeng Zhang Xiangdong Sheng
Proceedings of 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference — PoS(ICRC2021), Volume 395; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0247

Abstract:
The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is a new generation hybrid cosmic ray observatory which is expected to reveal the mystery of the origin of cosmic rays. The one square kilometer array (KM2A) containing 5195 Electromagnetic particle Detectors (ED) and 1188 Muon Detectors (MD) is a sub-array of the LHAASO. The EDs are designed to measure the density and arriving time of the secondary particles of cosmic rays. KM2A reaches its 3/4 scale by December 2020. 3978 electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) and 917 muon detectors (MDs) are now in stable operation. In this paper, we will introduce the construction process of ED, the performances and long-term stability of the detectors.
Jesús Bonilla
Proceedings of The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics — PoS(EPS-HEP2021), Volume 398; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.398.0497

Abstract:
We derive the one-loop contributions to ALP-SM effective couplings, including all finite corrections. The complete leading-order –dimension five– effective linear Lagrangian is considered. The ALP is left off-shell, which is of particular impact on LHC and accelerator searches of ALP couplings to 𝛾𝛾, 𝑍 𝑍, 𝑍𝛾, 𝑊𝑊, gluons and fermions. All results are obtained in the covariant 𝑅 𝜉 gauge. A few phenomenological consequences are also explored as illustration, with flavour diagonal channels in the case of fermions: in particular, we explore constraints on the coupling of the ALP to top quarks, that can be extracted from LHC data, from astrophysical sources and from Dark Matter direct detection experiments such as PandaX, LUX and XENON1T.
Michela Lai, Alejandro Ramirez, Xinran Li, Andrew Renshaw, Masayuki Wada, Azam Zabihi, Davide Franco, Federico Gabriele, Cristiano Galbiati, Hanguo Wang
Proceedings of The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics — PoS(EPS-HEP2021), Volume 398; https://doi.org/10.22323/1.398.0778

Abstract:
3D$\Pi$ will be the first total-body scanner for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using liquid Argon as a scintillator medium. The project is an application in medical physics of the ongoing R&D of the DarkSide collaboration, whose main aim is the direct detection of dark matter particles via liquid Argon targets. Utilizing liquid Argon as a scintillator will allow for a competitive and cost-effective total-body PET scanner to be built, thanks to the high availability of atmospheric Argon that can be isotopically distilled as needed, along with potential for the availability of underground Argon. The preliminary results here demonstrate that, while the spatial resolution is comparable to that of commercial scanners, the 3D$\Pi$ scanner is expected to show outstanding detection sensitivity, allowing for a reduction of the PET scanning time or a reduction of the patient dose.
Lionel Ribeiro, Ashley Thoma, Jason Bryant, Desikan Sundararajan, Wesley Zurovec
Day 1 Tue, February 01, 2022; https://doi.org/10.2118/209159-ms

Abstract:
The paper introduces the results of the first CO2 fracturing campaign conducted in the Williston Basin. From 2015 to 2019, 11 horizontal multi-stage wells were safely stimulated using a CO2-hybrid design to improve production and store CO2 underground. The fracturing design consisted of the injection of a super-critical CO2 pre-pad (with a target injected volume of 5,000 tons per well) followed by a traditional slickwater or hybrid proppant slurry. The CO2 was captured from point-source plants that would have released the CO2 to the atmosphere otherwise. The performance of the CO2 fracturing design is compared to the performance of nearby hybrid and slickwater designs. The paper provides a range of potential production uplift for both 12-month production and EUR. The paper also provides the range of CO2 concentrations produced back to the surface and an estimate of CO2 storage potential based on extensive compositional monitoring. The paper shares practical guidelines and recommendations to facilitate the understanding and logistics of CO2 operations during injection and production. The field study highlights critical considerations related to fracturing design, logistics, operational handling of CO2, reservoir uplift, and permanent CO2 storage potential. The analysis provides new insight to the storage potential for CO2 fracturing, EOR, and/or carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications in the Williston Basin, and by extension to other ultra-tight formations.
Fabián Carrascal-Delgado, Sara Abedi, A. D. Hill, Ding Zhu
Day 2 Wed, February 02, 2022; https://doi.org/10.2118/209173-ms

