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Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Antioxidants, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020270

Abstract:
High-cost milk proteins necessitate cheaper, effective milk replacer alternatives, such as plant proteins. To examine plant protein-based milk replacer’s impact on growth performance, serum immune and antioxidant indicators, and liver transcriptome profiles in suckling calves. We assigned 28 newborn Holstein calves (41.60 ± 3.67 kg of body weight at birth) to milk (M) or milk replacer (MR) and starter diets pre-weaning (0–70 d of age) but with the same starter diet post-weaning (71–98 d of age). During the pre-weaning period, compared with the M group, MR group had significantly lower body weight, withers height, heart girth, average daily gain, feed efficiency, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M concentration, superoxide dismutase concentration, and total antioxidant capacity; whereas they had significantly higher serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration. During the post-weaning period, MR group presented significantly higher average daily gain, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and malonaldehyde concentrations; whereas they had significantly lower serum IgA and IgM concentrations than the M group. Transcriptome analysis revealed 1, 120 and 293 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; MR vs. M group) in the calves from pre- and post-weaning periods, respectively. The DEGs related to xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and those related to energy metabolism, immune function, and mineral metabolism were up- and downregulated, respectively, during the pre-weaning period; during the post-weaning period, the DEGs related to osteoclast differentiation and metabolic pathways showed difference. In this study, compared with M group, MR group had the same growth performance during the overall experimental period; however, MR affected the hepatic metabolism, immune, and antioxidant function of calves. These observations can facilitate future studies on milk replacers.
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Energies, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030999

Abstract:
Hydrogen is an economical source of clean energy that has been utilized by industry for decades. In recent years, demand for hydrogen has risen significantly. Hydrogen sources include water electrolysis, hydrocarbon steam reforming, and fossil fuels, which emit hazardous greenhouse gases and therefore have a negative impact on global warming. The increasing worldwide population has created much pressure on natural fuels, with a growing gap between demand for renewable energy and its insufficient supply. As a result, the environment has suffered from alarming increases in pollution levels. Biohydrogen is a sustainable energy form and a preferable substitute for fossil fuel. Anaerobic fermentation, photo fermentation, microbial and enzymatic photolysis or combinations of such techniques are new approaches for producing biohydrogen. For cost-effective biohydrogen production, the substrate should be cheap and renewable. Substrates including algal biomass, agriculture residue, and wastewaters are readily available. Moreover, substrates rich in starch and cellulose such as plant stalks or agricultural waste, or food industry waste such as cheese whey are reported to support dark- and photo-fermentation. However, their direct utilization as a substrate is not recommended due to their complex nature. Therefore, they must be pretreated before use to release fermentable sugars. Various pretreatment technologies have been established and are still being developed. This article focuses on pretreatment techniques for biohydrogen production and discusses their efficiency and suitability, including hybrid-treatment technology.
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031449

Abstract:
The importance of slim decks has led engineers to the exploration of high-strength materials and also of innovative shallow shear connectors, such as composite dowels in the case of composite constructions. Minimizing the overall slab depth often leads to composite girders being weakened by means of web openings that are necessary for installations such as ventilation ducts. Depending on the geometrical and loading conditions, some of the shear connectors are subjected to a combination of tensile and shear forces. However, the load-bearing behaviour of these connectors has only been rudimentarily investigated in the case of shear-tensile interaction. In addition, the load-bearing capacity of composite dowels under combined tensile and shear forces has not been investigated in cracked concrete. Earlier investigations under pure shear and pure tensile loading indicate a dependence of the connectors’ load-bearing behaviour on the crack width, so that under combined loading, a similar influence is expected. In this paper, experimental investigations on composite dowels in transversely cracked concrete under systematically varied shear-tension loading combinations are presented. Hereby, predefined crack widths and patterns were considered using a special test rig. Finally, a design approach for concrete failure of composite dowels under shear-tension loading is proposed based on the test results.
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Indoor thermal conditions can be highly influenced through building envelopes by outdoor conditions, especially climatic parameters. While a lot of attention has been paid to the thermal performance in core zones in buildings, other zones, such as perimeters, experience significant heat loss and gain through building envelopes. Focusing on the energy and thermal performance in perimeter zones, the present study performed an energy simulation to find the most susceptible building orientation in an office building in South Korea regarding the cooling loads during the summer. Through field measurements, the solar radiation impact on the thermal performance in the perimeter zones was practically investigated. To reduce the cooling loads in the perimeter zones, an air barrier system was utilized. As a result, the biggest amount of heat was observed in the perimeter zones facing the west façade in the winter, according to the measurements. While the highest temperature was observed at the internal surface of the windows, the temperature in the perimeter and core zones was stably maintained. The heat that occurred through the west façade was reduced by the air barrier system by removing the vertical thermal stratification using the fan-powered unit in the system.
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Foundations, Volume 2, pp 184-198; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2010011