Abstract:
Unconventional reservoirs are commonly drilled using oil-based mud, creating drill cuttings that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. Drill cuttings disposal is regulated by the state. The drill cuttings are usually disposed of by trucking them to a landfill. The economic and environmental impact is a challenge to the industry. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of disposing of drill cuttings at the well site by mixing them into the proppant slurry as a part of the proppant during multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Our study focused on whether the addition of drill cuttings, often composed of very fine particles, significantly impair the conductivity of the proppant pack created in the reservoir. The study provides an environmentally friendly solution to the drill cutting disposal problem with the procedures and limitations, and it helps to reduce the cost of fracturing operations. Using actual drill cuttings samples from an Eagle Ford well, we have measured the fracture conductivity of mixtures of proppant and drill cuttings for a wide range of drill cuttings fractions. The cuttings-sand mixtures were evaluated following a modified API RP-61 procedure. A conductivity cell was used to perform short-term conductivity experiments applying dry nitrogen gas as fluid, with closure stress applied in incremental steps of 1000 psi from 1000 to 6000 psi. The cuttings were evaluated wet, as received from the rig site after mechanical separation on site, and dried, after being washed for removal of drilling fluid, to compare the effect of drilling fluid in conductivity responses. The effect of cuttings size and chemical composition on conductivity was also studied. 40/70 and 100 mesh sand were used as the proppant. The results showed that adding up to 25% drill cuttings to the proppant pack had an insignificant effect on the fracture conductivity. The 100-mesh sand proppant retained conductivity with drill cuttings added somewhat better than the 40/70 mesh sand proppant. Because the volume of drill cuttings created in drilling even a quite long lateral is much less than the volume of proppant pumped in just a single stage, our results show that drill cuttings could be disposed of by adding them to the proppant slurry at a rate less than 25% of the proppant rate without causing any deleterious effect on the fracture conductivity created.
Shuang Zheng, Brendan Elliott, Mukul Sharma
Day 3 Thu, February 03, 2022; https://doi.org/10.2118/209139-ms

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel fracture diagnostic method to determine the geometry of multiple propagating fractures. The method relies on the measurement of the Azimuthally Resolved WEllbore Strain Tensor (ARWEST) as a function of time at multiple locations in an observation well. A pad-scale fracturing simulator is used to simulate dynamic fracture propagation in a treatment well. The geometry of the monitoring wellbore is represented with a very fine (millimeter scale) computation mesh to capture the impact of the propagating fractures on the monitoring wellbore. The axial and radial strain at different locations along the wellbore is computed as a function of time as the fractures approach the observation wellbore. These measurements together with the wellbore pressure response are interpreted to obtain the height, length and width of the fractures as well as the cluster efficiency of the stage. The emergence of peaks in the strain and pressure monitoring data clearly detects the arrival of each fracture. As the fracture approaches the monitoring well, the tensile strain measured within the wellbore in the axial direction increases, the compressive strain in the radial direction increases and the sealed wellbore pressure increases. As the fracture intersects the wellbore, the tensile strain in axial direction decreases and compressive strain in the radial direction decreases. The sealed wellbore pressure further increases. When the treatment is complete, both the magnitude of the monitored strain and pressure decrease. The major axis of the oval wellbore is oriented towards the tip of the propagating fracture. The wellbore ovality, therefore, provides a direct measure of the location of the fracture tip in 3-D. The results obtained from these azimuthal wellbore measurements can be interpreted with the aid of the simulations to provide a new low cost facture diagnostic method. This new 3-D fracture diagnostics method allows us to infer (a) the location of the fracture front, (b) estimate the geometry (length, height, width) and (c) determine the cluster efficiency by monitoring the strain tensor as a function of time along an observation well. The results presented here will allow operators to integrate the measured casing strain tensor and the sealed wellbore pressure data. Such a diagnostic method opens the possibility of real-time fracture diagnostics and optimization.
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