Abstract:
In the review, based on the analysis of the results published in the works of domestic and foreign researchers, a variant of an unconventional interpretation of the photoluminescence of dispersive media in the energy range of 0.5–3 eV is proposed. The interpretation meets the requirements of the energy conservation law for photons and axions participating in the photoluminescence process. The participation of axions in the process is consistent with Primakov’s hypothesis. The role of nonradiative relaxation at the stage of axion decay is noted. The axion lifetimes are estimated for a number of dispersive media.
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Although soils form an integral part of landscape hydrological processes, the importance of soil information in hydrological modelling is often neglected. This study investigated the impact of soil information on streamflow modelling accuracy and hydrological process representation. Two different levels of soil information were compared to long-term streamflow in the upper Goukou catchment (230 km2), South Africa, over a period of 23 years using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+). The land-type soil map (LTSM) dataset was less detailed and derived from the best, readily available soil dataset for South Africa currently. The hydrological soil map (HSM) dataset was more detailed and was created using infield hydropedological soil observations combined with digital soil-mapping techniques. Monthly streamflow simulation was similar for both soil datasets, with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and Kling–Gupta efficiency values of 0.57 and 0.59 (HSM) and 0.56 and 0.60 (LTSM), respectively. It is, however, important to assess through which hydrological processes were these streamflow values generated as well as their spatial distribution within the catchment. Upon further assessment, the representation of hydrological processes within the catchment differed greatly between the two datasets, with the HSM more accurately representing the internal hydrological processes, as it was based on infield observations. It was concluded that hydropedological information could be of great value in effective catchment management strategies since it improves representation of internal catchment processes.
Sensors Editorial Office
Published: 29 January 2022
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031052

Abstract:
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031529

Abstract:
During paediatric dental treatment, cooperation by children is essential, and temperament can determine their behaviour style. This study aimed to associate temperamental traits and age with behaviour during paediatric dental treatment. This was an observational and cross-sectional study of patients aged 3–10 years. To determine the temperamental traits, an Emotionality Activity and Sociability Temperament Survey (EAS) was performed with the children’s parents. The type of behaviour was determined with Frankl’s criteria. The total scores for temperamental traits, means, and standard deviations were obtained. The chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA and Student’s t-test were applied. A total of 140 patients, who were 5 ± 2.1 years old, participated in the study. Age was determinant for negative behaviour, with a greater frequency in children ≤5 years old (p< 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between age and behaviour (rho = −0.245, p = 0.001). Patients with higher emotionality and activity presented negative and definitely negative behaviours more frequently (p< 0.01). The values for sociability and shyness were similar for positive or negative behaviours. In conclusion, the temperamental traits of emotionality and activity were more frequent in children with disruptive behaviours; therefore, conducting a survey on temperamental traits can be useful for planning behavioural approaches in paediatric dentistry.
Seisuke Sayama, Takayuki Iriyama, Norifumi Takeda, Haruo Yamauchi, Masatake Toshimitsu, Takahiro Seyama, Kenbun Sone, Keiichi Kumasawa, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Tomoyuki Fujii, et al.
International Heart Journal, Volume 63, pp 176-179; https://doi.org/10.1536/ihj.21-341

Abstract:
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder with a high incidence of aortic dissection (AD). After treating two previously reported cases of postpartum AD in women with LDS following prophylactic aortic root replacement (ARR), we succeeded in managing a 30-year-old primigravida with no AD during her peripartum period. On the basis of the patient's stated desire to conceive during preconception counseling, a multidisciplinary team was assembled. She conceived naturally after receiving prophylactic ARR and beta-blocker treatment. Multidisciplinary patient care included precise blood pressure management, continuation of beta-blocker treatment, cardiovascular assessment with echocardiogram, regional anesthesia during labor, prevention of lactation, and resumption of angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy immediately after delivery. On the basis of our assessment of three cases, including this case, and a literature review, we propose a peripartum management strategy for patients with LDS following prophylactic ARR.
Nurul Jannah Lailatul Fitria, Mastina Maksin
Published: 29 January 2022
Jurnal Studi Inovasi, Volume 2, pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.52000/jsi.v2i1.76

Abstract:
Tata kelola pemerintah menuju pemerintahan yang baik dengan menerapkan prinsip reformasi birokrasi. Reformasi birokrasi diterapkan disetiap sektor, baik sebagai bentuk pelayanan dan pelaksanaan birokrasi. Reformasi birokrasi juga diterapkan untuk peningkatan kualitas ASN. Seperti pada pengadaan CASN formasi 2021. Pemerintah menerapkan teknologi Face Recognation. Riset ini berfokus pada penyelenggaraan teknologi tersebut dengan bentuk reformasi birokrasi. Riset ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan orientasi pada studi kasus terbaru. Riset dengan studi kasus merupakan riset pada fenomena terbaru dan ditelaah secara detail dengan sudut pandang tertentu. Riset dengan metode kualitatif berfokus pada input data terkait pemahaman materi, mekanisme, proses pada fenomena tersebut. Sehingga dapat diketahui mekanisme penerapan teknologi face recognation pada pengadaan CASN 2021 dan dikaitkan dengan bentuk reformasi birokrasi. Khususnya prinsip reformasi birokrasi yang efesien, efektif, dan keadilan. Orientasi pengadaan CASN tidak hanya pada kuantitas tapi kualitas untuk mendapat ASN yang cerdas, memiliki kemampuan, dan berkualitas tinggi bebas tindakan kecurangan dan bebas KKN. Tata kelola pemerintah menuju pemerintahan yang baik dengan menerapkan prinsip reformasi birokrasi. Reformasi birokrasi diterapkan disetiap sektor, baik sebagai bentuk pelayanan dan pelaksanaan birokrasi. Reformasi birokrasi juga diterapkan untuk peningkatan kualitas ASN. Seperti pada pengadaan CASN formasi 2021. Pemerintah menerapkan teknologi Face Recognation. Riset ini berfokus pada penyelenggaraan teknologi tersebut dengan bentuk reformasi birokrasi. Riset ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan orientasi pada studi kasus terbaru. Riset dengan studi kasus merupakan riset pada fenomena terbaru dan ditelaah secara detail dengan sudut pandang tertentu. Riset dengan metode kualitatif berfokus pada input data terkait pemahaman materi, mekanisme, proses pada fenomena tersebut. Sehingga dapat diketahui mekanisme penerapan teknologi face recognation pada pengadaan CASN 2021 dan dikaitkan dengan bentuk reformasi birokrasi. Khususnya prinsip reformasi birokrasi yang efesien, efektif, dan keadilan. Orientasi pengadaan CASN tidak hanya pada kuantitas tapi kualitas untuk mendapat ASN yang cerdas, memiliki kemampuan, dan berkualitas tinggi bebas tindakan kecurangan dan bebas KKN.
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